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(Publication 4384)



The Smithsonian Miscellaneous

Collections series contains, since the

suspension in 1916 of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,
the publications issued directly by the Institution except the


nual Report and occasional publications of a special nature.


name of

the series implies,




not limited, and the volumes

thus far issued relate to nearly every branch of science.
the fields of biology, geology, anthropology,

Papers in

and astrophysics have


Leonard Carmichael,

Smithsonian Institution.


Aug. 9 figs. 4108. 3 figs. (v) .. et al. western Sonora. Mexico. Arthur. (Publ. Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology near Caborca. iii pp... Permian fauna at El Antimonio. 31 pis.) W. 6. H.. 1958. June 25. Aug. 25 pis. Mexico. 87 pp....CONTENTS Cooper. 4 figs. northwestern Sonora. 8. 1952. Arthur. 1953. 4313. Mississippian fauna in northwestern Sonora.. (Publ. et al. 184 pp. G. Mexico. 2 charts. G.) Easton.) Cooper. 9 pis. 4085. et al. (Publ.





. A. U..Z^t Botb (g>afttntov< (pr<et« S. BALTIMORE. MO.

"] 2^ 28 34 Brachiopoda. 16 18 GiRVANELLA. OkuHtch 2. CONTENTS Page Introduction and Stratigraphy. by Alexander Stoj'^anow Introduction 49 49 50 59 Description References Trilobites. by Christina Introduction Lochman Structure 60 60 62 65 Ecology Collection and preparation of Identification Cambrian fossils 66 70 of trilobites Discussion of the faunas 70 70 70 71 Lower Cambrian faunas Composition Correlation Middle Cambrian faunas Faunal zones Composition Correlation iii 73 TZ 76 78 . Summary Localities of Cambrian stratigraphy and correlation between and faunal lists J. by Vladimir List of species Systematic description References J. by References Harlan Johnson Systematic description 24 24 25 Pleospongia. Arthur Cooper and A. V. by G.. Arthur Cooper Introduction 36 36 37 Description References 48 The Original Collection of Cambrian Trilobites from Sonora. by G. Arellano Localities i 2 ) Proveedora Hills (locality 8oi 2 9 10 12 12 13 Canedo Hill (locality 812) Prieto Hill (locality 809) Difuntos Hills (locality 802) Buelna Hills (locality 807) Lista Blanca (locality 811) Arrojos Hills (locality 800) Additional localities of Cambrian rocks 13 15 localities . R.

iv SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. II9 Page Systematic descriptions Lower Cambrian faunas 81 81 Middle Cambrian faunas References 109 I59 163 181 Explanation of Plates Index .

ILLUSTRATIONS Plates (All plates following page i8o. new species. new Genus and species undetermined i. josensis Cooper. Wanneria mexicana prima Lochman. new species. Paterina species. S. new species. pulchella Billings. 21. 20. Salterella mexicana Lochman. americanum Okulitch. Hyolithes whitei Resser. 13. Problematica cf. and Salterella. and Syringocnema species. and Amecephalus cf. species. and Nisusia species. and Paedeumias pucrtoblancoensis Lochman. rara Cooper. Lingulella proveedorensis Cooper. 7. new species. H. 8. Dictyonina minutipuncta Cooper. Sombrerella mexicana Lochman. incertae sedis. Antagmiis solitarius Lochman. new species. Difuntos Hills. new species. new species and new variety. Wanneria walcottana buelnacnsis Lochman. pvinceps Billings. 3. new species. new variety. Pegmatreta and Obolella mexicana Cooper. mexicana Lochman. (Olenellus) truemani Walcott. new species. Proveedoria starquistae Lochman. Salterella cf. Sonoraspis torresi Stoyanow. mexicana Lochman. and Sal- terella 16. man. Girvanella. Ethmophyllum cooperi Okulitch. new 5". Wimanella species. new species. rimonski Okulitch. north end of the Arrojos Hills. and O. occidentalis Okulitch. Orthotheca buelna Lochman. new species. 15. Coscinocyatlms species. Archaeocyathus yavorskii (Vologdin). Wanneria? species undetermined. new and Ajacicyathus ncvadensis (Okulitch). Hyolithes aff. Puerto Blanco formation. and pleosponge reef. new species. Dictyonina species. new species. 12. A. buclnaensis Lochman. Micrometre species. Ethmophylluin cooperi Okulitch. Cafiedo Hill. and O. Scenella reticulata Billings. gomesi Stoyanow. Lista Blanca. Buelna and Cerro Prieto formations. 19. Proveedora Hills. I and H. Ajacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch). 11. V . new species. Bonnia sonora Lochman. North end of the Arrojos Hills and Proveedora Hills. Syringocnema species and Ethmophylluin whitneyi Meek. and Strotocephalus arrojosensis Lochspecies. species. new species. Protopharetra species. West Buelna Hill. Aerial view of the Proveedora Hills. Diraphora arro- 14. Prieto Hill. and Sco- tubes. 4. Girvanella on slope of Prieto Hill. 5. Acrothele concava Cooper. new mined. species. C. species undeter- 18. and Salterella 17. S. 6. Olenellus (Fremontia) fremonti Walcott. new species. new species. piochensis (Walcott). Cambrocyathus cf. 10. 9. A. E. lithtis new species. new species. Onchocephaliis mexicanus Lochman. Pegma- treta arellanoi Cooper. new species.) 1. Antagmus butt si (Resser). 2.

Alokistocarella mexicana Lochman. Alokistocare althea Walcott. 9. Cf. new species. 26. Pachyaspis. Arellanella sonora Lochman. new species. Caborcella arrojosensis Lochman. 31. modestnm Lochman. new species. sonora Lochman. Kochaspis? species undetermined. species undetermined. II9 22. Kistocare corbini Lochman. Glossopleura species. new species. Mexicella mexicana Lochman. new species. Middle Cambrian trilobites. showing location of Cambrian sections by locality numbers Topographic map showing the Proveedora Hills and collecting Map 3 local- ities following page localities 4 4 3. new species. and Zacanthoides aff. Known genera stratigraphic range of Mexican Middle Cambrian trilobite 80 . Helcionella. A. Figures Page 1. Glossopleura Sonoraspis gomezi species =zSonoraspis torresi Stoyanow. 27. and Kistocare tontoensis (Resser). and A. Glossopleura leona Lochman. caborcajia Lochman. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Ptarmigania bispinosa Lochman. Columnar sections of the Proveedora Hills and Arrojos Hills compared. Athabaskia minor (Resser). modcstum Lochman. and Kochaspis aff. cf. species = Stoyanow. 24. aft'. new species. and Kochaspis cooperi Lochman. A. VOL. new species. new species. A. Cross section of the Proveedora Hills showing formations and stratigraphic position of collections Columnar sections showing sequence in the Proveedora Hills and comparing Arrojos formation of the Arrojos Hills with same formation in 5 the Proveedora Hills 6. A. A. 5. Z. and Hyolithes sonora Lochman. species undetermined. 29. 2. Genus and species undetermined 3. A. 7. Kootenia exilaxata Deiss and Pachyaspis isabella Lochman. Inglefieldia imperfecta Lochman. and Mexicaspis difuntosensis Lochman. new 23. K. new species. 30. species undetermined. species. Problematicum III. Chancelloria eras Walcott. proveedora Lochand Mexicaspis stenopyge Lochman. 28. G. Pachyaspis dehorra Lochman. holopygus Resser. A. Athabaskia bela (Walcott). 8. Lochman. Genus and species undetermined 2. new species. new species. Albertella provecdora man. new species. Columnar sections of Prieto Hill and the Buelna Hills compared Diagram showing nomenclature of parts of a trilobite Cambrian trilobite appendage 6 8 il 62 64 Charts 1. new species. celer (Walcott). Correlation of Mexican Cambrian formations 79 2. 25. Parehmania. Topographic map of the Arrojos Hills showing collecting following page 4.

119. But in Gomez L. zona. (Plates 1-5) that year Isauro G. sent their specimens to Dr. C. D. who identified them as Cooper. are well exposed. 1 . and Ing. The collection of fossils obtained from the vicinity of Caborca is a very fine one and consists of numerous kinds of animals. MEXICO INTRODUCTION AND STRATIGRAPHY By G. Mexico. Alberto Arellano. Prior to 1941 Cambrian rocks were unknown in Mexico. to Caborca. ARTHUR COOPER AND United States National Museum. NO. as well as the previously reported especially one long and unbroken sequence 6 miles west of Caborca. The Mexican geologists Alexander Stoyanow. rocks. and L. these geologists easily located the trilobite beds in the Arrojos Hills. The Smithsonian Institution therefore sent G. terest of accuracy In the in- and to lend utmost authority to this report on the Mexican Cambrian it seemed best to invite specialists to describe the SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. NORTHWESTERN SONORA. the Instituto Geologico de Mexico. F.Cf)arle£{ B. Here Lower Cambrian dle Mid- Cambrian. Several weeks in 1943 and 1944 were devoted to investigations of these rocks and making collections of fossils. to investigate Cambrian and other Paleozoic Happily. while making investiga- tions for Petroleos Mexicanos. anb Jflarp ¥^aux Halcott a^ejfearcfj Jfunb CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY NEAR CABORCA. Institiiio ARELLANO Geologico de Mexico. Torres. VOL. but in addition they found several other areas exposing Cambrian rocks. A. R. discovered trilobites in the Arrojos Hills 12 miles west-southwest of Caborca. University of AriMiddle Cambrian trilobites. A. D. Sonora. V. long a leader in Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology. The published report of this discovery stimulated interest in Mexico and in the Smithsonian Institution. representing the reported its staff. representing deposits. Washington.

mostly composed of white marble. opoda. and Dr. II9 various groups. I. (5) Lista Blanca. She also described some of the peculiar and problematical forms which lend so much fascination to the Cambrian. Dr. VOL. consented to describe the specimens that were first found. Dr. The Proveedora Hills are composed wholly of Cambrian sediments . 5) The main mass of the hills consists of two elongated ridges separated by a deep valley interrupted in its middle by a low saddle. Seven areas containing Cambrian rocks were located in the vicinity of Caborca: (i) Cafiedo Hill. a group of small hills about 14 miles northwest of Caborca. which form the largest part of the fauna. G. Colo. it seems best to describe it first and thus the units into which the Mexican Cambrian is divided. Dr. who was the first to announce the discovery of Cambrian in this portion of Mexico. clearly an alteration product of contact metamorphism. . on the east side of Caborca and on the south bank of the Magdalena River (2) Prieto Hill. Accordingly. (3) Difuntos Hills. These hills lie on the north side of a large granitic mass which has metamorphosed their southern edge and. prepared the discussion of this group i^ miles southwest of the village. in one place at least. two small hills just south of the railroad about 9 miles northwest of Arrojos Caborca. was invited to describe the peculiar algae known as Girvanella. A. intruded the Cambrian beds. Okulitch. (6) Hills. Golden.. and (7) Proveedora Hills. Christina Lochman described the trilobites. G-y miles west of Caborca. authority on the Pleo- spongia. Harlan Johnson. Alexander Stoyanow. but neither the stratigraphic top nor bottom of the sequence is known. The southern end of the hills is broken into several knobs of various sizes. about 12 miles west-southwest of Caborca. (4) Buelna Hills. 5-6 miles west-southwest of Caborca. Colorado School of Mines. on the north side of Puerto Blanco. a small hill about . LOCALITIES Proveedora Hills (Cerros de la Proveedora) (Locality 801) The Cerros de la Proveedora are of hills a roughly longitudinally oval group trending northward and located about 6 miles west of Caborca on the north side of the road through the gap known as Puerto Blanco (text figs.2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS J. Vladimir J. contributed the chapter on these interesting and bizarre animals . section about establish Inasmuch as the Proveedora Hills include an unbroken I mile long. Cooper. 2. University of Arizona. who has long been interested in the Brachi. After the description of this section the sequences at other localities will be explained.


Cerro Prieto. slaty shale. Nevertheless. —This formation consists of 732 feet of slaty shale or greenish thick. II9 The hills. Olenellus.4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. The most significant fossils taken are the brachiopod Oholella and olenellid trilobites. Arrojos. This formation is composed chiefly of limestone. and Tren formations (text figs. thin-bedded gray limestone. In these beds Hyolithes. or ones leached of lime. but on the opposite Strong lithological differences in parts of the hills permit division into six formations. . Approximately the lower half is separated from the upper half by a prominent ledge about 23 feet thick. The type section is in the Proveedora Hills. Reddish shale and calcareous sandstone are followed by platy limestone containing trilobites. The base of the section consists of about 120 feet of greenish slaty rock followed by 20 feet of limestone with a foot of sandstone at the base. excellent specimens may be obtained. Puerto Blanco formation. The formation is terminated by and marble. but the Arrojos and Tren formations belong in the Middle Cambrian. The Cerro Prieto formation side of the saddle they are to the east. by searching for pieces softened by weathering. white indurated quartzite and dark-gray The quartzite often forms low ridges. generally greater than 60°. in ascending order: Puerto Blanco. Fossils are rare in the formation. Girvanella beds. The brachiopod life. The lower half is composed of thin-bedded bluish-gray limestone. The Puerto Blanco formation contains many fossils of a few fragmentary olenellid quartzites. slates. Proveedora. The formation is 961 feet thick. hills to The dip in the west ridge and the generally to the east. The type section is the west end of the Proveedora Hills. 4. kinds. lowest sediments appear in the small knob on the west end of the (N. has not been dated. but unidentifiable linguloid brachiopods and olenellid fragments appear on some of the weathered surfaces. is characteristic of the earliest zone of Cambrian Proveedora formation. No basal contact is known at this place — and none was seen elsewhere . 5). The upper half consists of — platy brownish limestone. but the rock is usually too indurated to allow the specimens to be broken out. The fossil content of the first three indicates a Lower Cambrian age. Buelna. the full thick- ness of the Puerto Blanco formation cannot be stated. consequently. This formation occupies the low ridge and knob at the west end of the hills. 7° The strike of W. and Lingulella were found. Buelna formation. Dips on the west side of the saddle between the two main ridges are to the west.) and the the west is the sediments dip is is a few degrees west of north quite variable. but all the angles measured are steep.

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It age. The next 138 feet are composed mostly of shale and thin-bedded limestone. In the upper part of the section sev- Onchocephalus. the formation is here placed arbitrarily in the li- Lower Cambrian. The Buelna formation measures 331 to 398 feet. the abundance of dark spherical objects often with indistinct concentric layering. making conspicuous patches or bands. It often contains wavy banding. but a few were found in the thin limestones. and shale. possibly produced by flow- —This formation massive and resistant character. This limestone is dark gray to black in color and is without bedding. and Bonnia were collected.y-bearing Buelna limestone and underlies the Arrojos formation. under- . The type (locality Section is in Prieto Hill about miles southwest of Caborca 809) Arrojos formation. It also contains some light-colored marble all. This sequence is succeeded by 43 feet of olivedifferent sediments. Antagmus. the The presence of olenellid trilobites dates this formation as part of Lower Cambrian sequence. The lowermost 300 feet consists of thin platy limestone. Although no diagnostic fossil was found. Cerro Prieto formation. is 329 feet thick. is characterized by its forms the high ridge on the west side of the valley dividing the two main ridges of the Proveedora Hills. smooth-weathering limestone having a blue to blue-gray color on fractured surface. weakness between the two main ridges of the Proveedora gray. Some of the layers weather to a bright orangeyellow or a light-brown color. sandy and limy shale. and brecciated limestone followed by platy limestone. It overlies 0/^M^//M. Thin layers made up of the crowded shells of the peculiar cephalopod Salterella appear in the lower part of the section. too. — This its formation is characterized by the thinIt bedded nature of most of makes a zone of Hills. In this part. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY —COOPER AND ARELLANO 7 oolitic limestone. The first two define the zone that bears their names and that has a wide distribution in the United States.NO. where it occurs near intrusions. The upper 40 feet of this division is in red sandy shale. These suggest the probable alga GirvaneUa and occur in countless numbers. Fossils are not common. Irregular white calcite veins are another distinctive feature. is The most distinctive character of however. Fossils other than the GirvaneUa mentioned above were not seen for them. eral characteristic trilobites. but Onchocephalus and Antagmus prove the formation to be near the top of the Lower Cambrian. olenellid trilobites are frequent. This formation this formation. which contains many Middle Cambrian fossils. in although a diligent search was made It is thus impossible to date this limestone.

In contact with the thick ledge 59 feet thick. TREN 1. Under this VOL. and Glossopleitra. Columnar sections of Proveedora Hills (A) and Arrojos Hills (B) showing formations. fig.1 : 1. II9 sequence is mostly thin-bedded limestone. text fig. yellow-weathering limestone containing Ptarmigania. abounds in fossils characteris a cobthis. — The succeeding istic of division.1 B Kootenia 800 h =1-^^ ARROJOS Albertella CERRO PRIETO Onchocepholus BUELNA rSOO' PROVEEOORA CERRO PRIETO SALTERELLA SCALE PUERTO BLANCO Obolella Fig. Above slightly higher in the section. 1 the Middle Cambrian. 2. bly. Mexkaspis and Mexicella. makes an Following the preceding 40 feet is a ledge about 18 feet thick which excellent datum. The next succeeding 249 feet are composed of thin-bedded limestone .8 lain SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS by a conspicuous yellow band. are thin platy limestones containing Albertella. It forms a high wall on the west side of the saddle between the two hills (pi. 4). 6. Differences in thickness between the sections are clearly shown. i.

No fossils were found in the section. The steep dip (30° to 50°) to the south forms a monocline with the north end of a long and lies at . but it could not have been derived from any other part of the hills by natural means.NO. on the east side of the north In the Proveedora Hills. 12 miles west-southwest of Caborca. normally a Lower Cambrian fossil. con- sequently no difficulty was experienced in dating this formation. 4). The Arrojos formation totals about 1. Consequently. This can be determined to anyone's satisfaction by examining the panorama of the its correlation with other sections near Caborca is difficult. This specimen was not found in place. the Salterella must have been derived from the lower Arrojos limestone. of the layers abound in is Near the top of this division Kootenia common in a limestone that weathers bright orange yellow. which forms the easternmost and highest ridge of the Proveedora Hills. this Hills. the fossils in the lower part are regarded as of Middle Proveedora Hills (text fig. as in the Arrojos the high hill stratiis formation forms the top of the sequence. is in The type section of the formation end of the Arrojos Hills. Canedo Hill (Cerro de Canedo) (Locality 812) This is a small hill located on the south side of the hill Magdalena River on the east side of Caborca. it must be reported that Salterella.018 feet in thickness. The top of the section consists of 105 feet of dark shale containing some lime- stone layers.608 feet of dark dolomite. Tren formation. It con- tains several zones of characteristic Middle Cambrian fossils. but Although Cambrian age. — Overlying the thin-bedded and often shaly Ar- rojos formation occur 1. It will be noted that the Cerro Prieto formation forms the crest of the highest ridge and effectively separates the >S'a/^(?r^//a-bearing Buelna formation from the Arrojos foris mation. In the Arrojos Hills this formation yielded three trilobite specimens which enabled it to be dated as Middle Cambrian in age. Girvanella of various sizes. The formation is composed almost wholly of dark dolomite with some dark limestone beds and occasional layers of metamorphosed dolomite in the form of finely granular marble. This shale is mostly covered by talus from the overlying Tren formation. was found on the west slope of the valley between the two main ridges. This is named Tren formation from a similar mass in the Arrojos Hills. The type of dolomite is not the kind to produce any fossils. but the graphic top of the Tren formation unknown. The type section of the formation at the north end of the Arrojos Hills. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY — COOPER Many AND ARELLANO 9 with some heavier-bedded layers.

low. as 11° to 18°. but the slope feet is strewn with cobbles abounding cliff. VOL. The latter dates the sequence as Lower Cambrian and correlates it with the lowest part of the Puerto Blanco formation of the Proveedora Hills. is a small. Prieto Hill (Cerro Prieto) (Locality 809) Prieto Hill. On the north side of the hill lies a small knob composed of quartzite which thick. below the bold numerous The fossils taken from this sequence include Onchocephalus and olenellid trilobites. vitreous. generally gray to blue-gray in color. Some of the limestone shows faint shadows of Girvanella although the rock is shales. rounded eminence fig. A). forms the lowest of the exposed sequence. which goes east through the pass between Canedo Hill and the igneous mass to the south. II9 chain of igneous It thus has essentially the same relation to an igneous body as the Proveedora Hills. Hmestones. The quartzite is 145 feet heavy-bedded. No fossils were seen in it. On the north side of the road to Pitiquito. Near the top of the hill Salterella was found. About 60 trilobites. often showing the bedding The dip is to the southwest and varies from black lines or bands. The north front of Prieto Hill consists of a steep slope surmounted by a scarp face of massive limestone. or Cerro Prieto. The lower part of the slope is made up of thin to moderately heavy-bedded limestone. limestone and shale were examined which are lithologically similar to the Cambrian on the west side of the Proveedora Hills. and sandstones are strongly metamorphosed but not enough to destroy completely the evidences of sedimentation and occasional fossils. but when the individual spheres are broken they do not centric layers of oolites. of the rock in fossils. These clearly indicate correlation with the Buelna formation of the Proveedora section. show the is characteristic con- The structure revealed that of crystalline . In yellowish shale at the base of the hill thin limestones are crowded with Salterella. is Higher in the section much limestone in place yielded covered. In a thin marbleized limestone trilobite fragments and Oholella were identified. feet thick.10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS hills. thus well establishing the age of the hill as Lower Cambrian. hard. The formation measures 275 is An interesting feature of these limestones the lime sand in parts of the section. located about i^ miles southwest of Caborca (text 7. sugary. completely altered. but in the case of the Cafiedo The Hill the metamorphism has greatly affected the entire mass. The rock grains strongly resemble oolites.

Here 267 feet thick. No trace of the Arrojos formation was seen at this place. the other is light gray. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY — COOPER AND ARELLANO II calcite.NO." The main cliff forming the scarp of the hill and the long dip slope to the south are composed of dark-gray to black massive limestone. This limestone lies is thus the Cerro Prieto formation. the same massive rock that in the locality between the Buelna and Arrojos formations Proveedora Hills. this The capping is ledge of Prieto Hill it is is the from which formation named. The spheres are evidently grains of clear calcite rounded by wave or current action. 7. forming a calcite "sand. — Comparison of sections in showing close similarity Prieto Hill (A) and Buelna Hills of the sections. .i 807e 100 100' PROVEEDORA SCALE SCALE PROVEEDORA Fig. The upper surface near the brow of the hill shows numerous large 809 e CERRO PRIETO CERRO PRIETO 807c 809 b v> _i Onchocepholus CJ BUELNA Solterella 807g BUELNA 809 d = UJ . (B) Girvanella on the weathered surfaces. These bodies are of two kinds one is black and shows crude concentric structure .

The larger hill is here West Buelna. The main mass of the western Difuntos Hills is made up of the Tren dolomite forabove the valley floor Albertella ish platy limestone. At the top of the thin-bedded limestone an 18inch layer of reddish oolitic limestone contains abundant Pachyaspis. Onchoceph- and Paedeumias. This is the Cerro Prieto formation. The easternmost hill consists of thin-bedded yellow to pinkish limestone with some massive reefy lenses containing small Girvanella. II9 DiFUNTOs Hills (Cerros de los Difuntos) (Locality 802) This is a small group of hills about 14 miles northwest of Caborca. Above this occur massive light-gray limestones with much calcite veining. 7). olenellid in and Salterella are abundant dark-gray limestone. 7. The Buelna hill. Thirty to thirty-five feet vertically and Mexicella are abundant in brownten feet above the plain Glossopleura is abundant. Girvanella is abundant in many parts of the sequence. the formation as Buelna formation. Just above the quartzite. is followed by yellowish limestone with Salterella. estimated at 300 feet in thickness. The Proveedora 280 trilobites quartzite is overlain by the Buelna formation. thin-bedded fossiliferous On the northeast side of the largest limestones occur in the lower part. In the West Buelna an excellent section of the Proveedora quartzite formation appears in the lower part of the section. 9 miles northwest of Caborca (text B).12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. extensive layers containing vertical tubes of Scolithus (see 11). It is here notable for the occurrence low in the section of pi. hill. The top of the section is composed of massive dark-gray limestone containing many small calcite veins. Blocks nearly 2 feet thick marked by the carbon-filled tubes occur in profusion. about feet of thin-bedded limestone. One hundred and mation. These beds are correlated with those in the saddle between the two ridges of the Proveedora Hills (localities 8oika-L). indicates reefy limestone as a facies The olenellids date The occurrence of pleosponges of this formation. particularly at the south end of the trilobites. This alus. . but and include no question as to their place of origin can be raised. Fossils are rare pleosponges and olenellid These were found loose. This is the type section of the Buelna formation. The Buelna Hills thus duplicate the sequence seen in Prieto Hill southwest of Caborca (text fig. formation is overlain by the Cerro Prieto formation. the smaller is the East Buelna. Buelna Hills (Cerros de Buelna) (Locality 807) These are two small called hills located just south of the railroad about fig.

although their precise identifithe rocks of the Proveedora Hills. Actually it occupies a position between two igneous masses the one on the north is the igneous block on the south side of the Proveedora Hills. considerably more metamorphosed than For this and are poor when found. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY COOPER AND ARELLANO 1 LiSTA Blanca (Locality 8ii) Lista Blanca consists of a series of small elongate hills on the south Magdalena River about 5 to 6 miles west-southwest of at the north end of a chain of igneous rocks extending for some distance to the south. These are of Middle Cambrian types. Lista Blanca therefore appears to be a block caught in igneous masses on the north and side of the Caborca and occurs . which forms a prominent part of them. The Cerro Prieto formation is prominent and forms the main bulk of the westernmost chain of hills. On the north side of the . Nevertheless. difficult to find reason fossils are extremely cation is not possible. The latter is especially prominent at the east end of the hills. but when they are followed to the south along the strike of the Cerro Prieto formation. as it is occupies a position between the two igneous blocks. it is dark gray to black with calcite veins and black Girvanella.NO. the black limestone alters to white marble and the quartzites are baked and considerably altered. strongly suggests the Tren formation of the Proveedora Arrojos Hills (Cerros de los Arrojos) (Locality 800) The Arrojos Hills are located on the south side of the Magdalena River about 12 miles west-southwest of Caborca. The lowest beds exposed are in the highest On the west side of this a short section of the Proveedora quartzite is followed by the Buelna formation with trilobites and Salterella. south. In a bed of shale about 20 feet thick three specimens definitely recognizable as trilobites were found. As elsewhere. Traced to the south along the hills the Cerro Prieto formation becomes the igneous body south of the more and more altered as one approaches Cambrian hills. Lithologically the rock of Lista Blanca is a metamorphosed dolomite. Like the Proveedora Hills and Lista Blanca these hills lie at the north end of a long igneous chain and were affected by the baking action of the intrusion. some of which is altered to white marble. The northernmost of the Arrojos Hills are not greatly metamorphosed. it Its situation is similar to that of the Proveedora Hills but. The hill longest and best section is at the north end of the hills. hills. the evidence accumulated makes it clear that the rocks of Lista Blanca belong to the Middle Cambrian. Lithologically the Lista Blanca sequence Hills.

side of the hills makes it Furthermore.14 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. salmon-weathering more greenish micaceous slaty shale containing thin limestone layers. fine-grained slaty shales trilobites tinuous section. a small fault on the northwest impossible to measure the sequence in a conare greenish. a little red shale. It was measured as 620 may well be questioned. oolitic. This shale sequence contains the lowest zone of Glossopleura-Sonoraspis. and a fine- grained limestone with conchoidal fracture that weathers orangeyellow. Of considerable interest at this level is the occurrence of the trilobite Zacanthoides. Even at the north end of the some flow structure is visible. who feet thick. The lowest beds with thin limestone lenses containing numerous opods. At particularly the brachiopod Diraphora. succeeds the Girvanella beds. green to black. thin-bedded. baked Proveedora hills quartzite overlies the igneous rock. is The but it dip to the east in the lower part of the section varies about 20°. The heavy ledge of limestone is succeeded by thin-bedded dark shale the base the lenses abound in fos- containing lenses of limestone. sils. but the accuracy of the named figure it. shale is Banded limestone. follows the second Glossopleura-Sonoraspis zone. and with abundance of Girvanella. the sponge Chancelloria. The shale selimestone and quence is capped by a thick bed of banded limestone that forms a ridge of dark-gray to black massive limestone along the hill. trilobites This shale contains a variety of but none of them are very well preserved. a typical Middle Cambrian brachiopod. Alexander Stoyanow. crumbly and fossilif- erous. The cobbly beds make a overlying Tren formation. and brachi- Then follows platy limestone. for- The Arrojos formation is well exhibited at this place. dark. splintery. . The longest sequence of shale. trilobite and the Kootenia. II9 pass between the Cerro Prieto and the igneous body the limestone altered to marble. The shales often weather red. brow of the The top beds are oolitic. The dark shales are succeeded by a long sequence of thin-bedded dark-gray limestone containing the trilobite Mexicaspis at the top. up to 50°. is On the south side of the pass. The thickness of the Cerro Prieto mation as measured was about 300 feet. It is the type section of the formation selected by Dr. The Mexicaspis beds are followed by another band of slaty shale containing the second Glossopleura-Sonoraspis zone. These beds are followed by shales. and grades into limestone along its The strike. The Arrojos sequence at this place is capped by a band of cobbly striking contrast to the yellow-weathering limestone abounding in Acrothele.

ADDITIONAL LOCALITIES OF CAMBRIAN ROCKS In addition to the localities listed above. some of taining pleosponges. particularly the small conical Pegmatreta. On this layer occur two reef masses of pink limestone having thin. Locality 8oiq. but its situation in relation to the previous one and those described below suggests that it. The beds dip 36° to the southwest. The Tren formation is a complicated sequence of limestones and some of the beds in places altered to marble. granular limestone at the base of the section fossils are fairly common. 48° W. Although these cannot be identified more closely than their genus. too. The lowest bed This is consists of 15 feet of heavy-bedded gray lime- followed by a lo-foot covered interval. of the first reef (8oiq). 23° W.8 mile N. from the is them — knob just described is situated another small hill composed of massive hard limestone much fractured and with the seams filled by calcite. it This is followed by thin-bedded sandy limestone. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY —COOPER AND ARELLANO 1 dolomites. belongs to the Lower Cambrian. — .225 feet) N.7 mile (3. Locality Soix. wavy bedding and confeet thick.744 feet. The thickness of the Tren formation as measured was 1. lying pink in color.468 of the Proveedora Hills. As would Nevertheless. fossils are absent or exceedingly rare. Locality 8oiy. The next bed is Then follows 5 feet of limestone in beds 6 to 8 inches in thickness containing oolites and : Hyolifhes and Salterella.NO. they show beyond question that the entire sequence of the Tren formation is of Middle Cambrian age. in the gray be expected in a dolomite sequence. Here is a small knoll of limestone having the strike N. 60° W. These are located west and northwest of the west end of the Proveedora Hills. These masses are about 20 Over- massive gray limestone with numerous calcite veins.320 feet trilobite above the base produced three poorly preserved heads. No fossils were seen in this knob. This reef lies about 0. feet) —This may be reached by traveling 0. About 0. 18° W. west. especially a considerably altered one. These are mostly brachiopods.6 mile (3. stone. a few small isolated hills show parts of the sequence not represented in the sections described or parts not easily located or identified with any portion of the meas- ured sections. In spite of its unfavorable lithology. North of this knob occurs another pleosponge reef having a diameter of about 75 feet. little gray massive limestone showing fossils bedding. a mottled limestone 1. and dip 17° to 20° to the south- N.

—Another hill lies to the southwest of the quartzite about 4. 22° W. and a low of the same-appearing material lies to the south. The lowest bed is consists of about 1 1 1 1 feet of massive dark quartzite. low hill composed of limestone beds striking N. of the hill of massive fractured limestone (3. This sequence suggests relationship to the Proveedora quartzite. a complete section is not present because the base has not been found. the formation is well exposed in several hills. They are definitely Lower Cambrian. The limestone is suggests the Tren formation. The Puerto Blanco formation of the at the known only west end of the Proveedora Hills and in the highly altered mass at Cafiedo Hill. On top of this bed 5 feet ured containing chiefly olenellid trilobite debris. but it is dark-brown sandof fossiliferous quartzite was measfeet of calcareous not now is possible to be certain of such an assignment. The section is capped by massive quartzite. About 160 is feet of thin-bedded alternating is dark and gray limestone hill exposed. the northeast.l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. This followed by stone. It is a long. and little The Buelna difficulty attends its recognition. but this is not a certainty.750 yards N. 48° W. the Proveedora and Buelna Arrojos Hills. 55° W. No Cambrian beds were seen in contact with any of the Pre-Cambrian rocks on the east side of Caborca or in the vicinity of Pitiquito where v/ell displayed. avail- SUMMARY OF CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND CORRELATION BETWEEN LOCALITIES With between with the is present knowledge localities it is easier to understand the correlation Lower Cambrian in the Caborca region than overlying beds (text fig. Buelna Hills. quartzite hill west of the Proveedora Hills probably belongs to Proveedora quartzite. A less extensive exposure is known in the In the Difuntos Hills this formation . This much brecciated at the south end of the exposure. about 18 feet thick with fossils at the base.j. II9 Locality 8o. It is not known. and dipping 25° to located S. hill. Proveedora Hills. Locality 8ois. however. 75° This W. Hills. but no further proof or evidence able than appearance. About 0. 5). but pre-Cambrian beds are to may lie under the Puerto Blanco sequence. On the north it is bordered by basaltic rock.750 feet) N.7 mile (3. Excellent exposures occur in Prieto Hill. moreover. of the west end of the Proveedora Hills) occurs a small hill structurally a syncline — of sandstone. sparingly at Arrojos Hills. The overlying Proveedora formation occurs The in several sections: Prieto Hill.438 feet. At the former place. what part of the section the pleosponge reefs west of the Proveedora Hills are to be assigned.

NO. It is quite probable that the large Girvanella of the Cerro Prieto formation were mistaken for Pennsylvanian Chaetetes on which the dating was based. however. This is the on the east side of the saddle in the Proveedora Hills (locality 8oika-L). the only locality at which these fossils were found in a sequence. The occurrence at Prieto Hill is of considerable Girzraiiella interest because of the fine development of on the surface. fine. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY This is COOPER AND ARELLANO 1/ contains pleosponges. It is possible that a considerable facies difference occurs between the two sections. One zone of the Arrojos section seems to correlate with one in the Proveedora sequence. does not lead to any other agreement between the two sections. The problem cannot be settled section Mexicella cations . on the other hand. No structural compliwere detected while making the Arrojos section. the sequences are not well enough known to establish a satisfactory correlation. In the Proveedora sequence Mexicella occurs under the Kootenia zone. although they may have escaped notice. but its exposures are very extensive in the Proveedora and Arrojos This hill Hills. The abun- dance of algae in the Cerro Prieto formation leads to the belief that it may represent a great Cambrian algal reef. was previously identified as of Pennsylvanian age and a Caborca series (Gamusa) of beds was established to accommodate these supposed Upper Paleozoic rocks. Correlation of these two zones. is The Arrojos formation known from two very fig. That a facies difference exists between the two sections is suggested by a comparison of the lithologies. This is not true of the Arrojos formation exposed in the Difuntos Hills. Kootenia has a long range in the Middle Cambrian outside of Mexico and it is therefore possible that the two Mexican occurrences of this trilobite cannot be correlated. whereas in the Arrojos is present above Kootenia. In the Proveedora sequence limestone predominates except in the upper 105 feet from which few fossils were taken because of heavy cover. thick se- 3). several important shale beds appear and in each of these fossils characteristic of shales were seen. This short quences and a shorter section (text section belongs to the Mexicella-Mexicaspis-Alhertella zone. This is especially true of Glossopleura-Sonoraspis which occurs in several parts of the section. This is the Kootenia zone which in both secthat located same horizon as tions contains similar fossils although the lithologies are not alike. The Cerro Prieto formation has the same distribution as the Buelna formation. Although the bulk of the fossils described in this report came from the Arrojos formation in the Arrojos Hills and Proveedora Hills. In the Arrojos section.

North end of the Arrojos Caborca. Problematicum IIL 8ooe.l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS and must await solution is VOL. and Proveedora Hills. about 312 feet above base of section. A. Lochman. sonora Lochman. 800b. Pegviatreta rara Cooper. Caborcella bed. Kistocare tontoensis (Resser). Caborcella arrojosensis Lochman. In each place few fossils or none at all. A. northwest side of largest hill. base of dark shale about 260 feet above base of section. Acrothele species. Ingleficldia imperfecta Lochman. Mexicella mexicana Lochmaa Mcxicaspis stenopyge Lochman. Mcxicaspis bed. basal shale. Dictyonina species. modestum Lochman. Hyolithes sonora. first Glossopleura-Sonoraspis bed. Arrojos formation. Chancelloria eras Walcott. 8ood. Glossopleura-Sonoraspis species. Arrojos formation. northwest side of largest hill. Arrojos. saddle at north end of largest west of . Sonora. Hyolithes sonora Lochman. 15-20 feet Zacanthoides. 800c and c'. Arrojos formation. upper Glossopleura-Sonoraspis bed. Arrojos formation. on east side of northwesternmost small hilL Micromitra species. Arrojos. Helcionella species undetermined. The Tren formation known it in is the Difuntos. IIQ in this discussion in further collecting and reference to other sections. northwest side of largest hill. sonora Lochman. below top of uppermost shales with hill just 8ooe'. Arellanella caborcana Lochman. Kistocare corbini Lochmaa Alokistocarella mexicana Lochman. Kootenia exilaxata Deiss. A. under heavy ledge of limestone. formation. chiefly a dolomite which yields LOCALITIES AND FAUNAL LISTS Locality 800. Glossopleura-Sonoraspis species. Athabaskia bela (Walcott). 12 miles west-southwest of 800a. Diraphora arrojosensis Cooper. Chancelloria eras Walcott. west face of largest Arellanella aff. Alokistocare of. Hills. hill. Arrojos formation.

. aff. Acrothele concava Cooper. Buelna formation. Buelna formation. Lingulclla proveedorensis Cooper. Proveedora Hills on north side of Puerto Blanco. Parehmania species undetermined. 8oif. Booh. Proveedora formation. Proveedora Hills.NO. west end. Linguella species. uppermost 8 feet of yellowweathering cobbly beds at top of Arrojos formation. 8oig. Proveedora Hills. west side. Inglefieldia imperfecta Lochmaa beds. Puerto Blanco formation.320 feet above the base. Glossopleura-Sonoraspis species. princeps I. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY COOPER AND ARELLANO IQ northernmost knob. Onchocephalus bnelnaensis Lochman. saddle Soog. Paedeuinias puertoblancoensis Lochman. Inglefieldia imperfecta Lochman. Zacanthoides 8oof. Puerto Blanco formation. 6-7 miles west Locality 801. Proveedora Hills. west central Paterina species. of Caborca. Obolella mexicana Cooper. Problematica II. cf. Salterella mexicana Lochman. hill Acrothele species. O. mexicanus Lochman. holopygus Resser. Tren dolomite. Acrothele beds. near the top of the northeast-southwest ridge on south side of largest hill. Pacdcnmias puertohlancocnsls Lochman. part. basal limy at on southwest-end knob north end of largest Dicty<onina species. Obolella beds. Zacanthoides 8oid. 1. Olenellid trilobite fragments. aff. 801 b. Hyolithes 801C. Pegmatreta arellanoi Cooper Athabaskia minor Resser. Girvanellaf species. 8oie. Inglefieldia imperfecta Lochman. Arrojos formation. H. just northwest of elbow of canyon largest hill. 590 feet above base of section. Saddle on west-side knob at north end of largest hill. aff. in Glossopleura-Sonoraspis species. Proveedora Hills. near center. Olenellus species undetermined. Wanneria mexicana prima Lochman. Dictyonina minutipuncta Cooper. Tren formation. Billings. Salterella species. Genus and species undetermined 3. Z. Cerro Prieto limestone. Z. holopygus Resser.

Arrojos formation. Albert ella proveedora Lochman. Diraphora arrojosensis Cooper. Zacanthoides aff. Nisusia species. shaly beds with Glossopleura between 8oim and 80 in. Glossopleura species. Chancelloria eros Walcott. Alokistocare modestiim Lochmaa Alokistocarella mexicana Lochman. east side Glossopleura Icona Lochman. Hyolithes species. 8oii. Kootenia exilaxata Deiss. top of hard ledge on east slope above saddle. Kistocare corbini Lochman. 8oik. Mexicella mexicana Lochman. saddle. Arrojos formation.9 20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. cobbly beds with Ptarmigania. Mexicaspis stenopyge Lochmaa Hyolithes sonora Lochman. center. Mexicella mexicana Lochmaa saddle between ridges. Kochaspis? species undetermined. Arrojos formation. 198 feet above high ledge in saddle. Arrojos formation. just above ledge on west side of saddle. II 8oih. 20 feet below Mexicaspis bed. Arrojos formation. 100 feet above base. Strotocephalus arrojosensis Lochman. 736 feet above base of formation. Lochmaa Arrojos formation. IVimanella species. Z. Glossopleura Icona Lochman. 8oij. Pachyaspis isabella Lochman. Arrojos formation. Ptarmigania bispinosa Lochman. 801L. Albertella beds about 625 feet above base. center of the Proveedora Hills. . Mexicella mexicana Lochmaa Albertella proveedora Lochmaa Kochaspis cooperi Boika. Kootcnia beds. Base of Arrojos formation. 178 feet above i8-foot-high ledge. 50 saddle. Kochaspis? species undetermined. feet above Mexicaspis bed. Arrojos formation. Proveedoria starquistae Lochman. Girvanella cf. 80 im. Hyolithes sonora Lochman. holopygus Resser. Mexicaspis stenopyge Lochman. Pachyaspis isabella Lochman. 8oim'. Mexicella mexicana Lochman. 8oin. Proveedora Hills. Genus and species undetermined 2. sinensis Yabe. Athabaskia bela (Walcott). Mexicaspis bed. G.

celer (Walcott). Lower Cambrian. Lower Cambrian.NO. just under pleosponge Billings. E. 8o2d. Buelna formation. reef. Protopharetra species. Mexicaspis difuntosensis Lochman. 802a. Sonora. Diraphora arrojoscnsis Cooper. Hyolithes aff. Ajacicyathus nevadensis (Okulitch). west hill. Ethmophyllum cooperi Okulitch. Olenellns zone. 2^° Lower Cambrian. W. Difuntos Hills. Archaeocyathus yavorskii (Vologdin). west hill. H. saddle. Upper part of Buelna formation. of. 807a. Buelna formation. Glossopleura leona Lochman. I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY 801-O — COOPER AND ARELLANO 21 Arroyos formation. Lower Cambrian. Scolithus species. Olenellus (Olenellns) tniemani Walcott. 8oiy. 9 miles northwest of Caborca. hill. Mexicella mexicana Lochman. Arrojos formation. Proveedora Hills. Proveedora quartzite. 30-35 feet above the valley base of the western hill at its northern end. mile N. Hyolithes sonora Lochman. small the Proveedora Hills. Locality 802. Sonora. Lower Cambrian. Wanneria walcottana buelnaensis Lochman. east hill. about no feet above the valley end of west hill. Mexicella mexicana Lochman. shaly beds between Kootenia beds and Tren dolomite. Alokistocare althea Walcott. Lochman. 14 miles northwest of Caborca. K. Salterella mexicana Lochman. near the 802b. top 10 to 20 feet. Albertella aff. east side. 8oiq'. Buelna Hills. Sonora. floor. Mexicaspis difuntosensis Lochman. Arrojos formation. hill 0. Glossopleura leona Lochman. floor. 8oip. north Kochaspis 802c.7 W. Syringocnema? species. Arrojos formation. Paedeumias puertoblancoensis Lochman. occidentalis Okulitch. Ethmophyllum americanum Okulitch. Cambrocyathus Locality 807. 48° west of Caborca. Pachyaspis species undetermined. north end west Pachyaspis deborra Lochman. 807b. pleospongian reef 0. whitneyi Meek. aff. princeps 8oit. Albertella proveedora 8oiq.8 mile N. . Arrojos formation. C. of west end of Ajacicyathus rimouski Okulitch. A. of 8oiq. proveedora Lochman. Albertella beds. Coscinocyathus species.

upper Salterella bed. hilL 807J. Onchocephalus mexicanus Lochman. i^ miles southwest of Caborca. mexicanus Lochman. O. reticulata Billings. Hyolithes whitei Resser. loose on north slope of hill. cf. Olcnclhis (Olenelliis) truemani Walcott. Girvanella mexicana Johnson. Wanneria f Locality 809. cf. Lower Cambrian. Prieto Hill. Buelna formation. west Salterella mexicana Lochman. OlencUus zone. 8o7d. Lochman. O. OlenclliiS truemani Walcott. Genus and species undetermined i. Buelna formation. Buelna formation. Buelna formation. S. Olenellus {Olenellus) truemani Walcott. Orthotheca biielna Lochman. II9 mexicana Lochman. Salterella species. Antagmus-Onchocephalus zone. Salterella mexicana Lochman. hill. Paedeimiias puertoblancoensis Lochman. . Antagmus-Onchocephalus zone. Paedemnias pnertoblancoensis Lochman. Proveedora yards N. hilL 8071. Scenella 809b. 5". Salterella VOL. beds 60 feet below the Cerro Prieto limestone. upper Salterella bed. buttsi (Resser). Paedemnias puertoblancoensis Lochman. Olenellus (Fremontia) fremonti Walcott. 807! 8o7g. west Salterella mexicana Lochman. upper Salterella bed.750 W. Wanneria species. Onchocephalus buelnaensis Lochman. Olenellus zone. Sombrerella mexicana Lochman. mexicanus Lochman. Buelna formation. Sonora. Wanneria species. Sonora. Antagmus-Onchocephalus zone. Olenellus species. quartzite hill 3. A. species undetermined. west of Caborca. 809a. east Salterella mexicana Lochman. hill. of west tip of the Proveedora Hills. Buelna formation. Salterella mexicana 8o7e. Bonnia sonora Lochman. 807c. east hill. S. Antagmus solitarius Lochman. east hill. in place Buelna limestone. Buelna formation. Onchocephalus bti-elnaensis Lochman. Salterella mexicana Lochman. pulchella Billings. east Patcrina species.22 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Hyolithes whitei Resser. 48° formation.

I CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY Hyolithes species. Middle Cambrian. Salterella species undetermined. at west end.NO. Salterella bed at base of Cerro Prieto. Sonora. 812b. Salterella mexicana Lochman. beds). Cerro Prieto formation. Magdalena River. upper surface on top of hill. Lista Blanca. 6-7 miles southwest of Caborca. Lower Cambrian. Sonora. —COOPER AND ARELLANO 23 Salterella mexicana Lochman. Obolella mexicana Cooper. north side of road in pass between Canedo sediments and . Caiiedo Hill. east side of Caborca. slaty beds Unidentifiable trilobites. Girvanella species. Buelna limestone. 809c. 812a. Near top of hill. Locality 811. Puerto Blanco formation (Obolclla igneous rocks. Trilobite fragments. south side of 81 la. Locality 812. Sogd.

having been many parts of the from China (Blackwelder. 25.3 to 0. The filaments form a feltlike mat. In 1937 Hazzard mentioned their wide distribution in Nevada. The United States Geological Survey. 1942).028 mm. : GIRVANELLA MEXICANA Plate 6.: GIRVANELLA By J.5 to 0. with well-defined. Canada (Lewis.0028 Tubes have a surprisingly constant diameter of 0. 1907^). Nevada.6 to i. HARLAN JOHNSON Colorado School of Mines Golden. and California and suggested a comparison with the "Girvanella" described by Yabe from Manchuria. (Plate 6) Girvanella are lime-secreting algae. in diameter. fossils Family : Porostromata. long and 0. 1880. 24 . as See references at end of paper. —Fossils consist of spherical to mm. Hazzard and Crickmay (1933) mention their occurrence in the eastern Mohave Desert of California and give a good illustration of the rock but do not describe the species. composed of tubular filaments. Manchuria (Yabe. or 0.002 to 0.02 to 0. rather thick They 1 are not so strongly twisted as in p. Genus Girvanella Nicholson and Etheridge. 1918. many species of Girvanella. France (Mercier.. Arizona. Subfamily: Agathidia. thick). Johnson. elliptical pellets meas- uring 0. the may be classified as follows Class: Chlorophyta (possibly Cyanophyta). 1912 Yabe and Ozaki. walls (0. Colo. 1930).9 cm. careous masses composed of numerous tiny entwined tubes. Australia (Howchin. high. 1930). 1934). reported . Mawson and Madigan. new species figures 3-5 Description. and many localities in the United States. They form small nodular calThey occur in great numbers in the Cambrian rocks of world. SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION Following the system proposed by Pia (1927 and 1937).o cm.5 cm. found Girvanella in abundance. in resurveying the Eureka District.

Formation and locality. They occasionally branch.M. G. This species has larger tubes and thicker tube walls than any Girvanella previously described from the Cambrian. Tohoku Imp.6 to 2. flattened elHptical pellets cm. Amer. No. the author does not consider this to be a very diagnostic feature as pellets of a species frequently show a wide range in size.) and 0. vol. However.0009 to 0.—v.9 cm. pi. Soc. 57-80. ser. No. 1937. i. California Dept.8 cm.. 115658a. They show branching Remarks. 2. C.0015 mm. 954. and Crickmay.. Proc. Sci. and the Mexican specimens show considerable variation.'nM. cf. Description. vol.'N. Univ. 2 pis. i. and less frequent branching. Bull. thicker walls. even in a single hand specimen. So/e. Holotype. the Yabe did not give the wall thickness. H. 7 pp. C.7 cm. Cambrian J. 2. wide (average 0. rarely. Holotype. Sci. 1907. 6. SINENSIS Yabe i.). No. Buelna limestone (lower). vol. Carnegie J. — REFERENCES Blackwelder. Hazzard. with thin walls (0. Hazzard. 1. 1936. However. Yabe's species. — GIRVANELLA Plate Girvanella sinensis Yabe. Geol.012 mm.6 to 0. — It is customary to separate the species of Girvanella on this species closely resembles Girvanella sinensis. Washington southern Pub!. Researches in China. Inst. E. Geol.2 —Fossils consist of elongated. p. 2. In appearance and tube diameter Unfortunately. Tubes are highly twisted and entwined. C. The nearest species is Girvanella problematica f..NO. No. 8oim. 1912. usually oriented with long axis nearly parallel to the bedding of the rock.—U. 1933.. I. . Reps. figures 2 i. I GIRVANELLA — JOHNSON 2$ show a considerable length of tube. pp.. the basis of diameter of tube and thickness of the walls.009 to 0. Formation and locality. 23. Arrojos formation. Remarks. 11 5659. Notes on the Cambrian rocks of the eastern Mohave Desert. No.S. The pellets of Mexican material are larger than those described from China. long (average about 1. moniliformis Hoeg from sections — the Ordovician. California.. if not identical with. thick). S. "Girvanella" from the Great Basin region (abstract). Univ. mexicana differs in a larger average size tube diameter. They are composed of small tubelike filaments having a diameter of 0. The species is considered to be close to.

Univ. 42-49. On the occurrence of Girvanella manchurica Yabe and Ozaki in northern Korea. sen 11. D. No... 44-45. Sommaire. vol. i. Sur la presence d'organismes dans les calcaires inferieurs du Cambrien du synclinal de la Breche-au-Diable (Calvados). Soc. 70-85. of South Australia. Mercier. C. Tohoku Imp. 7 pp. Quebec. Yabe. Journ. KOBAYASHI. pp. Reps. 415-528.. Compte rendu du deuxieme Congres des etudes Stratigraphie Carbonifere. ser. pp. Girvanella in the "Shumardia" limestone of Levis. Yabe. H. P. Pre-Ordovician rocks of the McDowell Ranges (central Australia).26 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Sci. Mawson. 1912. Die wichtigsten Kalkalgen des Jungpalaozoikums und ihre geologische Bedeutung. H. T. 1930. 6 figs. pp. Tokyo. Hist. 9. Ueber einige Gesteinbildende Kalkalgen. 49. vol. Reps. 1942. W. 464. 1937. Heerlen.. Sci. Tohoku Imp. Ann... 1930. Adelaide. p. K. Girvanella in the Lower Cambrian of South Manchuria. Geol. H. pis. Compte Rendu Soc. Geol. 2 pis. i pi.. and Ozaki. 14. Handbuch der Palaobotanik. J. The geology 1 918. pp. Thallophyta. and Madigan. vol. Geol. vol. Nat. 1934. T. Lewis. 2. 37-38. vol. S. PlA. 1927. 1930. i. France. Soc. Univ. ser. Australia. Mag. London. On Quart. No. II9 HOWCHIN. 49-55. 37. pp. J. i. . vol. 2. 86. in Himer's Berlin. Journ.

In both localities Ethmophyllum zvhitneyi is the most common species.PLEOSPONGIA By VLADIMIR J. All the genera listed belong to the subclass Archaeocyatha of the class Pleospongia. Cambrocyathus cf. cooperi. 23° W.Silver Peak region of California and Nevada. new species. 27 . americanum. The nearest are in the localities previously described Waucoba Springs. 0. of the west end of the Proin veedora Hills (locality 8oiq). a pleospongian. zvhitneyi species. Syringocnema? species. No hint as to their true position was found in fossils associhill A of the Difuntos Hills. A few specimens were collected another pleospongian reef (locality 8oiy) 0. new E. 48° W. A. These specimens are of more than average interest because they come from a hitherto unrecorded locality and extend the geographic range of the pleosponges. ated with the reefs. OKULITCH University of British Columbia Vancouver. Coscinocyatlms species. The collection adds several new forms to the list of North American species and indicates a strong similarity to the California and Nevada fauna. reef.8 miles N. Protopharetra species. preceding eastern locality. rimouski (Okulitch). The two reefs west of the west end of the Proveedora Hills may belong anywhere in the Lower Cambrian section. occidentalis Okulitch. LIST OF SPECIES ^ Ajacicyathus nevadensis (OkuHtch). Meek. Ethmophyllum E. Archaeocyathns yavorskii (Vologdin).7 mile N. Canada (Plates 7-10) Most of the specimens described herein come from a low hill. of the few specimens were taken from the small The latter specimens are the only ones collected in a sequence.

Bull. Very small cup. b. Okulitch figure 5 p. 81. A small ajacicyathid usually not exceeding a few millimeters in diameter. it dififers Closely related to Ajacicyathus nevadensis. 4. Ajacicyathus rimouski Okultich.28 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Hypotype. — at Silver Peak. — Bic Harbour.S. Family ETHMOPHYLLIDAE Meek Plate 8. Quebec. 111815. 2. p. I. 7-9. vol. pores. i. Pap. S. 48. Geol. pi. plate 9. figure 4 ser. 30. perforated by numerous small pores. acutely conical cups.'NM. pleospongian reef. 1886. fig.. figs. 48. Trans. Lower Cambrian. 5. Soc. Characterized by elongated. No. Soc. 4. No. U. II9 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION Class PLEOSPONGIA Archaeocyatha Subclass Order Ajacicyathina Family AJACICYATHIDAE (Okulitch) 5. pi. AJACICYATHUS NEVADENSIS Plate 7. Lower Cambrian. Archaeocyathiis nevadensis Okulitch. I. Formation and 8oiq. 1935- Ajacicyathus nevadensis Okulitch. 4. Represented in the collection by three specimens.. . pi. Pap. 45. 29.—U. 1943. No. p. 55.S. Sci. Amer. figs. Amer. 3. ser 2. p. i8a. pi. 62. ETHMOPHYLLUM WHITNEYI figures 3-5 Ethniophyllnm whitneyi Meek. whitneyi Walcott. Soc. Soiy.—U. 2. and shape of Poor preservation makes the inner wall appear thickened. figures 6 . 111823. tubular cups. Roy. la-h. No. Spec. 1943. E. Canada.^M. 58. with simple parietes with few Both inner and outer walls simple. Nev. Amer. figs. Surv. I. vol. locality. figs. Geol. 1868. p. Hypotype. Formation and locality. ajacicyathus RIMOUSKI Plate 9. Most typical representative of Ajacicyathidae in North America. Geol. from which in parietal coefficient Represented by one specimen. Spec. 4. loi. sect. Journ.

in transverse sections. Not preserved in the adult specimen thick and simple young. The species is represented in the collection by two specimens. to try to clean out because of the danger of losing Total probable diameter 8 . from Ethmophyllum to 1.N. of the vesicular zone varies mm. with small pores. 8oiq. with few or no pores. ETHMOPHYLLUM COOPERI Plate 7. 4. of i : 2 mm. Spec. solid —Unknown. The in- 3 mm. 8. The tervallum coefficient zvall. figs. — — district.5. nev/ species figures i. Nos. 65. mm. Iii8i8a-c. Amer. The is vesicles open into the many cases the inner wall poorly preserved and the identification has to be based on crenulated inner ends of the parietes and the general appearance of the cup. The skeletal elements are thin. plate 9. Very few of the vesicles appear completely enclosed. almost completely enclosed in the made of rather thick skeletal elements. Because of this inclination the . new species.5 type. intervallum. The width vesicles. 3. Formation and locality. — Complex. 2. It consists of two to three rows of very regular. is is therefore 3. The inner wall of E. since the specimen it imbedded in a it fragment of limestone and seemed unwise it. E. The chief characteristic of the species is its inner wall. or 1.S. one or two rows deep. enclosing large and irregular empty spaces which are in communication with each other. is General shape. the other is species is found its in association with Ethmophyllum whitspecies has a remark- neyi and Ajacicyathiis nevadensis. pi. Silver Peak Hypotypes.25. counting the vesicular zone. ably regular structure of The new inner wall which immediately and unall mistakably separates it from other species of Ethmophyllum. U. central cavity. 1943. mm.. No. whitneyi is less regular than the wall in E. in the — Intervallum. I PLEOSPONGIA OKULITCH 29 p. wide and contains 26 parietes of the parietal coefficient Ethmophyllum type. Geol. In This observation is at variance with illustrations published by Walcott. Their position suggests that they were nature of vertical tubular to prismatic canals only slightly in- clined to the axis of the central cavity. Okulitch. Lower Cambrian.NO. i. figure 4 The new exposed young.M. 3. cooperi. luhitncyi Okulitch. which has a very distinct double row of vesicles. Pap. One is fully developed. 48. which consists of an area of vesicular tissue. —The Inner Outer zvall. Nev. Soc. is 3 mm. This common species is represented in the collection by ii speci- mens.

and in places directly open into the interparietal space. diameter of central cavity is : 7 mm. —The second specimen i at the 6-paries stage and has a diameter of about mm.142. IIQ canals open into the central cavity. The The outer and inner walls.N. new species figures 3.054 mm. 7 mm. General shape. rocyathus. If minute circular tubes extending vertiwere not for this feature the specimen could It is be taken for a young ajacicyathid. Outer zvall. or parietal two or three rows deep. radial parietes. giving an intervallum coefficient of i mm. Formation and locality. resulting There are no visible pores in the parietes. or about 72 for the entire cup. its It differs from other American species of EthmophyUum by conical. The central cavity is devoid of any skeletal tissue. U. 111814. is tervallum crossed by numerous straight. Types. Intervallum. —Long. and the and in- tervallum coefficients.S. can be best recognized from a transverse polished or thin section.. Thickness of outer wall is 0. The inThe number of parietes is in a very constant parietal coefficient of 7.— lloloty^Q. as well as the parietes are very thick. U. tubular. the spitz therefore to be assumed that of ajacicyathid type. five to eight rows of pores per intersept. resembling the intervallum of Clathrocyathns or Cambrocyathus profundus in this respect.6. is Nepionic stage. inner wall shows the early develop- ment of the cally vertical canals as it down is the wall. They are also in communication with each other and the zone of regular parietes by means of smaller openings. pleospongian Okulitch. reef. No.162. but conventional outer-wall pores rather than the has a surprisingly strong resemblance to the Siberian genus Clathslitlike ones of Clathrocyathiis place all it with Ethmophyllnm.S. 111814a.142 to 0. —Lower Cambrian. where Diameter of 9 to 10 mm. the completely enclosed. or 0. M. paratype. ETHMOPHYLLUM AMERICANUM Plate 7. 4 It It This species is represented in the collection by four specimens. The species differs from other Ethmophyllidae in the regularity of the vesicular zone of canal-like vesicles its inner wall. Soiy. . tapering is i Width of intervallum mm. —Very narrow for the size of the cup. Pores in places appear clathriform where the wall has become thickened.N. 4 per millimeter. very narrow in- tervallum and large number of parietes.M.30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Thin with numerous small pores arranged in quin- — cunx. Intervallum coefficient varies from 0. No.

thick. M. 3. Some of the free edges of the S-shaped elements project into the central cavity.S. Contains no other skeletal tissue except the projecting edges of the inner wall. It is first time that a definitely Siberian species of Archaeocyathus has It been recognized in North America. No. figs. of Ethmophyllum elliptical Consists mainly of row of vesicles or S-shaped imbricating skeletal elements with large openings directed obliquely into the intervallum area and the central cavity. with a diameter of 7 mm. pp. a single — Complex.R. to be the usual arched porous tabulae inclined inward and downward. figures lA. no. Upper Buelna formation. pi.. figs. 2 On the same piece of limestone with Camhrocyathus is occldentalis is a naturally weathered longitudinal section of a Coscinocyathus. I PLEOSPONGIA —OKULITCH type. however.S.2 mm.N. but presumably with a spitz of ajacicyathid type. The wall is 0. —Large. 9-1 1. Formation and locality. 23. United Geol. — Order Metacyathina Family ARCHAEOCYATHIDAE (Vologdin) Plate 10 ARCHAEOCYATHUS YAVORSKII Spirocyathiu yavorskii Vologdin. Central cai/ity. that the highly irregular structure of the intervallum in the genus . Young stages unknown. p. 3-6. Surv. There appear. pi. 111816. i. pi.— U. Holotype. 8o2d. is This characteristic may possibly indicate that the specimen a Metacoscinus or Arch- aeosycon and not a Coscinocyathus. idem. Lower Cambrian. 10. text fig.S. 1931. 2. At the base is an indication of some vesicular tissue. more prob- Holotype. — Family COSCINOCYATHIDAE species COSCINOCYATHUS Plate 9. 1932. U. pi. No. The inner wall appears to be simple.N. but ably an Ethmophyllum.1 NO. preservation The poor and it is impossible to distinguish the details of intervallum structures. 8. fig. however. with a single row of pores per intersept. Possibly related to the Siberian genus Clathrocyathus. Formation and locality. 801 q. 3.. 17- The the species is represented in the collection by one specimen. 40. 10.—V. Prosp. 3 Inner wall.S.M. figs. 4. 11 1820. has to be admitted.

