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Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Climate Change Scientists estimate that in the absence of further measures

for the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, they are expected to have an increase some here bet een !" percent and #$ percent ithin the next !$ years, and among them predominately C%! emissions resulting from transportation and energy consumption gro ing bet een &$ and ''$ percent( That can trigger an average temperature rise bet een ')C to !(*)C by !$*$ globally, and a corresponding sea level increase from + to !! inches( ,nder these predictions the management and regulation of GHG gasses is essential and the planning should start at the local government level( -n this report e focus of the sector of transportation given that it consists the largest contributor in the emission of GHG in the area of Sydney after the electricity and industry emissions( .herever no local information exists (i(e( for Sydney) e use the /ustralian average statistics( 0ocal Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions The most common of the greenhouse gases emitted by the local Sydney transportation system are1 carbon dioxide (C%!), methane (CH&), nitrous oxide (2!%), and hydrofluorocarbons (H3C)( /mong them, Carbon dioxide, accounts for #" percent of transportation GHG emissions in the Sydney /rea and it is mainly produced by fossil fuel combustion( Transportation GHG emissions account for approximately '+ percent of the total /ustralian GHG emissions( Emissions from this sector ere 4!5 higher in !$'$ than in '##$( -t is also estimated that over " percent of GHG emissions globally can be attributed to carbon dioxide( This report is related to direct emissions from fossil fuels to po er various vehicles and do not ta6e into account the greenhouse gases emitted through the other transportation lifecycle processes i(e( production, maintenance of vehicles and transportation grid etc(

7rainstorming System -nfluences 8oad Transport • 8oad transport as the main source of transport emissions in Sydney and !$'$, accounting for approximately the 9+5 of total emissions in the area( :assenger cars ere the largest transport source, accounting for approximately "$5 of that amount( 8oad transport plays such a dominant role in urban settings given that people tend to choose to live around big cities because ;obs, opportunities and entertainment can be found easily( Ho ever congestion and price hi6es push the population further in the suburbs and hence there is the issue of daily commuting( /dditionally as a conse<uence the city, as a =living> system ill increase its energy and transportation demands intensifying the problem(

ections .• :rivately o ned cars and motorcycles account for approximately "$ per cent of the passenger transport in the local area( -t is thus essential to regulate vehicle emissions either by improving the efficiency of the cars or through implementing sustainable alternative fuels (e(g( biofuels) etc( 8oad :ublic transport sector accounts for a small fraction of the total GHG emissions ho ever it has the potential to reduce significantly the private car use ithin and bet een our urban centres( That assumes better public transport infrastructure and services as ell as expansion of the existing infrastructure( Efficiency in the public transport domain can be improved by the use of integrated transport systems ith multi‐level transport options( • %ther Types of Transport 8ail sector emission and pro.

ected emissions for rail transport increase to about *# per cent above '##$ levels( Ho ever.ections Emissions from civil aviation sector in !$'$ ere around '+" per cent above the level for '##$( 7y !$!$.ected emissions for air transport increase to !'& per cent above '##$ levels( The possibility of a second airport in Sydney are may ma6e these estimates even larger( Ho ever aviation is a minor contributor (slightly more important than maritime) and hence the economical benefits of the expansion may out eigh the negative impact of increased emissions( • 2e Technologies1 -mproving the carbon emission reduction technologies is critical in order to meet the global climate change ob. the pro.ections Emissions from the maritime sector in !$'$ ere not much different than the level for '##$( 7y !$!$. the pro.or factor.ectives( These technologies must be financially sustainable in order to be possible to implement in the public transport system by the local government( Three major system influences • :opulation increase A expansion of the suburbs( Sydney@s population expansion rate constitutes a ma. as seen from the chart it constitutes only a small fraction of the transport emissions in /ustralia and hence can be used in order reduce the use of private means of transport and hence GHG emission( ?aritime sector emission and pro. trains and ferries( This along ith lo emission vehicles ould increase the use of public transport ith • • .The /ustralian rail transport sector in !$'$ ere around "9 per cent above the level for '##$( 7y !$!$.or factor in the considerations in relation to transport GHG emissions( The dependency on private vehicles is another ma. again. of reducing the private car use and hence the main contributor of GHG( Sydney is in uni<ue position to exploit that as several suburbs can be reached by boat( /viation sector emission and pro.ected marine transport emissions increase by only +(4 per cent compare to the !$'$ level( This indicates room for expansion of the Sydney@s maritime commuting system ith the goal. the pro. along ith the illingness of the users to s itch to public transport provided some conditions are met( -ntegrated strategies to use ne public transport lin6s or extendBmanage the existing ones in a more efficient ay( The crucial rapid transit net or6s and sustainable transport infrastructure combining road public transport.

CCCEE. rail and maritime public transport services and rapid transit net or6s are needed in order to result to a sustainable transport infrastructure combining road public transport.or transportation hubs should be established at the population increase hotspots( This ould slash the private car use and along ith lo emission vehicles ould have a significant impact to the reduction of the GHG in the Sydney are( • • 8eferences and further information1 8esearch and statistics D City of Sydney http1BB (cityofsydney(ns (gov(auBlearnBresearchDandDstatistics 8esearch and statistics D Sydney !$4$ http1BB (sydney!$4$(com(auBlearnDinD!$4$BresearchDandDstatistics Cepartment of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency !$'$. Canberra. !$'! /ustralian 2ational Greenhouse /ccounts /ustralian 7ureau of Statistics &+'4($ /ustralia@s Environment1 -ssues and Trends.obs are available( Given that the expansion rate is so large the infrastructure cannot 6eep up ith the demand or service distant areas people end up using privately o ned car to commute resulting to the largest contributor of GHG in the metropolitan area( Cecentralisation of public services close to public transportation hubs and simultaneous expansion of the public transport system can assist in this direction( 0in6age bet een public transport service and private car use1 The dependency on private vehicles is obviously correlated to the efficiency of the public transport system as ell as the illingness of the users to s itch to public transport provided certain conditions are met( -f GHG are to be reduced the public must ta6e active part in the process1 Changing attitudes to ards the use of public transport. trains and ferries( ?a. the use of environmentally friendly means of transport.ust to develop one public transportation sector1 /n orchestrated net or6 of road. /CT( /ustralian 7ureau of /gricultural and 8esource Economics and Sciences Energy . Ean !$'$ . carpooling etc( can have a significant impact on the GHG emissions( The message here is that apart from governmental interventions.ections !$'$.Linkage Analysis • 0in6age bet een the population increase and private car use1 The population boom leads to expansion of the suburbs of Sydney to larger and larger distances from the city centre( /s a result larger and larger part of population has to commute to ards the centre here most of the . /ustralia‟s emissions pro.pdate !$'' Cepartment of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. the changes must also occur at the individual level( GHG emissions reduction schemes can only be successful if -ntegrated strategies to use ne public transport lin6s or extendBmanage the existing ones in a more efficient ay are implemented1 -t is not sufficient .