The more constant parietal coefficient cannot be applied to ArchaeocyatJius as regular radical septa are practically lacking. and 7. pierced — Indistinct.9. to 10 mm. The nearest American form is ArchaeocyatJius aflanticus Billings from the Lower Cambrian of Labrador and Silver Peak region." may judge on New description General shape. It is should be pointed out.5 mm. probably tubular or turbinate. Pore pattern probably irregular. The main distinguishing features are the more open complex intervallum structure consisting of thin curved plates and a different intervallum coefficient from that of A. continuous — empty spaces. made of much thinner elements than outer by numerous small pores. Total diameter of cup about 20 Outer wall. part taenia completely enclose the and discontinuous. In form a very and plates. atlanticus. giving an intervallum coefficient of 8 mm. the pores fairly large. it to turbinate. that the intervallum coefficient pendable as a specific characteristic. — Narrow. atlanticus which is 0. or 1. Original description of Vologdin follows of this form septa.3. with no Condition of lower portion and vesicular tissue in the upper portion. Central cavity. in places continuous where the elements are fused together. in others open with projecting ends of taenia extending a short distance beyond the outer wall. spitz unknown. The strucloose meshwork of curved anastomosing bars more toward the inner wall regular ture shows a tendency to become and is more obvious and resembles parietes where radial pattern many pierce taenia in the synapticulae of the Cambrocyathidae. Width of intervallum varies from 8 mm. while the diameter of inner cavity varies between 6 mm. Pores places and more regularly the parietes. howvariable and not entirely de- ever. Nevada. II9 it necessary to form an opinion on general and since cases of convergence are known among Archaeocyatha the specimen may belong to a distinct species. Inner wall. curved from the feebly developed discontinuity of which we the faintly developed porosity of the septa. wall. . is : "The most typical feature its the most exceptional complexity of splitting of Transverse sections of the cup reveal complicated branching lines. —Unknown. 6 mm. Filled with taenia. — Somewhat indefinite because is made of skeletal elements similar to those within the intervallum. This is considerably different from the intervallum coefIntervallum. in part ficient of A.: : 32 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. ArchaeocyatJius makes resemblance . but probably subcylindrical mm.

8o2d. I PLEOSPONGIA OKULITCH 33 Hypotype. The inner and species. The organism consists of two walls.ISIM. How- ever.NO. These requirements are fulfilled by the specimens. the same piece of limestone with Coscinocyathus is scribed above are several poorly preserved fragments of Protopha- Genus Protopharctra characterized by an intervallum filled with irregular tissue and a narrow central cavity. as seen on the weathered surface of the limestone. Formation and locality.M. — — Order Syringocnemina Family SYRINGOCNEMIDAE species 9. The specimens.N. The mode of preservation is mostly responsible.S. Lower Cambrian pleospongian — reef. appeared in oblique longitudinal section. numerous porous parietes with dissepiments. Nevada. CAMBROCYATHIDAE cf. No. Attempts to polish them gave very little additional information. i. Upper Buelna formation. No.—U. figures 2. Okulitch. could not . prevents a definite identification. evidently belonging to the same be definitely identified. 111824. species figure iB species de- On retra. SYRINGOCNEMA? Plate 8. Family CAMBROCYATHUS C. 7 Three specimens in the collection. plate figures 6. U. OCCIDENTALIS 9. The species is fairly common in the Lower Cambrian of Silver Peak. PROTOPHARETRA Plate 9. Formation and locality. 8o2d.S. but poor preservation locality. and the granular nature of limestone in another case prevented the making of a thin section. 8oiy. and the very wide intervallum cause it to be identified tentatively as Cambrocyathus occidentalis. the simple walls. 111821. 1943 Plate figure 3 This species is represented by one partly crushed specimen. Formation and —Upper Buelna formation. specific It is likely that the specimens are con- with Protopharctra raymondi Okulitch. Hypotype. It is distinguished from the other species of Cambrocyathus by having a very wide intervallum with very numerous parietes and synapticulae.

new genus of corals. each loop of which represents the opening of a tube. 2. P. 2. 1910. R. Soc. No. Spec. p. Zool. with a diameter of The general shape is tapering some 6 mm. Changes in nomenclature of Archaeocyathi. Mem. 193 1. 1868. 34. of the diameter of the central cavity. Sci. vol.. 1935. Trans. Kyancutta Mus. sect. 29.. vol.34 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. The systematic position of the Archaeocyathinae. Formation and locality. No. Revision of type Pleospongia from eastern Canada. Okulitch. 6. 1940. Mus. North American Pleospongia.M. 3. 4. vol. II9 curved outer walls are apparently connected by tubes or canals of very thin plates. Journ. pp. 2. Roy. 55. .fourth . Soc. 48. 75-106. Trans- verse sections were unobtainable. Soc. Figured specimens. 3. Roy. J. 1936. Canada. pp. R. The width of the intervallum is small in the widest part of the specimen not exceeding one. — — REFERENCES Bedford. Roy. but consideration of the structure suggests that a transverse thin section would resemble that of an Ethmophyllum with a very narrow intervallum. Amer. 111817a. The nearest in general appearance and structure would be the Australian genus Syringocnema originally described by Taylor (1910) and later amended by Bedford (1936). ser. 2. Raymond. The inner and outer walls are actually made of the ends of these transverse radial tubes and appear as a slender meshwork. sect. U. However. 251-252. No. A more definite description will have to wait until better material is found. 172.. Amer. W. vesic- A search through the literature indicates that no comparable pleosponge was previously collected in North America. pt. Cyathospongia a new class of Porifera to include the Archaeocyathinae. Geol. Nos. Comp. vol. 112 pp. 45. 62-64. 1943.N.S. V. Further notes on Archaeocyathi (Cyathospongia) ganisms. 1937. b. 3.. B. The Archaeocyathinae from Soc. ser. Journ.. 2. 80 iq. — No. for a length of 40 mm. and somewhat ular inner wall. On a remarkable and other or- Meek. our specimens seem to be distinct from the Syringocnema javus Taylor. Lower Cambrian. Pap. 18 pis. tubular. vol. Paleontol. South Australia the Cambrian of South Australia. Trans. pp. 75-87. T. E. but tend to be hexagonal and are directed outward and downward. Mem. The canals are irregular in cross section. and Bedford. ser. Canada. Taylor. F. 4. Bull. pp.






VOLOGDIN, A. G. The Archaeocyathinae of Siberia, Pt. i. Fauna of the limestone of 1 93 1. Ulus Bei-Biduk and Kameshki village, Minusinsk region, and of Nijnaya Ters River, Kuznetzk district. United Geol. Prosp. Surv., U.S.S.R. 1932. The Archaeocyathinae of Siberia, Pt. 2. Fossils of the Cambrian limestones of Altai Mountains. United Geol. Prosp. Surv., U.S.S.R. 1937- Archaeocyatha and the results of their study in U.S.S.R. Problems
of Paleontology, vols. 2-3, Lab. Pal.


Univ., pp. 453-500.


C. D.

Cambrian fauna of North America.
pp. 72-89.







United States National

Washington, D. C.

(Plates 11-13)

Brachiopods can be easily recognized by their


The animals
from the

possess two shells, which are unequal in size

when viewed



seen from the front, with the beaks vertical, one

half of the shell

the mirror image of the other half.



were attached to the sea bottom or hard objects by a peduncle protruded from an opening in or under the beak of the larger valve. The brachiopods may be divided into two major groups by the nature of their shell. One group is characterized by a horny shell and the valves of this group are held together only by muscles. The other group has calcareous shells and the valves are fastened together by teeth and sockets. In the Cambrian both of these groups occur but the former is more abundant than the latter. Furthermore, the articulated brachiopods of the Cambrian are quite simple types. Brachiopods are not usually common in Cambrian rocks anywhere, but when found many individuals of the same species may occur together. Seldom is a variety of genera and species found in the same layer. In the Caml^rian near Caborca brachiopods are common at the base of the Puerto Blanco formation and there give their name to the
lower fauna! zone {Obolclla beds). They are fairly
It is


in parts

of the Arrojos formation but in other beds they are generally rare

seldom that the articulated brachiopods are found in good

preservation or that their shells are recovered with both inner and

outer surfaces revealed.


locality in the

Arrojos formation (locality

800c) that yielded Diraphora arrojosensis


in this respect.

Usually the brachiopods having a horny

shell are difficult to obtain

in a condition suitable for careful study unless treated chemically.



which are insoluble

in acetic acid,


be freed from

limestone by dissolving the matrix away.


remain in ex-

quisite perfection but they are often so delicate


fragile that they are

handled or photographed only with the greatest


The Sonora







Cambrian contains a number of
terial for etching.

localities that

produce excellent ma-

The base

of the Arrojos formation in the Arrojos

Hills (locality 8ooa) yields Pegmatreta in abundance and Acrothcle and Dictyonina uncommonly. The base of the Tren hmestone (locality 8ooq) in the Arrojos hills is another excellent locality for this type of




Salter, 1866

Linguloidal, rounded or longitudinally oval in outline, biconvex in

surface marked by concentric lines and undulations of grow^th


pedicle valve with bluntly pointed beak

and long pedicle groove

brachial valve with rounded beak

and thickened posterior inner margin.




Plate 13B, figures 4-6

Shell small for the genus, elongate with the length equal to about

i^ times the width


ornamented by

fine concentric




concentric undulations.
Pedicle valve with acutely pointed beak forming an angle of ^7°

margins gently convex but with the anterior margin narrowly convex. Widest at about the middle. Lateral profile evenly and very gently convex with the maximum curvature at about the middle. Anterior profile broadly and gently convex, but more so than the



Umbonal region narrowly swollen and with steep Narrow umbonal swelling continued anteriorly as a

low fold but with anteriorly diminishing slopes to about the middle where a fairly even convexity is maintained to the anterior margin. Anterior and anterolateral slopes, convex, long, and fairly steep. Brachial valve unevenly convex in lateral profile and with the maxi-


convexity in the posterior third


anterior profile


narrowly convex, with a well-rounded crest and short, steep lateral Lateral margins broadly rounded and bending somewhat slopes. abruptly into the posterolateral margins to give definite shoulders and
a subpentagonal form. Apical angle 115°. Anterior margin narrowly


Umbonal region broadly

swollen, the swelling gradually

merging into the more gentle convexity of the anterior half. Posterolateral slopes short and steep, becoming progressively less steep anteriorly where the lateral slopes are moderately steep. Anterior slope nearly flat, long and gentle.


difficult to ascertain

and none obtained from the




pedicle valve.

Brachial interior with thick low ridge extending from

near the beak to about the middle.



4.2 3.8

Holotype, pedicle valve Paratype, brachial valve, U.S.N.M. No. 116040a Paratype, brachial valve, U.S.N.M. No. 116039b Paratype, brachial valve, U.S.N.M. No. ii6o39d

6.1 5.1


Types. Holotype, U.S.N.M. No. 116039a; figured paratypes, U.S.N.M. Nos. 116039b, 116040c; unfigured paratypes, U.S.N.M.

Nos. 116040a,



Formation and locality. Puerto Blanco bed) west end, Proveedora Hills, 8oib.



— Few

species of Lingulella are

known from


and and a

Cambrian. This one

similar to L. granvillensis Walcott in size

proportions, but has a

somewhat more attenuated

pedicle valve

brachial valve with broader shoulders.

Furthermore, the interiors of

the two species do not agree because the broad and pronounced ridges

of the Mexican species are not present in the specimens.

New York and Vermont


Beecher, 1891

Subcircular to subrectangular in outline; valves of unequal depth,
the pedicle being the deeper

pedicle valve hemiconical, brachial valve

moderately convex; surface marked by fairly regular elevated concentric lines.

Pedicle valve with


or less strongly developed

homoeodeltidium. Interior poorly known.



Plate iiB, figures


Shell small for the genus, conical in profile
line; sides

and subcircular

in out-

and anterior margin rounded; surface marked by strong
lateral profile

regular concentric lines.
Pedicle valve forming a misshapen cone


convex with the


convexity at about the middle


median region swollen umbo and beak prominent. Brachial valve moderately convex in both profiles median region swollen with moderately long and moderately steep lateral
strongly convex







Pedicle valve length 1.7 mm., width 1.9 mm., brachial valve length

mm., width 2.0 mm.

Figured specimens.

Formation and

—U.S.N.M. Nos. 116050a, — Buelna formation, 807c.

—These small specimens seem
so than any

to be

young. The pedicle
species, but



strongly convex,



fruitless to

compare them

to adult specimens.


Meek, 1873

Outline, profile, and homoeodeltidium like that of Paterina, but surface

marked by

irregular elevated radial lines crossing the concentric



Plate 13 A, figures 1-3
elliptical in outline, sides rounded anmargin broadly rounded surface marked by fine, even, elevated concentric lines and irregular radial wrinkles, about five wrinkles to a

Transversely but broadly




millimeter at the front margin.

Pedicle valve subconical in outline


gently convex in lateral profile

but with the


curvature at the



anterior profile strongly

convex beak forming highest part of cone, narrowly rounded and protruding slightly umbonal and median region full sides narrowly

rounded and


Brachial valve with less-elevated beak than pedicle valve; lateral

moderately convex


anterior profile strongly convex but less

so than the pedicle valve

umbonal region

slightly inflated



region full


umbonal slopes short but gently concave.



Pedicle valve, U.S.N.M. No. 116046a


Brachial valve, U.S.N.M. No. 116046c




— Figured

figured specimen,

specimens, U.S.N.M. Nos. ii6o46a-c; unU.S.N.M. No. ii6o46d.

Formation and

— Base of —The specimens of

Arrojos formation, 8ooa.

warrant a


fragmentary to name. Nevertheless they cannot be identified with
this species are too

any described





Cooper, 1942

Like Paterina and Micromitra in outline,

and homoeodel-

tidium but external ornamentation consisting of oblique raised lines

which produce quincuncially arranged minute






Plate II A, figures 1-6

Shell large for the genus, transversely elliptical in outline
in profile




and anterior margins rounded



marked by

concentric growth undulations and fine lines of growth, radial wrinkles
irregularly arranged

and possibly produced by flowage within the
elliptical pits.

limestone and small closely crowded transversely

Pedicle valve gently convex in lateral profile with the greatest con-

vexity located in the posterior half and anterior half flattened; anterior profile

narrowly convex in the median region but sloping fairly on steeply the sides umbonal region narrowly swollen and prominent, the swelling extending somewhat anterior to the middle where it


into the flattening anterior portion


homoeodeltidium short and very
Apical angle about 125°-! 40°.


umbonal slopes steep and forming a callosity

at the beak.

Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile and broadly convex
in anterior profile

beak small, marginal.



Holotype, pedicle valve
Paratype, brachial valve, U.S.N.M. No. 116045b.



Types. Holotype, U.S.N.M. No. 116045a; figured paratypes, U.S.N.M. Nos. ii6o45b-d; unfigured paratypes, U.S.N.M. Nos.

Formation and
bed), 8oof.


—Uppermost Arrojos formation


—This species

characterized by


erect pedicle beak,

small homoeodeltidium, fairly large size, and the
surface. It

densely pitted

suggestive of D. burgessensis (Resser) but



ornamented. This feature separates the species from other members of

genus except D. nyssa (Walcott), which


a finely ornamented

species, but

occurs in a soft shale and the specimens available are

too badly crushed to



true shape.









Plate 12 B, figures 7-9


second species of Dictyonina



smaller than the preceding
Indications point to the

and with considerably

different external form.


of the pedicle valve as not being so narrowly convex and promis

inent as in D. minutipuncta ; the ornamentation

somewhat stronger

than that of the preceding.
those of any


combination of characters

not like


species but the

specimens are too poor for

Figured specimens.

Formation and
stone), 8oog.


—U.S.N.M. Nos. 116044a, —Tren formation (basal
Billings, 186

d, e.

12 feet of lime-


Valves subcircular to longitudinally oval in outline, subequally


in profile


surface marked by concentric lines and undulations
well preserved, by radiating costellae.

of growth, and,



valve with a minute foramen located slightly anterior to the beak.





Plate 12 D, figures 20-31

Shell small for the genus, subcircular to oval in outline, biconvex,

the brachial valve having the greater convexity; surface

marked by

concentric lines of growth.

Pedicle valve with lateral and anterior margins strongly rounded;
posterior produced into an acutely pointed beak. Lateral profile gently

convex, with the greatest convexity in the posterior half



somewhat flattened. Anterior profile broadly and gently convex. Beak long and sharply pointed, very slightly incurved. Pseudointer-

area broad.



moderately deep


opening of pedicle

tube on interior large, located just anterior to the umbonal cavities.

Muscular and

markings not discernible.

Brachial valve nearly circular in outline

fairly evenly

and moderto


in lateral profile


broadly and gently convex in anterior



sulcus shallow, narrow, extending

from the umbo

the anterior margin.


region moderately swollen.


interior with well-defined posterolateral ridges

vation, but other details of the musculature

and a low median eleand pallial markings not





6.5 6.5

Paratype, U.S.N.M. No. Paratype, U.S.N.M. No.


1605 id


Paratype, U.S.N.M. No. 116051c



Types. Holotype, U.S.N.M. No, 116056b; figured paratypes, U.S.N.M. Nos. 116056a, c, 116041a, c, d, f, 116051c, e, f unfigured paratypes, U.S.N.M. Nos. 116041b, e, 116051a, b, d. Formation and locality. Puerto Blanco formation, 8oib, 812b. Discussion. This is a small species characterized by its nearly circular form and the low convexity of both valves. In these respects it differs from 0. chromatica Billings which is a strongly convex


is a much larger species and has a and more convex valves. Oholella atlantica Walcott is close but is generally larger and the valves somewhat more convex. It is interesting to note that this genus commonly is found in crystalline limestone. The Mexican specimens occur in a pinkish crystalline matrix which is highly siliceous. When weathered the Oholella shells appear as imprints in a punky brown residue. When fresh the shells have a dull brownish color. Oholella chromatica, atlantica, and crassa occur in crystalline limestone. The former two are in matrix very much like that of the Mexican specimens, a pinkish limestone with pearly luster. A few specimens of O. mexicana were taken from white

Oholella crassa (Hall)

different outline

Shells minute


Bell, 1941

pedicle valve a misshapen cone with short posterior

pseudointerarea and minute foramen. Pedicle interior with large boss
just anterior to

foramen and two strong divergent



Brachial valve circular in outline,
elevated median septum.

more or


strongly convex

brachial interior without propareas and with a long,

more or






Plate 12 C, figures 10-19

Shell small,

forming a low, circular cone

in outline


surface marked



elevated concentric lines.

Foramen minute.

Pedicle valve gently convex in lateral profile with the deepest part
in the


umbonal region anterior slope long and gently convex, steepensomewhat near the front margin lateral profile somewhat narrowly




Width .

sufficiently one of the specimens available for study is complete to take measurements. 190S . and with the median region indented by the Umbonal region somewhat elongated and moderately convex. Sulcus originating on umbo. An- commissure rectimarginate.5 — Not been a fairly large one having a length of width of about 17 mm. Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile moderately convex and medianly depressed in anterior profile. separated dorsally vascula media prominent. evident that the gestive of Mexican shells represent a large A''. Formation and locality.. but Ornamentation seems to consist of distant and somewhat irregularly arranged in anterior profile costellae. 116037b. biconvex. Flanks bounding sulcus moderately swollen and elevated above sulcus. Measurements. . —Basal Arrojos formation. but the species must have at least 12. mm.M. impossible to It is make detailed comparisons with other better-preserved species. . c. and a Figured specimens. .N. the pedicle valve having the greater depth delthyrium open surface covered by fine concentric lines of growth. Interior details of both valves obscure. . deissi Bell or montanensis Bell. all the specimens are shorn of their shells it is interior are preserved. Flanks somewhat narrowly swollen with steep slopes to the lateral margins and cardinal extremities. 46 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. difficult to ascertain in exfoliated specimens. Slopes to cardinal extremities long and moderately steep. steeply apsacline . 8oih. pedicle interior with large diductor muscle scars tapering anteriorly. shallow and narrow. terminating in a narrow beak truncated at its apex by a round foramen. narrow and shallow and extending to the anterior margin.S. by a low ridge which forks anteriorly about the adductor impression Brachiophores short billingsellid median ridge low no cardinal process. Pedicle valve hemiconical in lateral profile but broadly and gently convex sulcus. II9 dinal extremities acute or nearly rectangular. strongly arched. . pseudodel- tidium short. depending terior on age. Lateral margins gently convex anterior emarginate because both valves are sulcate. Genus WIMANELLA Walcott. form perhaps sug- N. Thin-shelled .. Interarea moderately long. Inasmuch as and only impressions of the — —U. Sulcus originating near beak and extending to anterior margin. Discussion. Nos. Umbonal region moderately swollen and protruded posterior to the posterior margin. subquadrate to subsemicircular hinge-line straight .

9. gins usually gently convex. I BRACHIOPODA — COOPER species 13. . wider than long.7 mm. midwidth. .S. this Most of known species of Wimanella are much larger than quadrate outline. and is of them are small. but. hinge width. Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile with the greatest convexity in the posterior half . subrectangular in outline with the hinge forming the widest part. takayamai Resser and Endo is comparable and more transverse. figures 14 . Length of figured specimen U.S. figures 15-25 medium size for the genus . 801L. long.N. — 16054. anterior profile narrowly convex with . or narrower than. Sides sloping gently toward Lateral profile moder. Genus it is much more convex DIRAPHORA Bell. . 8. but surface marked by radial costellae. at the front margin. hinge usually narrower than the . DIRAPHORA ARROJOSENSIS Shell of about line Cooper.NO. Figured specimens. commissure sulcate in young but becoming rectimarginate in Ornamentation consisting of narrowly rounded costellae separated by interspaces equal in size to. 1941 Like Wimanella in outline and profiles and with open delthyrium and notothyrium. 7. the middle ately .N. In a specimen 6 mm. the Con- sequently. new species Plate 13 E. An- mature specimens. No. subrectangular in out- and slightly wider than long. U. . The Manchurian in size. the species not named.9 mm. Measurements. usually obtuse at which is near the middle cardinal extremities young specimens with hinge slightly wider than shell middle and with acutely angular cardinal extremities lateral mar. anterior margin broadly rounded. Formation and locality. if anterior margin broadly rounded. but species W. Nos. but nearly straight or slightly concave cardinal extremities are acute terior . Middle Arrojos formation. 4 or 5 costellae occur in a space of I mm. one cannot be certan that he dealing with an adult. convex anterior profile fairly strongly convex surface marked 1 by concentric lines of growth. greatest shell-width. —This — species is not quite like any other described. This only a moderate-sized is one and generally have a more is true of Wimanella rossensis Resser which shell. Small for the genus. the costellae. 47 WIMANELLA Plate 13 D.M.M. 116055a. 1 16054.0 mm. — Discussion. all because it is known from is three specimens only.

pp.M. Surv. U. 228. Sci.7 Types. Pedicle interior without dental places . 1 W.2 7-8 8. 116042b Paratypes. It differs from D.. stout brachiophores scars. 8oin.M. d. unfigured paratypes. D.6 9. 116042a. —Holotype.0 Thickness U.N. S. j. Brachial valve gently to moderately convex in lateral profile in adults but nearly flat in the young . 116042c.M.N. IIQ steeply sloping sides. No. and strongly impressed adductor MEASUREMENTS IN MM. con- tinuous with the pallial trunks which are not widely separated. ii6o42h. No. g.S. New . 116042a U.M. and the fairly uniform character of the costellae.2 2. No.M. 116042c.N. delthyrial cavity moderately deep . Washington Acad. f. anterior profile nearly flat to broadly and gently third to half. Nos. short. No. Cambrian Brachiopoda from Montana. 15.N. Cambrian Brachiopoda.6 7.S. but anterior to the middle the convexity gradu- ally decreases to the front Posterolateral slopes steep and gently concave in profile. Anterolateral and anterior slopes moder- Interior moderately long. Formation and localities.S. chial valve Bra- with incipient cardinal process. adductor track moderately wide . Journ. U. more rounded form. 8ooc.o 8.S.8 2. b. A.48 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 193-255Journ. beak narrow and anterior to about the strongly incurved. vol. originating in a pit at the umbo. figured paratypes. G. hellicostata (Walcott) in its smaller size.S. Pedicle valve. ately convex. No. vol. C.5 8.6 9. Paleontol..9 0. Umbo narrowly convex.N. No. moderately deep becoming shallow or barely perceptible in the anportions. U. U. — —This species characterized by is its small size.M. Narrowed umbo continued margin. Walcott. I i6o42d Pedicle valve. No.M. 8. Mon.. toward the pedicle valve. Flanks gently convex cardinal extremities depressed . diductor tracks narrow. i. p. but terior convex. 1942. vol. strongly curved and generally apsacline. Ii6048a-c. genera of North American brachiopods.N. 51. middle as a low fold. Hinge Length Width width 8. Discussion. 1912. e.0 9. 3. Nos. Brachial valve. compact and thick shell. and more finely costellate valves. Arrojos formation. Cooper. Geol. U. sulcus well dein the posterior fined.6 9. 32.6 ? lo. 941.N. brachial valve. REFERENCES Bell.S.. 801-O.S. Umbonal region sulcate . 7. U. C.

Torres. and Resser knows of none. I in- terrogated Dr. no mention of the age of any strata as Cambrian based on paleontoRealizing that there might have been relevant indiNational cations in the undescribed material preserved in the United States Museum and the United States Geological Survey. that the name "Arrojos algal formation" should be applied to the strata characterized by the collected Middle Cambrian trilobites. brought to me for identification and stratigraphic interpretation the fossils collected in the Magdalena in particular. In either of the two best-known country treatises dealing with the Paleozoic stratigraphy of that — Schuchert's "Historical Geology of the Antillean- Caribbean Region. After identification of specimens it was agreed. northwestern Sonora. Resser and Dr. presumably of pre. but he had no fossils. think that this has been discussed by Taliaferro. and L. Both scientists answered I in the negative. Bridge on this matter. or the Land Bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the in Caribbean Sea" (1935) and R. forward- ing photographic pictures of the specimens examined. there was — logical evidence. 49 . E.Cambrian age. J. and the correlation was purely on lithology position. two Mexican geologists then working in Sonora on behalf of Petroleos Mexicanos. I to as was unable to find in the geological literature any previous in- dication of the presence of Cambrian fossils in Mexico. should be referred the Jojoba formation. 1942) in Sonora.THE ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF CAMBRIAN TRILOBITES FROM SONORA By ALEXANDER STOYANOW University of Arizona Tucson. Bridge wrote (January 22. King's "Geological Reconnaissance Northern Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico" (1939) and likewise in the publications listed as references in these works. whereas the underlying beds with structures. and in Sonora from the time (1941) when Isauro G. Gomez L. C. Aris. dates River Valley. other than the problematical I : know no Cambrian Cambrian just across the border near Bisbee. of Dr. upon the writer's suggestion. E. (Plate 14) INTRODUCTION Discovery of Cambrian faunas in Mexico in general.

I am sure that Dr. the specimens collected in the Arrojos Hills by Gomez and Torres were listed as Glosso pleura. A. 1263-1264). whose brother has done a lot of work in I have also talked to Ralph Imlay. le). Another specimen.50 I SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 62707). p. and there It is a possibility such as you suggest. fig. Cooper.N. would appear that you have something new. ing glass. while the thorax of Poulsen's and Walcott's genera contained seven segments. who has worked there himself. and it I sincerely hope that I have always thought that the Cordilleran geosyncline must have opened to the southwest. also may be interpreted . pp. fig. 1916. To this is added a description of and presumably from the same strata. identified by Walcott as D. Schuchert would be much interested in hearing about this. 1916. the further attracted by an interesting specimen from Stephen formation. B. new genus. Although." it may be inferred from the illustration that it has six thoracic segments in the fragmented left side but eight segments in the complete right side. Anoriaf.M. Further two species described and illustrated in this paper under Sonoraspis. as stated in "Description of Plate 52. The purpose collection of strata in of the present article is a description of the original Gomez and Torres on which the presence of Cambrian Mexico was established. G. and neither of them knows of any. The incongruity of placing the related Sonora forms under the first two genera presented itself when it became apparent that. Cooper at the type locality None of the photographic illustrations of the fossil specimens has been retouched. productus (Hall and pi. have mixed features that would make it difficult to place them either under Glossopleura in the additional specimens sent to me studies led to the conclusion that the or under Anoria. This characteristic had also been observed later by Dr. (U. in Walcott. Many additional details may be seen with a magnify- DESCRIPTION SONORASPIS Stoyanow.S. 2c). Mount Bosworth. II9 have just called Philip King." this specimen contains "Pygidfive thoracic My attention was ium and segments flattened in shaly limestone. the trilobites under description had eight thoracic segments. 53. No. but I never knew of any evidence for it. new genus In my announcement on discovery of Cambrian trilobites in Mexico (Stoyanow. you get a statement about into print as soon as possible. 52. 1942. C. although they both admit that Sonora. pi. included by Walcott in his original description of Dolichometopus boccar (Walcott. Whitfield. related specimens collected later under the direction of Dr. 363. and Alokistocare.

M. pi. . fig. 1935. The specimen is not available for examination. replied (April 3. 29-34) of several species under Glossopleura he interpreted Walcott's species as based on three syncritical analysis types: U. 8 segments are and Walcott recorded 5. and is not present in the 11 associated specimens of prodiictus. Al- though Resser stated that its cranidial features are imperfect. 1942) : Regarding the Glossopleura boccar to which you refer. The combination and enlarged fifth of small eye lobe. median spine on thoracic segments by a subgeneric name if thoracic segment. 52. Resser. 52. No. 62703 pi. Resser had never specified in published works his preference for this questionable specimen as the holotype of Glossopleura boccar. 258. All of your species that I have seen are new and should not be identified with any previously described. the critical right side it is blurred so that impossible to be sure about the number of segments. 62707. way an improvement over of the thorax is Walcott's drawing. 53) in having a smaller palpebral lobe. p. anterior part of the glabella damaged. he also added that the defective parts are essentially as in the second U. 1916.M. and Walcott's photograph foreshortened. Nos. Syntype No. pp.S. However.N. a median spine on each thoracic segment and the anchylosed fifth thoracic segments of the axial lobe of the pygidium. The first critical comparison between Anoria and Glossopleura was made by Walcott (1916. I ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF TRILOBITES — STOYANOW 5 as having eight segments in the left side of the thorax. p. prodiictus (pi. 268. this type lacks the entire cephalon. .N.M. visible in the picture It footnote) established his genus Glossopleura on should be noted in this connection that Poulsen (1927. la) is better preserved than the rest. part of the thorax is Independently of the number of thoracic seg- ments.N. and in the chonietopus boccar Walcott. and probably the anterior seriously damaged. No. 62705 (Walcott. 191 6. also in the enlargement of the segment. all syntypes of Doli- As far as I am aware at present. ic). This character is present in the 13 specimens preserving the thorax. his photograph of this specimen reproduced in Shimer and Shrock's "Index Fossils of North America" (1944. but I would expect to find that the fault is in the drawing. 62703. it is probable that Resser had in view to separate it as the holotype. As to U. 373) in his original description of Dolichometopus tontocnsis: The species differs from D.S. as per his letter above. (Resser. suggests a reversion to primitive char- acters in this species that might be recognized further investigation justifies it.S. fig. D. queried on this matter. fig. pi. and 62707. 62705. . This species is rare and you will find closer affinities with those from the Grand Canyon where I am adding several new ones. the third syntype. Figure le is the holotype and you will observe that it has 7 segments. (Walcott.1 NO. 10) is in no syntype.

p. It may also be noted that probably there are more than two species in the described assemblage. lo-ii) grouping together both kinds of species under Anoria. Poulsen (1927. which have a cephalon of Anoria but. 51. . istics The other principal characterit is are so arranged in these two species that impossible to place either of in them under Walcott's and Poulsen's genera. "Anoria" baton and "Anoria" hessiis (Walcott. figs. as was the case with Resser's (1935. the nature and course of facial suture and the presence of tubercles on the anterior axial segments of the pygidium were included in the diagnosis. Median tubercles may be present on the posterior segments of the thoracic axis. 6y). as they are in Glossopleura. and : established on two new characterized by two features common to both species the presence of eight segments in the thorax. as in Glossopleura. 1925. sidering the very limited However. 54. but only in the posterior segments of the thorax and none on the axis of the pygidium. diagnostic of Glosso pleura: 268) specified the following principal characteri. 1916. long palpebral lobes. S. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 3. and 3). is as in Anoria and Glossopleura but with eight fifth thoracic Macropleural development of the segment is absent. unlike Glossopleura and Anoria. the palpebral lobes are short. Other details are presented in the description of the species. which have only seven thoracic seg- ments. which lacks the axial tubercles of Anoria.52 Later. lack of macropleural de- . p. as Glossopleura. gomesi. species. the palpebral lobes are very long. On the other hand. istics as p. the strata with Sonoraspis of northwestern Sonora may be stratigraphically older than the Anoria-Glossopleura zone of the Cambrian sequence in the Grand Canyon area of Arizona. There are intermediate forms. It may be argued that the forms with tuberculate and smooth thoracic segments should not be placed in the same genus. and by absence of macropleural development of the fifth thoracic segment. the diagnosis of Sonoraspis is as follows : In general appear- ance the dorsal shield thoracic segments. which has the axial tubercles. Pygidium with smooth or weakly segmented axis and without tubercles. for instance. 1924. 2. So. 2. If Walcott was right in his interpreta- tion of Anoria tontoensis as a species showing a reversion to more primitive forms. pp. absence of tubercles on the axial segments of thorax velopment of the Diagnosis. is —The new genus Sonoraspis and ^. 2a. pi. conamount and nature of the material available. as in that genus. Palpebral lobes may be short or long in different species. torresi. want tubercles on the seven thoracic segments. S. in ^S". Summarily. II9 when genus Anoria was erected (Walcott. gomesi. torresi fifth thoracic and pygidium segment is .

of the same set. T. is so des- ignated as the first found. I ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF TRILOBITES — STOYANOW 53 I believe that a differentiation of the described eight-segmented forms Glossopleura. which makes the extremities Walcott. further than on the basis of certain of their major characteristics. Broad and rather short somewhat subtriangular pygidium has a wide and tapering axis composed of five segments and a terminal section which overlaps the marginal furrow on a broad and concave posterior border with an inflection impressed by the doublure posterior to the axis. pi. is Although the anterior of the cephalon is obliterated. 18. 2b. 16). G. The second specimen satisfactorily preserved. Neverthe eight thoracic segments being clearly indicated and the . there is no evidence of is distinct segmentation on the pygidium. With the exception of the axis. is less and no part of its cephalon is present. of the posterolateral limbs rather wide. la. illustrated in figure i of plate 14. and of the posterolateral limbs is clearly indicated on the cranidium. figs. figs. that the facial suture has a wide and shallow embayment in its posterior part and cuts the posterior border of the cephalon closer to the genal angles. figure 2 of plate 14. lateral limbs. boccar. pi. pi. new Plate 14. the nature of the posterior parts of the glabella and fixed cheeks.: NO. as shown in figures 3 and 4 of the same plate. tontoensis. and (b) two smaller. ic. proditcta. would be unwarranted at this time. and not as in Glossopleura (compare G. 51. observable also in the seven-segmented Anoria and respectively. 1916. as in figures i and 2 of plate 14. theless. species SONORASPIS TORRESI Stoyanow. In all eight thoracic segments the pleural lobes carry oblique pleural furrows strongly impressed from the proximal upper margin to the pleural facet. figures 1-4 The Sonora specimens assigned to this species belong in two sets (a) two forms represented by a rather large and relatively wide dorsal shield with a gradually tapering axis. 1925. pi. hessus. It is as in Anoria (compare A. and terminate in sharp. postero53. Genotype. G. A. bent-backward. of the set (a). fig. Sonoraspis torresi Stoyanow. pleural spines. Walcott. fig. narrower forms with a more rapidly tapering axis. This specimen designated as holotype of the species. is. shorter. i. The specimen better preserved. new — species. 2) with the facial suture that forms nearly a right angle between the long palpebral lobes and very narrow. stephenensis.b. 1916. 52. baton. A. Of importance is the course of the facial suture as inferred from the outline of the fixed cheek.

with the impressed doublure visible (with a magnifying glass) in its right considered as conspecific with the holotype. Actually the pleuron is outlined as its counterpart on the left side. Nos.54 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. probably species 14. semicylindrical. the anterior segment feebly indicated on the pygidial platform. unlike Anoria. as in thoracic segments of Anoria. new Plate 6 The forms 5*. The difference from Anoria is enhanced also by the lack of macropleural development in the thorax. figures 5. The strongly semicircular pygidium is with a very narrow smooth axis and with an unsegmented pygidial platform. placed in this species have eight thoracic segments. U. is deprived of tubercles. The second specimen Types. 16333. to belong to the described specimen. although of this there cannot be an absolute assurance because of eroded condition at the critical parts of the axis. Posterior border is strongly concave. is a cranidium with an Anoria-like facial suture and palpebral lobe. 116348.N. and the posterior thoracic segments carry median tubercles. the last segment appears as macropleural. 116349-116350. appears of the set (b) is remarkable for its narrow and the rapidly tapering axis. Barring the difference to be supplementary to the preceding specimen. SONORASPIS GOMEZI Stoyanow. U. the terminal part of which overlaps the platform. 1 paratypes. makes it impossible to infer whether it was segmented. loc. This specimen is size. The two visible posterior thoracic segments are free from tubercles. but above. but does not show any trace of segmentation. locality.N.S. No. This is an optical illusion. not only . half. howdorsal shield ever. It is too large. with a well-outlined pygidial platform on which only one anterior segment is feebly indicated.M. elevated. as in Glossopleura. 8ooe. II9 general resemblance to the specimen just described rather strong. it is Pygidium is semioval. Formation and —Arrojos formation. However. it is illus- trated in figure 3 of plate 14. whereas the pygidial axis. as in torresi. On the same slab.M. Eroded condition of the axis. Due to an occasional crack in the posterior right side of the thorax.— Holotype. None of the eight thoracic segments seems to have carried the tubercles. The it first specimen of the set (b) has the posterior part of the facial suture sufficiently preserved in the right side of the cephalon to see that was as in Anoria.S. but their facial sutures outline a long palpebral lobe. with a shorter palpebral lobe. is In the suboval pygidium the axis is and smooth.

fig. fig. 1925. upper right part of the glabella. Thorax of 16 segments with dorsal furrows subparallel down to the sixth segment but converging posteriorly.y.NO. figure 5 of plate 14. The rather narrow. the thorax are turned pygidial axis is backward less torresi.S. Facial suture considerably eroded but fairly visible (with a lens) below and above a small. has the pygidial platform better outlined and with it anterior segments clearly indicated. U. the holotype. with a wide preglabellar area and a very narrow frontal border. probably cf. Coll. vol. and the genal spine of the left free cheek of which only a faint impression on the matrix of the slab is observable with a magnifying glass.S. pi. paratype. Glabella tapering and lacking both occipital and glabellar furrows. 3. PIOCHENSIS 8 (Walcott) Plate 14. only. AMECEPHALUS? A. IS. Formation and locality. roundly outlined palpebral lobe. figures 7. off the posterior border. 116334. U. In the other specimen (pi. Described specimens. The following description is made from both specimens. Fixed and free cheeks subequal. trilobite is represented by two incomplete conspecific (pi.— Holotype.M. —Arrojos formation.. No. Smithsonian Misc. to anterior pleural Pleural furrows close the axis margin from one-third to one-half distance from whence they cut diagonally and pass into the lower margin of . evident that in this species the two anterior segments is of the thorax do not carry tubercles and that the tuberculation posterior thoracic segments. Dorsal shield oval save for a gradual contraction in the posterior third. No.y/)£'. In one of them left 14. removed the preglabellar area. complete segments. pointed.N. Cephalon semicircular. loc. but running from the left side to the right. fig. though narrow posterolateral furrows are strongly indicated on the fixed cheeks. the entire right side of the cephalon. It also restricted only to six seems that the pleural spines in abruptly than in 6". 9. 66. Ameccphalus piochensis (Walcott). and relatively long. p. and the left side of the thorax to 12. 75. 14. No. whereas in the holotype is smooth and barely marked T. Paratype. I ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF TRILOBITES of the facial suture is — STOYANOW It is quite 55 The course better indicated in the specimen illustrated in figure 6 of plate 14. 8ooe. 116335.M. 7) a diagonal break from upper right to lower has cut off obliquely the anterior part of the dorsal shield leaving intact the entire right side of the thorax but reducing the axis to 14. 8) a similar break.N.

to whom I submitted photographic pictures of the Sonora specimens. figs. is the presence of a preglabellar boss. Pleural spines progressively turned backward. piochensis in Alokistocare Lorenz. Walcott (1886. however. pi. 1877. 26. A. all of the original publication. paper (Walcott. 28 of the 1886 publication. pp. piochensis appears somewhat different from A. i Walcott. p. restricting the species to Walcott's specimens illustrated in figure 2b of plate 26 in figures i. la-e) included nine Later (1924. and of plate 28 of his 1886 description. however. subcoronatum (Hall and Whitfield. Resser also regarded the entire dorsal shields of as tapering from the cephalon to the pygidium. piochensis are listed figures 2. pi. II9 pleural spines. One of the principal characteristics of Alokistocare . Am. Resser. In a subsequent 66)." What he apparently had in view was his previous removal of Amecephalus piochensis (Walcott) to Alokistocare. pp. 54) he restricted the genotype of Am. b. fig. smooth. that this is "a feaall ture which seems to occur in a greater or less degree in nearly trilobites with a wide frontal limb. I am strongly impressed by the similarity of these trilobites to one of the forms figured by Walcott (1925. Pygidium small. in figures i and 2 of plate p. and trilobed. 187). 2. fig. that 19 thoracic segments is the maxium indicated for both Alokistocare and . e. b of plate 26 and figures i. 237. 1942) : "Numbers 4 to 7 all represent one species of Alokistocare. p. subcoronatum. 15. In his original description of Ptychoparia piochensis. i. generic distinctions are wanting. adding. piochensis] it is con- generic with A. figs. pi. with the axial lobe somewhat short of the posterior margin. It should be noted. 2a. but if several specimens are carefully examined and variations due to preservation noted. 7-8) placed Am. broad. 2-2^ of plate 28. piochensis and pointed out that because of a lesser number of thoracic segments this feature is less pronounced in Walcott's genus. p. 28. under Am. however. 66) mentioned the tendency toward formation of a preglabellar boss in A^n. Resser (1935. 2a-b. suhcoronatiim and must therefore be referred to as the older genus. be- coming vertical and adpressed in the posterior segments. 8) it : Closer examination shows conclusively that [Am. However. p. p. piochensis.56 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 2. ic. the genotype. 9) in his illustration of Amecephalus piochensis. As has been mentioned above. 182. 1916. Because the specimens are considerably flattened. 201. briefly commented (letter of March 30. piochensis only to the syntypes illustrated in figure 2 of plate 26 and specimens." Resser's comment on the relation is between the two genera as follows (1935. including those herein described. 1925. pi. Walcott (1925.

1886 (less tapering glabella and incomplete cranidIt \b. pi. quite unlike the triangular posterior part in well seen in such Alokistocare. 25. Walcott. . pi. 1925. 1925. figs. 1945. la and ih. in the paper of 1924 (pi. ium). 9. in the paper of 1925 (pi. Two more characteristics of Amecephalus should be noted the shovel-like head. one paper of 1886 (pi. plate 15. I through broad to very broad (1886. 2. 66). tically oval genus only the axis tapers rapidly. Resser. 202) regarded the expansion of the frontal border as a result of individual growth. 1877. ib. pi. on the other hand. 1925. pi. is I . 1945. 15. 1886. 15. 28. 4a. which is said to be of natural size (Walcott. 1886. certain species of i) and compare the described specimens from Sonora. and the tendency of the posterior pleural spines to press against the sides of a small pygidium (Walcott. fig. 1925. 1886. la. but later he (Walcott. should like also to point out the absence of occipital furrow in described specimens of Amecephalus piochensis 28. pi. invariably present in Alokistocare i . 66-67) reconsidered this change in favor of relative proportions in small and large . 9). The diagrammatic sketch. p. 183. This difference renowned species of Alokistocare as Al. figs. and the only photographic picture with which I figure la. figs. pi. 1925. p. 53). 28. fig. fig. I . 2. pi. figs. 1916. piochensis. 1925 (no glabellar furrows). althea Walcott (1916. pi. although there of facial suture. a diagrammatic sketch. 15. pi. I piochensis in which the dorsal shield is preserved (Walcott. p. which feature has been incorporated in the generic name. la. 15. pi. fig. 1924. Resser (1935. fig. fig. 28. The specimens of plate 28 marked ib and id have been placed by Resser under Alokistocare) fig. cannot be either the specimen of one. 9. 25. 8) mentions shallowness of the occipital furrow in his critical description of Am. whereas the entire which gives it a characterisis appearance. fig. fig. I ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF TRILOBITES — STOYANOW 57 Amecephalus (Walcott. 1924. . certain (Walcott. and in all illustrations of Am. (Hall and Whitfield. figs. 66). 8 and 10). fig. . may be an enlarged reproduction of a is much smaller figure in figure plate 28. p. plate 28. 8 and 9). 9) an appreciable difference in the nature of the frontal border from very narrow (1886. Walcott presented the following his illustrations : of Am. 7). I . fig. 1925. i. figs. a pi. 1916. or that of figure 9.: NO. 9). Resser. 28. p. p. piochensis in with the thorax and the pygidium preserved two drawings. it is quite evident that in the latter shield contracts posteriorward gradually. Originally Walcott (1886. pi. 7) of which I have good topotypes. pi. and if the axis and the entire thorax are examined separately. pi. a considerable variance in the course There is in Walcott's types. 192^. one. pi. lb. fig. 1924. 2-4a. feature which. fig. 15. pp. 1924. 9. 9. pi. 22.

8ooe. that the glabella The second cranidium. 9 only) and the described very narrow frontal border lack of glabellar forms from Sonora : A furrows . It not illustrated. to all appearances a similar course backward orientation of relatively long pleural become more pressed against the body of the dorsal shield in the last segments of the thorax.S. to Aniecep- halus piochensis (Walcott. Hypotypes. the following characteristics are common . mention of a narrow. piochensis 8) the broad frontal border seen in many illustrations of is the result of a pressed doublure. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS There is VOL. Since the Sonora specimens are few and incomplete. Resser held that is less number of thoracic segments I in the types of Amecephalus than in Alokistocare. as seen in one of Walcott's illustrations pi. have placed the described forms in this genus provisionally. could not find a corroboration for this state- ment. —U. 9. Besides the general appearance and similarity in the parts of the dorsal shield. eroded and somewhat deformed. 1925. There may be a slight difference in the relative width of fixed and free cheeks. II9 also a which p. 1 Formation and —Arrojos formation. lack of occipital furrow . and the slightly elevated preglabellar area is strongly separated from a more elevated border by a relatively wide and deep frontal furrow. is 18. supports these observations. pi. fig. there The smallest number. Nos. . . as I already has been interpreted by Resser. only 16 against 19. pending the discovery and study of better-preserved material. Am. Cooper's collection there are two poorly preserved cranidia of which the better specimen Though the specimen is is illustrated in figure 9 of plate 14. and because may be more than one genus within Walcott's Amecephalus. (1924.58 forms. p. but the nature of the occipital ring and the relation between the preglabellar area and the border seem to be sufficiently different. seldom-preserved rim According to Resser (1935. fig. 116351-1 16352. loc. locality. and the number of the facial suture spines which of thoracic segments is appreciably less in the described trilobite. limits the periphery of the border. i). probably Plate 14. 261) as closely related to Amecephalus. the occipital and posterolateral furrows are present and of narrow character. 16337. was suggested that such forms may be connected with Ingle fieldia which was interpreted by Poulsen (1927. 15. INCERTAE SEDIS figure 9 In Dr. the Although. it appears is truncated or broadly rounded in front.M.N. as mentioned above.

Coll. Cambrian trilobites. H. Cambrian History of the Grand Canyon Region. 40th King.. Cambrian geology and paleontology. 2.. 1 16337. 75. Paleontology. pt. Coll. vol. R. New York. pp. vol.. pis. Soc. sonian Misc. 5. W. Formation and locality. pis. probably — — 8ooe. REFERENCES Hall. Surv.N. Amer. or the land bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Cambrian geology and paleontology. Arrojos formation. a. No. Washington Publ. The Cambrian. Coll. Smithsonian Misc.. vol. vol. Shimer. S. 75. U. D. . vol. PouLSEN. 93. 3. Cambrian and Ozarkian trilobites. 1924. Geological reconnaissance in northern Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. of Northwest Green- Medd. 16-27. Smith191 6. 1886. Historical geology of the Antillean-Caribbean region. 1939- Parallel. 59 Figured specimen. Soc.. Carnegie Inst. 1877. 302 pis. Nomenclature of some Cambrian trilobites. 5. 1-5. Smithsonian Misc. 1944.. Bull.. New 53. C. 1255-1282. No. 70. 811 pp. Geol. 1927. and Whitfield. York. vol. U. Cambrian and Ozarkian trilobites. Schuchert. 1942. 1625-1722. Amer. R. pp.S.NO. S. Geol. Chr. Expl.M. Robert E. 171-232. I ORIGINAL COLLECTION OF TRILOBITES — STOYANOW loc. Surv. R. C. om Gr^nland. Cambrian geology and paleontology. and Shrock. Bull. 4. No. No. James. No. 1935. Index fossils of North America. Smithsonian Misc. U. 30. 50. Cambrian fossils of the Grand Canyon.. Second contribution to the studies of the Cambrian faunas of North America. Geol. No. Bull. pp. 837 pp. 1935- 1945. Walcott. 2. 64. P. 2. E. 1925. vol. Geol. 563. Ozarkian and Canadian faunas land. Coll. vol. Resser. Stoyanow. Paleozoic paleogeography of Arizona. C.

related with an Oholclla zone reported the Cerro Prieto limestone. The highest formation assigned to the Lower Cambrian in the Mexican section. and about 100 feet higher appears a very fossiliferous bed characterized by a fauna best correlated with the Glossopleura-Kootenia zone. and correlations with known fossil assemblages in other parts of North America can be attempted. A. a series of beds characterized solely by genera of the Olenellidae. contains only Girvanella "reefs. Arellano during the seasons of 1943 and 1944. trilobite bed. The few species from the shales in the upper half of Arrojos appear to belong to this zone also. R. LOCHMAN III. the top serve only to sug- The few specimens obtained from beds near 60 . all of Middle Cambrian age. and through the upper half occurs The overlying Proveedora quartzite has furnished a few fragments of Olenellidae." The overlying Arrojos formation carries several faunal zones. but the greater part of the material comes from limestone. fossiliferous. The many collections upon which the present report is based were made by Dr. The lower beds contain a limited fauna apparently representative of the AlhcrteUa zone. V. A. The succeeding Buelna limestone carries a third. 1924) were several trilobite specimens obtained from slates in the Arrojos formation. These are much better preserved and more satis- factory for study than the shale material. Some shale specimens were obtained. The first-mentioned zone may be cor- from near the base of the Lower Cambrian sections in southeastern United States. (Plates 15-31) INTRODUCTION The first Cambrian fossils reported from this region (Stoyanow. In the Puerto Blanco formation a zone of Obolella shells occurs near the base. very The latter appears unquestionably to repat the resent the Antagmus-Onchocephalus zone (Lochman. A more exact age determination can now be made for the several formations that have furnished adequate fossil collections. Cooper and field Ing.TRILOBITES By CHRISTINA Chicago. All the overlying Tren dolomite is very poorly fossiliferous. G. 1947) top of the Lower Cambrian.

NO. the sponges. these coverings were shed periodically as the animal grew. an amazing number of soft-bodied Middle Cambrian marine animals had been preserved as flattened carbon films on the shale. Of these only the trilobites. the and trilobites. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN also in the 6l gest that the rest of the section that is Middle Cambrian. Several : . This paper describes the fossils that have been obtained to date from this early Cambrian seaway in northwestern Mexico. They should serve as an incentive for more extensive and detailed work on the Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology of Mexico. However. British Columbia. In this Cambrian fauna the trilobites were probably one of the commonest and most successful groups. . These fossils showed that several phyla of worms. brachiopods. A fairly large was collected. sea-cucumbers. The trilobite. Here. jellyfish. a primitive cephalopod and Hyolithcs. paleontologists have long suspected that a normal fauna of the Cambrian sea contained not only the few types represented by the fossils. Proof was finally ob- tained in 191 o dle when Walcott discovered the famous fauna of the MidCambrian Burgess shale on Mount Stephen. sunlit. and the 32 genera and 45 species here amount described furnish the first detailed information on the Cambrian of this region. owing to a combination of unusual physical conditions at the time of deposition. brachiopods. a primitive member phylum (Arthropoda). the first work in any area should be regarded as of material a preliminary report. trilobites Scenella. and no Upper Cambrian rocks occur in this region. an six groups of animals early gastropod Salterella. but also many soft-bodied animals possibly belonging to all the other invertebrate phyla. Many additional problems have been raised during this study which are now awaiting solution. were alive and abundant in Cambrian seas. and certainly in their body structure were one of the most advanced types living at that time. . Moreover. These Cambrian collections contain fossils representative of only Sponges. and as well as the brachiopods many primitive Arthropoda. Thus the Cambrian seaway of Sonora should be pictured as a warm. However. factors are believed responsible for this fact. was one of the few animals at this time that had a protective dorsal covering impregnated with calcium carbonate and thus capable of preservation. and Salterella are abundant. shallow sea teeming with an abundance of primitive soft-bodied invertebrates as well as the shelled brachiopods and trilobites. . thus making available for burial and preservation a large number of of the highest invertebrate molts. Trilobite fossils dominate Cambrian faunas the world over.

1939).'"BACK > PLEURON ''ENQ . These appendages consist of a variable number of paired legs and one pair of antennae.: GLABELLA GLABELLAR FURROW GLABELLAR LOBE OCCIPITAL FURROW OCCIPITAL RING OCCIPITAL NODE HALF RING THORAX ^ /FRONTJ . They fulfill the basic requirement of this phylum by possessing jointed legs. 8) the parts of the dorsal carapace are labeled with the terms that are this paper. all on the ventral surface.. and thus capable of being preserved as a fossil. II9 STRUCTURE The Trilobitae are a now extinct class of animals that belong to the phylum Arthropoda. or carapace of a trilobite the part of the animal that was composed of a horny material impregnated with calcium carbonate. S. as it is found in other phyla as well. and the reader is referred . used in use (Howell. 1947). This carapace apparently duplicates faitharticulating segments — fully the all segmentation of the inner soft body. a fact fortunately revealed by some rare fossils on which these soft parts are preserved (Raymond..OCULAR RIDGE •PALPEBRAL FURROW -PALPEBRAL LOBE . Frederickson.62 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.. The bodies of arthropods are composed of a series of great invertebrate CRANIOIUM BORDER MARGINAL FURROW BRIM DORSAL FURROW CEPHALON . which tend to fuse together particularly in the head region. In the diagram (fig. Stunner. PLEURAL FURROW DORSAL FURROW INTERPLEURAL GROOVE PLEURAL FURROW MARGINAL FURROW AXIS FACET MARGINAL SPINE SEGMENT BORDER PLEURAL PLATFORM PLEURAL LOBE Fig. et These terms were recently suggested for standard al.^Diagram of the trilobite carapace showing nomenclature of its parts. but in the Arthropoda this fusion has proceeded farther than in other groups. 1920. This feature is not unique to the Arthropoda. Figure 8 is a diagram of the complete dorsal covering.

the ventral surwas exposed and the animal was defenseless. In the cephalon the axial portion. rolled over by a strong But the trilobite were wave or some larger animal. horny ventral membrane. as case in the living Limulus. because. A similar membrane The relatively short legs of the trilobite did not it lift the animal far off the sea bottom but served only to push along over the surface. the front of the face . blood vessels. covers the enlarged part of the intestine which serves as a stomach. on each side 8). the glabella. covered only by a thin. the cephalic region is is the in Such a concentration of body organs suggested by the adult structure in the trilobites and also by the embryonic development. is The ventral surface of the trilobite rarely preserved. By the Middle Cambrian the trilobites had acquired the habit of rolling up into a tight ball when disturbed. The legs were tucked inside. segmented abdomen. hypostoma. I TRILOBITES LOCH MAN 63 paper for a definition of each term and synonyms of terms. a dorsal blood vessel. which probably con- tained the intestine. 1941) and carrying the important sense organs and the mouth a middle portion called the thorax.NO. and metastoma. The carapace on lateral the dorsal surface reveals a striking threefold longitudinal division of the body into a central is convex axis and two lower pleural lobes. do not appear in the to that diagram. formed of six fused segments (St^rmer. and carrying the anus. formed of a . In the thorax and pygidium the axis covers the long. These divisions consist of a head portion called the cephalon. hypostoma. Very probably the major nerve ganglia. This division of the class believed responsible for the name — Trilobitae. but they are defined in the above-mentioned paper. and protect the appendages which are the ventral surface of the abdomen and project laterally (fig. and a hind portion composed of a variable number of fused segments . variable number of freely articulating segments called the pygidium. the doublure. and metastoma. and the reproductive organs were located within these portions of the cephalon. Three additional features of the carapace which He on the ventral surface. was and it mattered little that the if group was not able to develop a hard ventral covering. and probably also the digestive glands around it. Thus in normal position the ventral surface naturally protected. The arched construction of the cephalon indicates that there was an appreciable thickness to the cephalon in the fixed and free-cheek areas. three-lobed. also covers the appendages. it is with the exception of the doublure. The thin pleural lobes cover attached to and a ventral nerve cord. The carapace also shows a threefold transverse division produced by the fusion of a number of the anterior and posterior segments of the body.

9. the gnatho- bases.64 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. and apparently functions as a gill. Through the years students have persistently worked at reconstructing and inter- preting the rare finds of trilobite appendages. which against the body. The appendage lies consists of a walking leg (the telopodite) of a coxa and seven distal segments. crustacean. the precoxa. The value of this feature is revealed by the fact that ability to enroll. by a long cept for series of paired legs. The primitive xiphosuran Limulus is generally believed to be the closest living relative of the trilobites. II9 cephalon met the back of the pygiditim. the first four pairs being apparently exactly like These are followed on the cephalon those on the thorax and pygidium. all trilobites living after the Cambrian possessed the The structure of the trilobite appendage has always been of utmost importance to paleontologists because the classification of the modern Arthropoda is based upon the character of the legs. consists of a shaft bearing a fringe of flexible filaments. and a proximal segment. and the soft ventral surface was completely concealed. on the inner edge of the coxa believed to have served to crush and tear the food and push into the mouth.PRECOXA -VENTRAL MEMBRANE COXA . The reconstructions some authors favoring PLEURON PRE-EPIPOOITE AXIS CARAPACE .TELOPODITE Fig. first All students agree that the pair of appendages are jointed antennae. There is no clear evidence of a swimming appendage. ex- somewhat smaller size. This reconstruction is considered by St^rmer to indicate a close relationship between the Trilobitae and the class Arachnida. — Reconstruction of the trilobite appendage. Figure 9 gives the latest reconstruction of the trilobite appendage (Stjz^rmer. . A row of strong is it bristles. have differed and the classifications varied. the ends of the pleura interlocked along the sides. others arachnidan affinities. A dorsal branch (the pre-epipodite) originates on the precoxa. 1939).

I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN 65 ECOLOGY Trilobites are believed to have been important sea-bottom scavengers of the early Paleozoic. The largest and species always occurs in a limestone and such faunal assemblages as to indicate that the majority of the trilobites. or burrowing slowly through soft mud and sand. They were caught and held at the mouth by the hypostoma and metastoma while the gnathobases tore or crushed them into small enough particles to be swallowed. was most noticeable in the Olenellidae and other Lower and Middle Cambrian trilobites in which the thorax was composed of many articulating segments and the pygidium was small. Some. soft. the trilobite explored the sea floor for dead or dying organisms. the increasingly strong tendency to enroll to protect the exposed ventral surface does type of not fit into the neldonic habitat. favored a clear. Although the majority of Cambrian animals were apparently without hard parts. sunlit of limy oozes. Moreover. We may number facies risk certain postulates concerning temperature. many Cambrian genera and species are found in beds of all three types of facies. such as the Middle . as the structure of the appendages would have made them poor swimmers at best. and facies adaptations cult to obtain among the trilobites. and inactive animals. lying partially buried in the bottom sediments. Hke the brachiopods. depth. from the pre-Cambrian wormlike ancestor. With its antennae and its legs. The from trilobite probably crawled forward over the surface bending more or less sinuous manner. but there is no evidence of such specializations in the Cambrian forms. When found. seaway where normal marine conditions permitted slow accumulation However. All living animals using enrollment are rather sluggish benthos. During the Cambrian the various genera fully occupied the benthos. shallow. hiding in crevices on reefs.NO. The primitive mouth parts sharply limited the trilobites' food supply to small. This body motion. I also seriously doubt whether any Cambrian trilobites were truly nektonic. the gnathobases were probably not capable of holding an side to side in a inherited actively struggling animal. crawling actively over the surface. these fragments were moved toward the mouth either mechanically by the legs or by water currents. although it will always be diffi- of trilobite genera in any positive proof of these deductions. The structure of certain later Paleozoic trilobites is interpreted as indicating a semiplanktonic life. It must have been gradually lost as a larger fused pygidium was developed and the muscles of the thorax were changed for enrollment.

the Tren dolomite only three trilobite cranidia were obtained through 1. It is possible that certain genera may have suggests penetrated to greater depths. a decided . occur in equal abundance in all facies. a fact that demands the use and preparation to fit the different facies.66 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. but fresh . Some conclusions can be drawn from analogies with Glossopleurais modern f aunal assemblages. and dolomites. by a moderate number of A fauna such as that of the may Kootenia zone. number of individuals of The Upper Cambrian Aphelaspis fauna is considered an excellent example of such a trilobite assemblage in cold waters (Lochman and Duncan. but their discovery will be quite accidental. As the waters become progressively variety in the fauna becomes less. II9 Cambrian Zacanthoides and Alhertella. persistent and pains- taking breaking of pieces and examination of weathered surfaces may In yield a fossil or two. This limestone more likely to be fossiliferous. shales. represented be regarded as indicative cooler. The cosmopolitan distribution of many Cambrian genera either a ready adaptation of the trilobites to a wide range of tempera- tures or else a uniformity of temperature over large areas in the Cambrian. if possible. show. The trilobites from the Sonora region occur in quartzites. In the dolomite. COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF CAMBRIAN FOSSILS Cambrian trilobites may be found in most types of sedimentary of different techniques of collecting rocks. such as the Upper Cambrian Crepicephalus or Elvinia. but their appearance is often decep- tive. and they were poorly preserved and distorted.300 feet of rock. apparently. small is beds or patches of limestone within the dolomite. Cambrian dolomites are notorious for their lack of fossils. In cool-temperate to cold waters the fauna is characterized by an excessive a few limited genera and species. and the Tren dolomite at the top of the section is no exception. Concerning depth ranges we can only indirectly conclude from the facies distributions that the Cambrian trilobites certainly occupied all preference for a shaly type of facies depths in the neritic zone. while others. Fossils may be found on pieces exposed at the surface. the warm waters. limestones. Shales yield attractive fossils. 1944). in which a variety of genera and species of individuals. In this respect the Cambrian trilobites appear to be definitely more primitive and generalized than the later Paleozoic stocks. The best chance of obtaining fossils in such a rock is to locate. After the Cambrian a more and more rigid specialization to one particular habitat appears to have developed in most of the surviving genera.

a clear-cut outline is often lacking as the edges blend into the sand grains of the matrix. they are poor specifor study as it is mens often impossible to determine them specifically or even generically with any degree of accuracy. Distortion in shales is also quite common. Many of these shales crumble when left exposed. . After a fossiliferous bed has been located in this manner. . and these small bundles placed in receptacles. so fragile that fossils it is often broken and before the specimen can be wrapped. Moreover. fine-grained gray or brown calcite which very replaced by carapace all details the original surface and conaccurately of has preserved should examined thoroughly both field each outcrop be vexity.or fine-grained limestone are specimens for careful study and accurate most valuable by far the fossils are generally disarticulated parts of the Such identification. The specimens do show some conand distortion is relatively rare but as most of them are internal molds of the carapace. I TRILOBITES preferable for study. lost This film is.NO. often distorted The carapaces are or so flattened as to make accurate identification impossible. Many of the Cambrian green and gray shales are soft and. must immediately. Many Cambrian sections of western North America contain thin-bedded Fossils freshly broken .to medium-grained sand vexity. In the breaking apart the limestone and laterally blocks along vertically by planes parallel to the bedding. —LOCHMAN is d'] material is Therefore. from medium. not all fossils in limestone are good specimens. it is hard to be sure of the true depth and width of the furrows and the actual amount of convexity as they would have occurred on the dorsal surface. the outcrop should be reached. The complete trilobite carapace is most apt to be preserved in shale lay eye are obtained hence the most interesting fossils to the But a careful inspection of the it is nothing more than a flat mud mold of the original carapace which has been leached away. Although shale (the first and slate specimens make striking and noticeable fossils discovered in this region came from slates). The fossils are generally fine. However. cleared to a depth of several feet until perfectly fresh shale Collecting consists simply of splitting apart the shales with a knife or hammer. in order to be transported satisfactorily. A similar situation exists in the case of fossils in sandstone and quartzite. be wrapped tightly in tissue paper. upon collecting and while still moist. In a few instances in fresh from all this facies. specimen reveals that too frequently moist shales a thin calcite film retaining the original convexity of the carapace is present. molds of disarticulated carapaces. however. large pieces of the limestone can be collected to be broken and examined in detail in the laboratory.

In the field specimens usually carefully collected. Weathering along the shale partings loosens the limestone slabs and etches out the fossils on the The texture of the replacement calcite of the fossil and of is the rock matrix at so nearly the rate. can be Thus each specimen may then be handled separately without numbers. Each piece or specimen has an and horizon pasted or written on it in India ink at this time. the preservation of the fossils in A amount of mabroken was brought from this horizon. II9 dense limestones with shaly partings. but. individual label noting locality. specimen examination and trimming in the laboratory because the fossils as they break out are more readily retrieved. Several short systems employing fracletters tional or decimal used. section.68 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. pieces of limestone are then examined under the micro- and all small fossils or fossils partially covered by the matrix are indicated by a red line or circle. but they cannot be broken with from the matrix. The beds in the Puerto Blanco formation containing considerable Wanneria mexicana prima terial illustrate this it. do most of the rock breaking. but not a single freshly specimen could be obtained. The cleaning and preparation in the laboratory of all types and sizes of fossils should be done under a low-power binocular (Greenough type) microscope. This the slabs are striking type of fossil is most disheartening. and numbers combined. the latter is preferred because the plane of breakIt is desirable to more carefully controlled. or . the pieces can be is immediately glued together. because of the deep weathering. Only a fine needle. pointed or beveled as desired. the original surface and convexity of the fossil have filled been irreparably damaged. and when large or choice specimens are broken through. The small pieces of shale or grains of sand should be indiis vidually lifted or flaked off until the fossil completely uncovered. specific identification of the fossils is always uncertain and often type of dense limestone and impossible. surface. The large blocks of hammer or a wedge ing can be limestone are broken into smaller pieces with a . same that the weathering affects both about the same By the time the slab has been loosened and the fossils exposed. The broken scope. Small details of the texture both of the fossils and of the rock matrix must be seen and appreciated if the specimen is to be cleaned with maximum efficiency. Cross sections reveal the slabs additional specimens. should be used for cleaning shale and sandstone specimens. The limestone specimens should receive the greatest emphasis in preparation as they furnish the maximum return for the effort made. Nothing so discouraging as to open a small field collection and find that several important pieces of a good specimen have been left on the outcrop.

since the drill can cut quickly into the specimen. The preparator's finger. However. The coarser drilling working down the matrix around the specimen is done with a 5-mm. wheel the in the hand drill. With practice and danger of confusion. In order to heighten detail in study or making photographs two whitening agents. magnesium oxide may be used. no matter how weak. ammonium chloride and magnesium oxide. The matrix with a small hand drill experience the student can learn to flake ofif the calcite with a i-mm. All broken pieces should be immediately glued in place. should be noted that all when the specimen is whitened for study and photography. brilliant coating which does not react with the calcite and so may be left on the specimen for some time. always under the microscope. ammonium chloride must be used on the surface so that all shale. or a coating of cellulose acetate can be used to protect already exposed parts. it is not recommended for the beginner. a piece of clay. For sturdy calcite specimens. and delicate calcite specimens. By the beginner only needles of varying sizes and edges should be used. During cleaning the needle or drill may unavoidably slip and make a hole or scratch in the calcite of the specimen. and delicate specimens a drop or two of water or . The author wishes to emphasize that under no circumstances should acid. only a fine needle should be used. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN — — 69 is now cleaned from the specimen and a needle. Therefore. but for soft shale. sandstone. This chemical reacts it slowly with calcite and in time will damage should be removed from the specimen immediately after use. It gives a fine-grained. The preparator should never try to do anything to remove this hole or scratch because such an attempt will result only in additional damage to the surrounding surface. may be used. For all finishing and detailed work. friable silicified sandstone.NO. it can only be removed thoroughly by vigorous brushing under water. be used on the specimens during preparation. Cleaning on the specimen should be done by working off the individual calcite crystals. But they are preferable to the willful damaging of a good specimen by attempting to remove them. acid will etch the surface Any strength of and thus smooth and destroy the small details that should be observed. These have different properties and must be handled differently for best results. but the original cleaned surface with scratches must be left untouched. A gentle stream of water may be used for some. wheel. ordinary scratches fade out and only the deepest holes and cuts are still visible. but as successful results depend entirely upon amount of pressure applied and the feel of the break. It Excess dust may be wiped off with a soft brush.

all species referred to the genus. DISCUSSION OF THE FAUNAS LOWER CAMBRIAN FAUNAS COMPOSITION Fossils of Lower Cambrian age have been obtained from the Puerto Blanco formation. picture of the amount of individual and a better idea of the effects of preservation pace. It permits a clearer and more accurate variation within a species. and the study and identification can start with mak- A closer analysis of the of preservation and evidences of distortion by measurements. distinctions After the genus has been satisfactorily determined. and experience shows that the most diagnostic features of the carapace are often to be found in the cranidium. must now be made. or the off-hand erection of a is new to species because the material from a new locality. Peculiarimust be noted. and the Buelna limestone. Proveedora quartzite. the greater emphasis in classification usually placed upon the cranidium. characteristics. IIQ simply blowing the coating On these more delicate specimens it is best to use whitening only at the time of photography. aided ties alike may be sorted into separate groups. is It is often con- venient to use a large card for each genus. Near the base of the Puerto Blanco formation are beds con- . may be listed on the card. and the original reference. Three stratigraphic horizons of fairly abundant fossils can be recognized. IDENTIFICATION OF TRILOBITES During preparation specimens which look ing generic determinations for these groups. A species is definitely desirable. the finer specific large suite of specimens of each must be studied.70 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS off will suffice. the actual specimens of the genotype. In most Lower Cambrian and many Middle Cambrian species this is the only part of the carapace available. The student should work out a clear and accurate concept of each genus by an examination of the original description. add nothing our knowledge of Cambrian paleontology or stratigraphy. and. stratigraphic horizon. VOL. if possible. A detailed search and careful study of the literature must be made. For is the trilobites. It be cited and distortion upon the carais urged that clear and definite distinctions between species by each student. with their locality. is Then as the literature examined. The laborious searching for some minute difference between two cranidia. the illustrations. on which inal reference noted the orig- and the diagnostic generic characters of the genotype.

Cerro Prieto. listed. brian formation. Several reddish-yellow limestone beds at various levels throughout the Buelna limestone are crowded with the small shells of the primitive Sporadic specimens of Salterella and of the presumed pteropod. The Olenellidae are represented by the widespread western species Olenellus truemani Walcott and Olenellus (Frenioniia) freuwnti Walcott. and Somhrerella. Chart i (this paper) gives the Lower Cambrian faunal zones now recognized by the author. The Proveedora quartzite furnished a few fragmentary cephala of Wanneria or Olenellus. From the uppermost Lower Camcephalopod. The Buelna limestone carries another very fossiliferous horizon. were obtained. The name of the last zone was changed (Lochman. Bonnia zone. only certain algal remains. a new variety of Wanneria zvakottana (Wanner).. These are. but hundreds of cranidia of two species of Onchocephalus crowd the limestone beds. 1947) to the Anfagmus-Onchocephalus zone as it was subsequently found that these two genera. taining large Olenellus cephala. On Cambrian correlation chart for North America (Howell et al. Bonnia. This horizon has proved very useful in the marker. were obtained both from the Puerto Blanco and Buelna formations. Antagmus. are really the widespread and the 1944) four faunal zones are diagnostic forms of this assemblage. in ascending order. tentatively referred to Girvanella. . but of the present must be regarded as tentative because incomplete state of knowledge of this part of the Cambrian sequence. rather than Syspacephalus. and Syspacephalus zone. Hyolithcs. Salterella. which are believed to belong to the same faunal assemblage as the Olenellidae of the underlying Puerto Blanco.NO. Obolella zone. field as a stratigraphic The faunal assemblage is small in actual numbers of genera and species. CORRELATION Correlation of the Mexican faunas with those reported from other Lower Cambrian the conclusions sections of North America may be attempted. It appears to represent a distinct and different faunal zone. Olenellus zone. Three small opisthoparian genera. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN 7I numbers of Obolella shells and sporadic fragments of Fragments of Olenellidae occur throughout the long series of alternating sandstones and limestones that comprise the Puerto Blanco. These beds carry a new species and variety of IVanneria and weathered cephala possibly referrable to Olenellus. also occur in this fauna. but identifiable specimens in abundance occur only in some of the upper limestone beds. and a new species of Paedemnias.

that the genus Olenellus is It should be understood. Two fragmentary cephala of Olenellus occur in the Obolella beds. and the apparent appearance and dominance it of different genera at various levels within suggest that in the future more careeffect a sub- and detailed stratigraphic and faunal studies may division. and Paedeiimias occur together in the same beds.040-2. Similar concentrations of Obolella shells occur near the base of the Lower Cambrian in southeastern United States.72 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. All these beds are at present lumped together and referred to the all-inclusive Olenellus zone. especially that on the north side of Puerto Blanco. characterized by a great abundance of Obolella shells in association with sporadic specimens of the Olenellidae. Wanneria. The highest recognized faunal zone of the Lower Cambrian is characterized by the appearance and dominance of several generalized opisthoparian genera. In the Mexican sections Olenellus. zone. and the genus is known to extend through 2. Its sections in both eastern is still to be substantiated. There is no evidence of such a subdivision in the Mexican sections. Paedeumias. It should be pointed out. definitely not restricted to this zone in the Mexican sequence.060 feet of the Lower Cambrian sequence from the base of Puerto Blanco formation to the top of the Buelna limestone. In all Lower Cambrian America a long series of beds occurs in and western North which genera of the Olenellitrilobite dae are the predominant and usually the sole members of the fauna. which appears to be an uninterrupted section through the Lower Cambrian. At present those beds above the Obolella zone in which only trilobite genera of the Olenellidae occur may be considered the time equivalent of the Olenellus zone. however. This occurrence led to the tentative proposal of an Obolella Olenellus. and species of Olenellus. The considerable stratigraphic thickness occupied by ful this zone. with the understanding that it referred to the time of faunal promi- nence of the group. usually The similarity in faunal composition and stratigraphic position at present suggests that this Obolella zone may well represent the same time unit wherever found in North America. Possibly a more correct name would be the Olenellida zone. however. II9 In the Mexican sections the lowest fossiliferous beds contain great numbers of Oholella shells. Neither Nevadia nor ElUptocephala occurs. that the four age divisions of the Olenellus fauna suggested by Walcott (1915) have yet to be substantiated in a complete Lower Cambrian section. nor probably in other Lower Cambrian sections as well. . No indication of a section or Mexican validity Bonnia zone has yet been obtained either in the anywhere else in western North America.

The horizon of Olenellus and Antagmiis in the Grand Canyon sequence (McKee and Resser. At present. 1945). Albertella. as they occur as quite striking fossils in a shale facies and consequently were readily illustrate noticed. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN 73 and Wanneria are still present in moderate numbers.NO. and Anoria are especially good examples. and they have not fully appreciated the great influence of facies upon the appearance and abundance of certain early Middle Cambrian genera. and the highest formation contains elements of a fauna of the later Middle Cambrian. The Middle Cambrian workers have attempted to maintain the details of local sections as regional zones. The faunal zones as indicated in the Cordilleran sections measured by Wheeler (1943) and Deiss (1938. 1940) this feature very clearly. and the Mount Whyte formation of Alberta and British Columbia (Deiss. time of transition. and that the entire faunal assemblage faunal assemblage that The author . believes that the earliest complete is Middle Cambrian which makes its appearance at the base of the ]\Iiddle Cambrian in what is called the Kochaspis liliana zone and continues as a unit through the so-called Albertella zone. suggests that the zone is wideknowledge of the complete and characteristic is faunal assemblage of this zone lacking. The difficulty seems to have arisen from two causes. It is customary now to place the end of the Lower Cambrian at the time of the disappearance of the Olenellidae rather than of the rise of the Opisthoparia. 1944). m MIDDLE CAMBRIAN FAUNAS FAUNAL ZONES Two faunal assemblages of the early Middle Cambrian are well represented in the Mexican section. In other North American sections at this horizon sporadic specimens generally referred to Olenellus have usually been recorded. Zacanthoidcs. near the top of many Lower sections in Cambrian spread. 1940) can be considered the time equivalent of the beds with this zone the Mexican sections. 1939. She proposes that this lowest Middle Cambrian faunal zone and faunal assemblage be known as the Albertella fauna.. Study of the Mexi- can sequences and a careful examination of the descriptions of other Cordilleran Middle Cambrian sections have convinced the author that errors and misconceptions are present in the early zones of the Middle Cambrian as indicated in the Cambrian correlation chart (Howell et al. 1939. faunal assemblage of the Antagmiis-Onchocephalus zone teristic of this is The charac- genera. North America. The occurrence of the two diagnostic Antagnms and Onchocephahis.

but the author knows of only about 20 limestone specimens. Albertella itself is capable of appearing anywhere within the range of the zone as recognized by Lochman. the stratigraphic position of shale beds is known to vary in the Cordilin the shales are they noted leran sections. Provecdoria. Such a transitional assemblage is represented also by the fauna of the Ptarmigania strata of the Langston limestone as listed by Williams and Maxey (1941). The author has drawn and Mexicaspis. Mexicaspis.74 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. and continue into the succeeding beds after these three genera have disappeared. occurs in a shale matrix. The term Kochaspis the species beds. that there is an inwhich the characteristic genera of the Albertella zone were dying out and the characteristic genera of the Glossopleura-Kootenia zone were migrating into the region. This peculiarity has led to some condetail of preservation of the test. As the fauna it is studied in more detail through- out the Cordilleran sections. The genera Pachyaspis and Glossopleura make their appearance in association with Mexicella. In two of the Mexican sections there sitional is an indication of a tran- horizon between the characteristic assemblage of the Alher- tella zone and that of the overlying Glossopleura-Kootenia zone. recognized members of the Albertella fauna. is Mexicella. . list to be expected that a more complete of restricted genera may be established. Mexicaspis. These genera continue to be associated together throughout what has been called the Alhertella zone. and Albertella. fusion in the position of Alhertella. Kochaspis does appear in the earliest Middle Cambrian beds in many Cordilleran sections. However. Strotocephalus. as only when the fossils occur in abundance by stratigraphers. more moderate numbers associated with other trilobite genera. sometimes in such abundance as to attract the immediate attention of stratigraphers at other places . however. is liliana zone has little if any exact value because not everywhere present in these basal Middle Cambrian and the genus Kochaspis apparently ranges through most of the Middle Cambrian. II9 of this zone be taken into consideration (see chart 2). when locating it in a section At present the following genera are restricted to : and diagnostic of this assemblage Alhertella. It the arbitrary boundary line between the two zones in the Mexican sections after the disappearance of Albertella terval of time represented here during must be recognized. but is a genus which. Thus when a collection is made from this particular horizon a truly transitional faunal assemblage will be obtained. in either because of original environmental preference of the living ani- mal or some most commonly Hundreds of shale specimens of Alhertella have been obtained to date from this zone.

On chart 2 the author pro- poses the single faunal zone. in certain sections before the arbi- nevertheless. Pachyaspis. occur most commonly and conspicuously in shale beds. The author does not recognize the individual identity of a faunal zone characterized by the restricted occurrence of Anoria and Zacanthoides. Alokistocare. Three fragmentary cranidia were obtained from it. but in genera occur with recognized members of the Glossopleura-Kootenia fauna. stratigraphic range. These two genera. Anoria. Alokistocare. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN all 75 The Utah fauna is considered by the author as representing only the the characteristic genera very end of the AlherteUa zone because except AlherteUa are missing. Kootenia. The second Middle Cambrian : faunal zone recognized by the author contains the faunal assemblage Glosso pleura. locality 11 Zacanthoides occurs with Kootenia and Pachyaspis. It has a long stratigraphic range through the entire zone. as the highest formation. This genus is a member of . Glossopleura-Kootenia. an especially important member of the assemblage.NO. Zacanthoides Anoria may have a somewhat limited four widely separated localities these two occurs with Alokistocare althea (Walcott). and a valuable impartiality toward different facies. Glossopleura. 1017-1018) suggests that Anoria and Athabaskia are within the Glossopleura fauna. like AlherteUa. and other genera (Williams and Maxey.S. most Cordilleran sections with the appearance of Glossopleura and Alokistocare. is almost entirely unfossiliferous. is. although represented by only a few small. and two of them were tentatively referred to Parehmania. No further evidence concerning Middle Cambrian faunal zones could be obtained from the Mexican sections. The association of all these genera in a single assemblage must be recognized. a wide geographic range.000-foot Tren dolomite. pp. range than Glossopleura. In Utah the Spence shale member of the Langston contains Zacanthoides. to succeed the AlherteUa zone. the nearly 2.M. and at U. rare specimens. while appearing trary beginning of the zone. To date Alokistocare appears to be fairly widespread vertical and somewhat more restricted in The latter genus.N. 1945) at locality 19 Anoria occurs with Glossopleura and Alokistocare althea (Walcott). as the matrix is limestone. and Athabaskia (the cited Clavaspidella of the Cordilleran region) This assemblage and zone begin in . 1941). In the British Columbia sections Deiss (1939a. In locality 801-O of the Puerto Blanco section. and the fauna of the immediately overlying Spence shale member is a typical Glossoplenra-Kootenia assemblage. Zacanthoides. In the Grand Canyon section (McKee and Resser.

it makes its appearance in the earliest recognized Middle Cambrian fauna. and also occurs from Montana. Proveedoria. approximately in the middle of the Alherat least to this position. In this connection it should be mentioned that the species referred to Ehnianiella from the Ptarmigania fauna (Resser.'jd SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. but no details of the fauna of this zone can be contributed from the Mexican sections. and well represented by individuals of two species. They were in the course of this study as it all examined was assumed that there should be some faunal connections between the two regions. and in association with Mexicella. p. Apparently the individuals of Mexicella had no facies preference. The genus Mexicella will probably prove to be one of the most valuable guide fossils of this zone. if it is a southern variant of the Alher- It seems much more prominent than Alhertella. Of these. It is considered indicative of the presence of the al. : of the Alhertella faunal assemblage in the Mexican sec- Kochaspis. Mexi- Mexicaspis. Alhertella. to p. Kochaspis has such a long stratigraphic range as to be unimportant except for the fact that. 1004). It is possible that zone. and Elrathiella from the Grand Canyon sections (McKee and Resser. 1945) do not appear to belong to those genera as defined. extends the stratigraphic range of this genus down Ptarmigania may be another genus limited to and diagnostic of the . Mexicaspis is closely related to Alhertella. 38). Ehmania. COMPOSITION The genera tions are cella. and Ptarmigania." which occurs so abundantly in the Ross Lake shale in a sandstone mem- ber of the Cathedral dolomite (Deiss. A careful revision of the Grand Canyon generic identifications should be made before the faunal lists can be used accurately for correlation purposes. locality The occurrence of a few specimens of Ptarmigania in tella 801 j.. Elrathiella-Clappaspis zone (Howell et 1944)." more recently "Alokistocare sfator (Walcott). A closely related species occurs abun- dantly in the Mexican sections. 1939. Elrathia. as usual. 1939a. it is not possible draw any definite conclusions from poor representation of Alhertella in these sections. 1939) and most of the species referred to Parehmania. Strotocephalus was previously recognized only from the Alhertella fauna of the Gordon formation of Montana (Deiss. but as the Mexican section is largely limestone at this horizon. II9 the Elrathia stock which becomes prominent in the later half of the Middle Cambrian. It will be interesting to watch future dis- coveries of Mexicaspis to see tella stock. Alhertella is the guide fossil for the zone. Str otocephalus. It was established for the old "Agraulos stator Walcott.

Apparently its highest in the Ptarmigania fauna of Utah and Idaho. having first appeared at the top of the Albertella zone. valuable guide fossils for this zone in types of facies. Besides the two above-mentioned genera. 1941) the as being restricted to this horizon and not occurring immediately overlying. Pachy- Inglefieldia at present has little strati- graphic value. In the case of the Grand Canyon region some comparisons can be made. make their appearance near the top of the Albertella zone in the Mexican sections. Kootenia. closely related Glossopleura-Kootenia faunal assemblage of the Spence shale member. distinctive. Athabaskia. In dle order to avoid misunderstanding. Glossopleiira Two other genera. that The genera Mexican baskia. During this discussion of faunas several comparisons with the MidCambrian faunas of the Canadian Rockies and Montana have already been made and more will be made in discussing later faunas. Alokistocarella. of the Glossopleura-Kootenia assemblage found in the sections are fortunately many of the common. Pachyaspis. Zacanthoides can only be expected in noticeable abundance when shale is present. In several Ingle ficldia. and the related zone genus Kistoall is care appear to be widespread. it should be definitely stated that the sections are making of comparisons with northwestern Cordilleran areas does not necessarily indicate that the Mexican faunally to that region. (Williams and in Maxey. Alokistocare. Kistocare. and Arellanella are also present. in the .NO. continue on after the disappearance of all Albertella zone genera. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN known occurrence It is listed is "JJ Albertella zone. Arellanella has not been Its close affinities to noted in any previously described fauna. as the only valid species recorded to date are. Anoria does not appear in the Mexican sections. sections Glossopleura and Pachyaspis. and together constitute a very early subfaunule before the appearance of the rest of the Glossopleura-Kootenia assemblage. and Alokistocarella. The necessity of most closely related making such comparisons is caused by the fact that only from that region (with the exception of Grand Canyon sections) have the early Middle Cambrian faunas been even partially described. Alokistocare. but more detailed comparisons are the hampered by the rather incomplete faunal representation from region. Atha- Kootenia. and Pachyaspis. Their significance is mentioned below. Kistocare tontoensis (Resser) now known both from the Grand Canyon region and the Mexican sections. Glossopleura. and wide-ranging genera of this zone: Zacanthoides. though its occurrence in the shales and sandstones of the Grand Canyon region suggests that it could range this far south. aspis are probably significant.

This genus was described by Deiss (1939) from what was called by him the Elrathia-Elrathina zone in the Pentagon shale. a late Middle Cambrian genus.78 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS from the Cape Kent formation of VOL. as recently noted pairs of marginal spines. It has since been identified from several other Cordilleran sections. Two factors seem to be responsible for some. and possibly all. Because of the general similarity of pygidia of the two genera. the pygidia of these species always have seven no Middle Cambrian species is known with more than Little can six pairs. and the Tren dolomite . many stratigraphers have attempted to assign fragments of pygidia to one or the other genus. those Greenland and the Mexican of Alokistocare. but most of these assignments are incorrect and cannot be depended upon for stratigraphic conclusions. and. be said about the faunal assemblage of the Elrathiella- Clappaspis zone as found in the Tren dolomite because only the genus Parehmania has been tentatively recognized. of this confusion. and in the Cordilleran sections the appearance and abundance of Kootenia are undeniably a valuable aid in recognizing this zone. The single small cranidium identified by is Resser as Ingle fieldia idahoensis from the Langston Brief mention should be clearly a species made at this time of the stratigraphic status of Kootenia. CORRELATION The Puerto Blanco region. An example is Kootenia tetonensis (Miller). indicates that the Arrojos formation is apparently the time is equivalent of all the early Middle Cambrian. species. All the recorded Lower Cambrian specimens are from the Appalachian trough. Yet a tabulation of the various species referred to this genus shows a reported stratigraphic range from the Lower Cambrian nearly to the end of the Middle Cambrian. the author does not misidentification of the pygidia. II9 author's opinion. whereas by Rasetti (1948). as revealed by the collections from this section. the part believe that accurate identification can be made on such fragments. While this specimen is well-enough preserved that its true identification can be made. which is really an Olenoides. so placed by Resser. section is regarded by the author as the most complete and the only unbroken Middle Cambrian sequence in this The faunal succession. Both the zone and faunal assemblage are called Glosso- pleura-Kootenia. It thus appears that at least in the Cordilleran region the genus Kootenia has some stratigraphic value. A second factor is the need for a recognition of finer subgeneric dis- tinctions within the genus itself. with the pygidia of Olenoides. One factor is known to be most frequently found.

Kochaspis also continues to be present. and 801L all carry ZONES Cambrian Correlation Chart i I s I I I s I Elrathlelta- TripUgnostuaOappaspla KochaspU Illlana Chart i. An examination of the Cambrian correlation chart (Howell et al. and the Ptarmigan formation and lower part of the Cathedral dolomite of British Columbia. All the beds from the base of the Arrojos formation through 801 L are considered to belong to one faunal zone.. If such a bed were tains Strotocephalus very thin. Collections from localities 8oim. On chart North American correlation. The succeeding collocalities 8oii. the lower part of the Gordon shale of Montana. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN 79 the equivalent of at least the lower half of the later Middle Cambrian. 8oij.NO. the position at which the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary was drawn on lithologic evidence. genera that are typical of the Alhertella zone. 8oik. —Correlation of Mexican Cambrian formations. Soika. and 801-O of the Arrojos for- . lections it from might possibly have been covered. There is no indication in this section of any bed or beds carrying an abundance of Kochaspis liliana (Walcott). the Alhertella zone. The beds with these fossils occur above the top of the Cerro Prieto limestone. The lower part of the Arrojos forma- tion can confidently be correlated with the lower half of the Bright Angel shale of the Grand Canyon region. The lowest Middle Cambrian fauna obtained from this section con- just and Kochaspis. 1944) i a few of the more important and exact correlations in the will give a general idea of Cordilleran region are shown. 8oin.

Piran sandstone Puerlo Blanco llm Pre-Cambrlan Chart 2.8o mation all SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. as indicated on chart 2 and discussed on page yy. This position would place it down in the Alter tella zone. indicates that Glossoplciira-Kootcnia fauna. cf. lated. with one exception is Zacanthoides a normal is (McKee and member of the Resser. II9 are representative of the Glossoplenra-Kootenia zone.— Known stratigraphic range of trilobite genera. Sawbdck Range. 34 feet above the Tapeats transition beds. The upper part of the Arrojos formation with the GlossoplcuraK 00 tenia faunal assemblage is correlated with the upper part of the Bright Angel shale and a lower portion of the Muav limestone of the Grand Canyon. In chart 2 only the Mexican genera are tabu- but a consideration of the genera of the Spence shale member This as- alone would nearly double the genera of the assemblage. semblage will probably become known as one of the richest and most widely distributed of Middle Cambrian faunas when more complete All evidence to studies in the Cordilleran region have been made. 1945). the highest part of the Gordon shale. the range of the com- mon genera of this part of the section indicates that we are dealing with a single faunal assemblage of which Zacanthoides and Anoria are regular members. zvalapai ResAngel shale. the Dam- This exception the occurrence of Zacanthoides ser at locality 40. Mexican Middle Cambrian date. and has not yet been satisfactorily explained as the specimen cannot be found at the United States National Museum. B C. EIrathiella-ClappaspIs UndiSercnliated dolomllefi Tren Dolomite Bolaspis-Gtyphaspis Muav Stephen formation limestone Pagoda limestone G tossopleura-Kootenla Bright Angel shale Arrojos formation Caihedrai dolomit Ccrro Prieio ntagnius-Onchocephalus 1 St. in the Bright . Z.

Another difhculty arises from the fact that the of the specimens appears to One preservation is so poor that a distinct outer edge or aperture cannot be truly belong to it is impossible to be sure whether these specimens any known phylum of animals. they have been left unnamed but are determined.S. There is no evidence its of the intervening Bolaspis-Glyphaspis zone.000 feet of beds from which only three poorly preserved cranidia were obtained near the top of the This portion of the Middle Cambrian Mexican section is occurs in the Arrojos Hills section which very much disturbed in the lower half as indicated by the collection from locality 8ood of the Albertella zone overlying beds carrying a diagnostic assemblage of the Glossopleura-Kootenia zone. many have shell fragments adhering to the internal mold which have medium-sized puncta on the inner shell surface. No.M. consists of nearly 2. tively be referred to The specimens might tentaan early cap-shaped gastropod except that the poor preservation leads to considerable uncertainty concerning of the features. No. Figured specimens. or even whether they both represent the same phylum.M. 1 1 5660. of the Middle Cambrian time equiis valent above the Elrathiella-Clappaspis zone sections. 11 5661. The Tren dolomite formation. However. — Formation and tion. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN 8l nation and the Dearborn limestones of Montana. figures 1-3 Two 8oib poorly preserved cone-shaped specimens occur in collection in the Olenellus zone assemblage. 8oib. Internal mold with shell fragments. SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS LOWER CAMBRIAN FAUNAS PROBLEMATICA I AND II Plate IS. locality. and being in turn overlain by beds with the same faunal assemblage of the Glossopleura-Kootenia zone. the uppermost beds of the Arrojos formation and the overlying Tren dolomite appear to be an undisturbed sequence. The tentative identification of Parehmania for two of the cranidia affords a possible correlation with the Elrathiella-Clappaspis zone. —Lower Cambrian. U. present in the Mexican all Present indirect evidence suggests that is the latest Mid- dle Cambrian missing from this region. U. and the lower part of the Stephen formation of British Columbia.S.NO. worn and crushed shell. but presence in the It is likewise lower portion of the Tren dolomite impossible to say whether the rest is quite possible.N.N. Puerto Blanco forma- . As figured for stratigraphic reference.

H. Walcott. is "When five. —"Shell large. 30. figs. usually inch. Walcott. 1890. 5a. 13. figures 9-13 Hyolithes princeps Billings. is exactly like that shown for H. loth Ann. pi. 1886. pi. but is there is a rounded groove along the median line of the dorsum (ventrum). Sometimes. tapering at the rate of about three lines to the In perfectly symmetrical specimens. 5. Walcott also identified Silver this species from the Olenellus zone Peak group of Nevada. — dif- ferent localities have been tentatively assigned to this species. p. in the author's opin- ion. but their . sometimes attaining a length of three or four inches. vol. however. one side is more abruptly rounded than the other. of pressure. princeps in the and the apical angle which averages about 15°. Surv. Bull. the ventral (dorsal) side being almost flat. S. The latter is somewhat more narrowly rounded than the sides. Original description. Geol. the width of the aperture seven lines. Lower (upper) lip uniformly convex and projecting about three lines in a large specimen. Surface with fine striae and small subimbricating ridges of growth. I. b of page 213. figs.." A number of specimens of Hyolithes from two Discussion. n. 6. fortunately.. with a slight convexity. Rep. 216. Surv. ia-1. Can. p. PRINCEPS Billings Plate 15.82 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Hyolithes princeps Billings. U. This is not the result form of the shell. In passing upwards on the sides. In many of the individuals. The identification is based particularly on the large size. and the sides and the dorsum (ventrum) uniformly rounded. S. 1872. Nat. Geol. in consequence of which the median line of the dorsum (ventrum) is not directly over that of the ventral (dorsal) side. all Un- the material is in a poor state of preservation so that none of the details of the outer surface can be determined in any of the specimens. These specimens. vol. b. II9 POSITION UNCERTAIN HYOLITHES aff. nor is it possible to determine whether any of the Mexican specimens have the curved apical tip as in the types. figs. the transverse section is nearly a semicircle. These curve forward on the ventral (dorsal) side.. also. and then turn upwards and pass over the the original dorsum (ventrum) at a right angle to the length. 261.. they at first slope backwards from the ventral (dorsal) edge. 76. 4a. p. 135. surely represent the same species as the Mexican ones.s. the character of the transverse section which Billings. Hyolithes princeps Billings. U. and the specimen seems distorted. the depth is about The operculum has not been identified.

Puerto Blanco formation. HYOLITHES WHITEI Resser Plate 16. 5664. p. Coll. West looth Merid. Geol. — "H. p.. Ann. Lesley (part). pi. 10. Lower Cambrian. 6... vol. Rep. Grabau and Shimer. Surv.N. 1886. i. S. loth (part).. 294. 134. Smithsonian Misc. across.S. Hyolithes whitei Resser. la-d. 2. in length) than the others. 1889. p. Nos. I. vol. 620. and transverse sections up to 15 mm. 8oiq'. Index Foss. Expl. Pennsylvania. vol. 1875. U. 75. P4. pt. Geol. 13. S. Hyolithes billingsi figs. p. 5a-e. Also from locality Soib a number of large but very fragmentary shells have been etched out of limestone. North Amer. 21. —Large — etched specimens. p. U. U. 30. The slab In this. No. preservation It is also too poor to justify the erection of a should be noted that this large Hyolithes appears to occupy about the same stratigraphic position at all three localities. Lower Cambrian. 97. figs. Rep. and shows on its surface a number of Hyolithes tubes. —Four specimens are tentatively referred locality. p. and this laminated sandy is interesting because the shells in very fine cross-bedded laminae. Surv. I2iie-g.S.. These are smaller (30 mm. material stone now forms the fossil specimen. 801b. 1890. 1 15665. I. 4. This material which was deposited were covered with a sandy lime ooze This material sifted into the shell and filled the interior at various angles. 1938. 5667. figs. U. sections in weathered slab. pieces of shells up to is a very deeply weathered limestone. Geogr. Subsequently the original shell material was lost. Geol. vol. Figured 1 1 specimens. 115666a. I TRILOBITES LOCHMAN new 83 species. M. (2 inches) in length can be seen. The specimens consist of one 6-inch weathered slab from locality 8oib which consists entirely of Hyolithes shells of all sizes. 1910. whitei is is a rather small species with a flat . Walcott la-d. lo- They cality consist of a very poorly preserved internal mold from one and four specimens from a second From among the . 1874 idem. Geol. figures 2-6 Hyolithes prhnordicilis? (Hall) White.. The corners are rounded. 37. pl." Discussion. pi. A single piece of fresh lime- from locality Soiq' was sectioned. figs.I. Preliminary Report Invertebrate Fossils. 50 mm. Surv. Original description: thick shell. but appear to have a similar transverse section and are thus tentatively placed here. . 1 1 Formation and locality. No. Bull.N.— — NO. to this species. figs. Surv. The posterior side nearly the anterior is angular lateral giving the tube a nearly equilateral triangular outline.M.

5 ORTHOTHECA BUELNA Shell a narrow conical tube. and horizontal aperture.— Uolotype. and very represented by two specimens.i 15662a. . They have been referred to Orthotheca rather than Hyolithes because of their apparently circular cross section. more tapered shape. The edge of the dorsal aperture rises 1-2 mm.M. . They cannot. Nos.S. it should be noted that neither in H. buelna in their less-tapered shape and much smaller apical angle. above the lateral angles level of the side and ventral margins. mm. Types. However. Buelna formation. Lochman.S. The apical angle appears to be about 15° to 17°. one of which has been partially freed from the matrix to show the typically triangular outline. locality. ii567ia. No. Hypotypes.N.S. new species Plate 15. fine conin . U. whitei types nor in these specimens does the transverse section form a true equilateral triangle.S. however. No. —Lower Cambrian. weathered shell (809a).N. averaging 18-19 mm. II9 two showing a well-preserved outer surface with growth and on one the suggestion of two equally spaced longitudinal grooves.M. U. all approximately of the same strength. U. both faint thin longitudinal lines running the length of the shell. 5670. —This species is internal limestone molds. but on the more weathered specimen from horizon 809a they are quite rounded. 115662b. figures 4.b. The on the freed internal mold are fairly sharp. centric grooves. be identified with any of the described species of Orthotheca from the Lower Cambrian.N. 1 1 —Three well-preserved specimens (807b). Formation and locality. II 5669. 807b.N. . Buelna formation. paratype.M. lying close together on the same piece of rock.M. Discussion. by 3 width at the aperture tapering to a sharp point at apex apical angle 8° transverse section perfectly circular with aperture a smooth horizontal circle internal mold marked by closely spaced. —Lower Cambrian. because by actual measurement the dorsoventral diameter is lines approximately one-half (a little over) the length of the dorsal side. The other two are internal molds. These species differ from O. all of which occur in the Atlantic Province. in length . 807b. Formation and 809a.84 latter are SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. U. No.

large —The specimens representing at several localities occur in very numbers and several horizons throughout the Olenellus zone. each ridge grooves about every . arranged very close together.8 mm. from the apex to the aperture. small. 15663. new species 1-5 16. by 1. I TRILOBITES LOCHMAN 85 Phylum Class MOLLUSCA Gastropoda S. with a well-defined aperture. markings. Formation and locality. No.N. RETICULATA Billings Plate IS. Siphuncle central. with circular cross section. plate Shell a small. sharply pointed. steeply inverted cones. 1 Class Cephalopoda Lochman. The marking the addition of a new internal cone. which is perfectly circular. Buelna formation. shell. Septa thin. According to the kind of preservation. plate 17. but with the apex of the cone broken and the surface worn so that the concentric rugae and radiating lirae are only faintly suggested. especially appear to be in the nature of growth markings near the aperture. Discussion. Apical angle approximately 16°. Figured specimen. SCENELLA cf. the largest complete specimen measuring 8 mm. The shell is a small oval cone.NO. wall complete. U. in the larger shells certain of the concentric mm. which are about two to three times the circular width of the fine grooves . 809a. in length by 2 mm. size. several dififerent .M. figures 6-8 A single specimen of locality a young Scenella was found in collection from 809a associated with an Antagmus-Onchocephalus faunal as- semblage. smooth and horizontal.25 Outer shell layer very thin. perfectly straight cone .S. figures SALTERELLA MEXICANA Plate IS. diameter about one-fourth width of shell measured at bottom of living chamber. appear to be slightly deeper. figures 7-1 1. figure 14. the space between each as the width of the septum . in width at aperture most shells average 6 mm. —Juvenile —Lower Cambrian. living septum being approximately the same chamber occupying almost but not this species quite one-half the length of the shell. and aperture definitely indicate a juvenile specimen of Scenella but an accurate specific determination does not seem possible with this limited material. The shape. Outer surface covered with fine concentric grooves alternating with narrow concentric ridges. Cross section of shell .

II9 aspects of the shells are presented and these have been very useful in elucidating the structure. clearly caused by the removal of the outer filled shell layer and the ex- posure of the internal septal structure. as in many specimens they ap- pear to have been subsequently replaced entirely by a crystalline calcite. which shows is or no structure. simply septa are less common little in occurrence. Poulsen referred the extremely abundant specimens from Greenland to Billings's species This species similar to Salterella rugosa Billings of Greenland specimens described the internal structures and septa. do not show any features of real specific significance. if the internal .. Poulsen reports the exterior surface of his specimens to be smooth. and show no branching at the is a definite tube wider in proportion certainty exists as to whether to the width of the shell. Cer- Mexican specimens show : distinct differences as compared to the Greenland specimens exterior surface. In most of these sections the siphuncle and living chamber show up very well. living Frequently the siphuncle and chamber have been that remain. Those with well-preserved exterior surfaces present the annulated appearance as described above. with extraneous material so that on weathered surfaces are tion all is this internal mold and the hollow external mold shell. Canada. This appears to the author to be the wall of the living chamber that has some artiby cutting pieces of the rock containing innumerable specimens. the exterior tainly the not known of any of Billings's types. In another type of weathering a longitudinal sec- produced which shows a single cone within the calcite. but. nearly one- half the length of the shell as (3) the septa are thin. from which Salterella rugosa Billings derived is weathered specimens appear to be quite smooth. The discovery of the Mexican specimens indicates that Billings's types from Anse du Loup. while manyin-cone effect. show no real relation- ship to Salterella expansa Poulsen or conulata Clark. The well-known coneits name. so actuspecific doubt must remain as to the assignment of both these species. compared to one-third to two-fifths packed. At present no the types of Salterella rugosa Billings have an internal structure like that of the ally Mexican specimens or the Greenland specimens. closely outer walls (4) the siphuncle . unfortunately. which only weathered cone-in-cone interiors are known. The Mexican species can be definitely said to 5". as weathered specimens from and from his of siphuncle all three localities will show the same cone-in-cone is effect. 86 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. but the numerous been replaced by ficial The best specimens for study are sections made at all angles. ( i ) Concentric grooves and ridges on the is (2) the living chamber much larger.

PULCHELLA i Billings Plate 16. not when weathered does occurs not present the sharp imbricat- ing annulations of that species. specimens showing weathered cone-within-cone effect (807b). Nos. loth Ann. always a little curved..N. No. and shows the same It fine concentric grooves alternating with concentric ridges. 2. S. figure Salterella pulchella Billings. "This species so abundant. 5a-e. The shell coquinas which the Mexican specimens form suggest In nearly all accumulation of the shells by wave action. and is larger than S. paratype: Formation and locality.M. pi. 3. Nor does striking similarity to the primitive orthoceroid it show any and hyolithid internal structure as depicted by Kobayashi (1937). rugosa. 801 1 Puerto Blanco formation. 8o9d. Foss. specimens showing internal mold of living chamber and siphuncle and external mold of shell (8oit). U. Original description. 115673a. — ^A single shell among the innumerable specimens which shows a slight curvature of Salterella mexicana. Nos. 13. in length.M. figs. p.M. I. collections the Salterella shells occur in separate beds. pi. 7. Surv. Bull. 1886. pi. 1890. U. 79. the trilobite carapaces. Otherwise.. is thus comparable in measures approximately 7 mm. ii5674a-c.N.N. U. p. piece showing longitudinal and transverse sections with many septa (So/g). Geol. specimens with external ornamentation (809a). conical. . 115677b. S. p. new species. 1865. 7a. to eight lines in length —"Elongate. vol. — Holotype. 5. 30.S." Discussion. U.S. (8o7g). and size to the specimens of Salterella mexicana. 955. vol. 1861 Pal.N. 18.S. 115672a.S. 144. 625. gently curved. vol. Nos.M. 1 1 5678.M. U. 8. 809a. I TRILOBITES 87 Structure given for these species correct. 3a. U. figs.S. formation. small section showing septa and siphuncle sections showing living chamber and siphuncle (8o7g).M. p.S. 8o7f. Geol. No. 807.N. — Lower Cambrian. No. SALTERELLA cf. It has the exterior surface preserved. and only at locality 807b do they occur mixed with Salterella coquinas stone. 11 5676. Rep. Surv. 115677a. Buelna . instead of the perfectly straight cone. while the may be interbedded with trilobite-bearing lime- two types of beds are generally mutually exclusive.N. Walcott. Surface ornamented with small encircling striae just visible to the naked eye.. U. U. Geology of Vermont. from six and from one to one and a half in width at the aperture.— — LOCH MAN is NO. 115675a. 8o7g. S. 801 q. figs. Types. In .

mexicana Lochman. Billings Hypotype.N. Formation and est hills. — 809a. considered highly probable that they represent the same species as S. SALTERELLA. the author suspects that the curva- may be either a feature of preservation or an unusual individual It variation. it is clearly a Salterella. and on slope on west side of Cerro Prieto limestone ridge and saddle between highProveedora Hills.N. a highly baked limestone which contains on weathered surface several sections of Salterella.S.—U. preservation is However. Formation and locality. because of It is their preservation. been so identified. .M.N. Plate species undetermined figures 6. 7 17. their poor and positive is specific identification really cannot be its made. II9 view of the rareness of ture form. No. Two pieces of limestone from different localities have. weathered limestone.S. Lower Cambrian. should be noted that the examples of Salterella pulchella his specimens of were recorded by Billings as occurring with Salterella rugosa but being fewer in number. This specimen from The second piece of rock is a small weathered limestone slab which was picked up of the loose on the slope west of the saddle in the Puerto it Blanco section in such a position that spite of the must come from the lower part In Middle Cambrian just above the Cerro Prieto limestone. —Lower Cambrian. weathered condition. 812a. 115668.i 15680. 1 metamorphosed limestone (812a).S. — Sections section in in U. loose 1 5679. Figured specimens. One piece cone within the locality 812a. as they agree with that species in general size and shape.M. U.88 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS this VOL. locality. one shows a single shell which is interpreted by the author as being the is wall of the living chamber replaced by calcite. No. Buelna formation. M. No.

smaller Meek in having shorter palpebral lobes and [sic] and shorter plural lobes of the third thoracic seg- ment. moderately convex.. exclusive of the spine-like telson. Walcott figures 6-12 Coll. or anterior lobe. . lapworthi Peach in having a stronger rim about the cephalon. nearly obsolete on median line. vertical in front... No. —"This species differs from Olenellus thomp- soni (Hall) and 0. in all The third thoracic segment . First . Original description. reticidatus Peach. is distinctly larger than the others specimens proportionally it decreases in size from the young to the largest adults . diagonal. increasing in length at sides which are bent backward third lobe shorter. served. latter It differs from the and O. Smithsonian Misc. chevron-shaped fourth lobe longer and wider. broadest at base of palpebral lobes. and a length of 22 mm. 11.. in the latter character resembling O. and disappearing along median Hne. then deepening into diagonal slits. . and the entire dorsal shield has a length of 56 mm. — . moderately convex in profile glabella slightly hourglass-shaped first. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN 89 Phylum ARTHROPODA Vogdes. shorter pleural lobe on the third seg- ment.NO. . with small median posterior node.. gilberti eyes. under bent ends." Supplementary description. It appears to have been attached to the doublure by its anterior margin and not by a process as in Paedeumias transitans. well defined laterally. of "The hypostoma has a "The specimens of this species are abundant and usually well preThe largest cephalon collected had a width of 50 mm. vol. Cephalon semicircular. chevron-shaped occipital ring same size as fourth lobe. p. 1862 OLENELLUS (OLENELLUS) TRUEMANI Plate 18. tapering inward to rounded front second lobe wide. 1893 Class Trilobitae Family OLENELLIDAE Genus OLENELLUS Hall. and a broader thorax and smaller. . glabellar more distinct furrow broad and faint across base of palpebral lobes. occipital furrow . 57. and in having a more coarsely reticulated outer surface of the test. then and sharply curved second glabellar furrow very faint . 316. third glabellar furrow straight. denticulated posterior margin similar to that Paedeumias transitans and Wanneria halli. Olencllus tnieuiani 1913- Walcott. the anterior glabellar lobe closer to the frontal rim.

N.S. 60084-60091. middle . and large spine on fifteenth segments broad and flat with a broad. fig. and some of the specimens obviously distorted. No. slanting upward from dorsal furrow to palpebral furrow except end of eye where slope is downv/ard to posterior marginal furrow. O. radiating. fiat brim . Pygidium not observed. has a . As a result the Mexican and Canadian specimens cannot be compared as to convexity. then absent.90 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS deep at sides. a number of fragments of cephala and some complete immature cephala. 60089 (Walcott 1913. these three features appear These cephala are referred to the Canadian species after the following considerations. rimlike. 8) although flattened. inner surface of free cheek covered with heavy . U. Discussion. with . the anterior glabellar lobe slightly wider and the position of the intergenal spines different as to the adult cephala. .N. Palpebral lobes strong. Thorax with pleural furrow .S. . at this position. However. The immature cephala have the preglabellar area wider. palpebral furrow well defined in front. Outer surface of immature cephala finely granulated of mature cephala covered by fine interrupted wavy ridges conforming to contours of cephalon. II9 straight. convex. tniemani Walcott is established upon the cotypes U. sists —The Mexican material referred to this species con- of several nearly complete adult cephala. running from base of anterior lobe to very slightly posterior to occipital furrow faint posterior. all of them preserved flattened in a fine black shale. Eye vertical. short slender genal spines a faint posterior facial suture ridge run- ning from base of eye out laterally.M. slightly arcuate. Nos. increasing pos- from a narrow. nearly obsolete across VOL. Fixed-cheek area small. 54. Free-cheek area of teriorly medium width. apparently extending full length of lobe. diagonal. then curving back to posterior margin two-thirds of length out from dorsal furrow in immature cephala this length is one-half and a small intergenal spine is present . anastomosing ridges. shallow falcate terminations of second and third progressively enlarged. 15 segments having small axial nodes on 7 to 14 .M. reappearing faintly around front of anterior lobe. Of the cotypes. contin- uous around cephalon marginal border narrow. compared to be characters of immaturity. pi. marginal furrow narrow. dorsal furrow present posterior to third glabellar furrow. with one especially heavy one two- thirds of the (this heavier is way back on eye running outward and branching once ridge is of common occurrence on the Olenellidae and a feature which early authors frequently mistook for a trace of the posterior facial suture).

thorax.M. torted. 1928.. .S. Coll.N. pp. but most nearly related appears to be O. N0. pi. Formation and 807c.N. Coll. in length. p. . . 7 that of the mm. figures OLENELLUS (FREMONTIA) FREMONTI 4. U.b. p. Walcott Plate 18. . of O. U. vol. (see for complete previous synonomy). locality. a number of smaller cephala occur which are like those referred to the Mexican form. 60089. —Lower Cambrian. 6-7. the smallest of them preserving the small intergenal spines in the one-half length position. No. 807b.N. has the same narrow anterior glabellar lobe and very narrow brim. . 92. gilberti: (a) in having a close to the lobe. which agrees with Mexican adult. —U. U. 1936. 5 6. Geol. fremonti also has a peculiarly expanded pleural lobe of the third segment of the species that is "The we find that the latter differs : . Quart.N. Olenellus (Fremontia) frevw)iti Walcott. It is interesting to on the same piece of shale with the complete thorax. 81.M. No. London. 1 Nos. 54. ii569oa.N. fremonti in having (a) a space between the glabella and the marginal rim (b) a less expanded frontal glabellar lobe and longer palpebral lobes (c) O.M. 15692. and U. 320. —"The cephalon . Journ.S.. 1910 Mesonacis fremonfi (Walcott). a crushed dorsal view. fig. 115689. thompsoni. But the other specimens. 11 5687. 11 5691. Smithsonian Misc.NO. No. Soc. 60087 (Walcott 1913. from O. Olenellus jrenionti Walcott. I TRILOBITES LOCH MAN in every specific detail 9I cephalon. 6). 2. No. 8o7e. . gilberti shows some of the differences between the two species. vol. jrenionti differs from that of 0. . which are both interior impressions.60088. No. 53. triiemani Walcott. vol. Hy polypes. although both crushed and dis- After consideration of all these specimens the last author has concluded that the discrepancies in the are features of the shale preservation and that the first two mentioned two cotypes note that which are conspecific with the Mexican cephalon represent the true specific features of O. 60084.M. Buelna formation.S. 243.M. Smithsonian Misc.S. .S. show the anterior glabellar lobe as appearing wider and reaching to the marginal furrow. Also the larger cephalon. Raw. both in the young and the adult . Original description. more expanded anterior glabella rounded frontal border (b) in having a shorter palpebral and (c) in having an unusually expanded pleural lobe to the third thoracic segment. A comparison of the young cephalons with those of O.

diagonal. pi. fig. straight. . second glabellar furrow very faint at sides. directions increasing posteriorly . then continuing around anterior lobe to coalesce with marginal furrow in front. continuous border narrow. full length of lobe. broader and lower with 45° slope in second glabellar furrow longest with lateral ends bent backward. diagonal." Supplementary description. Palpe- bral lobes strong. widening and sloping upward posteriorly low knoll opposite end of eye. front vertical in young. flattening out a bit and widening posteriorly base of long genal spines in larger cephala. furrow lobe. gilberti and other species of the genus. short. VOL. having a denticulated posterior margin. curving backward and becoming fainter across center . . . and slightly longer than third occipital ring straight. third lobe chevron-shaped. start- ing in a short distance. it a faint posterior facial suture ridge runs into base Only known thorax (Walcott. and a very extreme macropleural development of the third segment first and second segments . marginal furrow well defined. absent through middle third occipital in to be . into rimlike in young. faint in larger cephala. 37. then sloping to posterior margin. . fixed-cheek area lowest at anterior extremity opposite third glabellar lobe. wider. very old adults . —Cephalon semicircular. a 45° angle in posterior margin approximately one-third distance in from the genal spine to dorsal furrow and at this angle in small cephala is a minute intergenal spine and from of eye. same width as fourth glabellar furrow but a little longer. shorter than second. First glabellar furrow deepest at sides. is very rarely preserved. moderately anterior gla- glabella slightly hourglass-shaped bellar lobe rounding out slightly in front of eyes. . with a small posterior median node dorsal furrow present along posterior glabellar sides. 7) shows 15 seg- ments with a strong fifteenth axial spine. well into a defined. Free-cheek areas downward in all of medium width. fourth lobe chevron-shaped. It is much like that of 0. then faint across center. logani in details mentioned under "The hypostoma gilberti in like the It differs that species. 1910. curving to opposite center of fourth glabellar Eye vertical. interrupted by palpebral lobes. convex in profile . palpebral furrow curved. lapworthi. third glabellar furrow deep at sides. extending to marginal furrow. "The similar to that of 0. curving up and deep and diagonal. II9 "The same differences exist in relation from O. absent through center. deep at sides. and both are much hypostoma of Paedeumias outer surface is transitans.92 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS to O.

No. 37.M.S. in length.N. repre- sents actually a form of the species in which the base of the genal spines is in a somewhat forward position. in width by 32 mm. U. but real and how much due to crushing cannot be determined . lying opposite the posterior end of the eyes. but the speci- men not well preserved and it will of the glabella is how much therefore.M. Two cephala.N. Outer surface of cephalon covered by low crowded imbricating ridges warped around and conforming to contours of cephalon inner surface of free-cheek area covered with heavy anastomosing ridges radiating outward from eye. is U. be noted that the anterior lobe 56822a. jremonti Wal- and it is interesting to note that after observing such features as the low knoll on the fixed-cheek area and the minute intergenal spine on the limestone Mexican specimens. No It thorax associated with the cephala from locality 52.S. which is not figured. for the detailed description. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN 93 have short falcate terminations but remainder are not well preserved pygidium not known.. a small cephalon which was sketched by Walcott. and a smaller one. Also on a small immature cephalon from locality 52. No. pp. one a large adult estimated as measuring 66 mm. pi.S. No. supplementing the note Mexican limestone specimens. 23 by 13 mm. 1910. This feature appears to be characteristic only of the young. 56819a. has been used for the description of the thorax. However. is much more expanded than in the main cotype. cott. represent this species. s68i9a. Both are fragmentary. U.S. which shows all the critical features including the fixed-cheek knoll which crushing has displaced slightly posteriorly. should be noted that the specimen. They are clearly conspecific with O.M. but supplement each . The California specimens described by Resser repsame variety.N. the author has considered as the cotypes the specimens figured by Walcott from loc. though neither feature had been mentioned by Resser or Walcott. The author has used the basically the cephalon. U. fig. NO. — other quite well. the author found minute intergenal spines in the same position as on the small Mexican cephalon.N. Discussion.. on convexity from The specimen.S. No. 56819a. Following Resser's discussion of the species (1928. with special emphasis on the adult cephalon. No. 13). . its is position in the species should be considered doubtful. the Mexican specimens appear to have the genal spines directly at the posterolateral corners and in this resent this respect are actually the normal form for the species. 52. 568191 (Walcott.M. the author was surprised to find these same details on the flattened specimens of the type lot. The specimens. 6-7). This feature is also shown on U.N.M.

cannot be determined. then bent backward.. then becoming straight. from locality 30. curving to opposite center of occipital ring arcuate. palpebral furrow and clear along anterior half. faint across center. then disappearing . First glabellar . then tapering forward to a broad. 8oib. 809a. in length . blunt point in center. merging with second lobe fourth glabellar lobe apparently chevron-shaped. as wide as and longer than fourth lobe. likewise show the genal spine normal position. occipital furrow arcuate posteriorly. Fixed-cheek area small. and are considered Olenellus fremonti Walcott by the author. dorsal furrow narrow. wide . Formation and tion.N. wide. at sides curving second glabellar lobe short at sides forward. broad.']<^M. narrow and flat at base of palpebral lobes. faint but distinguishable along sides to first glabellar furrow. becoming progressively fainter at center. Puerto Blanco forma- Genus PAEDEUMIAS WALCOTT. 1910 PAEDEUMIAS PUERTOBLANCOENSIS Plate 19. figures Lochman.—\J. third glabellar lobe short. and very faint across the center third glabellar furrow arcuate posteriorly. 94 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.S. locality. in Hypotypes. deep at sides. . 1 15686. in mm. —Lower Cambrian. glabella low. well defined at sides. and consequently it is impossible to identify the species. arcuate slits at sides. they are so fragmentary that many important details of the cephalon. slightly hourglass-shaped. II9 U. M. with low convexity. although Resser (1928) would exclude them. Two very fragmentary cephala of Olenellus which show a narrow to that of Olenellus brim similar in the tmemani Walcott occur first at the base of the Oholella beds. No. . new species 9-16 Cephalon semicircular. . straight slits just below inner ends of first glabellar furrow. — Lower Cambrian. furrow forming deep. longer and wider than second. holotype 10 width by 6 mm. Palpebral lobes strong-based. species undetermined OLENELLUS. 115685. 1 541 6. Occipital ring straight. Nos. and full reappearing again near end of eye lobe eye vertical. Buelna formation. including the length of the eyes. extending length of lobe. absent across center second glabellar furrow in form of deep. Formation and locality. sloping up from palpebral and . However. tapering to a broad point anteriorly anterior lobe of low convexity. narrow.S. and thus represent the appearance of Olenellus Mexican Lower Cambrian section. widest just in front of lobes.

No. Pormation and —Lower Cambrian. U. 11 5703. from that species only in the more rounded anterior lobe of the glabella and the straight posterior margin of the cephalon. In studying the species of Paedeumias the author concluded that nearly all the same features listed for Olcnelliis constitute features of i. Nos.M. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN 95 dorsal furrows into a low knoll opposite end of fourth glabellar lobe. —Holotype. .N. A larger cephalon is is fragmentary. As the type of P. The holotype is — a young.N. 8o7e. however.e. rimlike. tion in the In Paedeumias.N. increasing in width posteriorly brim crossed on median line by a low narrow ridge extending from center of anterior lobe and interrupting marginal furrow marginal furrow very narrow. somewhat crushed shale specimen.S. distinct at front and sides. sloping downward . the author is unable to determine how much the difference in matrix has it affected these details of the cephalon. there appears to be no variawidth of the border. (3) width of brim and structure of median an- terior ridge. transitans Walcott. fainter posteriorly border narrow.M. It The differ species is very close to P. specific value in Paedeumias. 809a. (i) length of eye. rimlike border being apparently a generic character. Free-cheek area narrow brim in front of anterior lobe.S. 11 5709. 1 1 115705a. . nearly complete cephalon.M. posteriorly to marginal furrow. 11 5710. 5708. 1 1 U. (2) shape of an- terior glabellar lobe. the narrow.S. Thorax and pygidium not known. She considers feasible for the present to describe the Mexican material as a attention to its new species but to call close relation to P. Discussion. This species is represented by protaspids and metaspids. U. No. transitans is a flattened. 807c. An additional paratype is fairly well preserved but has had the front of the cephalon pushed back and up so that the brim abnormally short appears to and the anterior lobe of the glabella appears somewhat broader. and fragmentary cephala from six localities. Outer surface covered by fine wavy interrupted ridges. 801 f. Buelna formation. Types. intergenal spines very short in adult. U. transitans. 80 le. protaspids. Genal spine relatively short and starting with a .N.S. fragments. 5706-1 1 5708.M. Nos.NO. paratypes: cranidia. locality. crossing test transversely and conforming somewhat to contour of cephalon. 807b.

convex. but narrower shaped. a little fourth glabellar lobe chevron. to palpebral lobe. running . II9 WANNERIA new Walcott. nearly obsolete in center defined. Dorsal furrow faint. PRIMA Lochman. but larger cephala appearing to have only moderate convexity. with a short median posterior spine. . back . Palpebral lobes thick with strong base at anterior glabellar lobe. new species. . dorsal furrow. glabellar lobe. the part opposite third starting opposite second glabellar furrow. Occipital furrow nearly straight across. . its greatest width at a bulge just in front of bases of palpebral lobes second . Glabella expanding anteriorly. slightly arcuate. crescent-shaped posterior border with six small teeth on each side. deep at sides. curving in and around second straight across. well defined around cephalon border of medium widest at base of genal spines and narrower around front and also noticeably narrower along posterior margin. extending in a low arc to opposite third glabellar furrow. variety Plate 18. from palpebral lobes second glabellar furrow curving in and back from First glabellar furrow well defined. shorter and narrower than fourth lobe occipital ring same length and width as fourth lobe. wide. slightly longer. The cephalon of the variety is like that of the species in all proportions and details except for the position and — . arcuate . small cephala with strong convexity.. M. fixed-cheek area very small. Thorax and pygidium not known. In this species it is pre- sumed that the long. furrow rising almost vertically rise. 1910 WANNERIA MEXICANA. palpebral furrow not seen. strongly convex anterior lobe with a large macula at each posterior corner a narrow. with vertical front. third glabellar furrow well- and across center. Description of variety. Fragmentary hypostoma shows a large circular. of anterior lobe. posteriorly only a gentle then the surface slopes down to marginal furrow free-cheek area of medium width. flat. 96 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Genus VOL. third glabellar lobe chevron- shaped. anterior lobe of low convexity. curving in. faint in center. Eye vertical. reaching to marginal furrow. strongly convex marginal furrow width. would lie at the posand the intergenal spines would be small and in a short distance on the posterior margin. disappearing across palpebral lobes. medium-sized genal spines terolateral angles. widening posteriorly to equal width in small cephala . extending glabellar full length of palpebral lobe. Surface of test not known. glabellar lobe of medium length. running forward and outward to second glabellar furrow. parallel-sided posteriorly. figures 1-3 Cephalon semicircular. and W. then continuing faintly around anterior lobe and coalescing with marginal furrow.

(2) the very short occipital spine. No.: NO. should also be mentioned that in the United States National locality 6ik. unfigured paratypes.M. with a slight Discussion. in length.N.M. 115681. U. but the material has weathered out on the it is surface of a dense limestone from which impossible to break out any specimens. r3. and (3) the somewhat shorter eyes.S. U. rowei (Walcott) and W. 115684. the author believes possible that they may It represent the normal form of the species. and this particular form as a variety of that species in which the intergenal and genal spines are placed as noted. but which represent the same species and variety as W. No.M. W. projecting somewhat the long. several cephala occur which have never been described. Nos. They are associated with specimens of Wanneria occidens Walcott.S. Mu- Hota shale. U. but it can be seen that on them the genal spines lie at the posterolateral angle of the cephalon. This striking form is represented by a number of all cephala of various sizes. The author recognizes this form as a species differing from described ones as noted above. 9 mm.N. I TRILOBITES — LOCH MAN 07 size of the genal and intergenal spines which are placed as follows At the posterolateral angle at the end of the strong posterior facial lie medium-sized intergenal spines. As a result it is hard to judge many of the details and the original convexity. paratypes. but in most the weathering has reached down to the limestone underneath the specimen. The species is most closely related to the other two Cordilleran in ( i ) Wanneria species. Mumm Peak. Unfortunately weathered. British Columbia. Wanneria mexicana. is While the preservation of the glabella and eyes tively be placed in so poor that they cannot posiit Wanneria. ranging from 2 to mm./>^j.N. and the spine projects nearly straight outward at the side suture ridge laterally . and an undescribed variety of that species which has the intergenal and genal spines in the same position as the Mexican species and variety. 115683. In association with this variety from locality 80 ic on the same weathered slabs are a number of small cephala. All specimens are so deeply weathered that their is positive identification dif^cult. 115682. mexicana prima.S. — upward flexure at the base. heavy genal spines lie on a line with the first glabellar furrow. of the cephalon. occidens Walcott. so that not only is all the cephala have been quite deeply the surface gone or badly worn. . The occurrence of both this species of Wanneria and Olenellus truemani Walcott together in the Hota shale and the Mexican section seum material from suggests a close relationship between the faunas. the but in so far as comparison can be made it differs from them sudden bulge of the anterior lobe just in front of the palpebral lobes.— Holotype.

98 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS locality. . Nos. Discussion. node rather than spine. glabellas —Holotype.S. These fragments have the network ornamentation of the sur- face beautifully preserved. fragmentary U. It agrees with differs — common Appalachian Wanneria walcottana (Wanner) and species in the following features : from all other described ( i ) . On the holotype. No. 1 15696.N. therefore it is All show is this part of the not certain whether this a feature of preser- vation or of constant varietal importance. Several associated hypostoma show the same network ornamentation on their ventral surface. II9 Formation and tion. it is preserved and it lies at the postero- From outward bringing the base of the and medium-sized genal spine a short the border slopes forward distance anterior to the posterior end of the eye. low knoll occurs on the posterior limb back of the end of the other specimens are too poorly preserved to carapace. does permit specific determination. this variety and indicate that the individual adults of reached as large a size as the Appalachian specimens. spine. —^Lower Cambrian. lobes reaching just to the center of the fourth glabellar lobe occipital (4) an spine. 801C. A number of associated metaspids are well preserved is in and show that the genal spine advanced position even at this stage. These are believed to represent the same species and variety. A regular and smooth expan- sion of the anterior lobe of the glabella pits (2) the presence of a row of along the inner edge of the border. VOL.M.N. 115695. though they are specifically undeterminable. new variety the species in Description of variety. 115697. (6) a medium-sized genal The material contains a number of large fragments consisting of broken glabellae and free-cheek areas. most interesting to find the occurrence of this variety of the species in the Cordilleran trough. Types. protaspids. — small on the two cephala where lateral corners of the cephalon. a eye. (3) the eyes and palpebral . figures 1-6 Lochman. paratypes: and free cheeks. (5) a very small intergenal apparently aborted in large adults. It is The holotype of this variety is a cephalon 24 mm. in and though not complete.M. U. length. Puerto Blanco forma- WANNERIA WALCOTTANA BUELNAENSIS Plate 19. The straight genal spine projects backward and slightly outward. The cephalon of the variety is like that of all proportions and details except for the position and size of the genal and intergenal spines the intergenal spine is quite .S.

19 16 BONNIA SONORA Lochman. Formation and locality. IVanneria is made because the specimens show short eyes. Formation and —Lower Cambrian. nearly flat.S. very short Dorsal furrow well defined at sides forward to a clear rounded pit on each side of glabella opposite anterior end of palpebral lobe.N. figures 8 A small collection from quartzite beds at an isolated locality con- sists of five fragmentary cephala. 1 15702. glabella occupying central half of cranidium. furrow extending prac- and another glabellar furrow in front of it. . U. However.S. Lower Cambrian quartzite.S. In this respect they are comparable to those of Wanneria mexicana prima. broad front (some distortion to left in cranidium may cause a greater than true expansion) . U. locality.M. U. Figured specimens. 11 5698.NO. Family CORYNEXOCHIDAE Genus Angelin. species undetermined 7. 115701. slightly curved glabellar tically across. then much narrower and shallower around front of glabella. expanding somewhat forward to a nearly flat. protaspid.M. hypos- U.N. faint coloration indicates a posterior. Buelna formation. WANNERIA? Plate 19. on the posterior margin two-thirds the distance out from the dorsal furrow there is a noticable bend. convex. small cephala. 1854 BONNIA Walcott.N. Nos. the speci- mens are only broken internal molds of quartzite and the preservation Generic reference to is so poor as to make identification uncertain. in length by 2 mm. all However. 1. 807b. the ends of the palpebral lobes reaching not quite to the center of the fourth glabellar lobe. Occipital furrow wide and deep. and a belonging to an olenellid genus. nothing definite can be determined. figures 1-7 Single known cranidium small. be- coming steep and vertical anterior to palpebral lobes. across the eyes.M.8 mm. The genal spine is at the posterolateral They may represent the normal form of the Wanneria mexicana. Occipital ring narrow. but until more complete material is ob- tained. No. 807 j. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN 1 99 15699. corner of the cephalon. toma. .S. No. a large broken hypostoma. . possibly with a low median node no brim fixed cheeks slope regularly to broad. new species Plate 21.N. M. but no intergenal spine can be seen. No. Proveedora — — formation. 1 1 5700. species. very shallow marginal furrow which merges and at sides only.

by 4f mm. just back of midline of glabella. Bonnia tensa Resser and Bonnia fieldensis (Walcott) have all proportions and convexity practically the same. defined . axis of medium width. and (2) the nearly the glabella. well-defined marginal medium width. posterior limbs of medium width. well into dorsal furrow. divided into three segments and a long terminal portion by three broad shallow furrows dorsal furrow broad. furrow. starting opposite third glabellar furrow. Pygidium semicircular. Free cheek not known. when more same material is obtained. fieldensis which is the specific features are already estab- lished in cranidia of this small size. convex. All the pygidia are poorly preserved . Facial suture cutting anterior margin just within genal angle. . fieldensis Pygidia of the same size as B. the Mexican species can be shown to be the as B. columbensis Resser from the The Mexican Mount flat profile Whyte formation. very slightly convex. fieldensis differs lot. sonora do not show any species is closest of all to B. continuing slope of a very small anterior marginal spine at each side single small cranidium pleural platforms . Outer surface apparently smooth.. differences. convex sides subparallel to a broadly . species but differs The species close to three described from them as indicated. to 8 mm. downsloping. is In the pygidium of B. surfaces poorly preserved. lOO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS . II9 Border a narrow. well defined at sides only pleural platforms slightly wider than axis. shallow marginal furrow. exactly the same features as the larger B. it is possible that. posterior margin smoothly rounded. tensa Resser . ocular ridge obsolete . With the present limited material representing both species. A small cranidium in the B. This species is described from a Discussion. but both differ in that the glabella merges into the border as the marginal furrow is almost obsolete and B. palpebral lobes medium size. worn . then curving furrow border of . and B. a few minute trans- Thorax not known. and seven pygidia ranging from 4 mm. same length as occipital ring. down steeply to narrow. columbensis Resser. rounded end which does not quite reach border. convex. and the posterior border tends to flatten out. crossed by a narrow. . from it in This indicates that the same size as the Mexican specimen. but definitely verse ridges distinguishable on border. also has a steeper frontal slope of the glabella. especially around the back. by 2^ — mm. palpebral furrow narrow. only one specimen shows is the very small marginal spine. Fixed cheeks approximately one-half width of glabella. VOL. flat near dorsal . vertical rim anterior margin rounded. The cranidium differs in (i) the steep slope of of the front part of the fixed cheeks. cranidia. columbensis the marginal furrow more distinct. slightly convex.

M. Palpebral lobes small. Geol. It is small. curving to just behind front of glabella. narrower. then straight back. well fused.N. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN 1 01 Types. with short anterior projection and short slender genal spine. on midline of furrow narrow. crossed by a broad. and the rear portion Original description. faint.S. Cranidium nearly square. well defined. 1 15736. with nearly straight front. horizontal. of the cranidium at the anterior is characterized by the width end of the eyes. 1 15738. into. expanding to medium in center. 1 15739Formation and locality. gently convex. apparently fading at center to form a broad. Ocular ridge narrow. posterior limbs convex. slightly convex. figures 15-21 Ptychoparella btittsi Resser. glabella broadly conical. Lower Cambrian. 1936 ANTAGMUS ANTAGMUS BUTTSI (Resser) Plate 21. Nos. Buelna formation. horizontal anterior margin rounded. slightly convex. 97. thence and around palpebral curving out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. Spec. third slightly arcuate. p. prominent. No. U. Occipital furrow broad. paratypes. sloping anteriorly." Supplementary description. very slightly convex. border somewhat . marginal furrow broad. palpebral same width as occipital ring. shallow at sides. slightly . vol. Free cheek triangular with small eye at inner angle ocular platform of medium width. — "This species is turned down so that it stands vertically. dorsal furrow broad. well-defined marginal furrow. 21. sloping flat at steeply at sides but nearly center. U. Brim of medium width. indentation. 1947. Holotype. but slight. well defined at sides. well defined. 1 15737. . 63. Occipital ring narrow at sides. Fixed cheeks two-thirds width of glabella. pygidia. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. 15.M. slightly wider than long. 1939. Pap. Border of medium width. Amer. curving back to marginal furrow. Soc. horizontal. Antagmus buttsi (Resser) Lochman. p. and this is one of the few specimens of the genus which preserves the pygidium. slightly deeper at sides.NO. glabella. with moderate slope. moderately convex. shallow across . The thorax has 15 segments. shallow. marginal furrow narrow. 809a. three pairs of short faint glabellar furrows at sides only first and second glabellar furrows apparently straight. profile highest posteriorly. Paleontol. — — Family Genus INCERTAE SEDIS Resser. Journ.S.N. — front.. lobes.

A. No. axis and pleural lobes of same width. somewhat more convex fixed cheeks. slightly convex.M. 94771. As this species is preserved in shale. at least. The cranidia which had received only slanting lateral pressure were best preserved. not quite reaching margin segments not distinguishable dorsal furrow narrow. and while they showed all sorts of distortion. . and slope as the Mexican specimens. U. The proportions and width of the brim and border are the same in the two species. apparently at sides only pleural platforms somewhat narrower than axis. gently sloping two or three segments may be present marginal furrow not preserved. sides. and (in some specimens) of the border in A. convexity. 102 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS of 1 VOL. border narrow. sides tapered very slightly to broadly rounded end. but only two of the specimens in the type lot have the pygidium. It differs from all other described species of Antagmus except A. The species differs from A. though a complete carapace. Discussion. all the cranidia in the type lot were examined. is only a mold in fine yellow sandy shale. but the approximate width can be estimated from a trace of the anterior margin running along the right side. . The holotype of Antagmus buttsi (Resser). sulitarius Lochman in its much wider brim. Outer and inner surfaces of test not known. and the slight divergence of the anterior facial suture. which is not well preserved. What can be determined of it would certainly indicate a congeneric relation. Pygidium small. and the only difference noted is the convex and sloping condition of the brim. perola (Walcott) in the much greater width of the brim. it is impossible to be sure which feature is the true one. pleural segments with short pointed falcate ends and crossed by shallow. but more detailed analysis cannot be made. were moderately convex and regularly sloping in the normal condition. This species is represented in the Mexican material by 10 cranidia ranging in length from 3 mm. vertical in position posteriorly. . Likewise. several are better preserved than the holotype. .5 mm. to 6. the preservation has rendered a complete description of the pygidium impossible. but it seems as if the brim. — . The glabella is flattened and worn off on top and the entire border is broken off. and the cephalon as a whole is distorted and poorly preserved. narrow. In trying to compare the Mexican specimens with this material. medium-wide pleural furrows.S. transverse in outline axis broad.. II9 Thorax 5 narrow segments .N. perola (Walcott) is the only other species of Antagmus in which the thorax of 15 segments is known. and showed a brim and border of the same width. perola (Walcott). gently sloping at .

crossed by a broad shallow marginal furrow. with a small median node. and a smaller cranidium. IO3 hypotypes. faint glabellar furrows at first pair straight. . shallow across front of glabella. locality. slight horizontal . From A. with posterior highest. In the type lot of the specimens is not well preserved. fading at center with a very V-shaped indentation.1 . .S. —This species of which the brim is diverging facial suture of the latter species. steeper at sides . It corresponds closely in all preserved parts to the larger cranidium. largest specimen 5 mm. . marginal furrow broad. but this portion of suture. figures 8-1 Cranidium square. which is broken at the edges of the cheeks. 5744. No. approximately same length as occipital ring. strongly convex. Occipital furrow of center. Outer surface of Thorax and pygidium not known. Nos. . in length. moderately convex. narrow.M.S. Fixed cheeks two-thirds width of glabella. horizontal. Buelna formation. solitarius it appears to go straight forward. thence Free cheek not known. three pairs of short. Hypotypes. 15745 unfigured Formation and —Lower Cambrian. well defined for nearly entire length. is known from one small adult cranidium somewhat crushed. Palpebral lobes small. second and third pairs slightly arcuate. new species Plate 21. tennesseensis several cranidia show a straight suture while others have a slight divergence. then lobes. sloping anteriorly sides only .N. border medium wide. tennesseensis it differs in the wider brim and the Discussion.N. U. anterior margin rounded. expanding flat. glabella coni- with straight front. ANTAGMUS SOLITARIUS Lochman. curving slightly to just behind the front of the glabella posterior limbs narrow. and has an undamaged brim. curving out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. to center. shallow through Occipital ring slightly convex. typicalis Resser in the very narrow brim but differs in the convex border and the straight anterior facial suture. slightly convex. by cal 5 mm. on midline of glabella palpebral furrow narrow. Brim narrow. Dorsal furrow broad. curving out running straight back to and curving around palpebral test finely granulated. . shallow ocular ridge low. medium width. NO.M. under 3 mm. although the preservation of both species makes it difficult to determine the true course of this A. The species is very close to A. In the cranidia of A. and posterior limbs. to furrow. 809a. narrow at sides. deep at sides. well defined at sides. —U. sloping gently at center. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN b. 11 1 . 11 5746. palpebral lobes. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. 115743a.

broad.N. . Posterior limbs short. slightly convex. narrowing in front of glabella. — Genus ONCHOCEPHALUS Resser. Oc- narrow at sides. very faint border narrow. flat and sloping slightly. curving out to marginal furrow. 3^ mm. glabella conical with a nearly straight front. Pygidium small. shallow. of glabellar furrows at sides only.— Holotype. rounded end. very faint second pair well Occipital defined. shallow at sides.S. average dimensions Si eyes by 4f across the mm. only moderately convex. expanding at center with a minute median node dorsal furrow broad. U. new species 18-29 i^in^- Cranidium subquadrate. of medium width at sides. No. shallow around front brim nearly flat. slightly sloping. palpebral furrow narrow. deep at sides. with median expansion. 809a. and scattered fine punctations. Marginal furrow broad.M. Lower Cambrian. . Outer surface of test finely granulated inner surface showing coarse venation on brim. Border narrow. . Marginal furrow narrow. transverse. Palpebral lobes small. first pair straight. curving down on outside. sides subparallel cipital ring . crossed by a broad. figures 5. shallower through middle. Three pairs . 1937 ONCHOCEPHALUS BUELNAENSIS Plate 20. U. into and around the palpebral lobes.S. . horizontal on inside. ocular ridges narrow. . axis broad. paratype. 115741. not quite reaching marginal furrow.M. third pair well defined. in length. Facial suture cutting anterior margin about halfway from center. with greatest elevation in posterior and sloping regularly to quite low anteriorly. curving slightly into dorsal furrow behind front of glabella. Antesegment well defined by furrow second segment set off by a very faint broad furrow with a low oval bulge on each side of to broadly rior half . slightly arcuate. with a short-pointed anterior projection and a short slender genal spine. thence out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle.I04 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. arcuate.N. becoming very shallow on median line and bending into a broad V. slightly convex. deep at sides. on midline through glabella. . furrow distinct. then back. in length. 1 15740. Lochman. Formation and locality. same width as occipital ring. Fixed cheeks threefourths width of glabella. slightly downsloping. wide by i^ mm. II9 Ty/)^^. elongate with small eye at inner angle ocular platform of medium width. Free cheek narrow. horizontal posteriorly. Buelna formation. No. shallow marginal furrow. Thorax not known. then curving downward anteriorly anterior margin rounded. moderately convex.

paratypes: cranidia. free cheeks. width of axis. well-defined pleural furrows. the outer surface has invariably been torn in breaking them out. U. in length glabella moderately convex. expanding in center with probably a small median node. its poor preservation.M. The holotype cranidium and some of the paratypes are from locality 807c.S. margin. but flat. U. U. — 807c.S. because of narrower. ONCHOCEPHALUS MEXICANUS Lochman.N. 115726. Nos. figures 6-17 Cranidium rectangular. across the eyes by 5 mm. 115727.S. pygidia. Buelna formation. flat. differs it appears to be very similar to O. new species Plate 20. 11 5724. In O. 115733. Lower Cambrian. This species is known from a number of cranidia and some free cheeks and pygidia. O. No. .NO. terminal portion Pleural platforms three-fourths narrow.S. can be com- pared accurately. flat. 115731.S. — This feature can be readily demonstrated by partially peeled cranidia in collection from locality 809a. nal portion divided faint. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN in IO5 center . cott) the wider. very shallow across center. steeply sloping at back distinct indentation at posterior margin with a median line . 115725. Dorsal furrow narrow. Brim of medium . Nos. slightly ascending border is O. .N. . Therefore. but the preservation of the single holotype cranidium of that species is so huelnaensis seems quite close to poor that Types. Occipital ring narrow at sides. 115730. huelnaensis. —Holotype. specific characters are not really distinguishable. from it in having the brim and definitely horizontal in position. third pair arcuate. dorsal furrow broad. Three pairs of faint short glabellar furrows. inner surface not known. deep at sides.N. all the furrows are slightly deeper and the ocular ridges stronger than in specimens preserving the outer surface. virginicus (Resser). set off by a broad faint arcuate furrow with two low oval bulges halfway on each side. average dimensions 6 mm. shallow across front of glabella. 115732. distinct at sides.N. outer surface finely granulated. sloping to low anteriorly conical with a nearly straight front. 115729. No.M. and while they have a clear outline and are fresh. U. 809a.M. Nos. U. third segment broad. Remarks. In so far as the type.M.N.M. Onchocephalus fhia (Walcott). horizontal at sides. 80 if. 1 1 5734-1 15735Formation and locality. sloping gently with two anterior segments and a termiby narrow interpleural grooves running clear to faint. unfigured paratypes. Occipital furrow of medium width. 11 5728. leuka (Walquite different. first and second pairs straight. highest posteriorly. Marginal furrow Border narrow.

descending. anterior margin rounded. suture cutting anterior margin on line with dorsal furrow. palpebral furrow narrow. Outer surface of test finely granulated inner surface appears smooth. but only 12 pygidia were obtained. flat. Interpleural grooves narrow. continuing downslope of glabella. running out across the border. where it appears to bend slightly back form V. slightly curved to just back . ocular ridges practically obsolete. the free cheek with the more convex ocular platform was associated with the more convex cranidium. faint in center to fourths width of glabella. shallow . vertical at posterior median line. moderately convex at sides. Free cheek narrow. ping down very steeply to a very faint marginal furrow. Border narrow. Pygidium small. Remarks. II9 width. is —This species extremely abundant in locality 809a. flat near dorsal furrow. . 2^ mm. a fact size. long. descending regularly. only sparsely represented at the other in the The cranidia are numbered pygidium hundreds. moderately convex. faint pleural platforms one-half width of axis. the author decided to assign the more convex type of pygidium to the more convex cranidium. slightly convex. sides subparallel to broadly rounded end. slightly convex. buelnaensis . others only at sides. Likewise. I06 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. not quite reaching marginal furrow. then straight back and around palpebral lobes then curving out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. on midline through glabella. of front of glabella posterior limbs short. with a Facial short anterior projection and a short slender genal spine. only slightly convex in front of glabella. slightly convex. crossed by a broad. border narrow. . anterior one nearly across. gently sloping marginal furrow very . axis broad.. and the steep slope of the pleural O. curving out to marginal furrow. Ocular platform of medium width. flat. downsloping. elongate. Outer surface is finely granulated inner surface not known. sloping down slightly at sides but becoming . with small eye at inner angle. palpebral lobes small. and a terminal portion border . Onchocephalus mexicantis Lochman as here recognized differs from in the steeper descent of the brim and continued downslope of the border of the cranidium. Marginal furrow broad. dividing two anterior segments. shallow marginal furrow. faint axial furrows. narrow. wide by Three i mm. crossed by pleural furrows. convex. faint . then drop. expanding backward on midline. marking off three seg- ments and a terminal portion dorsal furrow narrow. only slightly wider than occipital ring. Fixed cheeks threedistinct at sides. but localities. transverse. probably due to their small to associate with In trying to determine which in these which cranidium two species of Onchocephalus.

115714. figures 1-4 Sotnbrerella mexicana 18. No.S.N.. horizontal at center. cranidia The species are definitely close.M. The author was not able to demonstrate a gradational series between the two types. 15- Original description. Paleontol. U. sloping at sides.N. This would afford a very interesting problem as plenty of material is available. border of medium . at sides but nearly obsolete across center low anterior three short. Types.M. 1948. 115719. 454. 1948 SOMBRERELLA MEXICANA Lochman Plate 20. faint . Lochman. U. 807c.S. strongly convex with appearance of a median ridge. moderately convex. I I57i8. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. 4 mm. narrow . — : unfigured paratypes. Thorax and pygidium not known. 1 1 5716 U. paratypes cranidia. slightly forward of . Discussion.M. Genus SOMBRERELLA Lochman. Free cheek not known. —Cranidium down by 4^ mm. punctations on fixed cheeks and posterior Hmbs. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN IO7 platforms of the pygidium. in profile continuing upward slope of back of glabella brim narrow. free cheeks. furrow narrow. 115717. shallow. slightly curved to just .S. . expanding rapidly to center with a node on posterior margin.S. Buelna limestone. flat. NO. running out and back to marginal furrow.N. — 809b. 809a. vol. it may be possible to show such a feature. across eyes narrowly conical with straight front.N. profile highest posteriorly. sloping steeply extremely faint glabellar furrows at sides. Lower Cambrian. Outer surface not known inner surface with coarse punctations on brim and medium-sized behind front of glabella . pi. Formation and locality. Nos. 115715. occipital . figs. . Nos.. well defined. p. Fixed cheeks approximately one-half width of glabella. width. present occipital ring flat. 801 f. glabella subquadrate. posterior limbs same width as occipital ring. to a very . in length.pygidia. then back and in to and around palpebral lobes thence curving out and back to cut posterior margin well within genal angle.N. Nos.M. No.S. narrower toward center with a suggestion of a medium in- dentation . but if a hundred or more specimens are cleaned. horizontal palpebral lobes small. horizontal anterior margin rounded. palpebral furrow shal- ocular ridge narrow.M. Only two small cranidia represent — this genus and . marginal furrow broad. 115720-115723. Holotype. U. 115713. center but not on anterior one-third of glabella low. but the from each locality can be separated into the two types. U. Journ. 70. 22. .

Although the top is broken. in glabella narrow. Formation and locality. Discussion. on midline through glabella. sloping . 7^ length . vex. occipital furrow broad. and the limb itself actually extends only a short distance . posterior limbs if times the width of occipital ring. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.N. deep. ex- panding to medium at center. .M. very faint. high posteriorly with steep slope anteriorly. Buelna formation. very slightly in center . U. flat. across eyes by 6 mm. is known. subquadrate. by one-fourth more than the width of . so that some question remains as to whether the extreme appearance of the holotype may not be due to some slight distortion of the specimen which cannot now be detected. Facial suture at anterior margin not known from marginal furrow running straight back and slightly in to and around palpebral lobes. moderately at sides. beyond the palpebral lobe). three pairs of short straight glabellar furrows at sides only.S. palpebral furrow shallow.S. 115712. prominent. the glabella in the paratype does not seem quite so still narrow and steep as in the holotype. ocular ridge narrow. figures 13. horizontal palpebral lobes small. No. is not known in any described Lower Cambrian However. i 14 Cranidium wide. crossed by a broad. Lower Cambrian. 809a. Outer surface finely granulated inner surface not known. .I08 species. the one cranidium is not specifically determinable . slightly convex dorsal furrow broad. curving to near front of glabella. moderately convex. The author can detect no evi- — dence of distortion. marginal furrow narrow. conical with nearly straight front. which appears fairly well preserved except for the loss of the border and slight damage to the brim and right fixed cheek. well defined all around glabella brim of medium width. Thorax and pygidium not known. Holotype: cranidium. mm. very shallow at sides. yet the cranidium presents a combination of generic characters which genus. then curving out and abruptly back to cut posterior margin within genal angle (most of width of limb is caused by the wide fixed cheeks. becoming slightly longer posteriorly. IIQ The broken glabella on the paratype suggests that this ex- posed portion of the cranidium was especially subject to damage. Free cheek not known. Only a single cranidium. No. well defined. U. paratype: broken cranidium. apparently obsolete in center but appearing at least bella border damaged very gently con- medium in width.M. occipital ring narrow. Types. Fixed cheeks wider than glaglabella.N. well-defined marginal furrow. 115711. — — GENUS AND SPECIES UNDETERMINED Plate 21.

Shell a low.: 1 NO. U.M. a straight hinge line. However. 1 15742. on midline of glabella. with three pairs of short glabellar furrows. Bradoria has no central apex to the carapace. has similar described from the Lower Cambrian of Nova Scotia and the test is also of dark phosphatic material. Buelna formation. elongate cone given below and they thin layer of calcareo- composed of a . However. The combination unique 1. apparently broken shells. 4. Figured cranidium.N.S. even though broken. surface ornamentation at first glance suggests the Archaeostracan Matthew. 5. is A brief description covering the salient characters of the shells are figured for future reference. The author believes that the specimens show some resemblance to the type of small cone-shaped shells described as Kinsabia varigata Lochman from the early Upper Cambrian. and the author will not erect a new genus on such a specimen. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN lOQ because of the damage. B. 2. Glabella narrow. the shells of Kinsabia have a very distinct calcareous composition quite unlike the phosphatic material of these Mexican specimens. Lower Cambrian. rugidosa concentric ridges on the surface. it seems unwise to assign them to any named Cambrian genus cause their affinities at present be- are clearly not determinable. — — MIDDLE CAMBRIAN FAUNAS PROBLEMATICUM Plate 28. No. or even the genus Bradoria of which one species. conical with regularly convex. Fixed cheeks li the width of the glabella. 3. The it generic characters are listed and the specimen described and its affinities figured so that may be recognized when other cranidia like are found. Fixed cheeks horizontal. Formation and locality. Bradoria is general shape of the Bradoria carapace. straight front. Posterior limbs i| width of the occipital ring. None of the Mexican specimens. of generic characters which makes the cranidium is The palpebral lobes small. figures 8-1 III from the Arrojos formation contains four small coneThey are composed of a thin black phosphatic material. The collection A shaped. Therefore. give any suggestion of an ocular tubercle. Not enough can be determined from the specimens to make any accurate determination even of their phylum. 809a.

. 1920. the sponge. and the . "Reticulum. 2. 67.S. (2) surrounded by a long series of concentrically arranged ridges which make about a half turn and then bifurcate. 2a-c. — — 8ood. Figured specimens. U. 86. 6. Formation and locality. the spicules being em- bedded in the compact skin-like layer.M. Nos. figures 1-7 Chancelloria eras figs. —"General form . slightly excentric in position . Original description. pi. and it is only when the spicules have been displaced in relation to the dermal layer that their structure is revealed the two exposed rays diverge at an angle of from 80 to 90 degrees. The largest specimen measures 3 by 2 mm. i. (3) toward the outer half of the cone the ridges anastomose so closely as to pro- duce a coarse reticulate pattern. la-f. 1920 Order Hexactinellida Family CHANCELLORIDAE CHANCELLORIA CHANCELLORIA EROS Genus Walcott. but displaced spicules in the outer layer (extosome) and flat-lying . that they there are twelve of the elongate and four all frond-like specimens in the collection. Middle Cambrian. No. tubular.N. 1920 Walcott Plate 28. none of the specimens showing a complete outline. vol. finger-shaped or in fronds of varying outline shale. II9 phosphatic material. either before or after being embedded in the sediment. center of cone nearly central or as all have ragged outer edges . surface ornamentation quite distinctive consisting of (i) a nearly smooth apical area marked by only a few puncta. of which are flattened in the were hollow or filled v/ith very soft tissue is indicated by a specimen in which the greatly reduced space between the walls is filled with a thin layer of shale between the dermal spicular layers of the former opposite walls. Smithsonian Misc. two of the rays of each spicule are exposed with their points extending upward. Walcott. figs. 329. Phylum PORIFERA Walcott. when the dermal layer has been partially removed. 88. p. first impression is that they represent two actines of a triaene spicule. 1 15920. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. pi. —The skeletal spicules are not united to form a con- nected framework but occur more or less irregularly in the walls of In specimens preserving the dermal layer intact only the outlines of the spicular rays are to be seen. Arrojos formation. Coll.

. but these portions broken off from many-rayed spicules. men.5 mm. if present. each of which is truncated at its inner end where it joins the central disk. and is broadly rounded at the top and almost transverse at the base. with 5 a width as flattened on the shale of 20 mm. may be The presence of a not readily proven on the larger it stellate spicules is they have been crushed . vertical or axial ray for. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN III (endosome) prove that the spicules have a body formed of a small disk hollowed out on one side and slightly convex on the other side some show a tubercle that in one spicule appears as though it might have been the base of a vertical ray with a central canal. straight or curved acicular ray the rays may be nearly on a plane or may curve downward into an umbrella-like form apparently there are some two or spicules in the inner layer definite ..25 mm. down into the mud and con- cealed or broken off is the presence of an apparently broken-off base in the center of the body that leads to the conclusion that a vertical it ray existed .. it is then expanded and fitted closely to the adjacent rays for a short distance a clearly defined line delimits the inner end and sides of each ray within the disk the base of each ray is swollen and has a shallow round pit on the upper side corresponding in appearance to the hollow on the central disk the rays taper rapidly from where they join the body of the spicule and each one forms a slender. A frondlike specimen is 38 by 41 min. . in length but these may belong to a separate and as yet unrecognized species. The two exposed rays of the spicules in the elongate specimen average from 2.. diameter from the tips of the rays. six-rayed spicule. . "The central the outer wall (ectosome) with body of the spicules appears to have been embedded in its convex side towards the base and the transverse axis horizontal or nearly at right angles to the vertical axis of the sponge. . length of ray from where it joins the body to its tip 1. that appear to be pressed down with —The largest specimen has a length of 95 mm. body of spicule 0. a small-sized. there are from 4 to 9 rays. where broken off at the basal end." . . in length in the upper half and from 1. NO. three rayed spicules with a swollen central body. at its upper end and mm.5 to 2 in mm. there is also a strong probability of its presence as occurs on similar spicules in Chancelloria drusilla. fine slender spicules occur along the upper margin the rays of the longer spicules. some large detached spicules have rays 10 mm.5 to 3 mm. central disk or node 0. 3 mm. in the lower part.25 mm.. . Tufts of "Dimensions. two of its rays turned upward just beneath this dermal outer covering and the others were embedded in the cortex within an inner wall of flat-lying spicules is indicated by one speci. has the following proportions .

The author these badly believes that secondary deposition of calcite has taken place along the sutures and this has held the rays together. All are readily referrable to the genus Chancelloria. them thus rather than of the spicules. Many of worn specimens show a pit is indicated Comparison with the silicified specimens in the collection from locality 800a. Several spicules are illustrated in which the rays reach a length of 3 to 4 that the ray is mm. Nos. Since the individual spicules are so similar to those of C. be on the basis The best-preserved spicules show the individual rays with the inner end truncated where they fit against the central vertical ray and the The rays frequently flat edges where they fit against each other.112 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 4). but in all the blunt ends suggest not now its full still length. the side rays appear to slant or curve upward from the base of the vertical ray at approximately a of The 30° angle. Arrojos formation. pit in the central disk. The most complete side rays are slightly curved (pi. eros. 115912-115916. fig. all four silicified spicules from locality 800a have in place. In all the Mexican spicules in which the feature can be accurately observed. Several broken spicules from locality 800c show a low knob with a central pit at the base of each ray. IIQ Hundreds of detached sponge spicules occur in locality Discussion.M. Hypotypes. but the shape or dimensions of the body of the sponge are not known from these specimens. Formation and 800a. In a few spicules from locality its off. 801 n. the author has preferred to assign describe a new species which could differentiated from C. but in many the vertical ray appears to have been worn it However. locality. side rays of the Mexican spicules number 4 to 7. The majority in of the spicules in the collection from locality 800c show considerable wear and appear simply which the central ray or disk is as six.S. eros Walcott. with spicules 6 or 7 side rays being commonest. suggests from the lower surface. All details — of spicular structure mentioned by Walcott under that species can be matched by specimens in the Mexican material. in which such a that such specimens are being viewed on the base of the vertical ray. 115918.or seven-rayed stars not separable from the side rays. 115919a. separate along these sutures. 800c the vertical ray is present or a clean break demonstrates position. and are for the present identified as C. 800c. 8ooc and a few have been obtained from localities 80 in and 800a. eros Walcott from the Burgess shale. —Middle Cambrian. —U. 28. not. .N.

from the Kootenia-Glossopleura zone. from aperture one additional narrow longitudinal ridge appears by implantation on each side of the median ridge the appearance on the specimens . Several other badly weathered internal molds are also referred to their preservation is so this species. — The paratypes consist both of other well- preserved internal molds and three specimens showing the external surface. new species 113 INCERTAE SEDIS HYOLITHES SONORA Plate 27. It is hard to compare H. the arcuate growth lines of the exterior cross the ridges without interruption. straight. . All are more or less still in the matrix. Large fragments suggesting a length of 50 mm. This species is represented by 10 or more specimens Discussion. H.. NO. several narrow spaced the longitudinal ridges appearing along the outer edges in smaller shells in the large fragment five narrow. The holotype is a small. Estimated length of average shell between 25 and 30 mm. the width at the aperture. the dorsoventral diameter on the midline measuring two-thirds the length of the dorsal side so that lateral angles are approximately 50° -52°. sonora Lochman. Outer surface of dorsal side crossed lip at '"' '^ ' by regular. broken internal mold which is free from the matrix and shows the very characteristic transverse section. figures 17-25 Shell conical. outer surface of ventral side not known. with 11-12 mm. transverse sec- tion with sharp lateral angles. Surface of the internal mold crossed by innumerable very centric striations (approximately con- 20 in a millimeter) well-defined. but both are very fragmentary. A base . with a nearly flat (very slightly convex) dorsal surface and a strongly convex ventral surface . H. prolixus Resser is represented by free specimens which have a different transverse section.. and 12 mm. fine. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN Lochman. comptus . with the other described Middle Cambrian species of Hyolithes because of the usual poor preservation. Two opercula are known. with a width at aperture of 15 mm. closely spaced. fragmentary operculum has a triangular shape with semicircular the surface is crossed by three or four semicircular grooves paralleling the base. although poor that only the characteristic transverse section can be made out. new species.. the dorsal aper- arcuate growth lines which indicate an upcurved ture . regularly longitudinal ridges cross the dorsal surface. suggests that these longitudinal ridges are caused by longitudinal grooves on the interior of the shell .

Formation and locality. eral —"This species is represented by casts of sev- specimens of the cranidium that are preserved in a fine sandstone ..M. Original description. 4. 5. Arrojos formation. so that nothing can be told of the transverse section.S. No. 1 15936. 3. paratypes. Washington Publ. pi. figs. Coll. p. Figured specimen. 184. Phylum Family ARTHROPODA Resser. 801L. Types. 801-O.S.. II9 Howell and H. in this collection. though none of them shows the longitudinal ridges which can be seen on some of the specimens of H. No. vol. 115902. figs. but seems most closely to resemble far hiirlingi Resser from the Langston formation. 6. Consequently it is impossible compare the various specimens accurately. specific identification. Smithsonian Misc. sonora Lochman. p. The preservation it really too poor to warrant an exact Idaho. Formation and locality. Middle Cambrian. figures 23-25 One It is small (2 mm. 191 6. The apex curves forward but probably not downward and and die out on the lateral surfaces. Arrojos formation. cercops Walcott from the Spence shale are both flat- tened in shale. 1939 Class Trilobita ALOKISTOCARIDAE Plate 27. figures 3-8 ALOKISTOCARE ALTHEA Walcott Alokistocare althea Walcott. vol. 22. — Nos. U. pi. Bear River Range.M. five well-defined concentric ribs cross the anterior profile — — 800c.N. 64. p.S. Coll. 25. The same to condition plus quite poor preservation holds for H. worn organic is an internal limestone mold. 115903-115910. 800c. much worn and showing the many pellets so cracks which appear to characterize the com- mon H. 563. ida- hoensis Resser from the Rennie shale. U. 93. No. 6-1 1. Plylum Class MOLLUSCA Gastropoda species undetermined HELCIONELLA.N.N. Carnegie Inst.— SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 114 VOL. Holotype. 1935. No. 203. Plate 28. U. Smithsonian Misc. 4a. 3a. 3.M. —Middle Cambrian. 8oin. Resser.) specimen of Helcionella was obtained from 8ooc. 8ooa.

back of midline of glabella but not on posterior third. shallower across center occipital ring narrow. palpebral furrows shallow. Free cheek a slender triangle with medium eye at inner angle ocular platform of medium width. convex. NO. the two beds are separated stratigraphically by 200 to 300 feet in thickness of sandy shale. Nothing is known of the surface of the and only indis- furrows are to be seen. Alokistocare althea occurs in a fine sandstone matrix and the variety in a sandy shale . 4a. medium-length. second narrow. straight. strongly descending marginal furrow narrow. . . flat. curving out and back to marginal furrow. II5 matrix. and upturned . The two forms are. with broadly rounded front. in Pygidium triangular shape . deep and sides. with a short pointed anterior projection and a . pleural platforms approximately one-third width of axis. flat at is medium center. slightly convex. an- terior margin broadly curved. closely related and may belong to the same species. The most nearly related cranidium is that represented by figures 4. arcuate. Thorax lobes . strongly convex. however. well defined border narrow. thence curving out and back to cut posterior margin well within genal angle. only slightly convex. of 19 narrow segments . border seen. concave at sides. de- scending at sides. slender flat genal spine. plate 25. onto the posterior part of border which width. . same length as occipital ring. faint curved ocular ridge extending to anterior corners of glabella. extending to posterior margin with broadly rounded end. posterior to low anteriorly. well defined at row. flat. axis wide. . narrow posterior limb of medium width. the apparent tinct traces of the glabellar differences being caused by the condition of preservation of the speci- mens. horizontal. slitlike at sides. downsloping no interpleural grooves or segments seen no marginal furrow or . first pair short. with a small median node. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. width of gla- bella. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN test. very slightly upsloping palpebral lobes medium. then running straight in to and curving around palpebral lobes. fainter across front and third arcuate dorsal furrow occipital furrow nar. brim of medium width. dorsal furrow obsolete. slightly convex. . highest — . three pairs of short. faint glabellar fur- rows. which difters in details of frontal rim and boss.." Supplementary description. but rising in front of glabella into a broad triangular median boss extending across the narrow marginal furrow (nearly blotting of it out at center). Cranidium slightly elongate glabella conical. Fixed cheeks three-fifths . narrower than pleural pleural segments crossed by broad and very shallow pleural furrows and ending in short pointed falcate terminations. divided by two narrow furrows into two segments and a broad terminal portion. axis low. with nearly parallel sides. .

conical. dorsal furrow well defined occipital furrow broad. low . palpebral lobes of medium curved. elongate. it The largest cranidium. with meocular platform about medium width. deep at sides. length and width same. shallow across center occipital ring triangular.M. nar- . several free cheeks and a pygidium. first and third longer. interrupted at center by a very low median bulge which starts on posterior edge of brim and to is border slightly over half the width of brim. descending. descending at 45° . new species Plate 27. second . three pairs of medium glabellar furrows. shallow ocular ridge wide. in length . highest posteriorly to quite low anteriorly . figures 11-16 Cranidium quadrate. Formation and locality. . strong. They agree in every feature with the adults except that the median boss is mentary but are very broken.—U. interesting as shows the size not developed yet. slightly convex. marginal furrow very shallow. slightly convex. anterior margin evenly rounded.S. extremely shallow. medium width. Resser (1945) demonstrated that both the shale and sand specimens come from the same stratigraphic position and not as stated McKee and by Walcott in his description. . a complete carapace in shale. convexity low. IIQ Outer surface coarsely granulated inner surface punctate with heavy anastomosing veins crossing ocular platform and brim. At this time Resser chose U. as the lectotype. Hypotypes. size. identifiable specifically. flat. shallow marginal furrow. ALOKISTOCARE MODESTUM Lochman. across the eyes by practically mm. adult cranidia.S. straight. glabella short. These cranidia are about 3 mm. All are quite frag- — is though which can be reached by the species and also the stronger glabellar furrows in the larger individual.Il6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS . Nos. posterior limbs nearly same length as occipital ring. 61574.'NM. No. Arrojos formation. This species is represented by two immature and three Discussion. arcuate. very slightly convex. The two immature cranidia are important also. — 801-O. with a small median node brim of pair short.N. 11 5887-1 15892. very slightly upsloping . Fixed . with broadly rounded front. marginal furrowelongate forward broad. This specimen is somewhat flattened. VOL. average specimen 6 6 mm. touch the border cheeks over one-half but not quite two-thirds width of glabella. dium-sized eye at inner angle Free cheek of medium width. slightly convex. steeply sloping . but except for this distortion is obviously the same species as the sand specimen. . crossed by a broad. in length. Middle Cambrian. pal. situated just back of midline of glabella. pebral furrow wide.

Outer surface covered thickly with pearing smooth. development of the median bulge and in the width and proportions of the brim and border. in length) from the Langston formation of Idaho. Formation and locality. cranidium. anterior margin well out at sides. The single small cranidium (4 mm. modestmn. Thorax and pygidium not known. Additional and preserved specimens from both localities better- may demonstrate the syn- onymy of the species. free cheeks in the collection from The granulated outer surface is quite well preserved. idahoensis (Resser) (not A.N. is clearly a species of Alokistocare. a feature more characteristic of Kistocare tontoensis (Resser) of this same fauna. somewhat more convex.S. MODESTUM 9. 115899. modestum Lochman. — Holotype: cranidia. ii590ia. subcoronatum (Hall and Whitfield) differing from it mainly in the weaker development of the median bulge and the steeper descent of the border.NO.M. A. Lochman. — 8oin.S. ments seem appear to The measureThe specimens resemble A. new species 10 Plate 27. The author considers that . U. 11 5900. ALOKISTOCARE cf. Nos. modestum Loch- man in having the brim and border of practically the same width. curving out to marginal furrow. fine granules . slightly convex. 11 5897. The species is most similar to the genotype. inner surface ap- —This species is represented by eight cranidia and three locality 8oin. Facial suture cutting . In the genotype the border is essentially horizontal in position. identified by Resser as Inglefieldia idahoensis.M. They do show. then curving back and into and around palpebral lobes. and the border apparently Types. the surface be- ing weathered and the edges of the cranidia broken. 115898. Discussion. new species. Middle Cambrian. A. however. Nos. paraU. free U. in the weak to fit Alokistocare rather than Kistocare.N.S.d.b. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN II7 anterior projection row border narrow. Arrojos formation. but at present the holotype of A. three pairs of welldeveloped glabellar furrows. and is very close to A.M. types: cheeks. showing the same type of low median bulge. None is from locality 800a are given this very well preserved. figures Three cranidia in the collection tentative identification. thence running diagonally out and curving back to cut posterior margin within genal angle.N. ii590ic. No. idahoense Resser) differs from A. horizontal with a short pointed and a short flat genal spine.

terior to midline of glabella . regu- downsloping. and a fourth one somewhat smaller from locality 8oin. new species i. slightly convex. This species is represented by three cranidia 6^ mm. in length — . and a broken. IIQ may be a possibility that these cranidia are actually the same as those representing that species. arcuate. rapidly anteriorly three pairs of faint glabellar furrows. anterior margin evenly curved. new 1 1 remain tentative. becoming fainter across center. Nos. Il8 there SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. same length as occipital ring. palpebral furrow shallow. deeply weathered cranidium. clear at sides. — Middle Cambrian. in length.. sloping down . Fixed cheeks slightly pos- not quite two-thirds width of glabella. shallow and wider across center occipital ring of me- dium larly width. slightly convex. rounded in with greatest convexity posterior. shallow. low. Inner surface not known. deep marginal furrow. 2 front. figures . . curved. Formation and 800a. except the smooth furrows and bulge on the border. Therefore their species. third longer. —U. slightly convex and slightly downsloping palpebral lobes just under medium. a medium-wide. from 8ooc. . Free cheek not known. 7 mm. first pair short. all fur- rows mainly distinguished by absence of granules well-defined dorsal furrow around glabella slitlike at sides. occipital . curving out and back to marginal furrow. Figured specimens. should identification as Alokistocare modestum Lochman. Outer surface thickly covered with medium-sized granules. 1938 ALOKISTOCARELLA MEXICANA Plate 27. ALOKISTOCARELLA 15895. then run- ning diagonally into and curving around palpebral lobes. Thorax and pygidium not known. crossed by a medium-wide. . brim of medium width. transversely oval bulge on median line in posterior half . straight. well defined . Genus Resser. It is interesting to find a species of Alokistocarella in the Mexican Discussion. but that poor preservation or some slight distortion has blurred their true characters. Arrojos formation. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. flat. border three-fourths width of limb. 15894. curved. Cranidium nearly quadrate glabella broadly conical. marginal furrow broad.M. Lochman. slightly downsloping.S. with a low. second short.N. furrow narrow. locality. thence curving first nearly straight out. then sharply back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. gently curved ocular ridge posterior limbs narrow. a broad. convex.

figures 12-22 Kistocare corbini 1948. figs. A. 1948 KISTOCARE CORBINI Lochman Plate 28. Original description. 1 1 1 15884. mexicana dififers from A. very slightly upsloping palpebral lobes wide. typicalis Resser by the descending nature of the narrow border as contrasted to the distinct upcurve in the latter species. U. It is doubtful how much importance should be put on these features. brighamensis fails to show the low median bulge although some cranidia of the former species have a suggestion of it. brim just a bit narrower. No. Formation and locality. 70. deep at sides. second short. 8 mm.M. 800c. dorsal furrow narrow.M._Holotype. b. broadly rounded in front. palpebral furrow broad. diagonal forward. . paratypes. vol. across the eyes by 7 in length glabella conical. typicalis are internal molds in a punky yellow sandy leached limestone. 801 n. Such preservation tends to emphasize the depth of furrows and convexity of glabella. brighamensis Resser in the flat hori- zontal border of the latter species.N. convexity low.. deep at sides. on posterior . straight. nearly horizontal (very slight descent can be seen) anterior margin evenly curved. The Mexican species also has a less convex glabella and a shallower dorsal furrow. strongly curved . posterior limbs narrow. same . 22. 7y^^^. . The preservation of A. subquadrate. shallow. U. raised.N. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN IIQ material so close in all features to the genotype from the southern Appalachian region. . first pair short. flat. sloping downward marginal furrow narrow. ocular ridge wide. but as the types are crushed flattened in shale this and may be only a feature of preservation. 5886. pi. Lochman. Genus KISTOCARE Lochman. shallow across front occipital furrow narrow.S. —Middle Cambrian.. slightly convex. 1-6. becoming faint on median line border narrow. It may be distinguished from A. . Paleoiitol. third pair longer. —"Cranidium mm. Arrojos formation. with a small median . Journ. arcuate. p. because all the types and duplicates of A. shallow. Fixed cheeks slightly over one-half width of glabella. 463. NO. broad and very shallow across center occipital ring of medium width. Nos. slightly convex. prominent. node brim and border nearly subequal. medium size. largest specimen . regular three pairs of moderately deep glabellar furrows. typicalis and A.S. one-third line of glabella. 115885a. slightly longer than wide. flat.

M. then curving back and into and around palpebral lobes thence running diagonally outward and curving abruptly back to cut posterior margin anterior projection ting anterior . Nos. "Outer surface covered thickly with apparently smooth. 115931-115934. apparently extending to posterior margin. strongly convex.120 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Nos. U. U." Discussion.S. elongate.N. medium .S.M. Most of the larger cranidia are broken and crushed and so do not afford a perfect picture of the species. well-defined marginal fur- row. . 115924. U. No. fine granules.S.N. Facial suture cutmargin far out at sides. with ocular platform of flat. "Pygidium broadly transverse axis wide. IIQ length as occipital ring. . within genal angle. . 115929. This species differs from Kistocare tontoensis (Resser) in the somewhat wider proportion of the brim to the border. shallow border nar- row. inner surface —This from species is represented by a number of cranidia.M. — — 800C. . 801 n.N. Free cheek narrow. crossed by a broad. pygidium. free cheeks. . in length. U.S. flat. divided by two broad faint furrows into two narrow segments and a long terminal portion dorsal furrow obsolete pleural platforms slightly more than half the width of axis.M. 1 15930. one and one-half times the border.S. two very faint narrow interpleural grooves distinguishable marginal furrow obsolete no border distinguishable a long.N. Types. medium eye at inner angle. narrow facet turns abruptly back at a 45 ° angle so that the lateral and posterior margins form a single gentle curve. and the nearly horizontal position of the border. curving out to marginal furrow.M. 115925. No. gently descending marginal furrow narrow. U. . 1 15923. "Thorax not known. Middle Cambrian. paratypes: cranidia. . Arrojos formation. almost horizontal. unfigured paratype. . very slightly tapered to a broadly rounded end. then steeply descending. Formation and locality.N. 1 1 5926-1 1 5928. three free cheeks. width. The best-preserved specimens are unfortunately the smaller cranidia so that the holotype and best paratypes are about 3 mm. Holotype. with a slender pointed and a short. slender genal spine. No. and a pygidium in the collection from locality 8ooc and six cranidia locality 8oin. very slightly convex.

NO. continuing downslope of brim anterior margin evenly curved. terior row. well defined very shallow across center a small ." glabella Supplementary description. sHghtly convex. deep at sides. Washington Publ. well-defined Free cheek not known. second and third longer. three pairs of moderately deep glabellar furrows with a pair of faint anterior pits which may represent another vestigial pair first pair short. width at eyes 6. 22. conical. . very slightly longer than wide. length 5. of posterior one-third line of glabella . occipital furrow broad. Inst. length of glabella 3. 563. It —"A little . posterior limbs nar- marginal furrow.5 mm. strongly curved. so that eyelines swing backward sharply. several pairs of furrows and a keel faintly Brim consists of the usual rim and preglabellar area. the convexity cannot be determined. flat with median node brim narrow. . Owing to slight compression. Fixed cheeks slightly over half the width of glabella.5 mm.4 mm. curving out to marginal furrow. Postero-lateral limbs narrow and small. same length as occipital ring. whereas light from the other direction gives the opposite impression. furrow narrow.. figures 26-31 Parehmania tontoensis Resser. 207. Eyes situated behind central point. . gently descending. rim appears to be wider than preglabellar area. medium on palpebral furrow broad.. width at base of glabella 2. tapers normally to truncated front outlined.2 mm. "Glabella occupies a more than half cranidial length. . shallow ocular ridge wide. front broadly rounded. size. occipital ring of medium width.. straight. cranidium has been segregated to repis occurs in micaceous sandstone and coated with limonite. slightly convex. In certain light. Original description. I TRILOBITES LOCH MAN (Resser) 121 KISTOCARE TONTOENSIS Plate 28. prominent. This and shallowness of anterior furrow.2 mm. anterior width of glabella 2. then diagonally back and into and . Fixigenes equal to about three-fourths glabellar width. resent this species. slightly less than border in front of glabella. . Facial suture cutting an- margin far out at sides (on line with outer third of fixed cheek). "Measurements: Holotype (cranidium). flat.. con- vexity low. arcuate dorsal . with suggestion of a very slight median inbend border narrow. crossed by a broad. raised. quite shallow on outer surface. Carnegie pi. Cranidium subquadrate — .. palpebral lobes wide. 1945. although the specimen shows considerable relief both indicates width as a whole and in its various parts. 24. almost horizontal. deeper on internal mold (as in holotype). p. regular . fig. marginal furrow broad.





around palpebral lobes thence curving outward and strongly backward to cut posterior margin within genal angle. Thorax and pygidium not known. Outer surface thickly covered with fine granules inner surface not known. Discussion. This species is represented by five cranidia, most of them partly broken but they check in every detail available with the sandstone-mold holotype from the Grand Canyon region. The supplementary description is based primarily on the holotype cranidium

with the character of the outer surface of the test added from the

should be noted that the original description erred

especially in the width of the fixed cheeks.

toensis but

This species was described by Resser in 1945 as Parehmania tonit differs from Parehmania Deiss, 1939, in the following
The The

diagnostic features

palpebral lobe in
fixed cheeks in



just back of the midline of the

glabella, not

on the posterior one-third

Parehmania are

definitely one-half

width of glabella

and not more.


posterior limbs in

Parehmania are

slightly less than the length of

the occipital ring.
It is interesting to find this

Arizona species in the Mexican section



faunal association in both localities

the same.



maintains the same stratigraphic position throughout this region.

Hypotypes. U.S.N.M. Nos. 11 5937-11 5940. Formation and locality. Middle Cambrian, Arrojos formation,




Kobayashi, 1935


Resser, 1935

Plate 25, figures 33, 34

Cranidium and free cheek not known. Thorax not known. Pygidium transversely rectangular axis of medium width, strongly

convex, tapering posteriorly, with a low extension on the border, divided by narrow furrows into three segments and a terminal portion
dorsal furrow narrow, shallow, extending


around axis pleural lobes

two-thirds width of axis


pleural platforms slightly convex, tapering

segments by broad, shallow interpleural grooves which curve backward and fade into base of spines a narrow,

posteriorly, divided into four







border delimited only along posterior margin, laterally forming

bases of spines

at posterolateral corners a slender flat spine leaves

border and curves very slightly inward for a distance slightly more than
length of body of pygidium


margin from anterior to

tip of

gently convex; posterior margin moderately convex.


surface thickly covered with fine granules.
Discussion. Eight pygidia from locality 80 ik include a number which are broken and small, but several fairly well preserved. No cranidium can be associated with them. They definitely belong to Kochaspis but are not like any previously described species. It is most like the pygidia assigned to K. dispar Resser {K. maladensis Resser) but differs from them in the slight convexity of the pleural platforms

and the direction of the marginal
chosen because of


In the holotype pygidium,

completeness, the convexity

probably some-

what lower than

that attained in the larger adult specimens.

Ty/'^.y.— Holotype,

U.S.N.M. No. 115853; paratypes, U.S.N.M.




Formation and

— Middle

Cambrian, Arrojos formation,





Plate 24, figures 27-30

Crepicephalus celer Walcott, Smithsonian Misc.

Coll., vol. 67,





II, fig. 2, 1917.



(the cranidium), Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 67,


3, p. 85, pi. II, fig. 3,

Kochaspis celer (Walcott) Resser, Smithsonian Misc.
p. 2,7, 1935-





Original description.




more than two-thirds as

long as the cranidium, quite strongly elevated along a subacute medial
ridge which disappears gradually toward the front
the broadly rounded anterior extremity not
as the base

outline trapezoidal,

more than
into the

half as broad

dorsal furrows rather wide, deeply impressed, converging

quite rapidly anteriorly

and rounding sharply



transverse anterior furrow; glabellar furrows also broad and deep,

though not persistent across the crest posterior pair inclined to the axis of the shield at an angle of a little more than 45 °, almost completely

isolating the

tumid posterior lobe; medial pair neither so broad nor

so deep as the posterior and nearly at right angles to the axis
pair a


shorter than the medial, slightly inclined toward the front

and placed nearer

to the medial pair than to the anterior furrows; groove broad and deep, completely dissecting the crest of the



very slightly sinuous


occipital ring rather

narrow, expanded

medially, obtusely angulated at the medial posterior margin, and bear-

ing a rather prominent median node.

Fixed cheeks plump and quite

wide, the distance from the palpebral lobe to the dorsal furrow a

more than

half the

width of the medial portion of the glabella

narrow and probably extended laterally posterior furrow conspicuously broad and deep, its inner terminus in line with both the occipital furrow and ring posterior margin narrow and
postero-lateral lobe

sharply elevated. Palpebral lobe short, narrow, crescentic, set opposite
the lobe between the posterior and medial furrows.

Palpebral ridge

rather prominent, cordate, arching across the fixed cheeks



cepting the dorsal furrows directly in front of the anterior glabellar


Frontal limb rather narrow, inflated laterally, gently de-

clining medially. Frontal border wider medially than the limb, sharply

upturned. Facial sutures imperfectly preserved.

"Exterior surface very finely and closely granulated or roughened

by an irregular
effect of

pitting with broken, depressed ridges that give the

obscure granulation.
in outline exclusive of the posterior

"Pygidium rudely quadrate
constriction, the lateral

margins approximately

parallel to the axis;

anterior margin broken by the forward curve of the axial lobe


margin very broadly and deeply insinuated. Axial lobe large

and coarse, broadly conic

outline, acutely tapering posteriorly;

axial annulations probably very distinct in perfectly preserved individuals, including apparently

6 component segments and a terminal
pleural furrows following the

section. Pleural lobes flexuous, irregular in outline, the anterior lateral

margin an obtuse right angle



general direction as the outer margin but less angulated, disappearing

abruptly along an imaginary arc of about i8o°


extremities of pleural

lobes produced into cuneate appendages, acutely tapering."

represented by four immature cranidia, and several small adult cranidia, none of which are complete enough to warrant positive specific identification.




to 2

in length,

The determinable

details of the adult cranidia suggest close affinities

with Kochaspis celer (Walcott).

This, unlike most species of Koshows the same type of narrow brim and border with a similar slope and convexity. However, the incompleteness of the Mexican material does not warrant positive identification with this species or
description as a



Several of the cranidia show features of immaturity, as (i) in the
smallest cranidium an additional pair of anterior glabellar furrows

appears as small


and (2) the

glabella has a square rather than





1 25

rounded front as



just transitional

from the straight-sided rectangle

of the protaspid stage to the conical type of glabella of the adult.

Several cranidia of Kochaspis celer




through a length of 3-4

1 1

Figured specimens.
1 1


Formation and


—U.S.N.M. Nos. 15824, 15825, 15826, — Middle Cambrian, Arrojos formation,
species undetermined


Plate 25, figures 23, 24

Three very incomplete and poorly preserved cranidia were obtained from two collections in the Puerto Blanco section. They show a strongly convex glabella, broader at base than long, with three pairs of deep, well-defined glabellar furrows, and the outer surface covered
with coarse granules.

The specimens


however, so broken that

even certain generic identification

not possible.


cranidia are

noted because of their possible bearing on the position of the LowerMiddle Cambrian boundary, and because more complete material may

demonstrate that they are the cranidia which should be associated with
the pygidia of Kochaspis cooperi

Lochman, new


Figured specimens.

Formation and
8oih, 8oii.


—U.S.N.M. Nos. 115852a, 115851. —Middle Cambrian, Arrojos
Resser, 1939
Walcott, 1889




Plate 26, figures 1-20

Kootenia exilaxata Deiss, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap.
23-26, 1939-

18, p.

100, pi. 17, figs.


fragilis Deiss, Geol. Soc.

Amer. Spec. Pap.

18, p. 100, pi. 17, figs. 18-20,

Kootenia infera Deiss, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap.

18, p. loi, pi. 17, figs. 9-10,

Kootenia scapegoatensis Deiss, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap.
figs. 1-4, 1939.

18, p. 102, pi.





known from



cranidia and pygidia.


"Cranidium similar to that of Kootenia scapegoatensis, but glabella more slender, and fixed cheeks wider. Width of glabella one-

; ;




half length, including occipital ring. Dorsal

furrows narrow, rounded,



"Pygidium similar to that of Kootenia erromena, but slightly more and possesses a narrower and more parallel-sided axis." Supplementary description. Cranidium subquadrate in outline


broad with parallel


rounding in





low but regular suggestion of a faint short posterior pair of glabellar furrows dorsal furrow narrow, well defined along sides and front, deepening to a small pit at anterolateral corners of glabella occipital ring of occipital furrow broad, deep, especially at sides medium width, convex, with a short, stout, upward-projecting median spine brim a narrow, elongate, steeply sloping triangle in front of fixed cheeks marginal furrow narrow, shallow, continuous with dorsal furrow in front of glabella border narrow, inner part flat and slightly wider at sides, outer part downcurved anterior margin evenly curved. Fixed cheeks approximately one-half width of glabella, slightly convex, downsloping palpebral lobes medium sized, curved, on posterior






one-third line of glabella; ocular ridge broad, faint, slanting diagonally forward to anterior pit

palpebral furrow very faint



limbs narrow, same length as occipital ring, crossed by a well-defined

marginal furrow. Free cheek short, stout, with medium-sized eye at
inner angle

ocular platform of


width, slightly convex,


marginal furrow broad, shallow

border narrow, convex,

horizontal, with a short, pointed anterior projection

and a

short, stout

broad-based genal spine.

Facial suture cutting anterior margin on

midline of fixed cheeks, curving steeply back to marginal furrow, then

running diagonally into and curving around palpebral lobes



running nearly straight out and curving sharply back to cut posterior margin within genal angle.
Associated hypostoma has edges poorly preserved, no border de-

a convex, semicircular posterior lobe separated from anterior by a broad, very shallow semicircular furrow anterior lobe an elongate, convex oval not defined from rest of body of hypostoma, with a crescent-shaped ridge at each posterior corner and a very shallow macula above it anterior lobe merging anteriorly into the very wide lappets which appear to extend outward for some distance anterior margin curved. Pygidium transversely semicircular in outline; axis of medium




width, strongly convex, only slightly tapered to rounded end which

reaches border, divided into three definite, one faint segment, and a

terminal portion by furrows becoming progressively fainter posteriorly dorsal furrow narrow, faint, along sides pleural platforms very
; ;







slightly less than

width of axis, tapered posteriorly, regularly convex,



to a shallow marginal furrow, divided into three


one-half segments by interpleural grooves becoming fainter posteriorly


narrow with six short spines on each

side, anterior

lying opposite the three and one-half segments of pleural lobe


grade in size quite regularly but slightly from longest anterior pair
to shortest posterior

up, the next


lateral pairs lie

median pair the two posterior pairs tend to curve more horizontally, and the two an;

terior pairs tend to slope



Outer surface covered by

fine granules; inner surface apparently

number of cranidia and hypostoma in two collections. It is to be distinguished from all other described species by the combination of the following characters In the cranidium, the low continuous curve of the glabella from front to back the clear separation of the front of the glabella from the border by a well-defined marginal furrow the width of brim at sides is slightly over one-half the width of the front glabella and a short occipital spine is present. In the pygidium, the six pairs of relatively short marginal spines showing progressive increase in length from back to front and the variable curvature and slope of the different pairs. In studying the Mexican species, four species of Kootenia described by Deiss from the Damnation formation of Montana proved to be synonyms. Examination and measurement of the types of these species revealed them to be similar in all features of the cranidia and pygidia, and it became clear that they were simply different-size stages of the same species. Deiss's specimens are unfortunately all of the weathered surface-limestone type and are not well preserved. It is suggested that the specimens of K. erromena Deiss may also represent the same species, but the types are badly crushed and weathered and give somewhat different proportions.


represented by a

and pygidia and a few

free cheeks







entire genus Kootenia

that there has been a

is in need of careful revision. It appears most unnecessary duplication of species. In

addition, uncertainty as to the stratigraphic range of


of these

species has rendered


useless as a zone fossil.


careful at-

tention to identification

and stratigraphic position might well reveal

as a useful form, since

appears to have definite position in the


Hypotypes. Cranidia, U.S.N.M. Nos. ii 5869-1 15872, 11 5874, 115881; pygidia, U.S.N.M. Nos. 115873, 11 5876- 11 5878, 115882; hypostoma, U.S.N.M. No. 1 15875 free cheek, U.S.N.M. No. 115880.





Formation and
800C, 801 n.


Cambrian, Arrojos formation,





Examination and analysis of the genotypes of Athabaskia Raymond,
1928, and Clavaspidella Poulsen, 1927,
that the

two genera,

although closely related forms, are nevertheless distinct, and Resser

(1935) was in error when he placed Athabaskia in synonymy with Raymond's choice of a type species was most unfortunate as his specimens are crushed and poorly preserved in a shale

matrix. In


the specimens of A. ostheimeri

Raymond and its


able synonym, A. glacialis

Raymond, are

possibly the most poorly
analysis of the

preserved of


species belonging to the genus.

two genera reveals

that all the species assigned to Clavaspidella in the

Cordilleran region actually belong to Athabaskia.

The cranidium

of Athabaskia differs


that of Clavaspidella in

the following points



medium width with

parallel sides in posterior half


narrow, with slightly concave sides. The fixed cheeks are two-fifths, or slightly less than one-half, the width of glabella, while those of Clavaspidella are nearly two-thirds the width of the glabella.

while that of Clavaspidella

The pygidium

of AtJmbaskia differs from that of Clavaspidella in

the following points
axis is as wide as, or slightly wider than, the pleural platforms, while that of Clavaspidella is narrower. The marginal furrow is obsolete, while it is present and distinct in





Plate 29, figures i-io

Bathyuriscus belus Walcott, Smithsonian Misc.
pi. 50, figs. 2,

Coll., vol. 64,





2a-d, 1916.
vol. 15, p. 311, 1928.
Coll., vol. 93,

Athabaskia beta (Walcott) Raymond, Amer. Journ. Sci., Clavaspidella beta (Walcott) Resser, Smithsonian Misc.
p. 20, 1935.



Original description. "This species attains a larger size than either B. anax or B. atossa, and differs from them in minor details of the cranidium and pygidium. There is a faint trace of pleural furrows on
the lateral lobes of the pygidium, whereas in B. anax and B. atossa

; ;




from B.
belesis are

1 29

they are strongly defined.
tioned under that species.




"The largest cranidium has a length of 19 mm. and the largest pygidium has a length of 22 mm. and a width of 37 mm. "An associated hypostoma of the Bathyurisctis form has the surface

central portion

marked by


sharp, irregularly concentric



of the cranidia or pygidia appear to have the outer sur-

face of the test.

They occur

as casts in a very fine, chocolate-colored,

arenaceous shale."

Supplementary description.

— Cranidium





width, straight sides in posterior half, then expanding

evenly to the broad, slightly curved front, convexity low, but regular

four pairs of glabellar furrows,

and second pairs short and
dorsal furrow narrow,

straight, at sides only, third short, slightly curved, fourth pair

diagonally backward, not quite reaching center
obsolete around front


well defined to first glabellar furrow, then very shallow

and nearly


furrow well defined

at sides only,

quite shallow across center

occipital ring of


width, triangular,

probably with a small median node



front of

brim a narrow, elongate, fixed cheeks no marginal furrow

border a concave, triangular, vertical strip in front of each brim, with

an extremely narrow convex edge which continues in front of glabella
as a very

narrow rim anterior margin

slightly curved.

Fixed cheeks

very narrow in front, expanding to slightly less than one-half width

convex and upsloping; palpebral lobes arcuate, on posterior one-third line of glabella palpebral furrow broad, well defined no ocular ridge posterior limb somewhat longer than occipital ring, narrow with ends directed backward, crossed by a broad shallow marginal furrow. Free cheek not known. Facial suture cutting anterior margin extremely far out, so that with a very slight curve it turns and runs straight into and curves around palpebral lobes thence curving straight out, then abruptly back to cut posterior margin within
of glabella, slightly






genal angle.

Thorax not known. Pygidium transversely semicircular in outline; axis of medium width and convexity, tapering posteriorly onto the border, divided by narrow furrows into four segments (last one faint), and a terminal

dorsal furrow narrow, only along sides
axis, tapering posteriorly,


pleural platforms

same width as

moderately convex, down-

sloping, divided by narrow, well-defined interpleural grooves into four wide segments, crossed by faint pleural furrows just on inside portion no marginal furrow border of medium width, flat, forming a concave





upcurve from pleural platforms and crossed halfway by the
pleural furrows.


Outer surface apparently smooth except for a few narrow parallel and border of pygidium inner surface not known. Discussion. This species is distinguished from all those described the wide, strongly upturned border of the cranidium, and the four by segments of the axis and quite faint development of the pleural furrows of the pygidium. On many specimens with poorly preserved
ridges on border of cranidium

outer surface they

may appear

to be missing.

number of fragtwo collections. This is the second species from Mexico faunas which also occurs in the Gordon formation of Montana, Hypotypes. Cranidia, U,S.N.M. Nos. 115941, 115942, 115945; pygidia, U,S,N.M. Nos. 11 5943, 11 5946-1 15948. Formation and locality. Middle Cambrian, Arrojos formation,


represented by three cranidia and a

mentary pygidia

800c, 8oin,



Plate 31, figures 1-3
Clavaspidella minor Resser, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 97, No.
figs. 45, 49, 1938.
3, p. 9, pi.

Original description.



of specimens in the


limestone evidently belong to Clavaspidella.
smaller than any other thus far described

This species



both the pygidial axis

and the eye lobes are longer." Supplementary description.
oblong, posterior half of


parallel sides,


medium width with


gradually anteriorly to a low rounded front

convexity low, regular

four pairs of short, shallow glabellar furrows,

pair slanting for;

ward, second pair straight, third and fourth slanting backward dorsal furrow of medium width, well defined all around glabella; occipital furrow broad and shallow occipital ring of medium width, triangular,

brim a narrow, gently descending rectno marginal furrow border a very narrow, flat, slightly sloping band, narrowest on median line anterior margin very slightly curved. Fixed cheeks approximately one-half width of glabella, slightly convex, horizontal palpebral lobes long, wide, arcuate, on posterior one-third line of glabella; palpebral furrow wide, well defined ocular ridge short, very faint posterior

with a tiny median node

angular area in front of each fixed cheek






limbs somewhat longer than occipital ring (crushed), crossed by a
broad, shallow marginal furrow. Free cheek not known. Facial suture








on line with dorsal furrow, curving back a short distance, then running diagonally inward to and around palpebral lobes, thence curving far out, then back abruptly to cut poscutting anterior margin far out,

margin within genal angle.
axis of

Thorax not known. Pygidium transversely semicircular



width, convex,

tapering slightly to a broad pointed expansion extending onto the
border, divided by four narrow, progressively fainter furrows into

four narrow segments and a terminal portion


pleural platform very

wider than axis, slightly convex and descending gently, divided by four broad interpleural grooves which curve back onto the border pleural furrows narrow, faint, fading out before reaching the border

no marginal furrow border narrow, concave, upturned, posterior margin evenly curved. Outer surface apparently smooth inner surface also appears smooth. The occurrence of this species in Mexican material Discussion. affords another interesting tie with the Northwestern Middle Cambrian sections. It is represented by a small cranidium, and two somewhat
; ;

larger pygidia, but none of the specimens


complete or very well



redescription was written from the holotype and paratypes from Lakeview limestone at Pend Oreille Lake, Idaho. The diagnostic

characters of this species appear to be a combination of the following

In the cranidium the low convexity of the glabella and the to very sHghtly descending position of the border, and




In the pygidium the narrow width and upturned position of the border and the faint impress of the pleural furrows.

Neither the long eyes, which are proportionately no longer than those of any other species of the genus, nor the small size, which simply


that only small specimens

were found

as diagnostic specific features

— features


by Resser

are regarded by the author as valid

H ypoty pes.—Cva-nidmrn, U.S.N. M. No.
1 1


15988; pygidia, U.S.N.M.


1 1


Formation and

— Middle

Cambrian, Arrojos formation,



Considerable confusion has arisen as to the distinctions between Ptarmigania and Dolichometopsis, especially as a result of Resser's (1939) emendation of the genus. Consequently a complete restudy
of the

Langston material referred to both these genera and the plasto-

at mm. (4) there is always an appreciable width of fixed cheek crossed by a well-defined ocular ridge opposite the anterior end of the palpebral lobe. following distinctions can be recognized between the cranidia of Dolichometopsis least 10 and Ptarmigania when dealing with specimens size. In view of the fact that all the large holaspid cranidia are definitely congeneric with Ptarmigania rossensis (Walcott).132 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. or over in In Dolichometopsis (i) the palpebral line lobes are large and (2) are situated on the posterior one. the small cranidia from Greenland and those referred to Dolichometopsis? by Rasetti (1948) from Canada reveals that certain of the adult distinctions are lost. Ptarmigania.fourths and threefifths the width of the midline of the glabella. (3) the fixed cheeks are less than one-half and nearly one-third the width of the midline of the glabella. the author can see no reason why the smaller holaspid cranidia should not be considered to be Ptarmigania also. in the Langston material to the small cranidia of Doli- chometopsis very probably was the original cause of the confusion. in none of the small Langston cranidia does the fixed cheek assume the narrower proportions and only in one form. II9 types of Dolichometopsis resscri Poulsen at the United States National Museum had The to be made and points of interest were discovered. Even form the palpebral furrow does not run right into the dorsal furrow as in Dolichometopsis resseri Poulsen. and the palpebral lobes in Dolichometopsis assume more nearly the one-third posterior line position. . the rounding becoming more pronounced with increase in touch the dorsal furrow so that at this position the fixed cheek has no In Ptarmigania (i) the palpebral lobes are just over medium and (2) are situated on the posterior one-third line through the glabella. (4) the anend of the palpebral lobe and palpebral furrow run into and separate width. and (5) the anterior corners of the glabella always remain squared and generally expanded. An examination of the small holaspid cranidia in the Langston material referred arbitrarily by Resser to either Dolichometopsis or Ptarmigania. However. size described as Dolichometopsis lepida Resser.fourth through the terior glabella. size. This general similarity in this of all the small cranidia of what I would consider to be only one genus. The similarity between the small holaspid cranidia of the two genera is interpreted as indicating that Ptarmigania is the early Middle Cambrian descendant of the late Lower Cambrian Dolichometopsis. The anterior end of the glabella in both genera is expanded and somewhat squared. does the fixed cheek almost disappear opposite the anterior end of the palpebral lobe. (3) the fixed cheeks are between three. and (5) the anterior corners of the glabella tend to round in.

almost always a second pair of spine nubbins opposite the second interpleural grooves. around gla- occipital furrow narrow. narrow anteriorly. (3) In view of the above-mentioned evidence from the specimens. widening slightly in front of brim.NO. crossed by a narrow well-defined marginal fur- . slightly shorter than occipital ring. and on one specimen the inception of a third pair of spine nubbins opposite the third interpleural grooves. and the forms described by Resser from the Langston show all the possible gradations up to four pairs of well-developed spines. brim a narrow steeply sloping rectangle on sides a faint narrow marginal furrow running . first very faint. well defined . (2) The suite of type material of P. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN 133 Concerning the pygidia of the two genera the following items ( i ) There are no complete specimens in the Langston material at the United States National Museum in which cranidium. The specimen of DoHchometopsis poulseni Resser is just as figured on plate 5. 20) that it is more plausible to accept Poulsen's assignment of a Lower Cambrian pygidium to his Lower Cambrian DoHchometopsis cranidium. posterior limbs narrow. well defined. and pygidium are connected as Resser would imply should be noted : (1939. but rimlike in front of glabella. p. third short. into corners of glabella. with parallel sides and a very slight anterior expansion. with a small node on posterior midline. convexity low but regular four pairs of glabellar furrows. Genus PTARMIGANIA Raymond. line of palpebral lobes. 6. rossensis (Walcott) shows that in this species there is one welldeveloped anterior pair of marginal spines. consisting only of pygidium and seven broken thoracic segments. . straight. palpebral furrow broad. approximately one-third Fixed cheeks very width of glabella on mid. figures 1-9 Cranidium subquadrate glabella broad. well defined occipital ring triangular. rossensis (Walcott)) and affords an excellent opportunity for a study of specific variation and growth stages within this genus. very slightly convex. lower than cheeks. figures 5. the author agrees with Rasetti's opinion (1948. 33). new species Plate 22. p. upsloping palpebral lobes long. longer. arcuate bella flat. The Langston material is thought to contain only three or four distinct species (one of them P. slightly curved. . flat. arcuate. rounded anterior corners. Such a condition indicates that marginal spines are inherent in the genus. border narrow. . all fourth dorsal furrow narrow. first and second . elongate. 1928 PTARMIGANIA BISPINOSA Lochman. thorax. ocular ridge obsolete . very short.

115765b. downsloping steeply at sides.N. Arrojos formation. U.S. all the material occurs at one horizon and is crushed and the surface weathered so that the preservation is quite poor and no one specimen shows all features clearly and accurately. 115765a. .M. hypostoma. semicircular. anterior border . —This of varying sizes — — 801 j. crushed. curving out. 115761. Facial suture cutting anterior margin far out at sides. otherwise no marginal furrows flat. The Mexican species is very similar to P. lappets quite wide. lying opposite each pleural segment and directed nearly straight backward length of spines not known. extending nearly four segments and a terminal portion. divided by three broad well-defined and one faint furrow into first and second anterior segments with short stout axial spines and on third an axial node dorsal furrow obsolete. but preser. In the pygidium it appears that the four pairs of marginal spines were of medium length. anterior margin a flat curve . vation poor . No. Pygidium semicircular. and the species differs from all other described forms in the possession of two axial spines and the axial node on the third segment of the pygidium. 115764. then running straight back to and curving around palpebral lobes. Middle Cambrian. narrow. strongly convex. 1 1 5762.N. posterior lobe apparently .S. full slightly length of py- gidium. . very poorly preserved . moderately convex. Free cheek too poor to describe. pleural platforms practically same width as axis. Nos. Formation and locality. pygidia.M. showing only an occipital node rather than the usual strong spine. only tapered to a broadly rounded end. apparently regularly convex and downsloping no marginal furrow .134 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. U. narrow border with four stout marginal spines on each side. extending hornlike at sides but full length not known. II9 row. 1 15763. Nos. inner surface not known. divided by broad. Discussion. short ridge at each posterior corner and a shallow macula just anterior to it. rossensis (Walcott) in the structure of the cranidium. . Types.M.M. Unfortunately. Thorax not known. U. 1 15760. paratypes: cranidia.N. No.S. species is described from a number of cranidia and a number of pygidia. convex. Hypostoma triangular with prominent broad convex lappets a tumid elongate anterior lobe with a low.S. meet the border they form a shallow oval pit. axis wide. U. Outer surface of smallest cranidium apparently smooth.N. Holotype. then curving outward and straight backward to cut posterior margin within genal angle. shallow interpleural grooves into four segments where these grooves .

I TRILOBITES Genus LOCHMAN Poulsen. descending. flatly curved front. deeper at sides medium width. shallow macula just anterior to it no anterior furrow or border distinguishable lappets wide. . tapering posteriorly to and onto marginal border. slightly convex and downsloping palpebral lobes long. arcuate. medium-length genal spine. figures 1-21 Cranidium narrow. diagonally backward . slightly convex brim a narrow. slightly convex posterior lobe sepanterior lobe tumid. straight. slightly more than one-third width of glabella at midline of palpebral lobes. well defined. arated from anterior lobe by a broad. narrow expanding posteriorly a narrow. curving out and back and then straight into and around palpebral lobes thence curving evenly out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. fourth longer. moderately convex. flat. . Pygidium semicircular axis of medium width. . descending area in front of fixed cheeks. shallow furrow which joins marginal furrow at sides . Facial suture cutting anterior margin on line with dorsal furrow. marked at each posterior corner by an elongate ridge with a broad. deepening at each side . crossed by narrow. elongate-oblong. same length as occipital ring. Thorax not known. situated on posterior third of glabella palpebral furrow broad. NO. anterior margin evenly curved. well defined. glabella of medium width. length not known. narrow. . anteriorly. running to dorsal furrow ocular ridge faint. . Fixed cheeks extremely narrow in front. with large eye tinues to corner. a faint suggestion conis obsolete across front (demarcation between and border determined by a slight change in convexity) ococcipital ring of cipital furrow broad. slanting forward. low. merging anteriorly into anterior margin and lappets. new species Plate 25. merging into border no marginal furrow border a narrow flat band continuing slope of glabella in front. 1927 135 GLOSSOPLEURA GLOSSOPLEURA LEONA Lochman. . four pairs of faint glabellar furrows. . at inner angle . first and second short. Free cheek narrow. . regular convexity. broadly triangular. well-defined marginal furrow border convex. . . a narrow. well defined along sides to a small pit opposite first glabellar furrow. downsloping. short posterior limbs narrow.. third short. elongate. but glabella . . . with a short anterior projection and a slender. dorsal furrow narrow. welldefined marginal furrow. . Associated hypostoma subtriangular in outline an extremely narrow border and marginal furrow along posterior half marginal furrow . divided into five . expanding very slightly forward to a wide. ocular platform slightly convex. .

descend- ing steeply. 11 5838. hypostoma. 115843. but the rest of the specimens are quite small. dorsal furrow very shallow. 115831.N.S. free cheek.N. 115845. mckeei Resser. and low convexity of the front of the similar and (2) the narrow.N.M.S. — — . No.S. 1 15849. 115847. U. Nos. Nos. 115839. free cheeks.— 136 . divided by very faint interpleural grooves into four or five broad segments . only along sides pleural platforms approximately same width as axis. Nos. preserved in shale.M. Arrojos formation. IIQ or six narrow segments and a terminal portion by narrow. fine granules with some narrow imbricating ridges on border of cranidium. . 11 5842. . descending slightly a slight median inbend.S. No. marginal border nar- row. 1 15830. U. posterior margin with Outer surface covered thickly with inner surface coarsely punctate. only two other species show a narrow border G.S.M. convex. Holotype. 11 5841. 1 15834. Middle Cambrian.N. progressively fainter furrows . 115837. U. 8oin. 1 15844. Formation and locality. a condition which the usually large specimens of Glosso pleura has made comparison with difficult. pygidia.M. Discussion. and hypostoma. free cheeks.S. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 62690 the free cheeks and pygidium respectively of Anoria tontoensis (Walcott).S.N. no distinct marginal furrows . 802b.M. On specimen also the narrow border apparently lies in horizontal and so is position not comparable to the Mexican species. II 5848. descending border of the pygidium. 8oim'. U.M. 115832. — —U. 1 15846. and with the border apparently horizontal in position.N. 62695 of G. paratypes: cranidia. 62691 and U.N. No. pygidia. and pygidium —This species is represented in several collections by a number of cranidia. 1 15836. this and the paratype U. Types.S. 115833. Two other paratypes refer- red to this species by Resser have also been misidentified No. In fact. helesis (Walcott). Nos. Attention should be called to the fact that the holotype of G. mckeei has a pygidial border of medium width and so could not represent the same species as the above-mentioned paratype. 11 5835. U.N. somewhat concave. 8oim.M. This species appears to differ from gentle expansion all described ones in (i) the glabella. The specimens in collections from localities 802b and 802c are medium-sized adults. 802c.M.

. The author is at a loss to explain the true significance of this difference.N. Sonoraspis. The latter regards the species as a new genus. Dr. for is some reason.N. straight. difficult to — . large species of Glossopleura was obtained from the shales in the upper part of the Arrojos formation in the Some of the specimens are of the entire carapace. 11 5996.M. 1 16333. 1908 ALBERTELLA PROVEEDORA Lochman. 191 ALBERTELLA Walcott. Formation and locality. four furrows extending about one-third in on each . slowly expanding glabellar to a broadly rounded front. U. Middle Cambrian. as certainly the cephala and pygidia cannot be separated specifically. Figured specimens. The absence of the from most of the specimens suggests that they are actually molts of the animal. the cephalon poorly preserved. 8ooe'. arcuate row. No. Lochman. figures 8-14 A but number of specimens of a Arrojos Hills. all are unfortunately crushed and flattened in the shale. deepening to small pit at first glabellar fur. 1 16336. Lochman included some species also studied by Dr. C. U. 1 16335 pygidium and part of thorax.N.S. U. figures 1-8 Cranidium oblong-elongate. dorsal furrow well defined along sides. glabella oblong. Arrojos formation. 1 16334. probably a tiny posterior median node brim a small rectangle in front of fixed cheek. regardless of size. side. third and fourth longer. 801m'. 1 15995.M. new species Plate 23. A. However. —G. moderately and regularly convex. Nos. The cephalon and pygidium appear to be specifically similar to those of Glossopleura mckeei Resser from the Bright Angel shale of the Grand Canyon section. carapaces. complete carapaces of the latter species show consistently seven segments in the thorax. flat. on the other hand. Nos.S. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN species ^ 137 GLOSSOPLEURA Plate 31. Stoyanow.5 NO. first and second short. Family ZACANTHOIDAE Genus Swinnerton. — 8ooe. 8oof. occipital furrow broad and occipital ring of . very narrow and faint across front shallow . refers the specimens submitted to her to Glossopleura. It must be admitted that the poor shale preservation in both groups of specimens makes it very free cheeks judge the value of small specific features. and. medium width. Cranidia.S. whereas the Mexican species as consistently shows eight segments in the thorax. sloping * The collections studied by Dr.M.

palpebral furrow broad. then suture running straight back to and curving around palpebral lobes thence curving out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. free cheeks. in collections and associated protaspids with the very wideis from one section. only slightly tapered. . posterior border narrow. 138 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS . only three segments delimited by broad shallow interpleural grooves. extending to border. border of medium width. pleural platforms approximately one-half width of axis. shallow marginal furrow posterior margin convex. row. with a shallow crescentic furrow near posterior end . well defined. anterior half segment and first segment extending laterally into a heavy marginal spine diverging out and back at 45 ° posterior to spines a narrow. furrow runs into a slitlike macula on each side posterior to each macula is a low ridge posterior lobe small. pygidia. Facial cutting anterior margin far out at side. Fixed cheek just a little more than one-third width of glabella. medium width. curving around. anterior lobe oval. lower posteriorly marginal furrow with a short narrow. steeply sloping anteriorly. flat genal spine. Pygidium semicircular . II9 no marginal furrow border convex. posterior to midline of glabella. slightly convex. nearly flat border separated by a faint. downsloping Steeply. The matrix a dirty limestone. anterior border narrow. extending laterally into flat lappets. It is associated spread Mexicella mexicana Lochman. narflat curve. Hypostoma roughly this triangular in outline . shallow width posterior limbs of medium length and width with a very broad shallow furrow. divided by narrow shallow furrows into four dorsal furrow and second furrows. rimlike. Discussion. of medium . . broad diagonal ocular ridges. and the restricted occurrence of Alhertella in the various Cordilleran sections strongly suggests that this genus favored a muddy environ- ment. con- tinuing forward into low. tapering rapidly posteriorly. hypostoma. obsolete. length. rimlike. . only as pits opposite 5 . very narrow.. . segments. fine granules . then flattening out . strongly convex. very shallow flat. medium-sized eye at inner angle ocular platform of . anterior projection flat. . Free cheek elongate. anterior margin a palpebral lobes of medium . inner surface —This species is represented by a small number of cranidia. anterior marginal furrow broad. convex. Thorax not known. . VOL. marked by narrow ridges . separated from anterior lobe by well-defined furrow marginal furrow . crescent-shaped. a faint fifth segment and a terminal portion first . axis strongly convex. Outer surface covered thickly with apparently smooth. and a medium-length.

801 k. Arrojos formation. The the axis of the pygidium.S. narrow and furrow broad.S. U. PROVEEDORA Lochman. 115777.M. however. No. 1 15780.M.N. Cranidium oblong-elongate. — Middle Cambrian. cranidium differs in the medium length of the palpebral lobes.M. paratypes: cranidia.N. Figured specimen.NO. well defined occipital . deepening into a small shallow around front .N. figure 9 Remarks. the specific assignment must be considered tentative. occurs in the collection from 802a. Nos. 1 Arrojos formation. new species. U. pit opposite first glabellar occipital furrow. No. and the apparent absence of the median nodes on the axis. pygidia.M. 115778. U. —U. though the lengthening due to crushing of the shale matrix is disThis situation presents a problem which should receive further study as it appears that in all limestone specimens of the cranidium the palpebral lobes are of medium length.N. ALBERTELLA aff.M. shallow at sides. 15784. moderately convex four pairs . 115782.S. 115779. 115781. No.N. new Plate 22. in greater width of the pleural lobes in proportion to the axis. whereas in all shale specimens they appear to be larger. Those of A. 1948 species MEXICASPIS DIFUNTOSENSIS Lochman. U. tical in —A single fairly well-preserved hypostoma which is iden- every feature with the hypostoma associated with Albertella locality proveedora Lochman. Formation and 802a. third and fourth longer. Genus MEXICASPIS Lochman. bosworthi Walcott appear to have been somewhat longer even counted. 1 15776. proveedora Lochman differs. first . of broad. locality. However. A. — Middle Cambrian. Holotype.S. new species Plate 23.S. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN I39 The in the species appears quite close to Alhertella bosworthi Walcott both forward expansion of the glabella and the five segments of The pygidium of A. and second short. shallow glabellar furrows. glabella oblong. 115783. locality. straight. No.S. as no cranidium or pygidium of Albertella have been obtained from this locality. parallel-sided posteriexpanding very slightly anteriorly. — Formation and 80 1 i. free cheek.N. Types. arcuate dorsal furrow broad. figures 10-23 orly. Nos.M. . hypostoma U.

flat. border of medium width. expanded anteriorly into short. slightly back of midline of glabella faint in adult . strongly curved. downcurved lappets elongate. expanding posteriorly marginal furrow shallow. length and width with a minute node on posterior margin near and crossed by a broad shallow marginal furrow. Hypostoma subtrianguanlar. shallow . ocular ridge very palpebral furrow narrow. divided into one anterior segment and triangular posterior area by one broad interpleural groove. separated by welldefined furrow narrow posterior marginal furrow narrow. extending to border. horizontal . pleural area extending posteriorly into another longer. . anterior segment extending . with a short. .140 ring of SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. steeply sloping area in front of fixed cheeks narrow. Pygidium subquadrate axis strongly convex. short posterior median spine. directed backward and somewhat laterally. . IIQ medium . sloping gently down. . glabella. Facial suture cutting anterior margin far out at sides. Free cheek narrow medium-size eye at inner angle ocular platform convex. shallow marginal furrow at sides merging into dorsal furrow border narrow. . rimlike. widening anteriorly. . posterior limbs of medium suture. flat. slightly convex. very slightly tapered. narrow anteriorly. pointed anterior projection and a slender. . medium-length genal spine. width. with a strong crescentic ridge on each posterior corner just below a shallow. turning posteriorly. crossed by several narrow ridges anterior margin a flat curve. Fixed cheeks one-half width of . heavier marginal spine. . then running straight across middle. . wide. slitlike macula posterior lobe crescentic. curving out. from base of spine a short distance. anterior border narrow. brim a small square. outer edge crossed by narrow ridges. palpebral lobes of . Thorax not known. flat border extending around back of pygidium. rimlike terior lobe oval. into a short. shallow pleural platforms slightly narrower than axis. Outer surface covered with punctate. fine granules . thence curving out and back to cut posterior margin. anterior marginal furrow w^ell defined through whole length. medium length. triangular with a flat. posterior margin curving back separated by a shallow marginal furrow which fades out across base of large marginal spine . downsloping. moderately convex. . . broad. of medium width. posterior border . slightly convex. divided by narrow furrows into four segments (posterior two faint) and a terminal portion anterior first and sometimes second segment with a small median axial node dorsal furrow broad. inner surface minutely . then running straight back to and curving around palpebral lobes. flat. sharp marginal spine .

The species is readily distinguished from Mexicaspis stenopyge (3) dorsal Lochman. pansion appears (2) glabella moderately convex. parallel-sided posteriorly. 1 15769.N. whereas the two unweathered pygidia show the middle part Discussion. slightly convex. U.M. no median node. 115775c.M. paratypes: cranidia. longer. 69.S..S. II. palpebral lobes of medium . locality. No. 1 5772. Some were broken freshly from the fine-grained limestone. U. —Middle Cambrian. free cheek. pygidia. figs. . MEXICASPIS STENOPYGE Lochman Plate 23. . Nos. . i- Original description. 1 1 5767. flat.b. only on inner surface posterior . pi. . palpebral furrow broad. Fixed cheeks one-half width of glabella.M. —"Cranidium oblong-elongate . 455. . glabella oblong. ii5768a. brim a narrow sloping rectangle in front of fixed cheek marginal furrow of medium width. deepening into small pit first glabellar opposite furrow. shallow occipital ring broadly triangular. Paleontol. 115771. hypostoma. length. vol. shallow.NO.N.N. figures 10-27 Mexicaspis stenopyge Lochman. and (5) the lateral direction of the posterior pair of marginal spines. situated a little back of midline of glabella ocular ridge broad.S. pital furrow broad.M. Holotype. 1948. 1 15766. fourth arcuocci- ate. ii5775a-c. Types.S. and pygidia from the Difuntos Hills section. band-like anterior margin a flat curve. 115774- — Formation and 802a.S. U. 1 1 1 5770. merging with dorsal furrow border narrow. p. very slightly convex. b. . horizontal .M. No. slightly arcuate. dorsal furrow broad. very short. and it should be noted that the posterior margin of the pygidium appears to be curved. well-defined on inner four pairs of broad shallow glabellar furrows. very faint . and these specimens are the main types for the description but there are many more specimens scattered over the surface of weathered slabs. 22. Arrojos formation. U.N. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN I4I is represented by a number of cranidia. first and second straight. actually to be straight. . U. third arcuate. No. short. Journ. by ( i ) posterior part of glabella wider so that forward exless. slightly convex glabellar and dorsal furrows practically obsolete on outer surface. —This species free cheeks. furrow in front of glabella and marginal furrow distinct on outer surface.N. shallow across front of glabella . very shallow. hypostoma. (4) pygidium with broader proportions. . On these the details of the structure are poorly preserved. Nos. expanding moderately forward.

anterior lobe oval. expanding an- teriorly. "Outer surface thickly covered with fine granules. with a very broad shallow marginal . inner surface . Free cheek narrow. . . deep interpleural groove into one broad anterior segment extending back. curving out. elongate. shallow border of medium width. then straight back to and around palpebral lobes. IIQ medium width and length. slender genal spine. prac- with bluntly rounded end. broad. and an unmarked triangular . slightly convex." species is represented by a large number of and some hypostoma and free cheeks in collection from locality 80 iL. . 142 limbs of SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. straight to slightly concave. —This cranidia and pygidia. separated whole length from anterior lobe by anterior marginal furrow. axis strongly convex. . anterior two broad and deep. with a prominent curved ridge at each . "Thorax not known. slit-like macula posterior lobe a small. flat anteriorly. shallow marginal furrow around posterior half posterior margin very short. at narrow. others faint and narrow a median axial node may be present on first two segments dorsal furrows shallow pleural platforms two-thirds width of axis. moderately convex. area continuing posteriorly into a short. anterior border curved lappets . posterior corner just below a shallow. shallow across lappets. but the limestone matrix is coarse and crumbly and there has been some leaching by ground water so that the preservation of the surface and the spines is not good. narrow at center. "Pygidium elongate-oblong tically parallel-sided in outline . anterior border convex. a medium-wide flat border set off by a faint. furrow. Facial suture cutting anterior margin far out at sides.. minutely punctate. The species has been chosen as the genotype because the greater numbers of specimens Discussion. extending to border. deep and broad at center. "Hypostoma subtriangular with broadly expanded and short. stout marginal spine lateral the margins converge posteriorly so that the posterior pair of spines are quite close together and extend straight back. separated from anterior lobe by a well-defined furrow which coalesces with the narrow posterior marginal furrow the sides . convex crescent. becoming wider and steeply sloping posteriorly marginal furrow broad. expanding laterally into lappets. divided into four or five segments and a terminal portion by furrows. ward into a long slender marginal spine. divided by one broad. thence curving out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. medium-size eye at inner angle ocular platform narrow. rim-like posterior border . with a short anterior projection and a long. crossed by narrow ridges.

Coll. and (2) that the limestone cranidium practically . 10-12. the other spines being reduced to a serrated border. 3. 1908. 26. vol. pi.N. paratypes: cranidia." — Seven poorly preserved and fragmentary specimens pygidia. 115787. Formation and 8ood. trilobite As a whole this has a more even oval shape than most species of Zacanthoides. p. Smithsonian Misc. in shale is not on the fifth but the last segment. 11 5788.S.S. 1 1 5793.M. p. The species differs from Mexicaspis difuntosensis Lochman ( i the narrower posterior part of the glabella. leaving rather long anterior angles. hypostoma. 115798. but careful sorting shows that such is not the case. holopygus has rather large eyes. The pygidium is fused into a solid shield. No. and the anterior facial suture diverges sharply.. pygidia. 115792. M. including all marginal spines except the outer pair. 11 5791. which is due to the fact that the thoracic terminations are relatively is broader.M. Arrojos formation. 80 1 L. No. vol. Zacanthoides holopygtis Resser. two and a hypostoma in limestone from locality 80 in are so tena- from locality 8ooe' tively identified. 1 1 5786.S. 801 ka. 2-5. 97. 115794. Original description. aff.M. Genus ZACANTHOIDES WALCOTT. are all so poorly preserved that specific identification is doubtful at best.N. — Middle Cambrian. Smithsonian Misc. 15785. U. 10. The specimens out. Z. 115796.M. 1 —Holotype. 12. —"At first it was thought this small species was merely a young stage of one of the larger forms.) NO. Enough of the structure of these ( i ) parts can be made however. locality. 53.S. 10. and (4) the narrower proportions of pygidium and backward direction of the posterior pair of marginal spines. 115799. U.11 5790. 2. (2) the slight convexity of the glabella. No. and a poorly preserved cranidium. The long thoracic spine Discussion. U. No. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN in 143 afford a better concept of the size range to be expected.. 1888 ZACANTHOIDES Z. Coll. figures 11-17 Zacanthoides idahoensis Walcott (part). 1939. Nos. holopygus varies in length from less than one-eighth of an inch to more than 2 inches. (3) the very faint dorsal and marginal furrows on the outer surface. It the most common Spence shale species. Nos. Several poorly preserved cranidia occur in the collection from locality 8ood.N. figs.N. Types. to suggest that they all represent is the same species. N. 2. free cheeks. Nos. "Z.S. pi.N. U. figs. HOLOPYGUS Resser Plate 30.

Nos. second . U. glabella conical— truncato-conical— with broadly rounded front. The serrate border of the pygidium has two small marginal spines on each side back of the big anterior spine.M.S. pi.144 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Family Genus INCERTAE SEDIS Lochman. 1948. vol. 1 15979. figures 23-29 22- Arellanella cahorcana 26. 22.S. derived from the anterior segment. in front of first pair on inner surface is an elongate slit at each side which may represent traces of another pair. identical with the . 801 n.S.— Cx^m^iSi. 1159831 1 5978. U. pygidia. holopygus the holotype carapace. 115985. straight. Original description. but the posterior margin its is so poorly preserved in out.S. II9 uncrushed cranidia of Z. Nos. faint on outer surface. three pairs of glabellar furrows. and the author wishes to make the following additions and corrections after a study of the type material. find — 8ooe'. 70. U. first pair short. in length.N. Especially important The is large thoracic spine is on the eighth or next-to-last segment. 1948 ARELLANELLA ARELLANELLA CABORCANA Lochman Plate 29. as is well shown in a small the fact that among the types the is largest specimen showing the specific characters of Z. —"Cranidium nearly square. Figured specimens.N. it must be admitted that Walcott's early conclusion that these smaller forms represented the young of that species has not yet been disproved.M. Journ. carapace. 1 15984. U. Therefore. 460. Paleontol.N. Nos.. It would be most interesting to what type of pygidium a large specimen from the same Mexican horizon would have. Formation and locality. figs. all specimens that structure cannot be made Attention should be called to the fact that a number of errors occur in Resser's original description. 80 1 c. Arrojos formation. Lochman. Only a single large marginal spine. Certainly all the Mexican material is small in size also. and the pygidia resemble the pygidiuni of that species in the poor development of the marginal spines. free cheeks. The 2-inch-long paratype cara- pace mentioned by Resser has a pygidium with four strong marginal spines as in Z.M. Middle Cambrian.M. idahoensis Walcott. is present the pleural lobes are extremely narrow. p. paratype. No. well-defined on inner surface. 11 5982. 15 mm.N. holopygus. 11 5981. convexity low. very broadly slightly wider very than long.

shallow marginal furrow. although a peeled and somewhat worn specimen. . pygidia. gently row. — small pygidia are referred to this species. pair longer. convex. . furrow obsolete. No. obsolete downsloping. a free cheek and three Discussion. U. crossed . deeper at sides. Free cheek of downsloping marginal flat. downsloping lobes small. with small eye at inner angle elongate. locality. ocular platform of medium and downsloping slightly convex. palpebral on midline of glabella . Formation and 800a. Facial suture cutting anterior margin on line with dorsal furrow. The holotype is the largest and best-preserved cranidium. occipital ring of medium width. slightly convex. gently width. "Outer and inner surface of test may be smooth. slightly curved. in view of the general close relation of the cranidia of the two species. border length as occipital ring. merging smoothly into the narslightly upsloping border as marginal furrow is apparently anterior margin evenly rounded. No. .M. 115963. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN . U. 115965. twice as wide as long. same by a broad. only slightly tapered to broadly rounded end reaching nearly to posterior margin. 145 dorsal furrow broad.S. arcuate shallow at sides. triangular (broken) .N." Five cranidia of varying sizes. brim of medium width. U. new species. . then straight back to and around palpebral lobes then running diagonally outward and back margin within genal angle. curving out to marginal furrow.N.S. medium width. — . will have to be considered open to question more material is obtained. Arrojos formation. Flolotype. The association of the free cheek and pygidia with the cranidia of this species rather than with those of Arellanella sonora until Lochman. with a long pointed anterior projection and a genal spine (broken).N.S. . slightly convex. . narrow. width of glabella on midline. axis wide. of faint. 115962. palpebral furrow narrow. Fixed cheeks three-fifths . ocular ridge obsolete. narrower and fainter across front occipital furrow of medium width. Types. No. — Middle Cambrian. shallower across center. paratypes: cranidia. narrow. that the free cheeks and pygidia of the two would be very similar. flat. 115964. downsloping.S. to cut posterior "Thorax not known. NO. slightly convex. posterior hmb medium width. "Pygidium narrowly transverse.. divided by two very no marginal faint interpleural grooves into two narrow segments furrow seen very narrow border apparently present. It is probable.M. free cheek. third longer. Nos. M.N. divided by two very faint furrows into two narrow segments and a terminal portion pleural platforms about one-half width of axis. 115961 U.M. .

S. nearly straight. curved ocular ridge posterior limb of medium width. new species Plate 29.M. straight . n 5954-1 15957. figures 20-22 Three cranidia tion. three pairs of glabellar furrows. front broadly rounded. Fixed cheek about three-fifths width of glabella. cranidium. within genal angle. curving out to marginal furrow. 1 15953. well defined on inner. A. shallow marginal furrow. This species is represented by 12 or more cranidia. Outer and inner surface apparently smooth. in length. slightly curved . i to 3 mm. . then running diagonally out and back to cut posterior margin well . in the descending position of the border and the different proportions of the brim and border. triangular. glabella broadly truncate-conical. sides. crossed by a broad. well defined at .S. in a shale matrix are given this tentative identifica- Two are so badly crushed and distorted as to be nearly unidentifiis able. same length as occipital ring. U. Formation and locality. Discussion. Types. Arrojos formation. narrow. narrow. new species Plate 29. occipital furrow of medium width. both generically and specifically. palpebral lobes small. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. caborcana Lochman close. SONORA Lochman. then straight back to and around palpebral lobes. slightly convex and downsloping. slightly wider than long . continuing descent of limb. hesitates to claim that they This species differs noticeably show all their specific from A. —Holotype : — 8ooa. second longer. Free cheek not known. . anterior margin evenly rounded. — and the author characters well. becoming faint to obsolete across center border narrower than brim. Thorax and pygidium not known. The third an impression on it which the fixed cheeks are clearly flattened and fractured. shallow across center. fiat with a small median node brim of medium width and convexity. paratypes: U. deeper at sides. but most of them are small.N. Otherwise the two species are very cranidia. II9 ARELLANELLA SONORA Lochman. Middle Cambrian. descending marginal furrow narrow. Nos. but is . palpebral furrow narrow. immature specimens. third longer. No. slightly convex.146 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.N. arcuate. ARELLANELLA afi. . occipital ring of medium width. on midhne of glabella. faint a very faint. figures 15-19 Cranidium nearly square. first pair short. very faint on outer surface.M.

pi. "Thorax and pygidium not known. U. occipital ring broken. 22. 1948 CABORCELLA ARROJOSENSIS Lochman Plate 29. occipital furrow broad. rounded on top. — — 800b. posterior limb tri- angular.N. Dorsal furrow broad. steep in front of fixed cheeks. then flattening. Journ. convex. prominent curved ocular ridge ring. . arcuate. 11 5959. crossed by a broad. 461. sinuous.. Genus CABORCELLA Locliman." Discussion. continuing down as a vertical doublure in front. vol.M. Middle Cambrian.S. —"Cranidium to sides first wider than long. base as wide as length. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN 147 better preserved as to outline this identification. widening to a shallow pit on line with edge of glabella. Lochman. straight the second the third still longer. genal angle. Formation and locality. sloping up to one-half height of glabella. diagonal and in front. then sloping up to center as a broad shallow furrow vertical. Arrojos formation. which nearly same as occipital backwardly at ends. . width one-half the length. 1948. Original description. shal- low at sides. cality 800c. curved slightly at sides. p. anterior margin straight in center. three moderately . becoming nearly horizontal in front of glabella marginal furrow narrow. one short. "Outer surface of cranidium smooth except for a row of coarse granules on brim and a few on fixed cheek following dorsal furrow inner surface apparently smooth. . fairly —This It species is is represented by four cranidia from lo- The surface poorly preserved but otherwise they are good. directed . should be noted that the peculiar structure of the . and some original convexity and suggests Figured specimens. Free cheek not known. deep at sides fiat. palpebral furrow not seen is . border narrow. NO. Paleontol. figures 11-14 Caborcella arrojosensis figs. then running straight ward and up and back to and around palpebral lobes thence curving outfinally backward abruptly to cut posterior margin just within . shallow marginal furrow. situated just posterior to midline of glabella . 70.. palpebral lobes small. shallow . impressed glabellar furrows. curving out to marginal furrow. 19-21. brim narrow. Facial suture cutting anterior margin about halfway out. strongly convex with a steep slope longer. . Nos. glabella tri- angular with flatly curved front. 1 15958. Fixed cheeks approximately three-fourths width of glabella.

U. Genus INGLEFIELDIA Poulsen. curving out to mar- and around palpebral lobes thence .M. median node brim of medium width. No. crossed by a broad. descending marginal furrow narrow. well defined. flat. shallow across flat. elongate oval. subtriangular. border of practically . U. . curving gently out and back before curving posterior margin within genal angle. flat with a short Facial pointed anterior projection and a long slender genal spine.N. straight. elongate with medium-sized eye at inner angle ocular platform of medium width. convex. longer. paratypes: two larger cranidia. almost on posterior one-third line of glabella ocular ridge wide. very slightly wider across the eyes than long. convexity apparently low. posterior limbs narrow. apparently same length as occipital ring. arcuate occipital . Free cheek narrow. curving forward to anterior corners of glabella . occipital ring of small medium width. 1 15950. It may actually be the inception of one. . Holotype: cranidium. arcuate. gently sloping . palpebral furrow narrow. apparently horizontal anterior margin evenly curved. 115951. U. deeper center.N. shallow marginal furrow. Types. well defined around glabella at sides. palpebral lobes medium-sized. regular defined glabellar furrows. medium same as brim. II9 marginal furrow with a shallow pit on each side just in front of the dorsal furrow and then a rise of the surface of the furrow to the center could easily give the impression of an obscure or poorly developed median boss. 148 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. ginal furrow. slightly convex. figures i-io species Cranidium subquadrate. . clearly defined.S. a narrow distinct marginal furrow .S. furrow of medium width.N. second and third dorsal furrow narrow. convex border . down abruptly to cut Associated hypostoma small. No. No. three pairs of moderately well- first pair short. Middle Cambrian. horizontal or very slightly upsloping . then diagonally into suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. does not develop in the two known species into anything which could be considered a real boss. border narrow. consisting of only an oval tumid central lobe separated from a narrow. slightly with a width. Arrojos formation. new Plate 30. glabella regularly conical. shallow . but as such.M. 1927 INGLEFIELDIA IMPERFECTA Lochman. tapering to a broadly rounded front. Formation and locality.M.. . 1 15952. Fixed cheeks two-thirds width of glabella on midline.S. one small cranidium. — — 800C. flat.

S. Pygidium small. vex. Thorax apparently of 14 segments axis . 5968. as in that species the makes it difficult to be sure about certain features of the carapace as indicated in the description. apparently extending nearly to posterior margin and only slightly tapered to a broad rounded end. but there is no trace of a median bulge. 1 5973. new species. and in determining their generic assignment measurements were taken on as many specimens as possible in order to get an idea of the probable true proportions. Discussion. convex axis moderately con. presence of any segmentation cannot be distinguished presence of marginal furrow and border not known. apparently . —This . . Consequently they are most unsatisfactory for study. imperfecta Lochman. being listed by Stoyanow (1942) as Alokistocare. . At first glance the general shape of the cranidium and size of the palpebral lobes and curving ocular ridge do remind one of Alokistocare. pleural lobes only very slightly convex with short. whether in shale or limestone. "5976. The poor preservation of all the specimens discreta Poulsen. anterior portion of hypostoma not preserved. 1 15974. it appears to have been normally horizontal in position. whereas in /.M. In fact. The above-mentioned detailed measurements reveal that the species differs markedly from Alokistocare also in the width of the fixed cheeks and the position of the palpebral lobes. pleural platform slightly convex. divided by three broad shallow furrows into three segments and a terminal portion. several complete carapaces.M.N. stout falcate ends. pleural lobes slightly wider than axis moderately convex. tically the same width. 115966. as well as in the apparent length of the glabella and the regular convexity. these measurements place it in Inglefieldia. Outer and inner surface not known.N. pleural segments crossed by pleural furrows which are broad and shallow at inner part and deep and narrow at outer edge. ii5975. 1 15967.S. cranidia. clearly defined furrow. but the brim is descending.NO. This species was one of the first to be recorded from the Mexican Cambrian. a Of the described species of Inglefieldia it appears to be closest to brim and border are prac/. same width as pleural lobes. No. —Holotype. Types. species is represented by a large number of few free cheeks and pygidia from the shale of 8ooe and the compressed limestone of the overlying collection 8oof None of the specimens is well preserved and all have undergone some distortion. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN I49 posteriorly by a narrow. U. triangular in outline. paratypes: 1 cranidia. 1 1 U. Nos.

115971.M. conical with a straight front. glabella down rapidly to low ante. Paleontol. first pair narrow slits. some of the features mentioned above are real. then their affinities may be with either the genus Kochiella or the species from the Langston formation identified by Resser as Ehmaniella maladensis Resser.150 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1948 MEXICELLA MEXICANA Lochman Plate 24. Their very incomplete condition does not at present warrant their reference to either of these forms. These are incompletely preserved and all show clear evidence from the grain of the limestone of rather severe distortion. 69. U.M. p. 115972. The tentative assignment is given on the supposition that they are just three very badly distorted cranidia of the species which can be identified from this collection. Lochman. If. In their present preservation these three cranidia cannot be accurately identified. Journ. locality. 1948. II9 pygidium. Nos. locality. new species. two obviously squeezed quite strongly laterally and the other in a diagonal direction. 115969. —U. and rough guesses give a combination of features quite unknown and unusual. vol. 8oof. — Middle Cambrian. only slightly longer than brim and border three pairs straight of fairly well-defined glabellar furrows. 22. it is impossible to take any measurements even approaching accuracy on these specimens. Described specimen. squat.S.. No.N. Formation and Soog. However. figs. — Middle Cambrian. figures 1-25 Mexicella mexicana 22. 8ooe'. . glabella short. very long posterior limbs and the facial suture anterior to the eyes running far outward to the marginal furrow. new species Three medium-sized cranidia occur in the limestone of collection 8oog along with four cranidia readily referred to Inglefieldia imperfecta Lochman.N. U. These cranidia appear to have fixed cheeks almost as wide as the glabella.M. 12- Original description. Genus MEXICELLA Lochman.S. carapace. INGLEFIELDIA IMPERFECTA Lochman. Arrojos formation. —"Cephalon slightly oval in outline . 15977. however. cranidium square in outline . cf. No. Formation and 8ooe.S.N. 457. moderately convex posteriorly and sloping riorly. 1 Arrojos formation. pi. 115970.

anterior margin broadly rounded. distinguished in adult by a faint narrow marginal furrow on inner surface of test . pleural platforms narrower than axis. of medium . then moderately downsloping. strongly axis flat." —This species is extremely abundant in the earliest . Free cheek tri- angular in outline. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN . narrow. strongly convex. curving gently out to edge of border. at sides. . small median axial node apparently on each segment pleural lobes one and one-half width of axis. divided into two segments by narrow interpleural grooves. with a narrow marginal furrow. nearly small. deep at sides. terior Facial suture cutting an- margin half way out. nearly horizontal at sides. slightly curved. tapering rapidly. border of medium width. with a small occipital node. curved . clear crossed by one or two narrow furrows forming two narrow anterior segments and a wide terminal portion . pits along base of ocular platform. inner surface coarsely punctate. situated slightly in front of midline of glabella . backward turned point on end. becoming vertical at back. dorsal furrow well- third pair arcuate. flat. with a low broad median bulge (not found in cranidia under 3 mm. 1 51 or slightly slanted. convex. with a short. ocular ridge prominent. axis rather strongly convex with a . second pair diagonal. slightly less than width of glabella. barely slightly at . steeply sloping in position with small eye at inner angle ocular platform and border indistinguishable in small cheeks. convex. "Thoracic segments narrow . "Outer surface of pygidium. fixed cheeks and glabella sprinkled with small granules the heavy anastomosing venation of inner surface . occipital furrow broad. brim wide. . is outer surface smooth. convex longitudinally. Fixed cheeks wide. number of segments not known. then back and straight into and around palpebral lobes then curving out around and slightly in to cut posterior margin within genal angle. flat . "Pygidium wide. One free cheek In immature cranidia the shows four or five alternating low nodes and Discussion. both on outer third of glabella narrow across front . transverse . expanding median line. palpebral furrow very faint palpebral lobes small.. broad at sides. pleural furrow shallow. oft* but in larger ones a faint marginal furrow separates a narrow border with a long pointed anterior projection and a squared genal angle with a minute node at outer corner. shallow across center occipital ring of medium width. NO. radiating across brim shows through on outer surface of well-preserved specimens . width. dorsal furrow narrow. broad . about two-thirds length of pygidium. flat near dorsal furrow. faint around end. . set in from dorsal furrow defined. posterior limbs short. in length) border semicircular.

115811. Genus PACHYASPIS Resser. In 802a it is represented by cranidia ranging from the protaspid to small holaspid stage. stator (Walcott) the curvature . while in is M. U. in length One fragmentary cranidium in collection reaches 13 mm. 115829.N. pygidia. 8oij.S. 115815.S. 11 5822.N. Nos. 115813. In the National Collection Mexkella stator (Walcott) is represented not only by the types in shale but also by some limestone specimens.N. mexicana Lochman is the glabella is much more convex. 801L. U. 115820. paratypes: cranidia. 115807-115810. The earliest holaspid stages more resemble the species the median bulge M. which show exactly the same specific features as M.. thoracic segments. new species Plate 25.S. loc. 802b.M.M. II9 Middle Cambrian faunal assemblages in the Mexican collection section. 115804. pairs of glabellar furrows.M. U. There are also some cranidia in sandstone.S. 115814.N. 802a. from U. free cheeks.M. figures 25-32 Cranidium subquadrate. 115812.M. — Formation and locality. Arrojos formation. 115802. Nos.S. and more even and conseem to be very slightly than in M. One cranidium The two : species appear to be very close. Mont. tapering to a broadly little wider than long. 8oik. Nos. mexicana but this M. stator the fixed cheeks wider in proportion to the glabella feature may be due to slight mechanical flattening in the specimens. in collection 801 k is much worn and abraded and the glabella appears low as in M. stator Types. labeled Agraulos. stator. i5od. glabella broadly rounded front. first short and straight. 801 j would belong to crani- dia 24 mm. 115801. The great abundance of smaller cranidia sug- gests that they represent molts. 8ood. 11 5800.M. No. 11 5805.152 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.S.N.N. mexicana. a conical. 1939 PACHYASPIS DEBORRA Lochman. White Creek. but from the same section. moderately convex three . 115803. Powell County. slightly worn and distorted. stator and are here considered to represent the same species. stronger near the glabella. — Middle Cambrian. second and third . gentler tinuous (2) in M. stator (Walcott) in the apparent absence of and lessened convexity of glabella. The author believes that in this cranidium this feature is caused by the poor preservation and that it too is an individual of M. Nos. U. U. but can be distinguished by ( I ) in and the curvature of the brim M. 8oika. 115817-115819. 115821. Holotype. and two free cheeks in length.

very slightly convex. No. The small Mexican cranidia also appear to have stronger glabellar furrows and stronger convexity of the glabella when com- The species is close to P. Thorax and pygidium not known. well-defined marginal furrow. furrow narnarrow. crossed medium width. There appears to be a slight difference among the cranidia in the slope of the fixed cheeks. slightly convex. . distinct. in length and one fragment of the glabella 7 mm. 153 occipital longer. — in length. to cut posterior . ocular ridge narrow. faint . tically horizontal. Arrojos formation.M. 1 15856. slightly convex. 1 1 5857-1 1 5860. but the species appears to belong to Pachyaspis. shallow across center occipital ring with a small median node. posterior limb of . typicalis Resser. but as certain of the smaller cranidia of the latter species show a more convex glabella and deeper furrows than the holotype. slightly small. continuing downslope of front of glabella marginal furrow narrow. The small size and indifferent preservation have made identi- fication difficult. curving back to marginal furrow. —Holotype. deep at sides. none more than 5 mm. flat. Outer surface of test covered thickly with fine granules inner surface not known. shallow . down margin within genal angle. Free cheek not known. border narrow. well defined. U. differing less steeply sloping in the narrower and pared with the larger holotype cranidium of P. Types. some showing descent but others appearing prac- As the latter specimens appear slightly crushed. row.M.NO. Formation and locality. dorsal furrow narrow. then running straight back to and around palpebral lobes thence curving out and first glabellar furrows . row. . paratypes.S. 802c.N. from it mainly brim and the narrower marginal furrow. brim relatively narrow. . Facial suture cutting anterior margin about halfway from center. U. the author considers this feature to be due to preservation. horizontal . curving to just in front of as occipital ring. the author considers these differences to be caused by size and not to be specific differences. typicalis Resser.S. I TRILOBITES —LOCH MAN . just in front of midline of glabella downsloping palpebral lobes palpebral furrow very nar. This species is represented by about 12 small cranidia. — Middle Cambrian. anterior margin evenly rounded. Discussion. widest at center. Nos.N. Fixed cheeks one-half width of glabella. same length by broad. diagonal .

tapering slightly to a broadly rounded end reaching nearly to posterior margin. narrow. It is surprising to find this second distinct several free cheeks . . This is the first time the pygidium and free check have been obtained and described. steeply descending. slightly sloping with a short pointed anterior projection and a short slender genal spine. dorsal furrow very pleural platforms slightly narrower than axis. very slightly convex small. slightly narrower than border in center marginal furrow narrow. . moderately convex. strong. shallow. new Cranidium subquadrate. axis of medium width. three pairs of first pair short. across the eyes mm. with a broadly rounded front. medium . and two pygidia (one unfortunately lost in cleaning) from collection 801 m. deep at sides and shallow across center occipital ring of medium width. at sides only . divided by faint narrow furrows into three narrow segments and a long terminal portion faint. making a long curve back to marginal furrow. arcuate . well-defined marginal furrow. flat. straight. II9 PACHYASPIS ISABELLA Lochman. Thorax not known. narrow. posterior limbs of medium width. Facial suture cutting an- margin halfway out. well defined occipital furrow of medium width. convex. Pygidium small. border convex. ocular platform of . shallow bor- der narrow. Outer surface of test covered with fine granules represented by . —This species is many small cranidia. second and . . nearly straight. well defined. 154 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Plate 26. convex. palpebral lobes front of midline of glabella palpebral furrow . width. triangular. then running straight into and around palpebral lobes thence curving out and back to cut posterior margin within genal angle. convex. . dorsal furrow narrow. Free cheek narrow. in length . slightly convex. slightly longer than wide. glabella conical. figures 21-29 VOL. flat with a strong posterior median node (almost a small spine) brim narrow. inner surface not known. crossed by a broad. . lying slightly in Fixed cheeks approximately one-half width and downsloping. about same length as occipital ring. ocular ridge narrow. slightly descending. of glabella. Discussion. regular moderate convexity well-defined glabellar furrows. third longer. . divided by three narrow interpleural grooves into three and a half narrow segments and a terminal area no marginal furrow a very narrow. elongate with small eye at inner angle. and one broken cranidium from collection 8oin. sloping marginal furrow narrow. average specimen by 5 5^/2 species mm. anterior margin almost straight. nearly vertical border.. steeply descending. terior .

figured for future reference. 115866. cranidium. new species. in length occurs with Mexi- mexicana Lochman. Isabella Lochman or P. in collection 802a. species undetermined Plate 24. locality.S. and usually with three pairs of . whereas Pachyaspis deborra Lochman.M. new new species.S. — Middle Cambrian.N.M.N.M. species undetermined 6 This identification is given to two poorly preserved cranidia from 8ooh. The visible features indicate that the genus is certainly a member of the Elrathia stock. new species. 115861 paratypes U. U. U. No. 8oin. —Middle Cambrian. The cranidium appears definitely to belong to Pachyaspis but it does not appear to belong to either P. This combination suggests a distinct and different species but the i^ author It is is unwilling to describe a new species on a single cranidium. which the author cannot determine positively. U. No. free cheeks. 5823.N. locality.: NO. the eyes and palpebral lobes of medium size and the glabella regularly conical in shape with nicely rounded front. Formation and 802a. No. in the narrower and more steeply sloping brim and the somewhat wider border the brim in front of the glabella being actually slightly narrower than the border on the midline. a group of trilobites which becomes prominent in the latter half of the Middle Cambrian. Arrojos formation.5 mm. cranidia. pygidium. and the border narrow. new species. Formation and 801m. I TRILOBITES —LOCHMAN I55 species of Pachyaspis associated with Glossopleura Icona Lochman.M. PACHYASPIS. Figured specimen. Nos. 115862.S. is 8oim. 115868. PAREHMANIA. The border is also slightly — sloping as contrasted to the horizontal position in P.N. about times the width of the brim and continues the same steep descent. steeply sloping. The genera of this stock are all characterized by having the fixed cheeks one-half the width of the glabella. 1 1 5864. —U. deborra Lochman. and Mexicaspis difuntosensis Lochman. figures 5. The species differs from P. figure 26 A single worn small cranidium cella 1. — Holotype: . 115865. Arrojos formation. deborra.N. 11 5863.M. The brim appears is extremely narrow. 11 Plate 31. No. associated with the same species of Glossopleura in collection 802c. in collection species. Types.S.S. deborra Lochman.

115993. flat. . 70. convexity 2. and suggests a correlation with the Elratkiella zone in the lower part of the upper half of the Middle Cambrian. narrow.N. marginal furrow. slightly occipital curved.. .. Glabella conical. 1948. Posterior limb unknown. 5 —"Cranidium mm. gently doAvnsloping. border.S. Nos. moderately downsloping slightly brim of medium width. with rounded front. shallow across center flat . Variation in one or more of the other features determines various genera recognized in this stock. faint ocular ridge very line of glabella . 156 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. furrow wide. curving to anterior corners of glabella . 6. Paleontol. second longer. regular with a faint median ridge glabellar furrows. Fixed cheeks two-thirds width of glabella. across the eyes by 4? in length glabella tapered conical. II9 short but clearly defined glabellar furrows. three pairs of fairly well-defined glabellar furrows. 115992. Brim. . Palpebral lobes medium-sized. average specimen . slightly downsloping palpebral lobes of medium size. longer than wide with front nearly straight across. 22. figures 12. could be determined and which suggest : The generic features which Parehmmua to the author are 1. situated just back of midline of glabella. Fixed cheeks horizontal. well-defined . .M. 5. 1948 PROVEEDORIA STARQUISTAE Lochman Plate 21. U. and to be absolutely certain must be determined. Original description. subtriangular. convexity low. regular 3. situated almost on posterior one-third palpebral furrow narrow. . mm. shallow border . Tren dolomite. dorsal furrow narrow. slightly longer than wide. flat. subquadrate. Proveedoria starquistae figs. . 7-14. 4. marginal furrow narrow. Journ. Middle Cambrian. Formation and locality. 22-28 p. practically flat but with a very shallow median groove anterior margin evenly curved. 8ooh. ring of medium width. — — Genus PROVEEDORIA LOCHMAN. of the identification all features In spite of the present generic uncertainty the recognition of a ber of the Elrathia stock in the mem- Tren dolomite is important as it indicates this formation is definitely younger faunally than the imderlying Arrojos formation. posterior limbs . first very short. Figured Specimens. narrower than brim. arcuate occipital . deep at sides. third longer. Lochman. 459. pi. faint. three pairs of moderately deep slit-like. vol. Fixed cheeks one-half width of glabella on midline.

down- marginal furrow. . "Outer surface of test thickly covered with fine granules. It is impossible to refer this species to any described genus. figures 29-34 Cranidium transverse. Genus STROTOCEPHALUS Resser. U. anterior margin regularly curved. Nos." Discussion. "Thorax and pygidium not known. 8oii. 1 1 1 5749. . flat. sloping at furrow medium wide. wider than long very faint. border narrow. curving back to marginal furrow. so. a little more than one-half width of brim. narrow. slightly up- turned (in small cranidia. in length. 1935 STROTOCEPHALUS ARROJOSENSIS Lochman. shallow. NO. crossed by a narrow. . width. glabella conical. . 3 mm.— Uolotype. just distinguishable marginal fur- row) . 1 5748. very shallow occipital with a small median node brim of medium 45 ° angle marginal furrow obsolete border .N. 115750.115751a. width as glabella on midline. paratypes U. containing this species. regular glabellar furrows dorsal furrow narrow. and several cranidia referred to Kochaspisf species undetermined. one cranidium of Alhcrtella provee- dora Lochman. unfigured paratypes.M. .M.N. in spite of the limited amount of material. around glabella ring of occipital medium width. very slightly convex. slightly convex.N. convexity low. same length as occipital ring. horizontal palpebral . flat. it was deemed best to erect a new genus for it. —This species represented by seven cranidia and four or five free cheeks from locality 801 i. hori- zontal. abruptly to posterior margin within genal angle. Arrojos formation. Fixed cheeks almost same .S. . 1 1 5752. shallow . convex. narrow. with a broad nearly straight front. is The fauna from this collection small. I TRILOBITES LOCHMAN 157 narrow.S. No. 1 15747. sloping . 115751. with a short pointed anterior projection and a short flat genal spine. No. .S. with medium eye at inner angle ocular platform of medium width. marginal furrow narrow. brim and border are sub- equal and separated by a narrovv'. —Middle Cambrian. new species Plate 21. well-defined Free cheek short.M. U. Types. then running diagonally into and around thence running straight out before curving back palpebral lobes . new species.. Formation and locality. posterior pair arcuate. flat. Facial suture cutting anterior margin well out at sides. passing into short imbricating ridges on border of cranidium and free cheek is inner surface not known.

. narrow. and several free cheeks. genal spine broken.N.. and while Strotocephalus arrojosensis Lochoccurs alone in 8oih in the Puerto Blanco section. and thus belongs to the same fauna and occurs at approximately the same position in both regions. ing. medium-sized. curving far out to marginal furrow.25 mm.S.M. —U. is figured for future reference.unfigured paratype. They are. U. Thorax not known. in length. .M. The occurrence of a species of Strotocephalus in Mexico is interestThe genotype is a member of the Alhertella fauna of the Gordon man formation of Montana.N. fine granules inner surface of largest cranidium showing coarse punctations with and the impress of the edge of the doublure about halfway forward on the brim. U. too small and too fragmentary to warrant a definite generic and specific determination. Outer surface of cranidium covered thickly with faint radiating venation across the brim. No.S.) below 8oii where Alhertella first makes its appearance. No. 1 1 5757. Nos. faint palpebral furrow ring. Arrojos formation. II 5755. however. locality.N. II9 lobes arcuate. No.N. it is approxi- mately 70 feet (21 m. 15754.M. —The species is represented by four cranidia.. on posterior one-third line of glabella palpebral lobes continuous with arcuate faint ocular ridges extending to very shallow pits at anterolateral corners of glabella. three It rather small. Types. then running diagonally into and around palpebral lobes ing out and . Figured specimen.M. the genotype. . 115850a. — Middle Cambrian. paratypes. Facial suture cutting anterior margin halfway out. which in spite of their very poor preservation appear to represent the same species and genus. — Holotype: 1 cranidium. GENUS AND SPECIES UNDETERMINED Plate 25. 1 15753. narrow with very . short anterior projection. 158 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. thence curv- down to cut posterior margin within genal angle. . U. dififering from only in the narrower brim. flat no marginal furrow border flat. Discussion. Formation and Soih.S. The best cranidium.S. ii5756. Pygidium not known. crossed posterior limb narrow. figure 22 2 Three small cranidia occur in collection 8oih. only 1. appears to be fairly close to it Strotocephalus gordonensis Resser. little shorter than occipital by a shallow marginal furrow\ Free cheek of medium wddth. elongate with medium eye at inner angle ocular platform of medium width.

49. 12. —U. No. — Middle Cambrian. Mexico. V. 81 1 la. in length complete. MIDDLE CAMBRIAN TRILOBITES Plate 31. Geol.S. pp. — Middle Cambrian. Figured specimen. None of the specimens is well enough preserved to warrant generic determination. northwest Sonora. Formation and locality. locality. Soc. Cooper. trilobite fragment. position has been obtained. R. Bull. locality. and the impression of what appears to be a medium-sized pygidium with a marginal spine. but undeniable. Amer. No.. — Middle Cambrian. Figured specimen. Petrol. REFERENCES Arellano.M. 1938. 15994. 30. of which suggest that to the it does not belong to the same species and probably not same genus as the two broken cranidia referred to Parehmania. However. 606-610. R.. vol. Deiss. Arrojos formation. vol. and a few thoracic segments. the impression of a fairly large broken free cheek. but from their general appearance the author feels justified in suggesting that they represent a Middle Cambrian rather than a Lower Cambrian horizon. Charles. —U. Assoc. 15990. estimated at 3 mm. the specimen is too fragmentary to afford even a single generic measurement with accuracy consequently it cannot be identified until more complete material from the same . figure 7 3 A single broken small cranidium. No. Soc.N. A.N. as each contained a very poorly preserved. Geol. 1067-1168. shows features of the brim and border and a when more strongly all conical glabella with rather well-defined glabellar furrows.NO. A. GENUS AND SPECIES UNDETERMINED Plate 31. These consisted of the distorted impression of a small cranidium.S. Bull. Formation and Cf. 4. Amer. 1 Tren dolomite.. figure 4 Three pieces of a thoroughly baked limy mud from Lista Blanca were collected. species undetermined. I TRILOBITES — LOCHMAN I59 Formation and 8oih. Mej. G. 8ooh. Sonora. pp.M. Cambrian formations and sections in part of Cordilleran trough. and Arellano. 1946. Geol. Bull. V. A. 1946. . Noticias geologicas del Distrito de Altar. Stratigraphy near Caborca.

1932.. the 1937- Systematic P.. 7. Raw. Amer. 951-1026. Journ... Journ. Journ. Sonora. 575-597- Raymond. 1947. 54. Edwin D. C. Carnegie ington Publ. Bull. Geol. Soc. Paleontol. vol. 2.. Chr.. Geol.l6o 1939- SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 2. and Resser. A. Spec. relationships of trilobites. pp. Resser. Cambrian vol. vol. Journ. 451-464. Journ. 1920. Paleontol. C. anatomy and Acad. Assoc. om GrjZlnland. Geol. Soc. Geol. Amer. Nos. pp. Paleontol... pp. faunas of northwest Green- Medd. Lower and Middle Cambrian pp. 6. pp. Howell. Amer. Smithsonian Misc. Frederickson. Lower Cambrian trilobites from the conglomerates of Quebec. Quart. 21. McKee. Soc. 1944. Mesonacidae of Comley pp. Geol. Wash- PouLSEN. 18. and southeastern British Columbia. vol. 731-794- stratigraphy of southwestern Alberta Bull. Cambrian formations of southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia. Amer. 1947. 1928. om Gr^nland. 22.. 1947. The appendages.. The Cambrian. Frank. pp. Arts and Sci. Terminology for describing Cambrian vol. Petrol. 2. No. Early Upper Cambrian faunas of central Montana. 87. 1936. .. 22. F. Pap. Edwin D. vol. KOBAYASHI. Pap. 173-183. B. B. vol.. Spec. vol. Paleozoic seaways in western Arizona. vol. LoCHMAN.. Rasetti. 1940. Amer. Loch MAN. vol. 993-1003. position of Olenellidae (Mesonacidae). trilobites. in Shropshire. E. Soc. 233-343. Soc.. 59-71. 92. et al. 1948. 236-293.. Bull. Franco. and Geogr. SaltercUa comilata and 14. 288. Medd. Paleontol. Geol. Geol. Paleontol. TeICHII. vol. Howell. fossils from the Mohave Desert. 563. Cambrian history of the Grand Canyon region. New Cambrian trilobite genera from northwest pis. E. Correlation of the Cambrian formations of North America. p. 1937- On C. with a discussion of classifica- tion within the family. F. 69-70. C. pp. II9 Cambrian stratigraphy and trilobites of northwestern Montana. Journ. Soc. 50. No. No. E. Geol. 55. London. vol. No. 1945. The Lower Cambrian faunas of east Greenland. vol. Bull. 70. 51. 11. 19393. 3-4. vol. Analysis and revision of eleven Lower Cambrian trilobite genera. its allies. Amer. Connecticut Mem. Coll. et al. 1927. 21. Ozarkian and Canadian land. Mexico. E. D. pp. 1948. 81. 1-23. McKee. 72-76. ^ Inst. Japanese Journ. and Duncan. pp. 31. pp. 1944.

Walcott. Smithsonian Misc. Utah and 276-285. The Ptannigania strata of the northern Wasatch Mountains. Journ... vol. 2.. and Maxey. The thoracic appendages 1 941. Part I. vol. 239. Stewart. and their phylogenetic significance. Bull. the segmentation and the sutures. 98. Wheeler. Smithsonian Misc. 3. 1913. Amer. 18. 1939. 1939. Smithsonian Misc. pp. vol. No. 49. and their bearing on trilobite classification.. Amer. 2-3. pp. No. Lower Cambrian OlcncUns zone of the Appalachians. Tidsskr. Studies on trilobite morphology. Nos. p. D. 195-248. Coll. B. In "Problems of American Geology. Sci. Conn. Tidsskr. Paleozoic paleogeography of Arizona. Harry E. . 5. Part II. E. vol. 53. Coll. 6. vol. Coll. 2-3. Amer. Soc. 1941. vol.. Smithsonian Misc. C. Norsk Geol. vicinity. vol. Alexander. 1910. and Howell.. Nos. 1942. St0rmer. Leif. Lower and Middle Cambrian Williams. Soc. 24. 191 1. Smithsonian Misc. Geol.. P. Geol. 1263. vol. New Lower Cambrian subfauna. Logan Quadrangle. Stoy. Geol.anow.. section in the The Cambrian Amer. p. 1943. B. 53.313The Cambrian and its problems in the Cordilleran region. pp. 1935. 1781-1822. Middle Cambrian Merostomata. C. F. No. Resser.. J. 49-164. Coll.NO. G. 143-273Studies on trilobite morphology. Olcnellus and other genera of the Mesonacidae. Norsk Geol." New Haven. 1938. I TRILOBITES LOCHMAN l6l Nomenclature of some Cambrian trilobites. vol. vol.. Coll. Bull. 93. Bull. No. pp. 19. 191 5. vol.. 57.. stratigraphy in the Great Basin area. No. 57. Soc. The larval development. 54. pp. 21.


Plate 2 Aerial view of the Proveedora Hills showing two prominent The high ridge on the west side of the saddle is composed of Cerro Prieto limestone. 2. Kootcnia occurs about halfway up the slope. On the extreme right margin of the picture can be seen the lower slope of a small hill of white dolomite which is Tren dolomite altered to Proveedora Hills taken from the high known as Puerto Blanco. can be seen on this slope. The Buelna formation is adjacent to the Cerro Prieto on the west side of the ridge. —Difuntos Hills. I.EXPLANATION OF PLATES Plate Fig. The darker beds in the high part on the left is Tren dolomite. is The small high ridge just under Albertella visible saddle. end of the Arrojos Hills. consist of Arrojos limestone in on the right side of the picture is comThe larger hills on the left the lower part and Tren dolomite in the upper part. Photograph courtesy Bureau of Public Relations. I. View volcanic peak on the south side of the pass light-colored hills on the left composed of Proveedora quartzite. vertical scale. 163 . i View looking to the southeast and showing the full section of the Arrojos formation. The highest ridge in the center is the Cerro Prieto limestone and its west slope is the Buelna formation.63 inches = i mile. of which only the base shows. The easternmost Tren dolomite.67 inches = i mile. 1. The Tren dolomite forms the massive hill on the right. —Proveedora Hills. figure 4. War Department. The small hill posed of Buelna and Cerro Prieto limestones. is composed of the Cerro Prieto limestone. Albertella occurs on the slope between the high ledge and the divide. The small fault shown in plate 4. on the west side of the Horizontal scale. The Arrojos formation occupies the deep valley between the two high ridges. The small hill on the extreme left is Tren dolomite. The lower Arrojos on the lower slope of the hill to the left is composed of somewhat heavy beds but the upper part is thin-bedded. 1. Plate 3 Fig. The dark hill on the right. On the opposite slope near the base occur Mcxicaspis and Glossopleura. The valley between the two longest ridges ridge is is occupied by the Arrojos formation. In the pass in the distance the volcanics of the Proveedora Hills are visible. The divide or saddle is visible just to the right of the high ledge that protrudes on the east slope of the ridge formed of the Cerro Prieto limestone. — North Fig. (locality 801) ridges and saddle in middle of valley between them. The westernmost ridge and knob are formed of the Puerto Blanco formation. The side of the picture and nearly to the center are of the marble. Proveedora quartzite occupies the slopes next to the Buelna formation.

Located about 0. c). Proveedora quartzite makes up about two-thirds of the trilobites the Buelna limestone with Onchocephaliis and olenellid appears under the two knobs. — Fig. is Tren dolomite.— 164 Fig.7 mile northwest of the west end of Proveedora Hills. 2. Surface of the Cerro Prieto lime- stone on Prieto Hill. The slates that produced the poor fossils are on the right side of the observer near the darkly shadowed hill. the right Fig. Prieto Hill (locality 809). reef (locality 8oiq). Plate Fig. and oolitic limestone. The slope above the depression is Buelna limestone and the extreme right and crest of hill is Cerro Prieto limestone. The depression in the right corner is the contact of the Buelna and Proveedora formations. (locality Hills (Buelna and Cerro Prieto formations) Proveedora quartzite ridges and slates on left and center. — Fig. li miles southwest of Caborca. sinensis Yabe 25 Surface of a polished slab oriented perpendicular to the stratification showing the colonies of Girvanella. 3. e). X i- .posed of the Buelna formation. In the middle background the stratified but much-altered layers of Canedo Hill are visible. sediments. west end of Proveedora Hills. . 4. The central high part is mostly of dolomitic marble. Approximately the lower half of the large hill is com. The top of the hill is capped by a thick ledge of the Cerro Prieto limestone. showing numerous These may be the objects that were Plate 6 Page Fig. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. — Proveedora 80 id. 2. (locality 807). View looking south from south side of Caborca road. Girvanella on slope of Prieto Hill. II9 — North is end of Arrojos Hills. dark. Massive limestone composed of pleosponge debris. Puerto Blanco formation. 3. — Fig. — Canedo Hill (locality 812). originally referred to Chaetetes. 5 I. massive and not showing bedding the Arrojos formation occupies the middle ground of the picture. 3. The hill on Hills looking north along the strike of the Arrojos beds. At the left base of Prieto Hill is a low hill formed of the Proveedora sandstone. To the south stretch the volcanic hills formed of the intrusive materials that altered the Cambrian The low hill on the left Cambrian quartzite and limestone. 2. Fig. The low hill with soft contours on the left is composed of Cretaceous (?) conglomerate. Lista Blanca (locality 811). Girvanella of. wavy-bedded pink limestone. Heavy ledges of limestone in the Puerto I. The peaks are composed of Cerro Prieto algae-bearing massive limestone. View of the north end of the Arrojos the left The low hill on Cerro Prieto limestone. —West Buelna Hill hill . — Pleosponge Plate 4 Fig.and light-colored Girvanella. Blanco formation. I. side of the picture is composed of Pre- Fig. 7 miles west of Caborca (locality 8oib.

Ethmophyllmn coopcri Okulitch. X8 28 U.S. U. central cavity. X 0.S. 2. Naturally weatheredout longitudinal section showing the entire specimen. Transverse section showing simple walls and parietes. 111815. 6.N. 3. Fig.M. 28 . 28 of inner wall. Fig. X i- Plate 7 Fig. Fig. specimen marked O-i "A.S. U.M. No. Photograph of a transverse thin section showing particularly well the details of structure 33 Fig. EthmophyUum coopcri Okulitch.N. new species. No.S. EthmophyUum amcricanum large central cavity. 2.N. specimen marked O-5. X 16 28 U. 30 Holotype. Ajacicyathits ncvadcnsis (Okulitch).N.N. No. specimen marked O-17. U. 111814a. 4. 24 Details of showing the typical tubular algal ments. specimen marked O-i "A. X 56 Holotype. 111816a. Fig. and short tubelike canals leading from inner to outer wall. Figs. sinensis Yabe. EthmophyUum amcricanum new species." Showing regular straight parietes and simple inner and outer walls.M. new species. The wall Fig. new species 24 Surface of a polished slab oriented parallel to the stratification showing the GirvancUa colonies. EthmophyUum tvhitneyi Meek. Showing the narrow intervallum. wall.N.M.8 33 U.M. No.S.S. U. specimen marked O-ii. 5.M. species. No. Syringocnemxi species. 111816a.M. X GirvancUa mcxicana Johnson. some Okulitch. No. No. Syringocncma species. Fig. 5. 3.N. and 30 complex inner Fig. X 75 species fila- 25 4. 2. I.— — NO. specimen marked O-17.S. X 6 U. whitneyi Meek. X 5 U. 111818c. Plate 8 Fig. Ajacicyathtis nevadensis (Okulitch). X7 U. specimen marked O-i "C. 111814a.N. No. X8 Showouter 29 Holotype.M. No. is missing. numerous Okulitch. specimen marked 0-8. specimen marked O-i "C" occurring with EthmophyUum coopcri.— GirvancUa mcxicana Johnson. specimen marked 0-8. new species.S. No. 111817a. 3. new X 16 29 Holotype.M. Showing details of complex inner wall and parietes. EthmophyUum." Showing details of inner wall and vertical canals. 111817a. at the point of opening into the central cavity. Fig.S. Enlarged view of the same specimen showing general shape. 111815. Slightly oblique transverse section showing exceptionally well the pores of the outer wall and the crenulated inner edges of parietes.M. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES 1 65 Page Fig. 4.N." ing the thick complex inner wall and several parietes. X8 parietes.S.N. new microstructure I. 111818a. GirvancUa cf. I .

M. Exterior of a pedicle paratype. X 7 U.M. Locality 8oof. No.N. Ill 824. No.N. Posterior view of the holotype showing small homoeodeltidium. specimen longitudinal section pores.M.M.S. fig. Exterior of a X2. inner edges of parietes. No. bars. Plate ii A. No. Ajacicya29. X 4. Fig. No.M.N. X i U. and complex taeniae. Exterior of showing pitted ornamentation. specimen marked O-3 "A.N. valve. paratype.S. occidentalis Okulitch. specimen marked O-16.S.M.S. Posterior U.) Plate Archaeocyathiis yavorskii ( id 31 U. 1 1 species. I. intervallum.N. : Sonora. 2. 28 U.S. Plate 9 Fig. U. X4. 111818b. and Fig. 3. Enlarged transverse section showing the narrow central cavity. 5. X5 marked O-3 "C. 111817b. 1820. Cambrocyathus cf.S. showing naturally weathered-out A. X 7 U.M. Mexand 31. X 0. 111817b. 111822 Coscinocyathus species. new species. Fig. brachial valve.M. U.M. No. ii6o4Sb. Enlarged view of the same specimen showing part of meshlike inner wall and the radial.S. holotype. Coscinocyathus B. 7. I.M.S.N. exterior.S. showing inner wall.N. Fig. U. 5. 28 section of in an imperfect specimen showing pores of outer wall and variations structure of inner wall. No. X2. Pedicle holotype. 111821. specimen marked O-15 "B." Naturally weathered-out oblique fragment showing wide intervallum. and plates of intervallum resembling a spicular mesh. Dictyonina minutipuncta Cooper. 7. paratype. and C." parietes can be seen. new species of a pedicle valve showing narrow homoeodeltidium. 4. U. specimen marked O-16.M. No. X6 Photograph of Central cavity.—A.N. II 1823. 40 X 4- 4. Ajacicyathus rimottski Okulitch. 116045. 2. No. polished cross section of an imperfect specimen. Syringocnema species. Okulitch) 28 Natural-size photograph of specimens illustrated on Plate Fig.N. No. Ethmophyllum whitneyi Meek.8 U. Arrow 33 points to the polished longitudinal section of the specimen. No. X7 and specimen marked O-2. 2.N.N. 33 Fig. 116045c. 3. ii6o4Sa. 6. No. Protopharetra species. some 6. Outer wall visible in lower right-hand corner of Vologdin) . 33 ico.N. X2. Ethmophylluin thus ncvadcnsis ( cooperi Okulitch. C.— — l66 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. numerous parietes with synapticulae.S. thin section the photograph. (See also plate 8. —A portion of a fossiliferous slab from Difuntos Hills. impressions of inner-wall and upward arching tabulae. X I.M. Syringocnema species. II9 Page Fig.S. 33 slightly inclined canals of the intervallum. specimen marked O-4. Transverse 5. .S." Naturally weathered 3i U.

M. 6. 25. Another pedicle valve showing part of the pallial trunks. . X6. X 4.M. thus tubes. and pedicle views of the filling of a specimen preserving both valves. filled Plate A. ca. 2-4.S. 116059a. 116044a. Ex- foliated pedicle valve showing of foramen. Sandstone block showing long tubes carbonaceous material. C. No. X 4i show.N. Partially exfoliated brachial valve showing interior. figured speci- men No. U.M. paratype. B.N. paratype. the other showing the tubes in 11. 23.M. X2. C. No. No.S. 12-14.S.S. D. new species 10. 116057a. X 7 holotype. U.S. No. No. Locality 807c. .S. 19.M. Impression of the pedicle interior and the replica of the pedicle interior prepared from it. Locality 807a. No. paratype. X6. Locality 8oog.N.N.M. X2 .S. Exterior of the pedicle valve. Locality 8ooa. U. ii6oS9g.N.S.M. the one on the showing with longitudinal sections of the tubes. U.S. U. No. 24. 1. Brachial. U.M.S. i5. 9. U. paratype.M. II. side. ii6o57d. 116050a.S. cross section. No. paratype. Interior of brachial valve showing median septum.M.M.N. ii604if. X6 . 17.M. X 4 paratype U. 9. No. No. 116059b. Nos. paratype.N. 116041a. ii6o4id. Pegmatreta rara Cooper. X6. Plasticine replica of the pedicle exterior. 12 new species 44 5. paratype.M. Dictyonina species 7.M. paratype. paratype. 116056c.N.S. X6 . X 2 holotype U. No. No. X8. ii6o3Sa and 116035c. 18.N. Brachial view of the holotype. ii6o59f.N. 8.M. X 4 figured valves. filling 28. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES 167 Page B. c.S. 38 Exterior of the brachial valve. U.S. Locality 8oog. respectively. Nos. side.N.N. Interior of pedicle valve showing callosity indistinctly.S. Impression of the brachial interior and plasticine replica prepared from it. X6. No. ii6o35d. paratype. specimen U. Exterior of the brachial valve preserved in a fine- grained marble.S. new species 20. Nos. e. ca. paratypes. 21. ii6o44d. U. Two sandstone blocks. Brachial exterior with faint median . U. X7. . Obolella mexicana Cooper. and pedicle views of an imperfect specimen preserving both valves in contact.N. Paterina species 7. ca. figured specimen. Brachial ing ornamentation. 41 Plasticine replica of the brachial exterior. showing apex and fora- men. sulcus doubtfully placed with this species. Scolithus tubes Hillside 12 of sandstone riddled by Scolileft showing numerous blocks 10. 116050b. 42 Exterior of the pedicle valve. paratypes. X2 and X 4. 27.S. 22. U. U.M. holotype. 16. X6. 116051c. Exterior of pedicle and brachial valves. No. showing ornamentation.N.N.M. U. X7. Exterior of the conical pedicle valve. 8. 116057b. U.NO. 41 Exterior of a pedicle valve with damaged beak. ii6o5ie.N. Acrothele ooncava Cooper.N.M. U. X6.N. 26. No.S. X8. figured specimens. Brachial.

paratype. showing pallial marks and posterior proU. the interior 7. No. No. Localities 8ooc. paratype. X 2 X3. Imperfect pedicle valve.N. new species . 10. brachial exterior.M. No.M. the interior showing the prominent median septum. X3. of i'6.S.N. No. 4. Micromitra species I.N. Impressions of the brachial and pedicle valves showing muscle scars and pallial marks.S.N. 6. X4. Brachial exterior showing costellae. B. the brachial valve.M. showing pit made by 116058a. No. Brachial interior showing notothyrial platform. new species and exterior of two pedicle valves. brachial interior showing small cardinal process. No.S.S. Plate 13 A. Exterior of the pedicle valve showing the concentric and radial ornamentation. Lingulella provecdorensis Cooper. Impression of the brachial interior showing the long median septum. No. U. 15. paratype. X 2 U.N. X 7 holotype and paratype. . 20. g. 17. X2. No. X3.N. X8 . Wimanella species figured 2 13.S. Diraphora arrojosensis Cooper. U.N.M.N. U. X8 . 1 16048a. 116046c. No.S.S. 812b.S. X2.S.S. Interior showing the callosity. 116048c. U.N. No. U.M. Exterior of an imperfect brachial valve. paratype.N. 116042c.S. 116040C. Locality 8oib.N. ii6o58e. 116056b.S.N. 21.M.S. Pedicle exterior showing costellae.M. 116042J. 14. Exterior of the pedicle valve. 6 figured specimen.N.N. 116056a. Exfoliated pedicle valve. paratype. 116042c. U. U. 116054. 29. II9 Page U.M. X4 paratype. 12.N.N. 116046a.M. 11. No. U.M. U. paratype.M. valve. . No. h. figured 39 X : specimen. 116046b.M. 2. holotype. 47 specimens. ii6o42f. respectively. Locality 800a. Another brachial valve. . Pedicle and posterior views of the inner filling of a complete specimen file. X 4'. X4.N. of 5. ii6o5if. 30.M.S. median ridge and muscle scars.M. ii6o42h. paratype. 22. Pegmatreta arellanoi Cooper. No. b. U.N. No. Localities 8oib. 8. 43 X7.N. U. Partially exfoliated pedicle valve showing muscles and pallial marks. U. 25.N. C.M. paratype.M. No. Partially exfoliated paratype. Interior impression of a pedicle valve callosity. No. D.S. Plasticine replica of the paratype. U. No.S. 3. 18. U. U. Interior new species 47 paratype. No. Brachial interior of exfoliated specimen. U. X4. 116039a. 24. 116051c. 37 Exterior 116039b.N. E.S. ii6o58f. X 3. X3.S. 80 in. 1160421.S. U. X6.N.M.S.M. X . Nos.M. U. . 31. paratype.M. Locality 801L. 23. ii6o42g. 116058c.M.N. ii6o5Sa. holotype.S. . pedicle valve showing pallial marks. No.S.M. X 2 paratypes. the brachial 19. Exterior and interior of two brachial valves. U. Nos. figured specimen. Nos. U. 9.N. paratype.M. U. Nos.S.l68 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. No.M. X4. Locality 8oog.S. Exterior of two pedicle valves. paratypes.

S.S. Sonoraspis gomezi Stoyanow. No. loc.S. absence of median tu- 53 Paratype.N.S. 1-3. No. Top view of worn and crushed shell. Paratype. Orthotheca bucJna Lochman. X i. i. new species Note Anoria-like facial suture.M. median tubercles on six posterior thoracic segments. No. i. 116334. loc. Plesiotype. X X i- U. X i.N. Scenella side. 115662b. X I. Holotype.N.4.M. Shows a small. X U. loc. No. loc. 8. and lack of segmentation in the pygidium.M. 1 16350. Holotype. and segmented pygidial axis. smooth pygidial axis. No. 55 Plesiotype. No.S.U.— Incertae 4. X2 .N. 809a. Note median tubercles on exposed thoracic segments. new species detail of surface ornamentation. No. 1-4. X2. U. 1 16335. 807b. 115661. X 1-3.S.N. I. pygidial axis. new species 54 Paratype. U. Anoria-like palpebral lobe in the right side of the cephalon and smooth semicylindrical X I. Plate 14 Figs.N. 85 Figs. U. No. U. Note long.S.S.N. cf. No. 1 16348.N. Observe lack of glabellar and occipital furrows.M. U. Ameccphahis A. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES 169 Page F. ii6333.M. Impression of the brachial interior. No.M. 15 — Problematica I I. 6. and the narrow frontal border. 7. reticulata Billings shell.M. Holotype. 5.M.N.S.S. No. 5. No.N. and rapidly tapering pygidial axis. X i- U. 6. 115662a. Paratype. the absence of Figs.N.N. 5.N. U. 8oib. 7. and faint segmentation on the pygidial U. figured specimen. 8. Observe eight segments 3> X i- U. X Glossopleura-Wke^ palpebral lobes.S.M.S. Locality 8oih. 9. No. and II 81 side views of internal Problematicum Top and mold retaining 3. bercles.M. and paratype. No. patches of punctate Figs. X 3. piochensis (Walcott) i. X 4.M. Top.S. 58 Figures and 6 are made from impressions with the Plate Figs. Nisusia species 26. 116037c. 6-8. 1 16337 relief reversed.N. 1 15660. U. 116351. cf. 4. 2. shell. figured specimen.M. 8oib. Fig.S.S. U. in the thorax and impression of doublure in the right side of posterior border. 1 15663.M. X 84 35.M. 116037b. Shows parts of the thorax and the pygidium. Sonoraspis torrcsi Stoyanow. 5.N. 1-2.N.— — — NO. . 1 16349. sedis.S. 27.M. 45 of Impression the pedicle interior. S. Figs.M. Problematicum II. Facial suture partly visible. and posterior views of the single juvenile U. Shows median tubercles on six posterior thoracic seg- ments. No. Holotype. lack of segmentation in pygidium. 116352. No. U. 4. platform.

14. 1.N.M. No. Figs. 115671a.S.M.S.M.N. 1 15669. X 8. 7. I.N.M. U.N. side view of partially U. prlnceps Billings 82 U. U. dorsal surface X 2. No. Plate Fig.M. Paratypes.M. Paratypes. Hypotype.N.N. typical shell coquina .S. 115665. 4.M. 115666a. X 5.S. No.S. loc. No. No. sections of three shells showing shape and proportions of siphuncle and living chamber.S. new species Largest free internal mold. 10. X 2. U. 9. 9-13. 2. 807b. the siphuncle and the narrow camerae. 115677a. Fig. 115680. new species Paratypes. sections of shells in slightly weathered rock. No.N. 6".S. X 3. U. X 85 Reconstruction of internal structure. with slight curvature and well-preserved outer surface.N.S. loose between top of Cerro Prieto limestone and saddle Hills. several shells showing weathered cone-within-cone effect. II9 Page Figs.N. species undetermined 88 Section on weathered limestone.M. 83 3. . X 5> U. Transverse longitudinal sections in same sections in vi^eathered slab. 11. 807b. Nos. loc.S. X 8. loc. 4. 5.N.S. 3.N.S. loc. 8oit. 115678. 115672a. Holotype. No. 809a. Proveedora Sections in highly altered limestone. 8o7g. all others. Hyolithes aff . Paratypes. small section slightly off midline showing four thin septa. 10. Salterella mcxicana Lochman.N. 16 Salterella shell cf. Fragment of large shell. Salterella 7. 1-5.S. X 5. largest X 2.S. and the central siphuncle in the transverse sections. 115667. transverse and longitudinal sections showing septa and siphuncle. X I. close. X 8. effect. Fig. No. 17 mexicana Lochman. 809a. all others.M. in 11 5679. X i. I. U. 6. shells with well-pre- served annulations of outer surface. X 5. H. loc. of larger shell. U.M. 7-1 7. Transverse section of large shell. 12. No.M.S. new species Paratype. U. No.N. loc.M. 115673a. showing cone-within-cone X 5. loc. U. Paratypes. No. No. loc. X i slab.N. U.M. Paratypes. 812a. 8oib. 9.N. 6. 85 Figs. X i.N.M.M. 6. Plate Figs. 5. Hyolithes zvhitei Resser of transverse section. 115674. Salterella No. 8. 1x5676.N. Figs. pulcliclla Billings 87 Hypotype. mexicana Lochman. No. 85 U. X4. U.— —— — 170 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. II. . X 4. with camerae and septa replaced by calcite. No. 809a.S. 1 15664.S. U. i. Hypotype. All from loc. showing the many thin. 8o7g. typical shell coquina with well-preserved exteriors. Salterella. No.S. loc. shell. U. 2.N. U. shell with weathered surface. 3. 115670. 115677b. 2-6.M. 809a.S. 115674b and c. 5. surface showing growth line and faint longitudinal X 4. X 8. No. U. steeply slanting septa in longitudinal sections.S.M. Paratypes.M. well-preserved dorsal ridges. Fig.M. 115668. weathered slab containing internal molds of living chamber and siphuncle and external molds showing outer annulations. 115671b. Drawing free shell. X 10.M. Both loc.N.N. U.S. No. U. No. Hypotype. Hypotype. 115675a.

U.N. fragment of U. new variety 98 Holotype.S. lon shovv'ing loc. 1 15697. Wanneria? 1 1 species undetermined in quartzite. 16.M. X 5. 7. Figs. X 2.S. loc. 807c. Paratype.S.N. U. 13. 11 5682. showing surface ornamentation and small occipital node. plasticine replica and cleaned specimen of small adult cephalon.M. Olencllus (FrcmonHa) frcmonti Walcott fairly Hypotype.S. hypostoma showing serrate margin. large 2 and X i. Paratypes. new species X 4. 2. OleneUus (Olencllus) triiemani Walcott II. No. b. No. loc. Plate 19 Figs. U. 809a. 115698.S. 3. 1 15703. small fragmentary cephalon. 115681.N. Nos. X 5. X 2.M.S.S. I.S.M. 8. Nos.N. loc. 115683. 807b. Hypotype. U.N. Holotype. dorsal view of small well-preserved cephagenal and intergenal spines. small.. 8oic.M. 89 X No. 807b. X 4. Paratype. 12. X 2. U. best-preserved cephalon. U. 807c. loc. a large cephalon. Hypotype. Paratype. Holotype. U. U. No.N. X i. 5. 7.S.S. one showing genal and intergenal along marginal furrow. 4.S. 807 j. 1 15689. U. new species. U. loc. X 5. No. No. U. 1-3. Paedeumias puertoblancocnsis Lochman. Figs. 99 Two fragmentary cephala occurring 5702.N. U.S. 115685. No. II. large weathered cephalon. Hypotype. 9-16.N.N. 11 5691.S. Paratype. 1-6. U.S.S. Figs. dorsal view of large fragmentary cephalon.N. several broken cephala.M. 5. 115709.S. dorsal view of two immature cephala.M. U. two cephala in meraspid stage showing genal and intergenal spines beginning to separate. No. Paratype. No.M. fragmentary cheek showing pits X X 4. U. U. spines. 6. plasticine cast and fragmentary cephalon which has had brim distorted. No. X 4. 115706. 809a.N. 4. 5. 1 1 5686. 96 Paratype. 9. 2.N.M. 1 1 5687. Paratype. 807b. X 6.N. Hypotype. X i. 115695- 2. 1 15708. U.S. U.S. No. 8oie. 10. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES Plate 18 I7I Page Figs. 12. loc. X 2. No. dorsal view of incomplete cephalon showing genal and intergenal spines.M. Wanneria mexicana prima Lochman. Nos. X i.M. ii570710. dorsal view of fragment of glabella. loc. 15. 6.M. 8076. U.M.N.N. No. Paratypes. large broken cephalon showing outer surface and occipital node.N. 14. Hypotype. dorsal view of plasticine replica of distorted cephalon in limestone. Paratypes. 4. 809a.— — — NO. 3.S. X4 and X 5.M. 91 i.M. Hypotype. I. X 3. 115705a.N. loc. 9. 94 . X i. complete cephalon. No. dorsal view of small. No. 807b. 1 1 5701.N.M. 115710. 6-12. No. small broken cephalon showing intergenal spine. fragmentary glabella showing surface ornamentation. new variety.S.N. small nearly complete cephalon. Paratype. No.M. X 115690a. 8.S. X 2.N.M. loc.M. U. loc. 115692. U.N.M. Wanneria walcottana buclnaensis Lochman. No. X 8.M.M. loc.N. Figs. loc.S. 1 15699. 1 15696.

dorsal view of broken cranidium.N. 1 15740. 115716.M. 8oif. 15-17. U. U. dorsal. dorsal view of distorted cranidium. 23. loc. 5. 23. new species Paratype. Figs. X 6. 1-4. 1 15737- 2.N. 14. and front views of 15736. 115724. side and dorsal views of large well-preserved cranidium.S.N. Lochman. dorsal and side views of cranidium with well-preserved outer surface. U. 26.S. 18-29.S. 21.S. 13. Holotype.M. U. 22.9. dorsal view of small cranidium. 809a. Fig.M. Paratype.S. 809a.M. side.M. loc.M.All from loc.S.M.M. U. 24. Paratype. 172 VOL. 9.S.S. Both loc. an associated free cheek. 6. 1 1 X 4. 23. Paratype. dorsal view of large cranidium.S. 115717. 807c. 19.S. associated free cheek. X 6. 809a. X 3. II. . 4.S. Paratype.M. 809a. dorsal. 20.M. No. No. Paratypes. rear. No. X 4. medium-sized weathered pygidium. 115715.S. Paratype. 25. Onchocephahis biiebiaensis Lochman. Paratype.S. small cranidium. side and dorsal views of large well-preserved cranidium.N.M. U. I. X 8. No. 115711. No. 4. No. U. 3. 12. 21. 25.M. No. well-preserved cranidium.M. X 8. 105 5725. 7.M. 115731. S. 807c. 1-7. 115712.N. II. dorsal and rear views of a pygidium. 4. Paratype. Antagmus soUtariiis Holotype.N. 28. Plate Figs. 29. X 6. new species 104 Somhrerella niexicana Lochman Paratype.M. U. U. Paratype. Paratype.S. 2. associated free cheek. X 5. and front views of small. X 8. No. side and dorsal views of two peeled cranidia.N. 104 X X X X X 27. 115719. 1 15738. X 10. U. dorsal.S.S. dorsal view of small peeled cranidium. U.N.—Onchocephahis mexicaniis 6. U.M. U. 6.S. 1 15727.N. loc. new species 99 Paratype.M. 24.N.S. Holotype. 6. No. X 4. 8-11. Onchocephahis huclnacnsis Lochman. Figs.N. side. 26.S. 10. U. 809a. X 4. new species and front views of medium-sized cranidium. 1 15724. Ii57i4. I. X 5. dorsal and rear views of a second pygidium. No. X 4. No. No.N. 115733. 29. U. Holotype. 26 and 27. Paratype. broken cranidium with well-preserved outer surface. 7.N. 20. X 5> U. large pygidium.N. and dorsal views of most complete cranidium.M. Paratype. 5. 1 15748. X 5. No. Paratype. dorsal. X S. Paratype.N. 115729.M. Lochman. 107 X 5. X 4. a peeled cranidium. 115718. 19. dorsal and side views of smaller pygidium. U. II9 U. dorsal. 103 No.N. 1 1 5732. 1 X 4. and dorsal views of associated pygidium. 115726. Holotype. Holotype.M. 8. No. U. U. 12. No.N. No. 8. Figs. 18.S. No.N.S. 10. 6-17 . Both from loc.M. 4. 8oii. Provecdoria starquistae Lochman 156 5.7. 22. all from loc. Ii57i3. No.M. 18.N.S.N.S. side. 27. No. side. 21 Bonnia sonora Lochman. No. loc. loc.N.M. 10. 18.N. No. front.N. U.N. new species U. 2-4. 28. Paratype.S. Fig. No. No.M.— — — — — — SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Plate 20 Page Figs. U. 115741. X U.

U. X 3. U. 15747. Paratype.N. 15749. 19. an associated hypostoma. plasticine squeeze of a somewhat distorted cast.M. a broken pygidium. 15-21. U.M. II. 16. Paratype.M.S. 8oii.M. a fragmentary free cheek. No. Paratype. dorsal and rear view of pygidium showing marginal spines. 4.M. buttsi (Resser) front.M. X 4. 20. X No. b. X 2. Nos.S.S.S. outer surface preserved. 115756. new species U. Paratype. 30. a small free cheek. 22-28. 25.N. 115772. 16. 31. 4. Figs. type. dorsal.S. 3.N. medium-sized and small cranidia. and front views of small. No. nidium. a weathered cranidium. cranidium showing granules on outer surface. —Genus 108 fairly well Figs. No. associated weathered hypostoma. No. side and dorsal views of medium-sized cranidium. U. side. 115743a. X U. U. X X All from 8oih. X 3- 22. 12. and species undetermined i Dorsal and front views of broken cranidium. 115770. 18.N.S. 1-9.M. X 5. a well-preserved pygidium. 15750. Paratype. a small cranidium. a more complete 2.- X i. front. No. All from loc. U. Hypotype. No. another weathered pygidium. U. Paratype.M.M. U. side. deeply weathered pygidium. Paratype. 3. 15. dorsal.M. Paratype. 115763.M. 29-34. 115771.S. X cranidium. U. Holotype.M. 19. 23. 13.M.S.S. 28.N.M. U. Paratype.N. No. 33. 11 13.M. 115761. All from loc. Hypotype. 8. 5774- 14.S. 3. 20. loc.M. 29. 115745.N. Hypotype. 18. U.N. dorsal and side views of large crushed and weathered pits 15762.N. No. 21. No. Ptarmigania bispuwsa Lochman. U. 115764.N.S. U. and front views of most complete cranidium. 1 15742. 5.N. 4.M. Figs.S. U. Paratypes. X 5.N. 15. No. new species 10. a small pygidium. X 4. . dorsal view of crushed. 16.N. 115755. U.S. 34> Paratype. 24. Holotype. X 4.S. 21. Paratype. U.N. 115752. Paratype.M. I.S.N.S. No.N. 139 X X 115768a.M.S.N. Para- cranidium showing all four pairs of glabellar furrows. 6. 1 1 5. 26. 32. X pygidium showing 1 on marginal furrow. dorsal. No. 27. 9.—— — EXPLANATION OF PLATES NO. No. Antagmus 17. U. All from loc. No. a large fragmentary cranidium. No. Hypotype. No. weathered cranidium.S. U. 14. and side views of well-preserved 5.N.S. 2. X 3. Mexicaspis difiintosensis Lochman. ParaU. No. Provccdoria starquistac Lochman Holotype. X 5. 115743b.M. side. Paratype. X cranidium.M. front. U. 115769. No. I 173 Page Figs. X 4.M.N. type. loi and dorsal views of medium-sized cranidium. dorsal. 18.N. 1 15766.M. 1 156 22. Holotype. new species 133 Paratype.M. 8oij. U. U. X 5.S. No. 809a. 157 1 15754. Paratype. Paratype. Plate 22 Figs.M. Paratype.N. X 6. small cranidium preserving most of outer surface. X 809a.S. X 4. X 4.N.N. 17.M.S. No.S. No. well-preserved cranidium. U. and side views of nearly 14. U.N. X 4.N. 3.S.S. X 4.S. No.M.N. 10-23.N. 2. No. a Paratype. 115751a. No. a broken craX 5. 115744. X 3. Strotoccphahis arrojoscnsis Lochman. 1 15753. complete cranidium. No.S. 1 15760. 7. 115767. Figs. U. 5.

U. U.S. a medium-sized cranidium. No. and side views of deeply weath- X .M. X 3- 23.N. Paratype. loc. Paratype. Paratype. No. Lochman. 1 15790.S.—— — — 174 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.S. 7.N. Paratype. X 4.M.N. No. No.M. I. meraspid cranidium. X 2. 8oik. 802a. No. Nos. I. 6. X4.N. dorsal. 115791. X 4. 115811. 801L. cranidia 20-23. 1 side. Plate 24 Figs. 115801.S. Paratype.N. 9. No. 13. 16. 801L. 9. No. 10.S.N.N. X 3.S. X 10. 1 13. U. 115779.S. No. X !• U.N. loc. a thoracic segment. 11-13 from loc.M.M. U.N. No.S.S. 4. No. from loc. No.N. U. 8. 1 15784. Paratype. No. an associated free cheek. 5. Holotype. No. a large fragmentary cranidium.N. No. a small cranidium. X 3.M.N.S. U. Mexicaspis stenopyge Lochman 141 11. No. 22. No. X X 3. Paratype. Paratype. U. dium. piece showing these and pygidia associated with Mexicella mcxicana. U.M. a U. 23. loc.S.M. Paratype.S.M. loc. U. 1-8. a complete but peeled cranidium. a large broken pygidium X 2.S.S.M. Paratype. U. 802a. 2. U. 8. 1 15787.S. Albertella aff.N. X 4. No. 115812. No. II9 Page a weathered cranidium. ID. large broken pygidium.N.S.N. X 3. a coquina of cranidia.N. U. front U. an associated pygidium. 802b.S. 24. 802a. No. Paratype. 115788. X 4. U. 15. II.M. a small cranidium showing outer surface.S.M. No.M. 115798. No. a free cheek.N.N. 801 L.S. Holotype. a hypostoma. X 3. Paratype. 12. No. best-preserved pygidium. 26. 19. side and dorsal views of best pygidium.S. 1 15776. 6. U. and front views of well-preserved cra5. Paratype.S.N.M. Albertella proveedora 137 Paratype. an associated pygidium. 8oik. 25. U. 3.S. Mexicella mcxicana Lochman 150 2.S.M. 115780. 10-12. 7. and side views of most complete cranidium. 14 and 16-27 from loc. an associated hypostoma.N. 8ood. 3. U. Paratype.M. side. U. 1-25. U.N.N. dorsal. 20. Figs. 1 15785. 14. 3. new species U. No. 18. 10. No. Fig. an associated hypostoma. Paratype. 1 X 4. 20. Both X 4. a good cranidium.M. i6. 139 loc. loc. dorsal and front views of a cranidium. 1 X 4. X X 1 1 5794.S. Paratype. of a peeled cranidium. 14. Paratype. X 4. II579327. 115781. new species X 4.N.N. X 4.M. Paratype. 17. 8oika. Plate 23 Figs.S.M. 115813. 14-18. 15804. 2. 4.M. U. 115792. a large pygidium. 15800. 1 15796. proveedora Single well-preserved hypostoma. U. Paratype. 5. 19. No. U. 1 15802.M. 115778.S. Paratypes.M. Holotype.S. 15807. dorsal and side views of a cranidium. 10-27. dorsal. front. X 2. U.M.N. side. 12. from loc. Lochman. 15. No. 115817.N. 21. and views of nearly complete cranidium. Paratype. dorsal. X 10. U.N. U. loc. X 5.N. 115777. Paratype. No. dorsal. 115789. X 3. a distorted craniX6.S. 8ood. A. loc.N.N.S.M. 801L. 802a.M.M.M. front. 1 15786.M. and front views X 4. ii5775a-c. Paratype. 20-23. No. loc. No. U. nidium.M. Paratype. Paratype. U. 13.M. All from loc. Paratype.S. 15803.

M.N. No.S. No. dorsal. Kochaspis? species undetermined 6. Paratypes.S.M. U.N. U. X 5. Paratype. 10. 8ood. new species 135 U. a very small adult cranidium.M.N. 20. 5. No.N. 4. 19. Glossopleura leona Lochman. large. 8oim. species undetermined left ISS A small cranidium in lower cella 1 corner of piece. 16. No. — X 8oih. Boii.S. loc.N.N. 25. deeply weathered limestone mold. U. 802b. 6. Fig. U. X 2. 1 15846. 1 1 5838. 115842. X X of ventral surface of crushed weathered pygidium. 30. X cranidium with well-preserved surface. Smallest Kochaspis aff. 802a.S. an immature pygidium.N. 3.M. 24. No. No. 11. Pachyaspis.S. 115841. Dorsal view of small cranidium.M.M. U. 24. 8oim. 115805. dorsal. 115833.S. X 8. X 4> 3. ccler (Walcott) immature cranidium. and side views of nearly complete adult pygidium.S. X 6.S.M. Impression of broken large cranidium. 13. a small broken pygidium. 4. U. side. Paratype. 115824.M. Paratype. associated free cheeks. X 2. 23. 5.N.N. 1 15827. No. Small nearly mature cranidium.N.M. U.M. Paratype. Holotype. 21. U. U. No. a large peeled cranidium. Paratype. U.N. 11581S. Paratype. 5. All from loc. loc. Slightly larger immature cranidium. X 4. 115818. U. 115831. a meraspid cranidium. 29. U. 115821.S. a distorted cranidium. No.N. 1-21. a large weathered free cheek. loc. No.N.N. No. rear. 4. No. X 5> U. 115826. squeeze 15830. X 4. No. No. portion of a thorax.S. loc.N.M.N. 8oim'. 1 18. Figs. U. 9. 115835.M.M. Paratype.S. Genus and species undetermined 2 10. most complete cranidium.M. Paratype. 1 1 5808. loc.S. 5.S. associated hypostoma.N. 8oin. 17.S. 802a. 27. 10.N. associated with Mexidifuntoseiisis.S. 5.M. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES 175 Page ered cranidium. 4-10 from loc.M.M. a small cranidium. No. 1 15832. 22.N. U. 22. No. 802b. U. 115847. U.S.S. loc. U. X X Fig. No. U.S. U. U. Paratype. 17.M. Paratype. 115814.S. a small cranidium.M. 24. K. Paratype. 801 j. 15. loc. 1 15839. 5. loc. No. X 3> U.N. Paratype.—— — — NO.M.N. U. U.M. Figs. 27-30. 158 loc.N.S. Smaller cranidium than preceding.M. No. 23. 8oim.N. Paratype. 115848. . U. 115837. Paratype. Paratype. X X X X X Nos.AI. 28.S.N. 14.M. 115836. 10. X 3. U. No.S. X 5. 8ood. a large pygidium. No. 18. 23. 2. 801L. X Plate 25 Figs. No.N. No.M.S. a free cheek. 115851. Paratype. loc. Paratype. 2. 801L. and front views of large broken cranidium. X 2. a medium-sized cranidium. X X X 21. 125 X X 1158523.8. U. No.N. 802c. a small pygidium. 26. 115843.N. 115844. U. No. U. No.M. associated free cheek. 123 15823.S.S. 7. mexicana and Mexicaspis X 10.M. loc. X 10. 801 j.S. U. No. Paratype.N. 6. 115825.N. 3. a distorted cranidium.M. No. loc. No. Paratype. 13-30 from loc.N. 1 15809.M.S. No. 8oik. 10.S. 12.M. Paratype. loc.M. 1 15820.N. 1158503.S.N. 10.M. Paratype. 115834. U. I.S.S. No.S. loc. loc.

Paratype. No. U. 115877. Figs. 25-32. well-preserved cranidium.S. No. X X X 8oin. Paratype. 12-14 and 16-20 from loc.S. 2. 115873.M. 115876. U. 27. X i.S. Paratype.S.M. Hypotypes. X 3.M. surface ornamentation. dorsal and front views of small.N. 115884. X 2. Hypotj'pe. 6. 8oin. an associated free cheek. 34- 33. 115882. 31. 14. deeply Kochaspis cooperi Lochman. small. Hypotype. 28. 8oin. Holotype.N. 29. U. Paratype. 115861. new species 22.N. front.N. All from loc.M.M. No.N. Hypotype. . dorsal and side views of well-preserved cranidium. 24. 115866. No. 12.S. side and dorsal views of large cranidium.S.N.S. 115881. 1 15865.S. No. Hypotype.N. 1 15856. II. All from loc. 115857. Paratype.N. 1-20. Paratype.M. 1 15880. dorsal. a small cranidium. loc.S.S. 33. X 4. 25. No. Hypotype. 800c.S. Hypotype. weathered hypostoma. No. No. U. X 5.N. 27.N. 122 Plate 26 Figs. No. X 5. No.M.M. II9 Page Figs. No.N.S.M.M. Hypotype. 1 15859. U. 800c. Hypotype. Paratype. 1 15878. No. 7.M. 4. 15.S. loc.N. small cranidium. new species 118 Holotype. 13.N. X 4. 9. 11 5864. No.N. X 3. 5. a weathered pygidium.S.M.S. U. U. X 4.N. 29. and dorsal views of large pygidium. 4. No. 5. X 3. front and 152 X dorsal views of medium-sized cranidium. 2. Paratype. U. X 5. U.N. nearly complete cranidium. 115853. U. X 4. X4. No. 5. 20. X 2.N.S. U. 115870. 115862. most complete pygidium. Soin. 1 15863. new species weathered trace of pygidium. Pachyaspis isahcUa Lochman. dorsal. 8oin. Figs.M. X4.M. U. side.M. 8oin. Holotype. 21.M.S.S. X 4. and dorsal views of U. a large pygidium. new species 26.N.N. No. 1 15875. and side views of a peeled cranidium with occipital spine. loc.M. Hypotype. U.S. Hypotype. 115872. No. dorsal view of large crushed cranidium.S. 1 15874. U. X 3. dorsal view of small. Hypotype.N.M.S. 115868. 115858b. No. No. No. X S. loc.N.N. 28.— — — 176 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. X 4. 25.N.S. loc. No. No. dorsal view of cranidium. X 3.N. I. 16. dorsal view of medium-sized cranidium. 8oim. No. 115855. 8oik. X 3. loc.N. large broken cranidium. dorsal and side views of two pygidia. an associated pygidium. fragmentary free cheek. 10. 18. loc.M. U. 30. Holotype. No. X 5.N.M. dorsal view of small cranidium.S. 115858a.S. U. AlokistocarcUa mexicana Lochman.S. U. X Plate 27 Figs.M.N. rear. Pachyaspis dchorra Lochman. U. dorsal view of best-preserved pygidium. 115871. 154 Paratype.M.S. 32.S. U. U. Kootenia exilaxata Deiss 125 Hypotype. No. side. 23. and side view of medium-sized cranidium. No.M.M.M. front. broken cranidium. U. Paratype. 800c.M. broken cranidium showing X 8. 34.N. U. 2. No. I.M. 3. Paratype. 1 15869. U. 21-29. 3. loc.M. 17. 19. front. U. loc. U. 802c. 26. 8. U. No. U.S. a broken cranidium.

No. No. Plate 28 Figs. X 4. 12.N.S.M.M. U. No. No.M.S.S. specimen showing tubercles on end of rays.M. X 5. U.N. No. U.N. dorsal. X 5. loc. All from 8oin. a very much worn spicule. 115891. small cranidium with posterior X X . X 10. Nos.M. outer surface of dorsal side of large shell.S.M. 1 15890. No. Hypotype.M. 3. 801 -O. 115916. 19.N. I. Paratype. X 5. Alokistocarc cf. U. Two views of a smaller more acutely pointed U. Paratype.S. and dorsal views of medium-sized cranidium. Kistocare corbini Paratypes. U. and side views of internal mold.S.M. 17. an U. U.N. 1 15900. Holotype. an associated pygidium. 800a. 115913. specimen. No. Alokistocarc althca Walcott 114 Hypotype. 16.— —— — NO.N. 1 15899. 13. 11589s.N.S. Paratype.N. U.N. No. X 5. No. U.M. 115899. 1-7. 13. 3-8. 5. 12. X X 15894. X 4i U. 1 15892.M. 18. 5.S. loc. All from loc.S. dorsal surface with ornamentation. HI 109 Side and top views of most complete specimen. X i. U. side and dorsal views of cranidium with good outer surface. 11. specimen showing several long curved rays. No. 8-1 1. Dorsal views of two small cranidia.18. 24. Hypotype.N. 3. Hypotype.S. X 3. No.M. No.S. 115887. 14. new species 9.M.N. Paratype. 1 15925. 20. 1 15907. 115920. an associated free cheek.M. 17. No. 4.N.S.S.N. 117 1 Figs. specimen with six side rays. 115915. 15.S. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES 177 Page Figs. 5. side and top views of a silicified spicule with side rays broken. 25. Holotype. 2.S. X 2. front and dorsal views of medium-sized cranidium. ventral.M.M.S. modestum Lochman. Holotype. 1 15897. 4. No.S. 115905. 1 15904. — Problematicum 10. X 4.M. Lochman two fragmentary free X 5.M. No.M. No. 8ood.S.N. loc. Figs. 115923. Hypotype.M. U.N.S.S. U. Figs. no Figs. X 8. U.N. X 4. X 5. 4. loc. Hypotype. 12-22. loc.S. Nos. No.M. 5.M. All from 801-O. new species Drawing of transverse section. U. X 3. Hypotype. front. 1 15926. Alokistocarc modestum Lochman. 8ooa. 115889. side. 5. No. No.M. loc. U. X 6. large fragment of cranidium. 7. 9. U. Hypotype. loc. 3. 801-O. 3. dorsal view of most complete cranidium. 800a. U. side and ventral views. 7. Hypotype. U. 3. 6.M. 21. small cranidium showing features of brim and border. A. 113 HyoUthcs sonora Lochman. 11-16. new species 116 Paratype.N. 1 15924. X 8. 10. Hypotype. associated free cheek. II 5902. Figs.S.N. 800C. i. 119 cheeks. 800C. 23.N. U.M. Paratype.S. 12 and 15.S. 1 15888. 8.S. Chancelloria cros Walcott Hypotype. U. 115921. 16. X 6. 17-25. U. large fragment of X X dorsal side showing longitudinal ridges.N. Paratype. 14. No.22. U.N. several nearly full length. 16. U. 8. X 4. dorsal view of small cranidium X X showing outer surface.M. No. X 10. 15.M. No. Paratype.N. 115914. II.S. No.N.N. 115912. X 6.N. 6. No. X 5. immature cranidium without median boss. U. 115919a.N. dorsal view of small cranidium showing outer surface. Hypotype. a worn specimen.

U.N. 1 1 5947. Helcionella. Hypotype. dorsal and rear views of broken pygidium.M. loc.N.M. Paratype.M. X 3. Figs. Figs. No. X 4. No. 21. II. 115939. 15. 26-31. No. 27. a small. U.S. No. AH from loc. dorsal and side views of larger cranidium.S. No.S. 800c.M. No. U. No.N. dorsal. 1 15946. Figs.M. Holotype. U. 20. 6.— — 178 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.S.M. No. U. U. Dorsal view of cranidium. No. top. All from 800c. 4. limb. No.N. X S. 1 15938. 8oin. Hypotype. U. new species Dorsal and front views of artificial cast of an impression of a 22. 1 15948. 115963. medium-sized cranidium showing border. 27. 800c.M. X X 17. i-io.M. U.25. X U. 115943. 26.S. 26. fragmentary free cheek.S. U.S.S. No. X 4.M.M. complete cranidium. (Walcott) 128 Holotype. X 5. X 5. X 4. 144 5959. large broken cranidium. X X Plate 29 Figs. front. X 3. Figs. Hypotype. 5. Paratype. 115929. Lochman 147 and dorsal views of nearly complete cranidium.S. No.N. 1 15945.N. 115956. Hypotype.S.M. 18. Hypotype. U. No. side views from left and right. a small cranidium. 28. No. 28. 74. a 24.M.M. Paratype.S. 115952.S. Paratype. 14. a small broken cranidium. U. X 10. 11-14. No.N.S. No.N.N. 800a. U. 4.S. All from 8ooa. 30.S. 115932.M. U. dorsal view of small cranidium. 5.N. U.M. All from 800b. Paratype. Arellanella afif.S. No.N.N. U. U. 8. No. No. loc.M. 20. II9 Page U.N.S. X 3. a small pygidium. No.M. new species Holotype.M. Holotype. 115950. 15-19.M. species undetermined 114 Lateral. Hypotype. and anterior views of the single internal mold.N. 4. dorsal view of micaceous sandstone internal mold. 12. front.N. another small cranidium.N. fragmentary pygidium with well-preserved surface. Paratype.S. Paratype. 1 15936. 4. side.N. 1 146 X 5. No.S. Hypotype. 115955. X 3. 3. 7. 1159S8. No. loc. 23-29. 1 15937. Paratype. Paratype. All from loc. X X X X fragmentary pygidium showing pleural furrows. 19. U. —Caborcella arrojosensis 13. broken cranidium. X 3. 21. and dorsal views of best-preserved cranidium. 9. No. side. sonora Lochman. U. cranidium showing surface granules. Figs. Figs. 159545. 115931. 31.M. 115962. 22. dorsal view of smaller cranidium. a small pygidium. 8oin.M. 800c. U.M. and dorsal .S.N. 108614. 800c.N. Hypotype. 8oin.N. Athabaskia hcla 2. and front views of most All loc. 7-10 from loc.S. 115941. 5. 29.N.M. No. 5. Paratype. 19. 1 1 5953.S. X 2. A.N.S.S. U. X 5. 2. side. 23-25. X 5. shale cranidium. U. U. ( Kistocare tontocnsis Resser) 121 Holotype. loc. U. 10.S.M. loc.N. loc.N.N. No. 115928. 2. a large fragmentary cranidium.S. I. 146 X X another 1 1 poorly preserved loc. 8oin. U.S. No. 3. Arellandla sonora Lochman.N. X 5.M. i. Arellanella cahorcana Lochman 23. 20-22.N. 16.N.M. Hypotype.M. front.M. 115927. U. U. 1 15942.S. No. dorsal view of pygidium. a broken peeled cranidium.

S. No.N. No.S. X 3.M. 159 Small fragmentary cranidium with upturned border. 4.S. U. 1 species undetermined 155 Dorsal views of two small imperfect cranidia. Distorted shale cranidium. Paratype. dorsal view of shale cranidium. aff.M.S. X 3. 15. 6.S. 1 15968.M. Two free cheeks in shale.M. Paratype. 1 15989. . loc.N.N.N. X 4.S. i-io. X 4. U. Thorax and pygidium. 4. small. 2. a larger pygidium. X 3. 115971. X 4. U. No.M. 13. All from loc. loc. cranidium showing elongation due to lateral compression. X 4. U. 1 15987. distorted cranidium in limestone. X 5. Paratype. 15992. slightly distorted. All from loc. I EXPLANATION OF PLATES 179 Page views of medium-sized well-preserved cranidium 25.S.M. 14. 3. 1 15972. X 8. 1-3. 7. X 10. fragment of a larger pygidium.115961.N. Fig. X 3. 81 la.N. U. Paratype.N.M. 8ooe'.M. 5.N. Paratype. imperfect limestone cranidium. 11 5993. U.M. U. dorsal view of large shale cranidium. X 4. X 5.N. nearly complete pygidium. loc. No. 115974. No. 1 15964. U.— — NO. 8ooh. X U. No. U.S. All from loc.N. X 5. U. No. 8ooe'.N. Middle Cambrian trilobites A Figs. 1 15985. distorted fragmentary cranidium. No. loc. X 3. 26. cephalon and part of thorax.N. —Zacanthoides X 4. new species 148 Paratype. 115975. Both from loc. Both from loc.M. 5.S. U.N.S. X 4.S. 12. No.M. Nos.M. No.S.M. U.M. 8ooe'. 31 Athabaskia minor (Resser) 130 Hypotype. U.S. small poorly preserved pygidium. 800a. N0. X 4. Shale pygidium with last thoracic segment. Both from loc.M. Paratype. cranidium showing distortion. X 4.N. 3. a cranidium.M.M. No. Paratype. 8oof. Hypotype. 11 5966. 8ooh. Paratype. Figs.N. anteroposterior compression. Plate Figs. 8. .M. No. —Genus 1 and species undetermined 3 10.M.S. 2. 1 15973. U. 1 1 5988.S. 15994. 8oog. U. 29. —Parehmania. with hypostoma showing where cephalon removed. U. ginal spines.S.S. No. U. Plate 30 Figs. Fig.S. Both from loc.N. No. X 5. U. No. U.N. Hypotype. 115990. 115984. 115981. U. 1 15967. All from 8ooe.S. ceph- alon and nearly complete thorax. 7. Dorsal view of small. 10. slight lateral compression.S. Holotype. 27. holopygiis Resser 143 Poorly preserved limestone pygidium showing single pair of mar- U. X 4. cranidium in limestone. 9.M. 1 15979. 17. 16.S. I.S. 115969. 159 —Cf .N. 801C.M.M.N.S. X4. No. 1 15982. U. I.N. 11-17. 6.M. No. U. Paratype.N. II.M. 8ooe. fragmentary small cranidium.S. No. 115983. U. No.M. No.N. 28.N. X S. No.N. 1 1 5976. X 4. No. No.S. X 4.N. Ingle fieldia imperfecta Lochman. 115978. Z.

loc. 12. II9 Page Fig. X i- 13. No. 1 X 2. fig.N. X 2.S. No. 8ooe. ID. fig. 5. U.S. Sooe.— — — l8o SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.M. men lacking only 1 free Same 14.S. figured specimen. 14.M. X 2. .S.N. II. plate 14. Fig. 8. 8ooe.N.M. Figs. 15996. U. torresi 137 loc. Stoyanow paratype. ^ 137 X plate 15.S. 116333. ^ 137 holotype. loc. Incomplete cranidium showing X some convexity.S.N. 9. Glossoplcura species Sonoraspis gomesi Stoyanow Carapace of laterally compressed specimen. 1 16336. No. figured specimen U. 1 15995.M. 16335. 10.N. Figs. 6. Glossoplcura species =: Sonoraspis Carapace without cephalon. Pygidium and part of thorax.M. No. U. Glossoplcura species Sonoraspis gomezi Stoyanow Small carapace with well-preserved thorax and pygidium.N. 1 16334. Glossoplcura species 137 Dorsal view of complete but crushed cranidium. U. 11. 2.M. Dorsal view of plasticine replica of specicheeks. No.M. X i. No.N. loc. as pi.S. fig. figured specimen U. i( paratype. No. U. 5. 12-14. 8ooe. 116335: plasticine replica of exterior from mold. plasticine replica from mold.

33. 17. A. 2S. Antagmus-Onchocephalus zone. 152 stator. 18. 19 Agraulos. 75. 75. 2. 54. 147 arrojosensis. 76 Brachiopoda. 9. 21 Albertella zone. no. pi. 21 Bonnia zone. 100 sonora. 16. pi. Chaetetes. 22. pi. 55. pi. C. pi. 157. typicalis. 79. 73. 57. Columnar sections. 36 references. 128. 3 pi. baton. 2. 50.. 12. 103 typicalis. 20. pis. 14.1 INDEX (Principal references are printed in italics. 12. 11. 27. 79-80. 20. 29 sonora. 100 fieldensis. 146. 119 Alokistocaridae. 4. A. 128 bosworthi. pis. Amecephalus? pi. pi. pi. 21. 72 idahoensis. 19. ^5. sp. 31. 5 Buelna Hills. 22 80 Anoria. 102 solitarius. 11. 29 Proveedora Hills. /jp. J. gg. piochensis. 71 columbensis. 117. 116. pl. 77 Bright Angel shale. 18. 60. 13. 52. 49 subcoronatum. 77. 27. 81. 9 minor. 2. 29. 8. 144 pi. 56. 20. 129 Bolaspis-Glyphaspis zone. 52. 18. 100 pi. 21. 44 pi. 8 Coscinocyathidae. 7. 23 Cathedral dolomite. 112. I concava. 146. 57. 73. 18. 21. modestum. 17. 56 Alokistocarella. 11 caborcana. Arellanella. iig mexicana. 138. 73 buttsi. 146. 21. 21 1-5 tennesseensis. 18. 11. pi. 66 Clathrocyathus. 21. 75. 9 profundus. sonora. 37. 77. 102. 18. 27 Bathyuriscus belesis. 8. z/^. 75. 79. 6. 71. 14 drusilla.) Acrothele. pi. A. 128. proveedora. 30. 60. 128 atossa. 60. 66. 16. 28 Ajacicyathus nevadensis. j/. 73. 117 modestum. 128 rimouski. 145. tensa. 58 27 22. 128 anax. 5 Caborca. 137. 137. 1 17. 21. 9 pi. 22. 23 aff. 52. 53 Cambrocyathus cf. 27 stator. 48 Bradoria. 29 glacialis. 81 Bonnia. 8 10 Buelna Hills. 18. 12. 45 18. 136 Canedo Antagmus. 7. 21. pi. 17 Chancelloria. 139 proveedora. 109 rugulosa. 75. 79 Cerro Prieto formation. 60. 114 Amecephalus. 109 Bridge. 56. Athabaskia. 76. 118. 103. occidentalis. 7. 19. 80 Buelna formation. 45. perola. 27. 130. Caborcella bed. Hill. 28 Aphelaspis. 118. 19. pis. 53 bessus. 139. 71. Arrojos Hills. 31 Coscinocyathus sp. 128 bela. 6. 60. 3 76 Ajacicyathidae. 181 pl. 52. 77. 78. 149 althea. 2. 17. 18. loi. 77. 144. 163 ostheimeri. 57. 78. 81 Alokistocare. pi. 77. Arrojos formation. map of region about. 23. 72. 13. 74.. 50. 147. 19. 21. 30 27. 70. 20. 9 . 29 aff. 20. 12 6. 16. 158. 53. 11 103 22. 23 Albertella beds. 31 Albertella. pi. 21. 27. 20. pl- tontoensis. 21. 32 yavorskii. A. 71. 130 Archaeocyathus atlanticus. 75. 74. I. Caborcella. 58 piochensis. 22. 44. Arrojos Hills. brighamensis. 18 29 14 Cambrocyathidae. pi. 75. 6. pi. 14. 7.. 20. 27 cf. 11 Prieto Hill. pi. 57. 18. colleni. 85 eros. 9. 18. 21 7. 31 Qavaspidella. pis. 11. 23. 4. 12. 53. cf. 21.

7T. 80 Dearborn limestone. 114 comptus. 78. pl. lis. 78 Elrathiella. pl. 109 Kistocare. 81. 80 Dictyonina. 21 pl. 27. 127. 78. 117. 20. undet. 48 pi. prolixus. 21. 58. 124. 76. 27 Locality 80 ix. 113 idahoensis. 18. 131.. 74. 6 references. 83. 40. 37. 19 Locality 801. 2. nyssa. 14. 137 producta. 18. 20. i. 15 pl- arrojosensis. 114. 19. 7. 19 Lista Blanca. 47. 13. 82. pl. 50. 2g. 25 mckeei. 2S. pi. 7. 75. 19. 123 sp. ^2 Elrathia. 149 Dolichometopus boccar. 157 Ethmophyllidae. sinensis. 18. ^6. 60. 22. 9 8 liliana zone... East Buelna. 136 boccar. 2. cf. 51. ZT> 4° burgessensis. 51 idahoensis. 156 Kinsobia varigata. 124. Elliptocephala. 123. 12 Difuntos Hills. 5 Localities. 79 whitneyi. 80. stephenensis. 23 whitei. 148 discreta. 77. 113 Glossopleura-Sonoraspis. Lingulella. 53 pl. 80 pi. 18. 13. 125. 41. 155. 132 poulseni. 21. 74. 78. 66. Dolichometopsis. 30 ^(i "/d Ehmaniella. 20 sp. 21. 121. I belesis. 20.. 77. 18. 12. sonora. 71. 25 G. 18. 38 137. 18 Faunas. 25 dispar. 155. 9. 20. 84 cercops. 66. undet. 114 aff. 49 shale. 133 resseri. 36. 122. zj/. 15 . 21. 77. 75. pis.I«2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 28 H. 125. 4. 19. 51 132 Inglefieldia. Gordon I. Kootenidae. 25 Faunal lists. i35. 21. pl. 79. princeps. 17. cf. 21. pl. 20. 66 Kochaspis. 125. 40 minutipuncta. 21. 78. 51.. 66 Glossopleura-Kootenia zone. discussion Girvanella. 24 cooperi. pl. T]. 28 Elrathiella-Clappasis zone. 31 proveedorensis. 53. 20. 70 11. 16. 156 Elrathia-Elrathina zone. 20. 125 tetonensis. 123 aff. 18 Locality 800. 60. pl. II9 Crepicephalidae. 117 imperfecta. celer. pl. Kootenia. il 18. 14. 8. 12. 21. 148. 19. Gomez. celer. pl. 47 12. 74. scapegoatensis. 20. 12 Ehmania. 81 Elvinia. 15. 27 20. 50. productus. 126. 27. 37 granvillensis. 79. 7Z. 54. 76. 26 mexicana. bellicostata. 122 Crepicephalus. 21 Locality 8oiq.5 exilaxata.. 136. 14. pi. G. 120. 125 52. 127 14. 119. 29. 18. 10. 122. 18. sp. 22. 15. 16 50. pl. H. 4. pl. pl. 6 23 Glossopleura. 4.. 123. 3 13 Helcionella sp. S3 leona. 24. 51 tontoensis. 27. 66. 53 Glossopleura sp. 60. 24. 132 lepida. 17. 150. pl. 7 cooperi. 74. pl. 12S. pl. 21. 19. 9. 149. 61. 19. 113 sonora. yd. 40 sp. maladensis. 20. 28 Ethmophyllum americanum. 23. Tj corbini. 125 pl. pl. Diraphora. I 17. 19 Damnation limestone.. pi. 13 sp. 30. 78 Kootenia beds. erromena. K. 28 tontoensis. 2^. 75. pl. Hyolithes. of.

89. 131. 6. 22. 44 rara. 94 Obolella zone. pl. 15 virginicus. 133. 72 Olenellus. 16. 22. 155. 60. 133. pl. 18 Mexicella. 45. 19. 37. 20. 42 Problematicum L 19. 71. 71. 19. pi. 19. 9. 17 Pleospongia. Locality Locality Locality Locality Locality Locality Locality Locality Onchocephalus 105 22. Pleosponges. 20. pl. 75. 34 Poulsen. pl. 15. 60. pi. 97. 138. 40 sp. 12. mexicanus. 17. 155. tontoensis. undet. 20 . 27. 12 Nevadia. pl. 85 Olenoides. 8. pl. 40 sp. pl. 91. 20. Proveedora 22. 21. 56 Puerto Blanco formation. 60. 12. 152. 18. 24 typicalis. 23. 807. Obolella beds. 17. I INDEX 80 ly. 4. faunas. 49. 21 Ptarmigania. y6. Proveedora formation. 20. 94. 22 807J. 72 Nisusia. 44. 94 Olenellus zone. Hills. 15. 19. 70. Paterina. pis. 18 sp. 89. 139. 18. 4. 74. Problematicum H. 24 sp. 81. 19. 156. 18 gilberti. undet. 89. 41. 51. 60. 19. 44 Pleosponge reefs. 128 Ptychoparia piochensis. 2. 71. pl. 5 46 montanensis. 22. Pegmatreta. pl. 13 perplexa. 19. 18. yy. 2. pl. 76. I 15 15 pl. 139. pl. 46 sp. 21. 89. 81 155. 74. 18. 82. 92. 156. 2.. 12. 23 812. 105 Orthotheca buelna. 22 pi. 31 152 13 y^. 95 puertoblancoensis. 21 183 thia. 15^.. 23 Pachyaspis. I. 56. pl. 104. pl.. 155. 78 Ptarmiganidae. 52 Prieto Hill. pis. 153 deborra. 74. y^. 72. 19 Mexicaspis bed. 72. 33. 74. 105. 4. 152. 75. 16. 94 (Freemontia) fremonti. 71. 15. 21. 58.. 155. 105 7. 8. 12. 76. 39. 95 Parehmania. 73 pl. 13. 132 bispinosa. 132. 8. 26 sp. Problematicum III. 16. 9 4. pl. 39. 16. 92 reticulatus. 156 starquistae. 80 arellanoi. pl. 21. 16 802. 89 Proveedoria. 5 42 chromatica. 23. 21. 23. pl. 25 Isabella. references. 16 809. 14. 74. 42. 84. 12 27. 18. 4. 27 13 20.NO. 21. 155. II 18. 4 92 profile. 81. 71. 22. 22. 143. i difuntosensis. stator. 10. 10. 4 94. 27 801 z. pl. 23 811. 19. 91 (Olenellus) truemani. 72 atlantica. 19. 21. thompsoni. Puerto Blanco section. 81. 19 stenopyge. 70.. 45 deissi.. E. 94.. 150 mexicana. Lower Cambrian Mexicaspis. 109. 89. 12. 38. 13. 8. 21. 81. pl. 51. 38. 22 rossensis. pl. pl. 19. leuka. 20. 92 logani. 72. 17. 122. map. 41. rotunda. Protopharetra sp. 16. 97. 23 transitans. 22. 36. 76. pl. 5 lapworthi. 133 22. 70. yy. Obolella. 78 20 Resser. buelnaensis.. pl.. 43. 141. 155. 71. pl. 4 Onchocephalus. 42 Muav limestone. 10. 12. 78. 159 sp. C. 42 crassa. 90. 28 mexicana. 150. 81 Micromitra. 122 pl. 116 22. 19. 71. Middle Cambrian faunas. undet. 10. 153 Paedeumias.

88. pis. Salterella beds. 23. pi. 68. 78. pis. 97 rowei. 86 mexicana. 12. 19. 16. D. L. 14. 20. il izi4 19. 19. 12. pis. 8 conulata. undet. pis. 80 . 14. 62. 99. 80. 74. 30. 96. gordonensis. 54. 143 aff. pi. 22. holopygus. 4. 86 Trilobites. 9. 54. 5J. reticulata. 13 Syringocnema favus. S.. 76. 65. 16. 77. 137 gomezi. 47 sp. 143. halli. 10. ScoHthus. 86. 98. 52. 158 20. pi. 55. 23 sp. 17 89 mexicana. 12. 57. 19. 137 Zacanthoides. 52. 9. 17 cf. pi. pi. 5/. pi. 71. 13/. Wimanella.. 66. pulchella. s6. Zacanthoidae. Z. 71 Torres. 83. 60. 87.. II Sombrerella. 21. 15 occidens. 66. pi. 14.. 14. 79. S8. 71 mexicana. 22. 22. 31 21.. 31 torresi. 52. 14. pi. 7. 49. cf. 22. 47 9 sp. 81.. 71 walcottana buelnaensis. 87 sp. 66. 75. 15. 19. 96. 52. 21. 73. II9 Salterella. 61. pi. 15. 17. 157 arrojosensis. West Buelna. 707. 72. 97 sp. 30 idahoensis. 16 Wanneria. 22. Si Walcott. undet. pi. 34 ? takayamai. 20 Sonoraspis. 20. 55. pi. Syringocnemidae. 1-3 Z. walapi. 59. 21 rossensis. C. i. 159 expansa. 13. 70 references. 73. 61 S. 22. 97 rugosa. 8. 33. 23. 19 12. 71. 61 cf. 99. 4/. pis. 15. 33 Syspacephalus zone. 46 164 Strotocephalus. 51. 27. 19 walcottana.. 97 mexicana prima.i84 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 49 Tren formation. 23 18 Scenella.




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1. NO.j>-:' .• . Aerial View of the-«Pf . PL. 2 ^-jL??v..»: -^1^. 119.

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1. PL. North End of the Arrojos Hills. 3 mn^mmfm^Hmmmii *. '^'^^mn DiFUNTos Hills. and Pleosponge Reef . 119. NO.

NO. 4 Puerto Blanco Formation: Prieto Hill: Canedo Hill: Proveedora Hills (BUELNA AND CERRO PRIETO FORMATIONS) . 119. PL. 1.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.

^' ^'. 1. PL.Z -il. T.RRO Prieto Limestone on Top of Prieto Hill. 5 .^^ '?>:. Showing Girvanella . NO.'^' s«^-- LiSTA Blanca: West Buelna Hill: Surface of Cf. 119.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.

1. 3 GiRVANELLA (See explanation of plates at end of text. 119. 6 ^- •^^I i Tr":.!^^s«<'.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.^--^> . PL. NO.) .

1-^ *%i Pleosfongia (See explandtion of plates at end of text.) . NO. PL.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 119. 1. 7 » ^ .

NO.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 119. PL. 1. 8 PLEOSPONGIA (See explanation of plates at end of text.) .


SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. NO. 1. 10 Pleospongia (See explanation of plates at end of text. PL. 119.) .

^^-''*^'^F*^ ^-#:'i:^:?^ W 1 Brachiopoda (See explanation of plates at end of text.) . NO. PL.1 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1. 11 -1 '\. 119.


13 Brachiopoda (See explanation of plates at end of text. 119. NO. PL. .SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.. 1.

119. 14 Original Collection of Cambrian Trilobites from Sonora (See explanation of plates at end of text.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. NO.) . 1. PL.

) . 1. 119. NO. PL. 15 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.

16 ^.. NO 1.>'.. U9. . PL.) ...SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL./•-- 10 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text.

119.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. PL. 17 . .^' A ^^-4^^:^ / \/*S>:*^'^ . 1. ^Ti)^ Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text. NO.


19 14 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text. 1.) . PL. 119.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. NO.


NO. 1.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 21 30 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text.) . 119. PL.

f. NO.i-. >«« '* Tior- 16 > r .iiMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. PL.. 1.''^^C io Sg--. 119.. 22 f« 5.

NO.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1.) . PL. 23 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text. 119.

24 IF 29 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text. 1.) . 119.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. PL. NO.


NO. 1 8 % . m 23 * •. 119.'. PL.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1.:<-. 26 ''v4 HVSiw-*^ » » 16 17 22 ?" .


119. 28 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text. 1. PL. NO.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.) .

1. 119. 29 Jf 17 '^ 19 24 14 Trilobites (See explanation of plates at end of text.) .SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. NO. PL.










Miller Gastropoda. Pelecypoda. by G.CONTENTS Page Stratigraphy and Faunal Zones. Arthur Cooper Introduction i I Geographical setting of the Monos formation 2 2 Faunal zones Permian localities and fossil lists 7 13 Literature cited A Giant Permian Fusuline from Sonora. by Helen Duncan Sponges. by Arthur K. by J. by G. Brookes Knight Introduction 21 21 "/"/ 79 81 83 Systematic description Selected bibliography Explanation of plates Index 83 85 90 92 107 . by Carl O. Arthur 21 Cooper Sponges Brachiopoda Pelecypoda Scaphopoda Cephalopoda. Dunbar Literature cited 14 19 Corals. 20 and Scaphopoda. Brachiopoda.

Cancrinella. UnciniineUinaf. Spirijerellina 22. Heterelasma. Omphalotrochus(f). Husicdia. Plagioglypta. 25. 6. Diclasma. 3. 11. Euphemites. Derbyia. and Neospirifer. Pleurophoriis. Warthia. Schizodus. northeast of El Antimonio. 7. Wellerella. OrbiculoidL'a. and sponge.ILLUSTRATIONS Plates (All plates following page io6. 20. Dictyoclostus and Liosotella. Lophophyllidiuin. 10. Parafiisulina. 12. 19. Nuculana. 2. 8. Derbyia. 13. Composita. Muirwoodia and Dictyoclostus. Pleurotoniaria(f). and Orthonychia. 4. and Punctospirijer. 16. Dictyoclostus. Map Map of northwestern of the Sonora 3 Monos Hills 3. and Streptorhynchus. Figures Page 1. 5. 2. and Lciorhynchoidea. 21. Rhynchopora and Wellerella. Stenoscisma. and Straparollus(?). Columnar section of the Permian strata in the Monos Hills 4 6 . Spirijerellina. P seudomartinia and Spiriferella. with Monos Hills in background.) 1. 23. Waagenoceras. and Hcterelasma. Hetcralosia. Views of Permian strata in the Monos Hills. Waagcnoconcha. 15. 9. 17. 24. Spiriferella. 14. Liosotella. view looking northeast from El Antimonio camp. Glossothyropsis. 18. Marginifera and Chonetes. and Anidanthus.

Originally these rocks were not recog- nized as of Permian age. T. Pie noted the com- The strata near El plexity of the structure but did not present a stratigraphic column. VOL. He recognized there a Caborca Division. at the mining camp of El Antimonio. but our collections of 1943 and 1944 (Word). NO. Keller (1928). It is not important therefore to discuss the rocks of this series any further. This discovery was later confirmed by A. one of the three parts into which he divided the rocks of northwestern Sonora. made during the seasons definitely establish the sequence as Middle Permian Antimonio were studied by Keller during an examination of the area for its oil possibilities. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. The name "Monos beds" was applied to the upper part of the Caborca Division after the Monos Hills in which they are exposed. The Gamusa beds in the lower sequence of the Caborca Division occur some 9 miles south of Pitiquito and are now known to be of pre-Cambrian age. These hills are located a short distance east and northeast of El Antimonio. anb iflarp *^aux aialcott 3^eieatt^ jFunb PERMIAN FAUNA AT EL ANTIMONIO. Ariz. ARTHUR COOPER i United States Natiottal Mtisewn (Plates and 25) INTRODUCTION About 30 miles west of Caborca. WESTERN SONORA. of the University of Arizona. 2 .Charles! B. The Caborca Division consisted of the Monos beds at the top and the Gamusa beds below. a sequence of Permian rocks was discovered by W. MEXICO STRATIGRAPHY AND FAUNAL ZONES By G. 119. Stoyanow (1942). Keller recognized the fossils collected as belonging to PermoCarboniferous types and related the fauna to that of the Pennsylvanian rocks around Bisbee.

Miller described and figured a goniatite collected by Cooper and Arellano in the upper part of the Monos formation which proved to be Waagenoceras. on which the Caracol mine is situated (295 meters from this igneous body to the base of the Anidanthus zone is about 2. The extensive fauna now known from the Monos formation permits an even closer correlation. as revealed in patches and exthe hill The horizontal distance . dieneri Bose. from the igneous body with elevation 156 meters (see map. but the specimen was so poorly preserved that it could be referred only with doubt to the species [['. K. These hills form a crescent with its convex side facing El Antimonio.200 feet. FAUNAE ZONES The lower 1.500 feet of the sequence is is poorly exposed. This part of the section best seen in an area extending fig. added to the others. Nevertheless a sequence was pieced together from the beds exposed on the inside of the arc at the north end on the hill where a mill (molino) is located. G. proves the age of the Monos formation as Middle Permian Monos formation W (Word). Stoyanow (1942) assigned a Permian age to some fossils from the referred to him by I. fixes the age of the beds as Permian. is on the outside of the it is The rocks are faulted and intruded to such an extent that an accurate stratigraphical section. the highest are about 400 feet above the surrounding country. In 1946 Cooper and Arellano briefly described their work in northwestern Sonora and there mentioned Paraftisidina in addition to the two other Permian types already noted. II9 In 1928 Keller summarized his Mexican studies in an article published in Switzerland and concluded that the whole Monos series belongs in the Pennsylvanian Period. 2) southwest- ward toward elevation). Torres. difficult to establish This locality is here referred to as Mill Hill. GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING OF THE MONOS FORMATION The Permian which lie rocks at El Antimonio are confined to the Monos Hills about i| miles east and northeast of the mining settlement. Gomez and L. The top of the section arc. This fossil. The beds dip 35 to 40 degrees.000 to 1. Most of the hills are low. This discovery of Waagenoceras. The rocks in this interval. comaagenoconcha montpelierensis by the Mexican bined with that of geologists Gomez and Torres. Early in 1945 A.2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Conspicuous in this collection was the Permian productid Waxigenoconcha montpelierensis.


). The interval between this first occurrence of Anidanthus and a second prominent zone containing this fossil is composed of thin-bedded reddish-gray sandy shale with yellowish limestone beds from which no fossils were taken. fossils No recognizable were seen in the lower 900 feet of this sequence. 1. The latter fossil can be found to the northwest. Several of the succeeding zones appear at or near the Moreno house (Casa Moreno). including Anidanthus. the rock continues shaly and sandy in character but in addition contains limestone lenses. This effort failed because the zone could not be followed beyond the . Higher. under the tank where the Dictyoclostus is most numerous. Parafusulina bed. The Anidanthus zone slope of the hills that lie especially at the locality exposed in several places along the east west of the igneous body (156 m.4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. From the front of the house. and z. under localities x. At this point in the section bluish limestone containing black concretions produced poor productids. Since the importance of fusulines in a Permian sequence cannot be underestimated. II9 posed areas along a small arroyo. D it has only a limited extent. These species have been 806k. are shaly beds with igneous material intruded at the base. At the point marked Dx southeast of the Moreno house and 70 feet above the Anidanthus zone a bed occurs containing large Composifa and the productid Dictyoclostus. and at the is to the north angle of the hills just east of the Moreno house. and o. k'. This latter is often difficult to distinguish from the bryozoans on weathered rock surfaces. and at the point This zone consists of 40 or 50 feet of moderately heavy bedded limestone that weathers to an orange or reddish color. The other fossil zones are established in relation to this one. n. Fossils are fairly common and are listed under localities 806m. to beyond the rear of the house and part way down the hill to the north the rock abounds in bryozoans and large Parafusulina. The listed Dictyoclostus zone contains numerous brachiopods and other fossils but all in a poor state of preservation. considerable effort was made to trace this zone to other parts of the hills. where it occurs in the gully just east of the Moreno house and under the tank on the west side of the house. indicated by the dip symbol 43. This is the lowest fossiliferous zone that could be relied on but just south of it. The bed is offset in places but its position above the Anidanthus zone is quite clear because that fossil can be found below the Dictyoclostus at the north point of the hill and on the northeastern tip of the hill. fossils —The Dictyoclostus zone seems to thicken or the become more widely dispersed in the rock in going from the arroyo on the east side of the Moreno house to the tank on the west side of the house.



-Map of . J^ •°""°" °' ''' '"'" '''"°" . position of '-P-f '""''"P^f Map drawn in meters.he Monos Hills hill "' showing the Pennian-Triassic boundary. where th& section of the Permian in figure 3 was started.


is found distri- on the northeastern bution. These reddish limestones contain two zones of fossils the Leiorhynchoidea zone which occurs about 150 feet below a Composita zone. Three to four hundred and sandy limestone intervene between the Dictyoclostus zone and a Composita zone. It is prominent at or near the crest of the high hill (394 m.) and near the road just southwest of the Mill.) and appears on each knob of Mill Hill. therefore. The zone and the abundance of dark is 200 feet or more in thick- . Faunal lists are given under localities 806c. h'. impure silicified fossils. that the Parafusulina plantation and is restricted to the bryozoan a local development. limestone with considerable chert and quantities of Chief among the fossils is Coinposita grandis which occurs in nearly every exposure of this zone. low elliptical hill at the east end of the Monos Hills. nor could it be traced prominent on the east side of Mill Hill where specimens of Leiorhynchoidea are fairly abundant loose in the debris The Leiorhynchoidea zone It is satisfactorily. h. the species assigned to the Cancrinella zone were found loose in the debris on the north slope of Mill Hill south of the Moreno This slope produced a varied fauna which must have come interval from the zones. 2 east side of the PERMIAN FAUNA Moreno house. bluish color. Most of house. V. Spiriferellina zone. the —This it is Monos Hills that was used as the stratigraphic work. on the slope. The complete between the Leiorhynchoidea and the Composita list of species from the north slope of Mill Hill such a conspicuous horizon throughout principal reference bed in the appears under locality 8o6i. — COOPER It is 5 A float piece with Parafusulina. feet of reddish limestone shale : Leiorhynchoidea and Cancrinella zones. and a Cancrinella zone which includes the limestone above Leiorhynchoidea and below Composita. It consists of about 20 feet of massive. r. — is not well defined. suggested a wider in place in this vicinity. It also is prominent near the top of the hill (295 m. Extensive exposures of this formation can be seen forming the ridge of the long.) just to the west. the most prominent horizon in the upper part of the section. (8o6m). Few other fossils occur at this level. The ease with which the Composita zone can be recognized made it possible to detect fossils and drifted pieces isolated from the main mass of the hills. brown nodular masses of chert.NO. Isolated small blocks of this zone appear on the east flank of hill (294 m. Composita zone. —This zone its is readily recognized by the purer nature of the limestone. but the fossil tip of the hill was not found con- cluded.

The full section is 1. 3. This zone takes that occurs in all its exposures. The sec^ tion is a composite one beginning at the igneous hill marked 156 on the map. and This zone is overlain unconformably by red Triassic limestone. g. h^.6 ness and is SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. — Mill Hill.800-2. shaped chain of Isolated small fault blocks occur southwest of SPIRIFERELLINA I I I COMPOSITA CANCRINELLA- LEIORHYNCHOIDEA DICTYOCLOSTUS PARAFUSULINA ANIOANTHUS (2) ANIOANTHUS (I) Fig. . w. 806b. d. s.200 feet thick. t. I IQ generally located on the outside slopes of the crescenthills. f . name from a wide-hinged spiriferinoid The fossils are listed under localities y. figure 2. Columnar section of the Permian strata in the Monos Hills. d'. The column is broken to accommodate it to the page.

about i mile northeast of El Antimonio. c Hills. sp. about 1. 2 PERMIAN FAUNA COOPER 7 PERMIAN LOCALITIES AND FOSSIL LISTS a := abundant . r sp. Sonora. C. knob (elevation 217 m. Chonetes monosensis Cooper *Dictyoclostus sp c r Euphemites stibpapillosus (White) Hiistedia elongata Cooper *Hustedia sp Liosotella subrugosa Cooper *Liosotella sp vr r r re r *Plagioglypta sp ? ) . 2 Spirijerellina sonorensis Cooper c TetrsLCora\s:=^Lophophyllidiuin re r Waagenoconcha montpelicrensis (Girty) Wellerclla lemasi minor Cooper 806c. r^ rare. Pletirotomaria ( C Cooper r Spirijerellina sonorensis c r r r r Sponges *Stachella sp Waagenoconcha montpelicrensis (Girty) Wellerella lemasi minor Cooper . grandis Cooper *DicJasma sp Heterelasma contrerasi Cooper Hiistedia vr r r meekana sp. 806a. vr :r: very rare. 2 r r Rhynchopora taylori Girty SpirifereUina sonorensis Cooper r c Wellerella hemiplicata Cooper Wellerella lemasi Cooper 8o6d. a just south of the south Upper Spirijerellina zone.). Monos about 1. Composita easternmost and Spirifcrellina zones mixed. east face of large hill (elevation 294 m. Locality 806. Composita zone. Spirijerellina zone.) side of the high hill (elevation 294 m. southeast side of west knob of Monos Hill. Composita cf. south face of west knob of easternmost hill. not discussed in text. No species listed. c = common. ( Shumard ) re r r Liosotella subrugosa Cooper Marginijera.). Permian (Word equivalent) in Cerros de los Monos.2 miles west of Alamo.2 miles west of Alamo. * re = fairly common. 806b. Composita grandis Cooper a Glossothyropsis magna Cooper c Liosotella rugosa Cooper r Marginijera. about ^ mile north of Alamo.NO. about i mile northwest of Alamo.

II9 8o6d'. canna (White) r Rhynchopora Sponge taylori rotunda vr r . Spiriferellina (elevation 295 m. vr r r Composita grandis Cooper Dielasma cf. west face southeast knob of highest hill 8o6f. Spiriferellina zone.) south of Mill.. prolongatum Girty Heterelasma contrerasi Cooper Hustedia vieekana (Shumard) Liosotclla subrugosa Cooper r re r Rhynchopora Rhynchopora Tetracorals taylori Girty taylori rotunda Spiriferellina sonorensis Cooper Cooper vr re re r = Lophophyllidinin Waagenoconcha montpelicrcnsis (Girty) Wellerella lemasi minor Cooper re 8o6e = 806s. about 1. i vr vr vr e Pectenoid pelecypod Cooper Spiriferellina sonorensis Cooper taylori rotunda Rhynchopora Straparollus( ?). 1^ miles northeast of hill r e (elevation 295 m. D. Spiriferellina zone.8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS knob with elevation 217 VOL. m. zone. sp. sp. vr Chonetes monosensis Cooper *Chonetes sp Composita grandis Cooper *Dictyolostus sp vr vr r r Cooper Glossothyropsis magna Cooper Heteralosia mexicana Cooper Heterelasma contrerasi Cooper Hustedia meekana ( Shumard) Liosotella subrugosa Cooper Myalina sp Nucula sp Dielasma floresi r vr r re re vr r Orbiculoidca. west face of largest mill.2 miles west of Alamo. i\ miles northeast of El Antimonio.) south of El Antimonio. Tetracorals Lophophyllidinm A vr r = Waagenoconcha montpelierensis (Girty) Wellerella lemasi minor Cooper 8o6g. just south of south face of hill (elevation 294 m.). vr r r r Composita grandis Cooper Dictyoclostus depressus subsp Dielasma floresi Cooper Glossothyropsis magna Cooper Heterelasma contrerasi Cooper Hustedia meekanu ( Shumard ) Liosotella rugosa Cooper Liosotella subrugosa Cooper r r r r Plagioglyptg.

). southwest face of Mill Hill. about 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. north slope of Mill Hill. 2 a r c r r r Pseudomartinia martinesi Cooper Rhynchopora taylori Girty vr vr Spirij erellina *Tetracorals sonorensis Cooper motitpelierensis (Girty) vr vr c Waagenoconcha Wellcrella hemiplicata Cooper Wcllerella leinasi Cooper 8o6h'.NO. 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. 2 Tetracorals PERMIAN FAUNA —COOPER 9 = LophophyUidium re Waagenoceras dieneri Bose vr Waagcnoconcha montpcUcrensis (Girty) r Wellcrella leniasi minor Cooper c 8o6g'. 2\ miles northnortheast of EI Antimonio. Composita zone. hill 200 yards southwest of Mill Hill. Glossothyropsis D. r Glossothyropsis magna Cooper Hctcrelasma contrcrasi Cooper r Hustcdia meckana ( Shumard) r Liosotella subrugosa Cooper r Wellcrella lemasi minor Cooper r 8o6i. hill 200 yards southwest of Mill Hill. a Composita zone. Composita grandis Cooper a c Wellcrella hemiplicata Cooper Wellcrella lemasi Cooper a 8o6h2. Glossothyropsis magna Cooper c 8o6h. sp. spatiilatmn Girty magna Cooper Hustcdia meckana ( Shumard) Hustcdia meckana plicatclla Cooper Leiorhynchoidea cloudi Cooper Liosotella magnirugosa Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper re r r r r Muirwoodia. north side largest hill south of mill (elevation 295 m. Aviculopecten montpelierotsis Girty Cancrinella phosphatica vr re (Girty) Chonetes foshagi Cooper *Composita sp *Dictyoclostns sp vr r vr vr r r Dielasma cf. Composite bed. Spirij erellina zone. 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. A vr . Composita grandis Cooper *Dcrbyia sp Glossothyropsis magna Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper Marginijera. 2 sp vr r Nuculana obesa White Omphalotrochus{ ?). sp.sp Nucula.

i Spiriferellina laxa (Girty) r Spiriferellina sonorensis Cooper vr vr r Streptorhynclnts sp *Tetracorals 806k'. 27 miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. sp. vicinity of Composita grandis Cooper Dictyoclostus depressus Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper r c r Marginifera. north slope of Mill Hill. Dictyoclostits zone. (?) sp.10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Orhiculoidea. A. 2i miles north-northeast of El Antimonio.B Punctospirifer convexus Cooper r vr vr r Rhynchopora taylori Girty i Spiriferella. r Muirzvoodia sp Neospirijer. sp. Parafusulina bed. Leiorhynchoidea cloudi Cooper re 8o6j. I vr r r r Neospirifer. Parafusulhia antimonioensis Dunbar a *Bryozoa 806k. drift fossils from Dictyoclostus bed in Moreno house. i r r Plagioglypta canna (White) Spiriferellina laxa (Girty) vr r Cooper Stenoscisma sp Streptorhynchus sp Waagenoconcha montpeUerensis (Girty) *Bryozoans Spiriferellina sonorensis vr vr r c . sp. north side of tank and northwest side of Moreno House. 2^ miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. sp. 2 r VOL. II9 Pleurophorus sonorensis Cooper Plettrotomaria. r r Leiorhynchoidea zone. 2 Spiriferella. r Waagenoconcha montpeUerensis (Girty) Dictyoclostus bed. sp. i Margin if era. sp. Chonetes gibberulus Cooper Composita grandis Cooper Dictyoclostus depressus Cooper r r c *Etiphemites sp vr r *Hustedia sp *Liosotella sp r sp. under water tank on west side a Moreno house. vr ( Spiriferellina laxa Girty ) r Stenoscisma sp Uncitmnellina? pulchra Cooper vr vr r r Waagenoconcha montpeUerensis (Girty) Wellerella lemasi Cooper WeUerella rotunda Cooper Wellerella sp 8o6i'.

vr re of east knob a r of Mill Hill. 2^ miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. sp. Anidanthus alatus Cooper Derbyia arellanoi Cooper Derby ia elongata Cooper Dictyoclostus dcpressus Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper *Neospirifer sp a r vr c re r Orthonychia. 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. arroyo just east of Moreno house. sp. sp. A r Parafusulina sp Plagioglypta canna (White) vr r r r Rhynchopora Spiriferella ? taylori Girty Schisodns parvulus Cooper scobinoidea Cooper c r Sponges 806m'. Anidanthus alatus Cooper Derbyia arellanoi Cooper Derbyia elongata Cooper Dictyoclostus dcpressus Cooper Liosotella angustata Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper a r r r r r r r r Rhynchopora Spiriferella ? taylori Girty Schizodiis parvulus Cooper scobinoidea Cooper Spiriferella. hill about 0. north end of low hill east of Moreno house.4 mile 170° south 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. 2^ miles north- northeast of El Antimonio. Anidanthiis zone. r *Composita sp Dictyoclostus dcpressus Cooper c r Plagioglypta canna (White) Streptorhynchus sp 8o6n. Chonetes gibberiilus Cooper Dictyoclostus dcpressus Cooper *LiosoteUa sp Marginifera. First Composita zone of = Dictyoclostus zone. 2^ miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. Sponge Waagenoconcha montpelierensis (Girty) Anidanthus zone.NO. i r Muirwoodia sp Rhynchopora taylori Girty Streptorhynchus sp vr vr vr Waagenoconcha montpelierensis (Girty) r 806m. 2 PERMIAN FAUNA — COOPER vr re r II 806-I.) south of Mill Hill. center east side of hill east Moreno house. 2 r 806-0. east slope largest hill r (295 m. Anidanthus zone. Anidanthus alatus Cooper Derbyia arellanoi Cooper Dictyoclostus dcpressus Cooper re r *Hustedia sp . Dictyoclostus zone.

i^ meekana (Shumard) re r Liosotella subrugosa Cooper 8o6t. reentrant in hills east-northeast of El Antimonio. IIQ vr r r r Pleurophorus sp Schicodiis parvulus Cooper Waagcnoconcha montpclierensis (Girty) 8o6p. Hiistedia c 806s. 30 feet above the Anidantlms hill east of zone on top of small 2^- south of the the Moreno re r r house. a Composita grandis Cooper r Liosotella riigosa Cooper Marginifera. miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. A El Antimonio. 2^ miles north-northeast of c Leiorhynchoidea cloudi Cooper 8o6v. fault block in arroyo about Spiriferellina sonorensis re re = c 0. sp. north side of west knob of easternmost hill of Monos Hills. \ mile north of Alamo. i^ miles northeast of El Antimonio. Glossothyropsis magna Cooper r . i mile north of Alamo. 1 (295 m. Leiorhynchoidea zone. ^ mile north of Alamo. Composita zone.12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Liosotella angnstaia Cooper VOL. Spiriferellina zone. Spinfcrellina zone.) south 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. east face of largest hill elevation of Mill Hill. Composita grandis Cooper *Derbyia sp *Dictyoclostus sp *Rhynchopora sp SpirifercUina sonorensis Cooper r r r Waagenoconcha montpeliercnsis (Girty) 8o6q. Composita grandis Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper a r Rhynchopora taylori Girty vr c Wellerella lemasi Cooper 8o6w. Cooper Tetracoral Lophophyllidium Wellerella lemasi minor Cooper Highest Permian. Leiorhynchoidea zone.6 mile south-southwest of Mill. 130 feet below Composita bed in east face of Mill Hill. vr 8o6u. Monos Hills. a r Composita zone. small knob at the easternmost end of Monos Hills. top of west knob of the hill due west of the easternmost hill. 2 r Pseudomartinia mortincsi Cooper Rhynchopora bicostata Cooper r vr vr r Rhynchopora taylori Girty WeUerella heniiplicata Cooper Wellerella lemasi Cooper miles east-northeast of El Antimonio. First Composita zone = Dictyoclostus hill just zone. Leiorhynchoidea cloudi Cooper Uncinunellina ? pulchra Cooper 8o6r. Dictyoclostus depresses Cooper r Warthia. sp.

Waagenoconcha montpelierensis (Girty) Spiriferellina zone.3 NO. W.. Stratigraphische Keller. V. No. pp. Amer. G. W. Journ.. r r *Marginifera sp 8o6z.G. | mile north magna Cooper Hustedia meekana ( Shumard ) Glossothyropsis Alamo. 1942. p. Paleont. and Arellano. easternmost Monos hill. northwest Sonora. lower 3 feet of sandstone just above the Composita zone.=: Institute Geologico de Mexico.. about 2 miles northeast of El Antimonio. Eel. Mexieo. Assoc. Geol. vol. vr Abbreviations for repository for type specimens used in text and plate legends: U. i.N. 4 pis. No. 1255-1282. i map. pp. A Permian ammonoid from Sonora. LITERATURE CITED Cooper. . a. A. Dictyoclostus zone. 22 miles northeast of El Antimonio. 13 maps. Beobaehtungen in Sonora. Stoyanov. 1945. T. Geol. 8o6x. float r from east side of the hill east of the Moreno c c r house.= United States National Museum. vol.r r Tetracoral = LophophylKdium re c Wellerella lemasi minor Cooper miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. 19.M. Miller. Amer. 53. Paleozoic paleogeography of Arizona. Mexieo. Bull. vol. 4. Spiriferellina zone?. A. 2 PERMIAN FAUNA Heterelastna contrerasi Cooper COOPER r 1 Hustedia meekana ( Shumard) Liosotella subrugosa Cooper *Spiriferellina sp re .S. 1946. Petrol. Bull. top of east knob of Mill Waagenoceras diencri Bose Hill. 30. I. Dictyoclostus zone.M. Stratigraphy near Caborea. 1928.. A. Soc. pp. vol. Helvetique. N. 606-611. R. *Anidanthtis sp *Bryozoa Composita grandis Cooper Dictyoclostus depressus Cooper *Plagioglypta sp c r r Unnumbered. 22. Geol. 237-335. 2-^ Composita grandis Cooper Dictyoclostus depressus Cooper Liosotella rugosa Cooper Spiriferellina sonar ensis re r r r Cooper of 8o6y. east slope of knob just east of east slope of Mill Hill. K. 21.

It is generally impossible. They are from a single bed of compact. single plane were free one could select those that are curved or bent in a and cut the section in this plane with good results. It is an uncommonly below as Parafusiilina antimonioensis. DUNBAR Peabody Museum. northwestern Sonora. tightly enclosed far exceeding any fusuline previously described. to make If the axial sections that are correctly oriented shells from pole to pole. brownish-gray. The in fusulines lie more or less at random and are hard matrix so that none can be freed. therefore. Yale University (Plates 2 and 3) I am indebted to Dr. to a single species described In this layer they occur in great abundance. they appear rather unpromising. As exposed on the weathered surfaces. by the fact that the majority were broken before burial and even those that were intact commonly were fractured across the middle during ervation is compaction of the enclosing sediment. Arthur Cooper for entrusting me with the study of the fusuHnes that he collected from the Permian rocks near El Antimonio. Their study is handicapped. As slender species. slender fusuline of which some of the microspheric shells may have reached a length of 4 inches. many of the shells suffered some distortion during compaction. large. rusty weathering Hmestone about 3 feet thick (loc. but since they are enclosed in compact dark matrix it is usually difficult to determine this orientation in time to get the most perfect section. making up They appear to belong new species. Fortunately.A GIANT PERMIAN FUSULINE FROM SONORA By carl O. the axis is common with large and was seldom quite straight during growth and at not uncommonly it was decidedly irregular and even strongly bent the middle. however. but when sectioned the pres- found to be good. 10 percent or more of the volume of the rock. from which the approximate 14 . over-all dimensions can be inferred. it is not too difficult to get good orientation in one end of a shell which permits measurement of the radius vector and half length. Furthermore. G. 8o6j).

Although microspheric shells are relatively abundant. 2. 2. in the ontogeny. Specimens 3 and 5 were fractured across the tunnel after burial so that no satisfactory measurement could be taken. fine species —This — being 3 to 4 or 5 times the thickness in the early whorls but increasing to 7 or more (even up to almost 11) times the diameter in the final whorls. 2 GIANT PERMIAN FUSULINE —DUNBAR Dunbar. 2. It is distinctly alveolar as is normal The septa are intensely and regularly folded from pole first to pole. at least up to the seventh volution. i). The scattered records of the tunnel angle given in the table that could be determined with reasonable of measurements are accuracy in these 5 specimens. new figures i-8. early being recognizable even in the and the later whorls they are so large. figs. scarcely exceeding 70 mi- crons even in the outer whorls. and a length of 25. Adult megalospheric shells commonly have 8 to 9 volutions (rarely lo) and attain a diameter of 4. They appear volution. as indicated in the table of measurements.NO.0 mm. shell. rising and the spiral wall is thin. Megalospheric form. decidedly irregular A and only 385 microns in lesser diameter and few are strongly flattened (pi.0 to 30. 7) is elliptical 500 in the greater. 6) or (pi. The proloculi are large and commonly are spheroidal and have a In our best sections several of the firm wall 30 to 40 microns thick. for narrow and commonly can hardly be detected in thin chomata are completely lacking at all stages of all growth. as compared with the septal folds. 5 and 8). (rarely more). 15 species PARAFUSULINA ANTIMONIOENSIS (Plate 2. The tunnel is axial sections.5 to 5. they are outnumbered probably lOO to i by the megalospheric form. fig. An unbroken row of septal . spheroidal proloculi each have a diameter near 600 microns. and occasionally is strongly arched or even rather sharply bent at the middle. but one (pi. The axis is commonly somewhat crooked. The volutions are low and tightly coiled across the middle of the rapidly in height near the poles. fig. as to be conspicuous in any tangential or oblique slice (pi. plate 3. and in cuniculi are well developed throughout the shell. Septal pores are abundant but are commonly not conspicuous because the intense folding leaves only thin septal loops in thin sections.0 mm. and in the others the actual margins of the tunnel could only be recognized in a few whorls. figures 1-3) shows such marked dimorphism that megalospheric and microspheric forms must be described separately. the length Description. The form ratio increases during growth. in this genus. 3. fig.

057 •057 36 45 45 26° .070 plate 3 Specimen No. the axial filling is largely missed.175 •125 •152 ? 1. volutions.030 . . No.03 1. . 6 and No.030 •043 •043 •045 •045 .0 . 2.10 .050 .065 ? ? ? 23 24° 057 27 .65 1. figures 7 and 6 of plate 2. fig. plate 3. 3..090 . even slightly oblique.070 .96 7.030 .134 •157 6.070 ? 42 ? .107 .20+ . in the entire outer whorl A slender and for the species.8+ Tunnel angle No.050 .16 ? . all but shown at natural size in figure 2 of plate 2 was intact except that its . that the also.10 . We ex- perienced considerable difficulty in counting the septa in some of the Microspheric form. plate 2.030 .16 .070 .029 .070 . .070 . 7. —Although a score or more of microspheric one appear to have been broken into isolated pieces before burial. .047 •045 •045 28 36 ? •045 •057 .070 . The immature specimen shells are present in the material studied.025 .056 .030 •030 .4 10.036 ? .081 1. i). as somewhat irregular zone of axial filling is normal is well shown in figure i of plate 2 and figures 2 In case an axial section is and 3 of plate 3.065 .040 .190 6. pi.067 .037 .077 .40 •54 59 .6 6.i6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS was present VOL.070 .110 . figure i.043 . In this case.060 .5 4.28 3. in figure i of plate 3.073 . Radius vector 3 Form s ? ratio I 2 4 .08+ 1. show whorls are low and tightly coiled and the chambers slender. No. .088 .090 ? . .6 77 97 20 10 •74 .046 •057 .2 1-31 •134 .2 7.85 1. i. and Sagittal sections the section appears quite abnormal.037 .. I Wall thickness 2 3 Septal count 4 . as Table of measurements Volution Half length No.0 7-7 9.030 . 3.038 •043 16 16 ? 25 29 ? •043 ? .36 •57 .089 . 5.029 . figure No.8 1. the obliquity causes considerable foreshortening at the poles.50 10.g. .24 .8 31 41 •059 •074 5-4 5. II9 loops demonstrates that no tunnel (e. figure i.

its original length was over 10 cm. for example.0 mm. The dark matrix and the extremely small the early whorls conspire to make is it difficult to see these features in a thick slice as the proloculus approached. or approximately 4 inches. 2 GIANT PERMIAN FUSULINE —^DUNBAR 17 exposed surface was deeply eroded. Unlike the megalospheric clear evidence of a tunnel at shells.6 weathered away so that we could get only a tangential slice that does not indicate the full number of volutions. This shell. .. The proloculus has a diameter of only 60 microns and its wall is only about 5 microns thick.e.NO. The second volution has a thickness of 40 microns and a length of 180 microns. Figure 4 of magnificasection at a 2 shows the middle part of this specimen in thin tion of 10 diameters. The one shown as figure 5 on plate 2. the microspheric ones show no any stage of growth although it is possible that the narrow space between the two median septal loops in the first two or three volutions may represent a tunnel in the earliest whorls preceding the development of cuniculi.. with both ends broken away.. has a diameter of 7.0 mm. More than half of this piece had eter of 4. regular septal loops agree with those of later whorls indicating strong septal folding. and this part is almost cylindrical. Microspheric shells have a slender zone of axial filling essentially like that of the megalospheric. In the early half of this volution the septa appear not to have been strongly folded. It is followed by a little more than one volution of globular chambers coiled in the plane of this slice (i. Unfortunately we did not succeed in determining just size of where they begin. but the very earliest whorls (e. its septa were only gently folded. with about 15 volutions and a diam- mm. at right angles to the axis of later whorls) Following this small juvenarum there is a rapid change in the plane of coiling accompanied by polar elongation. being more than 13 times as long as thick. The first postjuvenarial whorl has a diameter of 36 microns and a length of 90 microns. long. 5 of pi. If its form ratio was like that of the whole specimen described above. Unfortunately this specimen was weathered so deeply that we could get only a tangential figure slice. Its spiral wall has a thickness of about 15 microns and . 2). all Cuniculi are well developed in fig. Fragments of much larger shells indicate that this one was only about half grown. is 36 mm. The specimen represented by loculus 4 of plate 2 shows well the pro- and early whorls of a microspheric shell. This photograph was taken after plate it had been ground down to approximately the axis. had a length of 62 mm. but in the latter half the strong.. Another specimen having a diameter of 8.g.

Holotype. in size of proloculi. U. Cooper field to determine their age as best I could with- out any data whatever. that is. deliciasensis and are two or three times as thick in the new species. for example. 1943. sulina been a necessary opening to allow migration of the nucleus so as to keep near the center of mass of the protoplasm during growth. Discussion.M. resembles our and in Thompson and Wheeler. — No. first Geologic age. Nos. calif ornica (Staff) of the Nosoni formation loosely coiled also much more and is shorter and blunter at the poles. After making a few sections I replied without hesitation that they were of Word age. It resembles P. but the greatest seen in the microspheric shells which are extremely slender in P. of the age of the lower part of the Guadalupian series of the American Permian. that the tunnel is a secondary feature produced by resorption of a part of the septa (Dunbar and Henbest.S.l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. at least.S. is P.N. of the Guadalupian.N. P. in the slender zone of axial and in the very advanced development of cunicuH . tliat 123301 . from the Nosoni formation of new species in the stage of its septal evoluits axial filling. 45).M. and it appears to have cerned. P. maleyi var. But if the nuclei were quite small the cuniculi would afford adequate pas- sage and resorption of a tunnel would be superfluous. is (syn. I —These fusulines were sent to me unlabeled and was asked by Dr. figured paratypes. the cuniculi are not so fully developed in . Although the genus Parafusulina ap- pears low in the Leonardian and ranges up through the lower half. referta Dunbar and Skinits ner) in general shape. Parafusulina antimonioensis needs comparison with only a few of the largest known species of the genus. — It is a striking fact although the tunnel is an in- variable family character so far as megalospheric fusulines are conit is never found in microspheric shells of the genera Parafiiand Polydiexodina. This age is indicated by several features. but especially by the stage of evolution of the cuniculi. virga tion California. We infer from this that these microspheric giants had many small nuclei instead of a single large one and that the cuniculi therefore afforded adequate passageway for them to migrate to the outer volutions during growth. p. deliciasensis Dunbar and Skinner filling. U. but it much larger and more elongate. The new species attain almost twice the length more numerous and more tightly coiled difference is megalospheric shells of the of P. i23302a-h. deliciasensis and have volutions. It is known. but that species is more loosely coiled and it is has fewer volutions at corresponding dimensions and smaller and much shorter. II9 Types.

O. Bull. 67. 1943- . and the same is It is to be expected. The collections studied are from a thin limestone bed just below species can hardly be older than Guadalupian.xodhw at the base of the Canyon) sandstone. loc. cuniculi appear across the middle part of the shell. and Carl O. Henbest. with a section on stratigraphy by J. Carl 1943. appearing even in the first volution of megalospheric shells. and Henbest. as they are in figures in the and 8 of plate 2. antimonioensis. Lloyd G. 8o6j. Conbecome both higher width of a septal fold and almost half the height of the septum. the Dictyoclostus zone at the Moreno house. (Issued Apr. In the Guadalupian Basin Parafusulina (Bell appears to be abruptly replaced by Poly die. persisted in some parts of the world after the appearance of Polydiexodina and that the two genera will be found associated in the highest Permian strata. Indeed. Parafusulina. 12.. and Furthermore they are very low the early species and can be detected only in tangential slices very close to the floor of a volution. true in the Las Delicias region of Mexico. the age of the and since Polydiexodina The enormous size and extreme dimorphism strongly confirm the Guadalupian age. At this stage of evolution the cuniculi are conspicuous in 5 any tangential slice. Upper Delaware Mountain Since the cuniculi are highly developed in P. Lloyd G. 2 GIANT PERMIAN FUSULINE species. rise supplementary tunnels began to break through the septa giving to the genus Poly die xodhia. Marvin Weller. netic history of the tribe the cuniculi appear earlier In the phylogeearlier in on- and togeny and spread progressively toward the poles of the currently the septal arches that form the cuniculi and wider until they occupy almost the full shell. 23 pis. Surv. I have seen collections from Persia and from Afghanistan where the two genera do occur together. 218 pp. that the ancestral genus. At a still later date well up Guadalupian. Dunbar. however. is not present.) NO. the age is probably lower Guadalupian. LITERATURE CITED Dunbar. 2^ miles north- northeast of El Antimonio. Illinois State Geol.. and narrow openings in the outer volutions only. —DUNBAR I9 any of the Leonardian In the evolution of this genus out of first in Schzvagerina. Pennsylvanian Fusulinidae of Illinois.

and do not think that the original absence of tabulae has been or can be proved from a study of the type material. It possible that these corals are identical with or closely related to Malonophyllmn texanum Okulitch and Albritton. Geological Survey. it is not uncommon to find that tabulae are partly I or entirely destroyed in silicified specimens.A. original skeletal structures were found and it is possible that certain diagnostic features have been destroyed. The genus Malonophyllmn was based on silicified material. 27.CORALS By HELEN DUNCAN United States Geological Survey (Plate 23C. f. kindly furnished the following information. Owing to their imperfect preservation. The genus is supposed to differ from Lophophyllidium in lacking tabulae .) 1 1 The collections submitted contain specimens of horn corals. Helen Duncan. I agree with Jeffords that Malonophyllum can- not be positively recognized and expect that the genus ultimately may be referred to the synonymy of Lophophyllidium. All to be partly obliterated. of the U.C. — G. The specimens have about the same number of septa from Mexico are somewhat larger than Malonophyllum texanum but considerably more than reported in other Permian species of lophophyllids described from North America. 1937. which fails to give adequate information regarding internal features and microscopic structural detail. In the three specimens that were sec- tioned. the specimens cannot be ac- curately identified as to genus or species. and w same and are is tentatively referred to appear to belong Lophophyllidium? species undetermined. S. figures (Tetracorals are fied. are rather severely beekitized. 28) common in the Spiriferellina zone but they are coarsely silici- Dr. described from the Leonard of Texas. Most of to the the specimens in lots 806b. however. — 20 . species d'. s.

n. AND SCAPHOPODA By G. width 8. BRACHIOPODA. slope to the anterior margin. located about i to 2 mm. 8. margins rounded apex eccentric. 1 16638. This specimen is not very well preserved. Horizon and locality. PELECYPODA. 8o6g. loc. —Length Posterior slope short and steep. 8o6f. Coahuila. In the Spiriferellina zone. Figured specimen. —Spiriferellina zone.1 plus.S. loc.M. especially on the west slope of the large hill (294 m. Spiriferellina zone.) south of the mill. plate PLATE 25. plate 23. figure I4) figures 1-20. figures 1-26.G. 29-33. No. Umbo swollen and convex anterior gently swollen and with a long gentle . Figured specimen. figure 33 At several localities poorly preserved sponges were seen but none of the specimens collected proved good enough for description. which agrees in the proportions and other de21 . anterior to the posterior margin. i Plate 4C. ARTHUR COOPER Museum 24. in mm. Horizon and locality.o. is small.5 plus. suboval in outline . SPONGES Plate 23E. Discussion. ovalis from the Waagenoceras zone in the Las Delicias area. Anidanthus zone. Cloud — — — fig- ures a new species. Horizon and locality. United States National (Plates 4-22. . U.M. O. 806m. ORBICULOIDEA. figure 8 Represented by an impression of a brachial valve which conical in profile. height ca.SPONGES. large brown tubular objects in the rock are probably sponges but none were taken that preserved good — — interior details. One fragment showing hexactin spicules is illustrated. Measurements i. I. BRACHIOPODA species loc.N.

Horizon and Discussion.0. II9 In the absence of a pedicle valve it is not is possible to make a positive identification although Cloud's species associated with Waagenoceras. — Cancrinella zone.G. median portion somewhat inflated in old specimens but quite in young. anterior slope long and moderately steep making an angle Measurements distance of apex slightly greater than a right angle with the crest. Costellae numbering 12 in 5 mm. locality. — I. margins strongly rounded . anterior to the beak. Costellae narrowly rounded and separated by furrows of nearly equal size to the costellae posteriorly but anteriorly more crowded. in mm. 9. at 30 mm. transversely subelliptical in outline. beak subcentral with gently swollen lateral slopes steep. Pedicle valve depressed semiconical in lateral profile but broadly convex in anterior profile. from beak. —The unusually large size relates this is specimen to Orbic- uloidea utahensis (Meek) but the specimen too incomplete to make an identification certain. umbonal region beak . DERBYIA ARELLANOI Plate 5. subcircular in outline. species 2 i.M. VOL. height ca. highest point on cone a short distance anterior to . 6.22 tails SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS of the brachial valve. along the anterior margin. new species figures 1-12 Shell of about medium size for the genus.5. loc. Beak small. Anterolateral margins strongly convex. variable. width from posterior margin ca. at 20 mm. and 8 to 9 in the space of 5 mm. mod- . Surface costellate. Cardinal extremities obtusely angular. Slopes to cardinal extremities concave. at 10 mm. — 24. Hinge narrower than the greatest width which is near the middle. Umbo irregular flat . Cooper. 8o6i. where intercalations are rare. costellae subequal in size and appearing in five or six generations by intercalation about 5 mm. apart except for anterior 15 mm. from beak. valves unequally convex. 10 in 5 mm. Concentric wrinkles present on both valves. The Monos species occurs with the same cephalopod. the brachial valve hav- ing the greater depth. Anterior commissure rectimarginate. usually somewhat distorted.0. ORBICULOIDEA. . 8 in 5 mm. figures 2 A all single brachial valve is conical in profile. posterior slope gently concave. anterior margin broadly convex.0. Length 25. steep. most prominent on pedicle valve. Plate 4A. Figured specimen.

S. Discussion. length 45. I. Brachial interior with short cardinal process lateral plates shell. ETC. moderately steep slopes to the lateral margins.S. gently convex.N.M. Nine costellae in 5 mm. 115474c. Nos. unfigured paratype. Surface costellate. and more closely crowded costellae. steep. Ariz.M. width of pseudodeltidium at base 1 15473. Alberto Arellano. —This species resembles the Mexican species does not have the deep brachial sulcus or deeply concave pedicle valve of the Phosphoria species.0. regularis McKee from the Beta member of the Kaibab limestone. Cardinal process unusually small for a large — Holotype. anterior profile strongly convex steep.M. Interarea apsacline. but strongly convex. 8o6n. with longitudinally suboval outline. U. . Anterior .0. . 115474a. Holotype.N.M. supporting it. — COOPER long-. separated by furrows of equal or greater width to the costellae. figured paratypes.NO. Pedicle valve provided with short median septum extending to about the middle of the valve. valves very unequal in depth. concave Umbonal region moderately strongly inflated and projecting slightly posterior to the posterior margin. pseu- dodeltidium narrow. Measurements in mm. 806-0. Brachial valve unequally convex in lateral profile. U. 23 flat erately steep. No. DERBYIA ELONGATA Cooper. Hinge narrower than the greatest commissure rectimarginate. Named in honor of Ing. hinge width 44. It also has a slight resemblance to Orthotetes sulcus Branson which belongs to the genus Derbyia in its general form and type but Horizon and —Anidanthus zone. my coworker on Sonora geological problems.. but differs in having a more inflated brachial valve. locality. D.5. having short but strong Types. 806m.S. figures 3-7 Shell of about medium size for the genus. 2 SPONGES. Growth undulations distant but strong.7. width which is somewhat anterior to the middle.N. new species Plate 4B. the greatest con- vexity located in the umbonal region particularly in the slopes. longer than wide. moderately nearly . not very steep. Grand Canyon. — 11. thickness 27.G. No.7?. Costellae subequal. BRACHIOPODA. at the middle and 10 in the same space at the front of the shell. b. U. the pedicle valve having the greater depth. loc. Umbonal slopes concave. Median and anteromedian regions moderately swollen and with Anterior slope long. midwidth 58. gently median portion and with long.

7) 29. Muscular field very large.8) 21.4.M. it is In the absence of a brachial valve impossible to tell the true nature of the genus. Umbonal region swol- and steep. 8o6n. length 33. 41.5. 115589. but thickening posteriorly. II9 Pedicle valve hemiconical in lateral profile with the beak and palintrope elongated len with long . Measurements in mm. U. American Permian species in the extremely long median septum and the greatly expanded. not strongly elevated.S. Pseudodeltidium wide. 15475. umbonal region Umbonal region moderately swollen . loc.6. width at middle (based on half measure of 14. lateral margins strongly rounded./J^. Surface multi- . M. —Anidanthus zone. thin. in lateral profile but broadly Brachial valve moderately convex with the greatest convexity in the and gently convex in median region apparently gently swollen. 12.— Holotype.N. Brachial interior with unusually large and flaring lateral plates supporting the cardinal process which T3. the diductor scars flabellate and anterior profile. hinge width (based on half measure of 10. hinge width 32. thickness 17. Lateral slopes to the margins not very steep.0. No. are doubtfully referred to this genus. U. Interarea long and narrow.0. gently convex slopes. strong. Anterolateral areas narrowly rounded and with very steep slopes to the margin. No.N. thickness through the posterior 23. occupying nearly the entire inner surface of the valve.8. is —This species quite unlike any described of the pedicle valve. flabellate diductor scars that occupy nearly the entire floor locality. Median and anterior regions somewhat depressed. — 8o6m. Pedicle interior with extremely large.y. but the absence of dental plates in the pedicle valve and the fine radial ornamentation suggest the genus Streptorhynchus. length ca.S. and curved teeth and stout dental ridges. paratype. all imperfect. length of interarea ca. nearly flat.: 24 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. midwidth 33. A composite description of the material follows Elongate-ovate in outline with the greatest width at or near the middle .6.0. 1 is not clearly visible in the specimen studied. length of interarea 20. figures 9-13 Four specimens. anterior profile subtriangular. Median septum high. Median septum extending anteriorly almost to the front margin. anterior margin broadly rounded. terminating posteriorly in a callosity in the apex of the delthyrial chamber. hinge narrower than the greatest shell width . Horizon and Discussion. paratype. STREPTORHYNCHUS species Plate 4D. Holotype.

S. loc. Hinge narrower than the greatest shell width which is at about the middle. Umbonal region gently swollen. No. plete. Pedicle valve subsemiconical. length and width incom- hinge width 36.S. Interior with a plates absent but dental ridges thick thyrial narrow but moderately deep delthyrial cavity. 115524b. Muscular area ovate diductor scars long and . suddenly deepening and widening and extending to the anterior margin. about 5 costellae in mm. broad fold in the . Measurements in mm. flabellate. Sulcus originating on the umbo. Horizon and 806m'. locality. Cooper. width 51. sepa- rounded anterior margin gently convex.N. separated by furrows equal . . lateral margins obtusely rounded. Cardinal extremities flattened. width to the costellae ii or 12 costellae in 5 mar- gin. broad adductors small. narrowly rounded. Dental and stout. . but anterior half of valve slightly convex to somewhat flattened. BRACHIOPODA. length 52. the low area continuing to the plication and set off from the latter by a shallow oblique groove.S.N. ETC. Anterior commissure fairly strongly uniplicate. large. U. wider than long. at the anterior margin. Interarea moderately flat.0 but incomplete.0. b. Irregular concentric wrinkles also occur on the body of the shell. Umbonal region moderately swollen and meeting the posterior margin at the beak. figures 8-12 Shell small for the genus. CHONETES FOSHAGI new species Plate 6B. —Dictyoclostus zone. subrectangular in outline concavo-convex. and anterior slopes only moderately steep. very gently and broadly convex in anterior profile.M. 806k'. 115524a. Pedicle valve barely perceptibly convex in lateral profile . costellae i rated by fine furrows. Figured specimens.M. lateral Umbonal long. NO. at the front 2$ costellate in . Umbonal slopes short but steep. mm..0 but at least 10 figured specimen. median area rising anteriorly to elevated. 115523. Interarea short. Delthyrium covered by a low pseudodeltidium. —Figured specimen. Hinge line straight .N. Anterior profile slopes steep but broadly convex. missing.M. Nos. Surface finely costellate. apsacline. costellae — COOPER mm. No. gently convex in lateral profile with the greatest convexity located in the posterior half. 806k. Beak small. —U. 806-I. Sulcus bounded on each side by a strong plication extending from the umbo to the anterolateral margins. Brachial valve gently concave in lateral profile and broadly concave in anterior profile. U. 115524a. fused to sides of delcavity by callus. apsacline. 2 SPONGES. Umbonal and median form a moderately areas concave .

Brachial valve molded into the pedicle valve.4. laterally Median region very deep with concavity lessening and anteri- . King figures no comparable species from the Glass Mountains and none like it is yet known from the Phosphoria formation of the United States. Sulcus bounded on each side by a low. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate.S. slopes gently convex. Posterolateral areas gently shallower becoming rear but from the oblique sulci by low ridges extending separated concave and middle of the lateral margin. Cardinal ex- tremities slightly auriculate. or about equal is at the greatest shell width which about the middle.2) 16. Umbonal region slightly swollen and medially depressed by the sulcus which takes its origin at this point. size for the genus. No. 115506. thus deeply concave. CHONETES GIBBERULUS Cooper. surface length 9. —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. Surface multicostellate. the strong median fold on the pedicle valve and deep concave area at the posterior of the brachial valve. from the beak to the anterior half. loc. new species Plate 6D. extending to the anterior margin. Interarea short. very steep lateral slopes steep but less so than the umbonal slopes . — This represented by a locality. —U. forming a depressed broad arch indented in the middle by a shallow furrow. narrowly curved. 9. midwidth (based on half measure of 8.8. with a concave umbonal region. deep at the anteriorly. anterior slope unusually steep. crowded and separated by furrows narrower than the costellae. II9 bounded on each side by oblique sulci. length 1. narrowly rounded.M. Interarea of about usual length and width in the genus. Anterior profile broadly concave.26 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. species is in collection single specimen only. Measurements 15. narrowly rounded plication most prominent in the umbo to the anterolateral median region and extending from the margin where it is indistinct. Anterior profile broadly convex with short steep sides. hinge slightly narrower than.5) middle Holotype.4. figures 23-27 Shell of about medium . 8o6i. — Holotype.0. anacline. hinge width (based on half measure of 7. About 6 costellae I to mm. at the front margin. Fold hypercline.N. and may be distinguished from other species of the genus in this area by its extremely flattened pedicle valve. Horizon and the Discussion. costellae fine. Umbonal . Pedicle valve strongly and evenly convex in lateral profile and with the greatest curvature at about the middle. longer than wide with a subrectangular outline to. Median sulcus broad and shallow.5. thickness at in mm.

S. Cloud indicates no chonetid from Coahuila even remotely related to this species.N. 8o6k.4. — Holotype. paratype (I.N. I. figures 28-34 Shell of about medium size for the genus. much more abrupt and steep lateral slopes and much fuller umbonal region.o. Interarea half Measurements in mm. midwidth (based on measure of 8. No. short. It is unlike any other chonetid in this region and seems to be related somewhat remotely to C. is —Dictyoclostus zone.8.NO. CHONETES MONOSENSIS Cooper. Types. .0. hinge width (based on half measure of 7. at its deepest anterior Flanks with long.3) middle 2. and narrow but prominent sulcus in the pedicle valve..0. moderately steep slopes facing the cardinal . Lateral margins broadly rounded to gently convex and sloping toward the middle. thickness at surface curvature 18. gibberulus. i 3 to 4 costellae occupying mm. at Cardinal extremities flattened to sulcate. The species is characterized by its strongly convex pedicle valve.0) 16. 1 15504.). un- Horizon and Discussion. which sur- round the inner concavity.5 mm. 806-I.4. small. length ii. 11 5505. hinge width (based on half measure of 7. Anterior commissure moderately uniplicate. The chonetids of the Word formation of the Glass Mountains identified by King as C.M. Anterior profile broadly convex and with the median portion slightly depressed. Median fold low and broad originating about the middle. M. hypercline. the sulcus extending from the beak to the anterior margin. Nos.M.G. 11 5503. plane.G. Anterior margin nearly straight to slightly emarginate. suhliratiis Girty.S. Surface finely costellate. a narrower sulcus.2) 14. Umbo sulcate. the hinge forming the widest part.6.M. That species however possesses acutely angular cardinal extremities. ETC. an uncommon species and appears to be confined to the lower part of the column in the Monos Hills. deepening and widening anteriorly but not of great depth part. curvature 19.0. U. BRACHIOPODA. the slight cardinal auriculations. —This figured paratypes. transversely subrectang- ular to semielliptical in outline. thickness ?. paratype. — COOPER 2!J orly to the steep sides deflected toward the brachial valve. length 12. — 14. midwidth (based on half measure of j-j) 15. U. locality. Holotype. at the front margin. loc. new species Plate 6E. Pedicle valve unevenly convex in lateral profile with the anterior half moderately convex but the posterior half flattened. 2 SPONGES. suhliratus are mostly larger shells than C. barely perceptible Beak on the posterior margin.

M. deliciasensis King but differs in having a well-defined fold and Chonetes phosphoriensis Branson is a related species but ap- pears to have been somewhat smaller in size and with a deeper sulcus and more extended cardinal extremities.M.N. thickness 4. Anteromedian portion gently elevated in a low fold corresponding to the shallow pedicle sulcus. difficult to prepare good specimens. low. Brachial valve without spines. Poor preservation of the Kaibab species prevents a more detailed comparison of the two species which agree in proportions. 11 5499. median ridge long. Umbonal and beak region represented by a small depressed and rough area that constitutes the cicatrix of . U. 28 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. the largest of the chonetids so far found in the vicinity of El Antithis reason is quite easy to recognize. hinge width (based on half measure of 11.8. Brachial valve very gently concave in lateral and anterior profiles.M. Surface of pedicle valve orna. sockets deep.N. Lateral margins slightly reflected toward the brachial valve but the main portion of the flanks gently concave portion of to folded area somewhat depressed along the margin. new species Plate 7 A. lateral profile .N. — — 1 15502. length 15. 115500.9. Anterior commissure not folded. Horizon and Discussion. II9 extremities and with the anterolateral portions gently swollen. unsymmetrical cone with the truncated apex at the posterior end . . No. midwidth 21. extending nearly to front margin . Chonetes kaibabensis McKee is a comparable form but differs in having a more subdued sulcus on the pedicle valve. mented by short. figured paratypes. Holotype. — Spiriferellina zone. No. flanks adjacent Interior of brachial valve. figures 1-3 Shell of about the usual size for the genus. Nos. loc. Holotype. 8o6d. HETERALOSIA MEXICANA Cooper. Umbonal and median regions nearly flat. apsacline. Measurements in mm.4) 22. oblique. Inter- area short. moderately convex with the anterior with about the greatest convexity in the posterior half same convexity as the lateral profile.S. lat- eral ridges thick. unfigured paratype. Pedicle valve forming a low. brachial processes obsolete. It is suggestive of C. 8o6f is —This species but it is fairly common in the upper beds of the It is Monos formation monio and for sulcus. U. moderately large . thick.S.S. locality.2. concavo-convex. Types.0. slightly wider than long with a subcircular to subelliptical outline hinge narrow. cardinal process trilobed. hollow spines lying at a low angle to the surface or recumbent on the surface.. U. 115501.

subovate in outline. Holotype. No.1 . 6-7. E. Surface multicostellate. 29. length 13. S. 2 SPONGES. Geol. (Girty) CANCRINELLA PHOSPHATICA Plate 7B. elevation of the spine Surface spine bases elongate posterior to the point of spines slightly elevated above surface and . Furthermore the attachment scar of the Texas species is usually larger than that of H. 1930. figs. Spiriferellina zone. ETC. Texas Bull. hinge thickness at middle 3.S. Bull. Shell moderately large for the genus. the swell- ing continuing to the median region but becoming less anteriorly. anterior profile more broadly rounded than the lateral profile. Lateral margins gently rounded anterior margin somewhat narrowly rounded.3. Brachial valve moderately concave in lateral and anterior profiles. —The only comparable described species Heteralosia in hystricula Girty. 1910. Umbonal median region slightly swollen and convex. pi. Length and width subequal to longer than wide. Median region swollen and with moderately steep slopes to the lateral and anterior margins. 7-9. mexicana. Interarea and narrow apsadine. Umbonal region swollen and tumid. p. This species does not grow to the size of the Mexican species and is usually much less expanded and deeper. formerly referred to Strophalosia and occuring the Word formation of the Glass Mountains of Texas. flat 29 attachment. Measurements width 7. p. in mm. 2. with about 8 to 10 costellae to 5 mm. at the front margin of an adult. 17. scattered irregularly over body of shell but concentrated .— U. 115587. 8o6f is Discussion. 436. Horizon and locality. —Holotype. on the ears.5. figs. Cardinal extremities approximately a right angle. Spines long and slender. Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile with the greatest convexity in the posterior half . Linoproductus (Cancrinella) phosphaticus (Girty) R. Sides slightly elevated toward the brachial valve to fit snugly into the pedicle valve. . Umbonal slopes rounded and steep. U. width 16. 3042. M.3. — loc. Concentric wrinkles numerous. auriculate with the hinge about equaling the greatest width. Surv. King. 77. narrow. pi. attached at a very low angle. NO. Univ. — COOPER short. Lateral slopes convex but only .N.5. descending to the concave area. Deeply concavo-convex. figures 4-1 Productus phosphaticus Girty. not strongly pronounced on the body of the shell but much concentrated on the ears. BRACHIOPODA.

yy) figures this species from the upper part of the formation. Beak narrow and small.M. Glass Mountains.0?. I.N.S. Coahuila. loc.S. Figured specimen.30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. separated by striae that are much narrower . . Cancrinella rugosa Cloud.0. Anterior slope long and gentle. locality. Tex.0. 8o6i. 50. compared 8 to 10 costellae in the same distance is in the Monos Hills specimens. In Europe and Asia the most is closely related species Cancrinella cancriniformis Tschernyschew. wider than long with the hinge forming the widest part.4?) 22. new species Plate /C.G. The Coahuila species differs from C. 115573a. Nos.5.N. No. — Fairly common zone. Discussion. 5. b. hinge width (based on half measure of 13. Brachial valve deeply concave in both profiles and closely fitting the inner concavity of the pedicle valve. surface measure of (crest of Measurements mm. occurs in bed 17 of the Difunta section and beds 5 to 7 of the Malascachas section. thickness ?. b. 6 or 7 in 5 mm. 115572a. This genus occurs parts of in Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks in other in North America as well as its Europe and Asia.2. U.M. surface measure of pedicle valve 40. Word p. hinge width ?. phosphatica in having stronger and to more distantly spaced costellae. Cancrinella phosphatica known in the United States from the phosphate beds of the Park City formation of Idaho near Montpelier. Cardinal extremities alate. thickness ca. Umbonal region deeply con- cave . in Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrigeneral species is readily recognized by it its similarity of habit to Linoproductus but differs in possessing spines and narrow. ANIDANTHUS ALATUS Cooper.N. No.0.M. U. — umbo to front pedicle valve.0? Horizon and nella —U.6) 27. midwidth 27. in Surface without spines. In North America species are usually not of common occurrence but are found sparingly. midwidth (based on half measure of 11. In Mexico a closely related species. II9 moderately steep. subequal in size. beak little developed. length margin) 30.M. figures 12-26 Small. more The wrinkles are concentrated at the ears. length (crest of umbo to front margin) 28. costellae narrowly rounded. concentric wrinkles on the body of the shell. Outline elliptical to subrectangular. King (1930. Surface costellate. Lateral margins sloping medianly anterior margin broadly rounded. 115573a.S. both in the Permian area of Las Delicias. arched over the umbo of the brachial valve.8?. — This most Hypotypes. Anterior commissure slightly uniplicate. Hypotype. 115572a.

NO. thickness at middle 5. Types. extended into prominent alae. —This to species is characterized by its small size. 115590a). 33.M. midwidth 14. unfigured paratype. confined to the process and short. Cardinal extremities concave.6. Interior of pedicle valve with heavy umbonal callus . interior with low cardinal Measurements in mm. BRACHIOPODA. length mid- width 19. ing in the plaited character of the brachial valve. 115590a. U. the strong convexity. at the front 3I than the costellae. thickness (U. Brachial valve moderately deeply concave in lateral and anterior profiles. Holotype.M orison and locality. Costellae on alae radial. median ridge corresponding to and formed by the infolding of the valve caused by the sulcus. At least three other species are known which are similar A. About 2 to 3 costellae occupy the space of i margin of an adult pedicle valve. — H — 8o6n. Brachial thick median ridge. hinge width (based on half measure of 13. No.0.0. Nos. not numerous and arising from the costellae at a low angle. figured paratypes U. spines long. Spines on the body of pedicle valve scattered. shallow to moderately deep. rising posterolaterally and anterolaterally to the margins. loc.S. — Holotype. somewhat elevated above the valve and not sharfine. No. surface length of pedicle valve at center 5.S. slender. — COOPER mm. median ridge. Umbo swollen. 806-0. Flanks bounding sulcus narowly rounded and Cardinal extremities narrowly convex and with steep lateral slopes.N.G. 2 SPONGES.M. I. Diductor scars large and flabellate.0.S. Hinge Pedicle valve very strongly and unevenly convex in lateral profile.M. at least 5 on each side of the beak. originating 7 to 10 to the front mm. length 19. paratype ca. 27.0) 26. the greatest convexity occurring in the file umbonal region. Median area flatly concave. U. 115572a. The phosphate beds of the Park City . 8o6m. adductor impressions large.8.N. Brachial valve strongly plaited by growth layers.N. Discussion. uninterrupted by growth lines and often overlying the plaits of the main body of the valve. 22.N. hinge width 27.M. surface length of pedicle valve ca. Anterior margin forming a rim around the inner concavity.5. Abundant in the Anidanthus zone.8. Anterior pro- strongly and broadly convex with long lateral slopes and a sulcata median region. 115471.S. anterior to the beak and extending margin. No. alatus.0. ETC. peculiar development of the alae and the plaited nature of the brachial valve. 115590b.9. b.6 plus. the greatest concavity located in the umbonal region. entirely visible in the brachial view of a complete specimen. Sulcus narowly U-shaped.

Areas bounding fold flat to gently concave. steeply to the cardinal region. Sides of umbo descending slightly posterior to Beak protruding the posterior margin. DICTYOCLOSTUS DEPRESSUS Plate 8. strongly geniculated at an angle of about 90° anteriorly. (surface measure) anterior to the beak. length geniculated and with moderately long adult. plate gB. figures 8-13 plate loA. anterior to the beak and extending to the anterior margin. figures 1-4 Shell fairly large for the genus. Neither the Leonard nor the Word species is like A. trail. Sulcus strong and deep for the genus. . widening slightly and becoming somewhat shallower toward the anterior margin. Anidanthus waagenianus (Girty) is much smaller and rower and smaller.32 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Umbonal region concave for a mm. Anidanthus waagenianus as figured by King seems to consist of two species. the geniculation taking place 30 to 40 mm. Ears prominent. Radial costae not increasing greatly in size posterior nongeniculated surface by concentric undulations of about the same anteriorly surface. and width subequal. Interior of pedicle valve with broadly flabellate diductor impressions. The Word specimens are even more alate than the Mexican species while the Leonard specimens are narso strongly alate. strongly about 25 mm. one from the Leonard and one from the Word formation and neither of them conspecific with Girty's species. len. new species i-io. adductor scars located on the strong median ridge. trail Geniculation taking place in a narrow curve causing umbonal and surfaces to be approximately parallel in adults. moderately well rounded. Pedicle valve strongly geniculated in lateral profile. IIQ a plaited brachial valve but limestone similar but formation of Idaho have yielded A. its sides Umbonal region swol- forming an angle of about 95° with the beak. figures Cooper. from the beak but becoming elevated into a low narrow fold anteriorly. Long slender spines extend posteriorly and medially from geniculated distance of about 5 portion. . Sulcus narrowly U-shaped in section. alatus. originating on the umbo 5 to 10 mm. and quite uniform in size over the anterior geniculation No spines preserved on the pedicle valve. long in an Surface marked by fine costellae that are reticulated over the size as the costae. Flanks bounding sulcus swollen in the visceral area but well rounded and with very steep slopes in the anterior part. eucharis (Girty) which possesses is a much smaller shell and one that is not from the Capitan more compressed. Visceral chamber moderately large. Brachial valve gently concave in visceral area.

BRACHIOPODA. gined by deep muscle dendritic. surface length 80 + width at middle 39. ivesi (Newberry) and more particuD. Furthermore. 5 to 10 mm.6. depressus occur uppermost beds of the Spiriferellina zone. 8o6m'. Median crest of myophore strong. length 49. DICTYOCLOSTUS DEPRESSUS Plate loB. . ETC. The umbo of the pedicle valve of D. loc. length 44. generally smaller size although anterior to the beak. depressus. bassi than that of D. I. 2 SPONGES. the former presenting a is much less curved much more massive appearance than that of the Mexican species.5. 8o6t.S. 806k'. bassi McKee.N. marAdductor area cordate in outline. beak to anterior margin 96.N. Dictyoclostus depressus differs from D. hinge v^^idth (based on incomplete half measure of 22. 1 1 5561. extending to the anterior margin. — . U. From the first it differs in its larger size. Holotype. 806k.S. bassi is swollen and the sulcus originates 20 to 25 mm.M. The lateral profile of D. 1 1 5482. depressus the sulcus originates only a short distance. Three specimens only were collected but they have important differences from D. anterior to the beak whereas in D.. Measurements in mm. No. narrower umbo and more strongly geniculate and de- larly of pressed form. Holotype. The sulcus of the pedicle valve is much deeper and consequently the brachial fold is also stronger than that seen on any in the of the specimens found lower in the section.M. COOPER 33 Interior of brachial valve v^ith erect cardinal process having a long shaft and lobate myophore. hinge width (based on half measure of 26. bassi in its some specimens approach the surface measure of the pedicle valve of the Kaibab species. bassi is never so deep and narrow as that of the Mexican species. figured paratypes. Brachial impressions located near Lateral ridge high and slender. U. surface length.N. 8o6n. 806-I. paratype (U. 1 15467.M. Horizon and locality. No. loc. 8o6z Anidanthus zone. loc. Dictyoclostus zone. figures 5-8 subspecies Scattered specimens of a Dictyoclostus related to D.S. NO.M.M. Nos.4) 52. unfigured paratype.N. 8o6m.G.S. 8o6x. the scars Median ridge anterior to the adductor area slender and pits.8. the reticu- . 806-0 highest the outer margins. the surface of the pedicle valve the trail. The sulcus of the pedicle valve of D. locality 8o6g. depressus. 1 1 5468. No. 115483a. deeper sulcus. b. Discussion. essentially parallel to the surface of It is suggestive of D. —This species is characterized is by its depressed form.0 plus. — — : . 115490a. Permian. U.5) 45 + Types. 115469a. 1 15482).

M. narrow but deep and extending anteriorly to the front margin. 806k'. 115562a.M.8?.S. transversely subrectangular in outline . 806-I. anterior to the beak.4. —Dictyoclostus zone. figures 1-7 Shell small.S. margin) 13. anterior to the beak. anterior margin with median reentrant. the rounding continuing to the moderately long trail. Surface paucicos- tate. i species Plate 6A. No. Brachial valve concave with margins deflected toward the brachial valve to form a deep lid fitting closely into the pedicle valve . Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile. Umbonal and median regions concave nearly to the front and lateral margins where the valve is deflected brachially at a high angle. Beak small. Interior features not well preserved . large. U. Discussion. —This Specimens. —U. Spines few.34 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.N. anterolateral extremities narrowly rounded . 1 15484. Ears flattened. Sulcus originating about 5 mm. defined only on the anterior deflected marginal region.1. — Figured specimen. brachial umbo slightly.N.M. Median fold short. 115562a. costae subdued. scattered in inner margin small. thickness surface of pedicle valve 24.4) 18. crest to front mid width at 16. I. incurved. Valves geniculated at an angle of nearly 60° at a distance of about 10 mm. Geniculated area broadly rounded. Nos. spines occawith greatest con- on posterior margin of ears. Horizon and has some the Marginifera. 115562b.8. II9 lation of the posterior is stronger than that oi D.0. species similarity to . 806k.N. scattered. gently rounded and slightly less than a right angle.G. low. visceral chamber moderately deep. middle unfigured specimens. depressus and the valves are not so depressed. Measurements length (umbonal mm. Deeply concavo-convex. auriculate and with the hinge forming the widest part. loc. Sides sloping gently toward the middle. 115563a. confined to flanks and anterior slope.M. located chiefly on anterior slope and two large ones overhanging auricles at base of sional umbonal slope. U. long.N. — Figured specimens. vexity located at place of geniculation. submarginal spines few. MARGINIFERA. hinge 3. Anterior profile bilobate. overhanging the Ears small.S. small. Um- bonal region moderately to strongly swollen with steep umbonal slopes. Flanks bounding sulcus narrowly rounded and with steep lateral slopes.S. U. brachial ridges medianly lo. locality.M. rounded. Figured specimen. cated . width (based on half measure of 9. No. No.

b. Measurements length (crest of in mm. originating at or near the middle. terior An- commissure uniplicate. broadly U-shaped. — COOPER 35 Composita zone which may be related more or less It is.M. . Spiri- ferellina zone. somewhat more costellate.N. hinge forming widest Lateral margins slightly concave just anterior to the ears. iiS564b. subdued. adductor scars prominent submarginal ridge not strongly elevated but represented by considerable thickening of the shell. Brachial interior with median septum extending anterior to the brachial markings widely spaced . Figured specimen. not strongly rounded. and is confined to the Dictyoclostus zone so far as our present knowledge goes. umbo to front margin) 17. I.M.6. scattered. collected are poorly preserved. Nos. fold broadly carinate. loc. with swollen and steep slopes. BRACHIOPODA. Geniculation occurring slightly more than 10 to the beak. loc. figures 13-22 Shell moderately large for the genus.0. iiS564a.. preserved chiefly on the lateral and anterior slopes. occurring at the base of the umbonal slope.N. gently convex on sides anterolateral extremities narrowly rounded.M. Umbo swollen and with Sulcus originating 5 mm. The few specimens species 2. however. overhanging the brachial umbo. —The specimens on which the above description is based . Flanks very steep lateral slopes. midwidth 22. Pedicle valve narrowly convex in lateral profile and bilobed in anterior profile. U. species 2 Plate 6C. anterior Brachial valve concave in both profiles and with the sides deflected toward the brachial valve to surround the deep inner concavity. anterior to the beak. a much smaller species. transversely subrectangular in outline part. with moderately sloping sides. anterior margin nearly straight to slightly indented at the middle.1. deeply concavo-convex . Figured specimens. 806c. No. irregular. surface measure of pedicle valve 30. NO. 806b. — — Composita zone. deep. swollen. thickness ?. more convex. 8o6h. of the closely to M.S.S. Surface paucicostate and spinose costae . 2 SPONGES.G. Me- dian region deeply concave but floor of concavity somewhat flattened. Median middle . Visceral region short. thus making the material inadequate for specific description or accurate identification. MAEGINIFERA. short.0 plus. Horizon and Discussion. Spines large. ETC. rounded. Ears small. . 8o6r . hinge — width 23. auriculate. popei (Shumarcl) . bounding sulcus narrowly rounded. Beak small. locality. mm. U.

II9 are very poorly preserved and do not permit accurate comparison with other known is species. bearing scattered erect strong spines. of Texas. . occupying the middle inner surface more or less deeply pitted. Inside the brachial valve of Avonia the brachial ridges diline. Cooper. pedicle sulcus shallow to deep brachial fold usually low and obscure. Ariz. They suggest Marginifera popei (Shumard) Guadalupe. One of the most important differences the complete lack of reticulate ornamentation on the posterior portions of both valves. from small to moder- ately large strongly concavo-convex hinge line wider than the shell at the middle. cardinal extremities auriculate. short cardinal process hav- ing a trilobed myophore. Umbonal and juvenile parts of the valves smooth to indistinctly costate and with a few scattered small spines. Liosotella differs from Dictyoclostus is in at least two respects. are scattered irregularly over the surface particularly in the sparsely plicated anterior region. Anterior commissure . Concave auricles walled off from visceral region by a low . marginal ridges not strongly developed . —Liosotella rugosa Cooper. the ears of Dictyoclostus usually are very spinose. A row of strong spines appears on the steep umbonal slopes and overhangs the ears which are smooth. verge from the hinge a situation entirely different in the new genus under discussion. ranging in size . inspection Only a casual necessary to distinguish Liosotella from Avonia because of differences in details of the ornamentation but more particularly in the Avonia. known species. Costae on anterior and body strong. costae spinose. Brachial interior with stout. Surface costate . Avonia is not provided with prominent ears separated from the visceral chamber by a well-defined partition. Furthermore. oblique ridge. narrowly uniplicate . extending slightly anterior to the middle . This species was identified by stone of the McKee from the Kaibab lime- Grand Canyon. and Delaware Mountains which abundant in the Glass. brachial im- pressions prominent. LIOSOTELLA Shell. at arrangement of the spines and in the interior. . new recognizable by Discussion. —This genus Genotype.36 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. new genus based on . its external form and ornamentation suggesting large specimens of Avonia or members of the Dictyodostits occidentalis group of Dictyoclostus. Median ridge low. The spines of least as that genus is identified in the Permian rocks of North America. is is species. Pedicle interior with adductor muscles located on a strong median elevation just posterior to the middle diductor impressions large and flabellate.

. low. Deeply concavo-convex visceral area shallow.0. hinge width 24. with which slope. length 24. is the smallest of the species occurring in the it Monos flanks Hills and can be distinguished from L.S. occurs. 5466. 15465. incurved. Fold originating in anterior half. deeply concavo-convex part . small. figure 9.3. lateral auriculate with the hinge forming the widest margins gently convex anterolateral extremities narrowly . anterior to the Median sulcus originating just umbo and extending to the front margin . forming a wide shallow trough. length (crest of umbo width 22.6.7) 27. thickness at middle 7. subrectangular to subquadrate in outline. Umbonal region swollen. unknown. figured paratype. — COOPER new species 37 LIOSOTELLA ANGUSTATA Cooper. Plate iiB. U. rounded and confined to the flanks and the anterior slope. plate iiC. rugosa. figures 11 -18 Shell moderately large. Spines scattered and small on anterior slope but large and stout in a curved row at the base of the umbonal . pedicle valve 37. No. surface 40.M. umbonal slopes steep.2. Measurements in mm. subrectangular in outline with the width slightly greater than the length. margin) 21. paratype. — Holotype. locality —This —Rare in the Anidanthus zone. poorly developed.S.0.N. 806-0. Anterior commissure slightly uniplicate. 8o6n. surface measure of to anterior 1 Types.0 plus. hinge (crest of umbo to anterior width (based on half measure of 13. midwidth Interior —Holotype. 2 SPONGES. slopes. Ears small. midthickness ?. ETC. but with the hinge only slightly wider than the midwidth. Surface marked by irregular. No. Horizon and Discussion. Cardinal extremities flattened. gently rounded beak Brachial valve deepest in the median region with steep lateral slopes but a somewhat less steep anterior slope. BRACHIOPODA.NO. uneven costae. Anterior profile somewhat quadrate but with the pedicle valve depressed in the middle.4?. figures 5-10 Shell of about medium size for the genus. with nearly vertical slopes. rounded. loc. new species Plate loC. by its costation being confined to the anterior portion of the and anterior LIOSOTELLA RUGOSA Cooper. Flanks swollen and .M. Pedicle valve fairly evenly convex in lateral profile and with the maximum curvature in the median region.N. .8.2. measure of pedicle valve margin) 20. sulcus shal- low and broad. Auriculate. 1 1 U.

loc. loc.8) 35. surface measure small trilobed — : of pedicle valve 50. . . Flanks deeply concave inner concavity bounded by the anterior margins strongly directed toward the brachial valve. 115459a) length (crest of umbo to front margin) 28. U. costae numbering 2 or 3 tered erect spines in 5 . and with nearly vertical sides. extending anteriorly to the front margin from a point about 5 to 7 mm.8. Dictyoclostus zone. mm. I. siih- Discussion. Umbonal and body spines slender.6. surface measure of pedicle valve 52.S. Costae bearing scat- large spines also developed in a curved spines diminishing in size posteriorly near the base of the slope and overhanging the ears. Horizon and 8o6r. 8o6g. 806c. Umbo moderately swollen . 8o6v . 11 5458. . Holotype. brachial valve with small delicate cardinal process having myophore and short shaft.7. Leiorhynchoidea. . 8o6n Spiri- ferellina zone. thickness 5.6. 8o6i Anidanthus zone. The species differs from strongly marked members of L.— Holotype. anterior two-thirds strongly costate.N. midwidth 29. shallow.S. a less strongly arched umbo and somewhat more prominent costation.S. 8o6h. sulcus and costation origin- ating 5 to 7 mm. 115459b. at the front margin.G.38 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS . Umbonal flanks and exbounding and with nearly vertical sides.M. loc.S. II9 convex front margin gently curved.0. 115459a. Measurements in mm. Brachial valve deeply concave in lateral and anterior profiles. anterior to the beak sulcus narrow.2. um- bonal region deeply concave. Ty/>^. Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile and with the greatest convexity in the median portion. sulcus narrowly rounded lar. midwidth 31. —This species sulcus. VOL. in the greater prominence of the sulcus and fold. suhrugosa. thickness 8.r. in Composita zone. 35.M.7. hinge width (based on half measure of 17. U. Beak small.N.0. and prominent anterior costation. slopes steep . 8o6x loc.N. areas corresponding to the auricles. unfigured paratype. subangular. —Rare . which occur in higher strata. locality. Ears rectangunarrowly rounded in section. tending to the anterior margin. Cancrinella zone.M. 806k'. 806m. from the beak. Anterior profile somewhat rectangular with a median depression representing the sulcus. It is possible that specimens referred to L. figured paratypes. length (crest of umbo to anterior margin) 26.N. fairly strong fold . hinge width. loc.2. Umbonal region smooth or v^^ith scattered small spines.M.M. No. strongly incurved and overhanging the umbo of the brachial valve. U. paratype (U. Interior. which are row of 6 umbonal smooth. bounded posterolaterally by flattened Median ridge low.0. is characterized by its prominent median on the brachial valve.

plate 12B.4. . irregular costae. overhanging and along the base of the umbonal slope the greatest Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile with strongly profile Anterior region.y.S. Umbonal arched. convexity located in the median crest. new species Plate II A. Marginal ridges low and indistinct. . with steep tending to the front margin. Spines few. faintly half and anterior slopes. ridge Median shafted cardinal process having a trilobate myophore. — COOPER 39 should be rugosa occurring in the Composita and Spiriferellina zones latter. Flanks tumid the extremslope convex. figures 1-4. Lateral margins gently rounded . rounded. transversely subrectangular in culate. figured paratypes. the to anterior mm. low and in the median region. Brachial valve deeply concave in lateral and anterior profiles umbo forming a concavity within the main visceral region concavity deepest middle. wide stoutnearly to the middle.M. located posterior to the which occupy the middle region.0. ridges brachial low. narrowly rounded anterior margin nearly straight. Nos. erect. surface measure of pedicle valve 58.M. with nearly vertical sides and slightly bilobate braoverhanging small and region moderately strongly swollen beak beak. U. well as the apparently more arched the in available not are specimens ervation. Sides forming a steep rim around the central Interior of pedicle valve with umbonal cavity thickened by callus . rugosa and that prespoor of features are umbo. I. elongated. Fold originating near the . thickness at middle 12. hinge width 34. No. Unfortunately sufficient collections made to settle this point. large spines located scattered on surface of venter and in a row of 6 the auricles.— Holotype. Measurements in ww. length (crest of umbo to front margin) 29. . Interior of brachial valve with short. umbonal Umbonal region nearly smooth. elevated on a low.N. 1 15460.NO. as the of costation subdued the referred to L. anterolateral extremities somewhat uniplicate. 115461-115463. with the hinge forming the widest part deeply concavo-convex. very steep. addiductor impressions large. SPONGES. midwidth 32.M. Adductor scars crenulated.N. chial umbo. U.—Holotype. Sulcus originating lo to 15 .G. figures 9-17 outline.5. . located near the middle of the valve extending ridge ductor field large. . exshallow with a narrow median furrow and broadly sloping Anterior sides. concavity.0 plus. auriShell moderately large.S. BRACHIOPODA.5. Ears large. sides. not strongly defined. narrowly rounded on ity and in section. ETC. flanks marked by low. LIOSOTELLA SUBRUGOSA Cooper. Ty/'^.

cardinal process with small myophore to anterior brachial ridges strong. It is possible that a large collection of better-predoubtful served specimens will show L. Umbonal region without ornament. as already pointed out. Spines large. tapering to a small beak that overhangs the umbo. Shell large. subrugosa to be one very difficult and found in the Monos quently the question cannot now be answered. 8o6w. . broad and shallow. narrowly rounded costae. anterior to the beak. length 29. the flanks. well rounded. Collecting of these fossils is is it is if better-preserved material to be Hills. species as defined is characterized by its strongly subdued ornamentation. venter. steep. developed ears strongly concave. Anterior commissure gently uniplicate. The distinctions named. Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile and with the greatest convexity located in the median part. occupying about brachial Umbonal one-third the width at the front margin. 40 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS locality. Conse- LIOSOTELLA MAGNIRUGOSA Plate 12 Cooper. widely spaced. Anterior profile slightly bilobate. Umbonal slopes rounded. 8o6g. are not clearly marked in all specimens but the end members are —This its arched umbo. midwidth —Holotype. margin) 29. 8o6h^ 8o6s. Auricles large. Fold low. region swollen. 8o6d. and anterior slopes marked by strong. loc. figures i-8 . species. and a few of the larger ones bifurcating near the anterior margin. Flanks narrowly rounded. VOL. not strongly . sulcus on pedicle valve shallow. Anterior margins strongly deflected braand with steep inner margins. Details of the interior few . extending to the front margin. — Spiriferellina zone. quite distinctive. Surface paucicostate. 8o6d'. thickness . rugosa and L. subquadrate in outline strongly auriculate and with the hinge forming the greatest shell width. new species A. about 20 in number.0 (restored).8. hinge (crest of umbo width 41. 8o6b. 8o6f. Anterior slope very steep. faint fold on brachial valve and large thick cardinal process. scattered on the anterior slope and an oblique row of 3 or more located at the base of the umbonal slope. broad.. Measurements in mm.6. IIQ Horizon and Discussion. Median sulcus originating about 15 mm. Brachial valve most deeply concave in the median region and with the umbo chially strongly concave. In all these respects it differs from the well-marked specimens occurring in the Anidanthus zone. Sides sloping gently medially rounded anterior margin indented median region. with vertical sides to the lateral margins. anterolateral extremities narrowly in the .

with tumid areas bounding the median sulcus. rounded.G. separated by striae somewhat narrower than the costellae. broad and low fold on the brachial valve and finally by the strong costae. protruding slightly posterior to the posterior margin. Anterior profile bilobate. strong ears. the costae are much stronger. Lateral margins concave anterior to the auricles. loc. broad. consequently. Consequently a few specimens only are available for study.M. A sharp but low fold is indicated by the deep sulcus. 8o6i. Anterior . — Holotype. Umbonal surface and trail surface approximately parallel. . anterior to the beak geniculated portion narrowly rounded .N. ETC. magnirugosa are less pronounced and much is broader.0 surface measure of pedicle valve 46. Spines not preserved. commissure narrowly uniplicate. hinge width 24.5. Lateral slopes steep.NO. BRACHIOPODA. widening and deepening to the anterior margin. Horizon and Discussion.G. the umbo somewhat more swollen and the ears more extended. —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. deep. Geniculation occur- ring 20 mm.0.M. Umbonal and visceral regions moderately swollen median sulcus originating 3 to 5 mm. Surface multicostellate. No. subquadrate to subrectangular in outline auriculate. midwidth 25. — COOPER umbo 4I at middle 9. U. Types. thickness 8. figured paratype.6. on the body of the shell and along the front margin. narrowly rounded at the anterolateral extremities and emarginate at anterior margin. 11 5464. In comparison to L.M. MUIRWOODIA species Plate gA.0 paratype (I. strongly concavo-convex. plus. short concave slopes to the cardinal extremities. Trail long.5. —This species is not uncommon in the Cancrinella zone but specimens are difficult to prepare. small.S. figures 1-7 Shell large for the genus. locality. shallow sulcus and. swollen umbo. Costellae numbering about 10 in 5 mm.6. narrow. anterior to the beak. .) length (crest of to anterior margin) 25. Pedicle valve very unevenly convex in lateral profile with the visceral area gently convex. deeply sulcate and with well-rounded flanks bordering the sulcus. surface 51. Flanks on visceral area moderately swollen and with part. depth 15.5. Beak Brachial valve poorly exposed in four available specimens but indicating a short and shallow visceral area and a sharply geniculated portion closely fitted to the trail of the pedicle valve. with the hinge forming the widest . costellae narrow. is As revealed by these specimens the species characterized by its large size. 2 SPONGES. beak to anterior margin : depth 23. measure of pedicle valve. rugosa the fold and sulcus of L.7. I.

Shell large. Beak small. (crest of umbo margin) 27. I. p. 1927.6. Pap. a stronger.0. 5. Prof. —Figured specimen. with young adult and with the length forming the greatest dimension in old specimens. 152.N. represent a The specimens figured and described new species of this interesting genus but it is — herein probably are too poor to describe as new. No. length midwidth ?. 1910. variable. The specimens from Monos Hills are most similar to Muirwoodia midtistriata (Meek) but differ in having a much less inflated umbonal and visceral disc region. loc.M. hinge 62. Cardinal extremities rounded. figs. figs. deeper. in life. Pustula montpelierensis (Girty) Branson.S. Surface marked by fine. length and width subequal in the Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral profile and with the maxi- mum convexity located in the umbonal region. Productus genicula- from the Park City formation and P. and more angular sulcus on the pedicle valve and a much stronger degree of geniculation.42 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS in VOL.. 8o6i. 1 15568. — — 806-I. 5. Dictyoclostus deminutivus Cloud from the Permian of Coahuila.G. vol. 28. 806k.6. Hinge narrower than the greatest width which is located at or anterior to the middle. (Girty) figures 1-14 Productus montpelierensis Girty. 2. pi. WAAGENOCONCHA MONTPELIERENSIS Plate 13. S. Nearly planoconvex in section. 2. thickness width 47. Surv. according to description and figures. 1930. U. U. Univ.0 plus (ausurface measure of pedicle valve 41. 30. Dictyoclostus zone. belongs to the genus Muirwoodia.0. elongated pustules which. continent but tus Girty This genus has hitherto not been reported on this represented by several species. Surv. Geol. strongly incurved and overhang- ing the hinge and a small portion of the brachial umbo.13. Sulcus origi- . loc. pi. Anterior profile form- ing two somewhat narrowly rounded lobes separated by a shallow sulcus. Growth undulations common on the surfaces of old specimens. Geol. ^2. Discussion. No. Lei- orhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. p. Bull. 12. Horizon and locality. . not preserved). bore very slender spines spine bases arranged in quincunx.M. II9 Measurements to anterior ricles mm. p. Figured specimens. multistriatus Meek of the Phosphoria formation are representatives. Umbonal region swollen and protruding considerably posterior to the posterior margin. S. 436. 80. the arrangement generally clearer on the brachial than on the pedicle valve. slightly wider than long in the young. Missouri Studies Quart. U.

8o6i . Flanks bounding sulcus with steep to moderately steep slopes into the sulcus. Nos. midwidth 35.S. 8o6d'. after which Cardinal extremities gently sulcate between the car- margin and the oblique folds referred to above. Low.0.5.M. 2 SPONGES.ISIM. 115515). 8o6d. No. about 20 to 25 mm. loc. 115511). becoming somewhat less deep in adults but present from margin at all ages.N. however. Measurements in mm. COOPER to lo 43 anterior to the nating just anterior to the beak. extending for at least two-thirds the length of the valve. ETC. loc. thickness at middle 22. 8o6b. anteriorly umbo Brachial valve nearly flat in the posterior two-thirds but strongly geniculated in a brachial direction in the old adults. length (crest of umbo to front margin) 53. 806-0 — . with narrowly rounded and inflated crests and steep to nearly vertical slopes to the lateral margins. hinge width ?. Hypotypes. No. loc. BRACHIOPODA.0. ness at middle 9.N. hinge width 25. No.5. oblique folds bound the concave a low. 806-I. loc.9. length (umbo to front margin) 33. herein.3.S. more broadly viewed than Girty's type specimen is that of a small shell but the may be a young specimen. thickness at middle 12. 806k'.3. thickness at middle 14. umbo and about 7 shells.0) 46.0 hinge width 28. Interior of pedicle valve with broadly flabellate diductors as usual in the Productacea. 8o6n. Brachial valve with large cardinal process having a long shaft and trilobate myophore strongly recurved into the umbonal chamber of the pedicle valve. Place of geniculation marked by a curved row of strong but short spines.6.0?.2 (U.S. hinge width 33. . is — Waagenoconcha montpelierensis. 8o6f 8o6g. Discussion. 115512). broad fold originates that umbonal region and extend they disappear. mm.N. These specimens. thick(U. (U..M. NO. Dictyo- clostus zone. measure of 23. are clearly the young of . 115515Horizon and locality. Hypotypes: (U. dinal anterolaterally about 10 mm.. midwidth 30. 8o6p.. Composita zone. midwidth 42. 8o6h Spiriferellina zone.N.— U. length (crest of umbo to front margin) 26. Median ridge slender.S. Young individuals of Mexican specimens conform almost precisely to Girty's description and figures.0 (somewhat crushed) length (crest of umbo to front margin) 42.S. Lateral and anterior margins of adults geniculated brachially. the geniculation extending for a considerable distance in old adults. 115510-115513. anterior to the beak. as interpreted hitherto. 1 1 55 10). 8o6z . Umbonal region concave for about 5 mm. midwidth (based on half — .5. No. Sulcus strong in young to front with a broadly V-shaped section.0?. Anidanthus zone loc. Leiorhynchoidea. after which extends to the anterior margin. Cancrinella zone.M.0.M. 806k.

and gently convex. Umbonal region gently swollen. This may be a premature assumption of adult characters or these specimens may represent another species. 3 marking the fold. smooth. new species Plate 14C. pi. figs. Surv. a size larger than hitherto suspected. In general the geniculation at the front of the valves takes place about 20 mm. anterior profile very broadly . montpelierensis grow to a large size. costae broad and subangular. 105. 3042. long. suboval in outline. 33. p. Beak strongly incurved and closely pressed onto the brachial umbo. R. Umbonal region swollen. shallow delthyrial cavity dental plates reduced to mere remnants. pi. and ties . King. 3. p. Anterior commissure broadly uniplicate. Texas Bull. Bull. U. Deltidial plates conjunct but showing line of junction. Flanks with long anteromedian extremities that are moderately elevated. Geol. . Beak ridges elongate but false areas very narrow. smooth costation originating 6 to 8 mm. LEIORHYNCHOIDEA CLOUDI Cooper.6). anterior to the beak of the brachial valve but a few specimens geniculate at a slightly earlier stage. anterolateral extremi- somewhat narrowly rounded anterior margin broadly convex. Pedicle interior with short. Flanks gently convex posteriorly but somewhat flattened anteriorly. Sulcus originating at about the middle. nobilis Girty. anterior profile very broadly convex but more convex and deeper than the pedicle valve. II9 larger ones. Fold originating at about the middle. Shell large. 2 costae occupying the sulcus. Muscular area small. Beak incurved under. 1910. the beak of the pedicle valve. Posterior margins gently convex. 7 (not 5. 32. 9-1 1. . fig. the greatest curvature located in the umbonal region . Pedicle valve with gentle curvature in lateral profile. permesothyrid. flattened and not rising above the flanks except in the anterior region. Enough specimens fairly to prove this point are is not available for study. Teeth slender.44 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. foramen minute. and hidden by. E. Surface costate. S. shallow and broad. with length and maximum width nearly equal. Univ. anterior to the beak. to indicate that A complete series of stages present young having the characters of W. flat to concave. Brachial valve in lateral profile gently convex with the greatest convexity in the umbonal region . 4 to 5 present on the flanks. figures 16-31 Pugnax weeksi 1930. Flanks gently convex and with long anterolateral extensions to meet the reentrant formed by the anteromedian elevation of the flank of the pedicle valve. 436.

Cloud. and showing as low.S. Named in honor of Dr. — Horizon and locality. that the Monos specimens mens have a are referred to Leiorhynchoidea.M. The Mexican Pugnax weeksi by Girty to from the phosphate beds of the Park City formation in Idaho. thickness 12. Measurements mm. Coahuila. The presence of the strong median septum eliminates the species from the genus Pugnax at once but the cardinalia are so like those of Leiorhynchoidea as de- scribed by Cloud and with the exception mentioned above.5. Pinkish shales of the Leiorhynchoidea zone between the Anidanthus and Composita zones. closely approximate. BRACHIOPODA. The Monos speci- fairly broad and thick hinge plate which bears a slight lateral thickenings that median groove between the crural bases. — —This species is characterized by its leiorhynchoid form. length 26.. length of brachial valve 23. Preston E. wholly plicate valves deserve a new name to distinguish them from the partially species appear to be identical to those doubtfully referred nobilis plicate forms. 8o6q. 115549a.6.M. No. The cardinalia of the brachial valve agree well with those described by Cloud with the exception that denticulations in the sockets cannot be proved in the are not present. thickening posteriorly. 2 SPONGES. The writer has referred this species to the genus Leiorhynchoidea recently described by Cloud from the Permian area. slender anteriorly. who described the Permian brachiopods of Las Delicias. strongly incurved beak. possibly present as a feature of juvenile Leiorhynchoidea is a common genus in the Permian at Delicias. and the fact that the plications die out just anterior to the umbo on both valves. undoubtedly represent No small chamber such as that occurring in it is PugLas noides was seen although shells. ii5548a. ETC.S. Discussion.8. 115549b. U. 8o6i'. Jr.N. Holotype. Coahuila. 8o6u.M. . Monos material and it is probable that they Reference of Girty's Pugnax weeksi nobilis to the genus Pugnoides seems an error to the writer. the coarse plications. rounded ridges bounding a shallow depresMedian septum long. 115550a.b. loc. Las Delicias. in moderately elevated.G. width 26. These specimens with their strong. —Holotype. I. Crural bases enveloped by thickening of hinge plate sion. COOPER 45 Brachial valve with wide undivided hinge plate supported at the posterior by an expanded median septum. Types. 8o6i.NO. figured paratypes. Nos. width of fold 15. U. long and slender.0. Crura flattened. reaching to about the middle of the valve. Coahuila.N.

S. 115571). Flanks slightly depressed below the fold. Umbonal region moderately convex. broadly convex in anterior profile.N. No. length 17. 1 15569.0. Hori. — Holotype. separated by spaces not as wide as the costae. width 18. Brachial interior with median septum sup- porting a hinge plate divided by a shallow chamber.0.S. with the width slightly Brachial valve deeper than the pedicle valve. Holotype.. obHque laterally. costae narrow. exceeding the length. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. U. width of fold 13. is Discussion. 115570. II9 UNCINUNELLINA? PULCHRA Cooper. the swelling con- tinuing anteriorly to the place of origin of the sulcus at the middle of the valve. 8o6q. thickness 15. not greatly elevated anteriorly and occupying about half the width at the front.M. somewhat depressed in the median region. Brachial valve evenly but gently convex in lateral profile.:on and locality. No. width 23.M. imbricating lines.S.3. subpentagonal in outline. last Sulcus occupied by 5 to 6 to 7 occurring on the fold and 6 9 on the flanks. Rare in the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella — — zone.1. Umbonal region narrowly swollen. Sulcus deepening rapidly anteriorly but not very deep tongue short and bluntly rounded. Anterior half of surface marked by zigzag Pedicle valve moderately and quite evenly convex in lateral profile gently convex in anterior profile but with the median portion flattened or depressed. length 22. Surface costate. quite swollen and with steep slopes to the lateral margins. slender. length of brachial valve 19. new species Plate 14B.N. to 6 costae.0 (estimated on half measure). 8o6i. 46 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Anteromedian portion of flanks bounding sulcus the flank and strongly elevated above the fold long.M. standard . Nos. figures 6-15 Shell fairly large . angular. figured paratypes. circular. the 2 or 3 very small. —This species characterized by its large size. 115571. U. length of brachial valve 16. Crura long and Measurements in mm.2. paratype (U. Types. moderately incurved. lateral margins narrowly rounded. Fold originating at the middle. loc.0. thyrid. Posterior margins nearly straight. narrow. Beak meso- Foramen small.4. Interior of pedicle valve with dental plates extending about one- quarter the valve length.6. Flanks gently convex with steep slopes in the posterior parts but with gentle slopes at the anterior.N. thickness 10. slightly elevated above at the anterior. and anterior margin nearly straight.

1930. The genotype of Uncinunellina.. posterior margins gently concave. Flanks bounding sulcus gently concave in the posterior part bounding the swollen preumbonal area. theobaldi Waagen. Puncta very fine. 34. with each costa bearing a median depression. 34. No. fig. — C. Beak narrow umbonal region moderately swollen. width about i^ times the length. not strongly developed. Bull. jahiensis from the same fauna. a genus not hitherto recognized on this continent because of its finely costate exterior and the presence of discrete dental plates in the pedicle valve. abruptly geniculated. 5-9. 3. This species is somewhat doubtfully referred to Uncinunellina. Anterior profile broadly concave. the swelling continued as a low fold along the median portion of the sulcus. 2 SPONGES. pi. U. p. Missouri Studies Quart. 436. taylori Girty. Sulcus wide. however. round. . of the valve. but gently convex in the anterior half flanks sides bounding deep part of sulcus moderately elevated. NO. ones often depressed below the others to sulcus with 4 to 6 costae and the flanks bearing 6 i 8 distinct costae and or 2 indistinct ones. Geol. pi. with steep and forming a broad plica. the lateral Fold with . occupying . vol. Rhychonellids are not RHYNCHOPORA TAYLORI Plate 15A. pentagonal in outline. U. 3.f pulchra Cooper. the sides of the depression steeply sloping medially. C. India. Shell of about medium size for the genus. figs. Pedicle valve unequally convex in lateral profile. No species comparable to UJ pulchra has yet been described from the Permian of North America. about half the shell width at the anterior margin. 5. Univ. p. greatest width a short distance anterior to the middle. anterior to the beak. some- what crowded. S. lateral margins narrowly rounded anterior margin very gently convex . new species.. . U. BRACHIOPODA. figures 1-21 Girty Rhynchopora 1910. 17-19 pi. 2. costae broader than the interspaces. Sulcus originating about 5 mm. a-c. COOPER 47 rhynchonellid form and the strong imbrications in the anterior portion common in the Permian of North America and usually belong to Rhynchopora and Wellerella. 2. Branson. is suggestive of U. from the Permian of the Salt Range. flat. 8. rounded to sub5 to 7 costae. Tongue long. Beak ridges short. Surface costate angular. but is somewhat smaller and with less costae in the sulcus and on the fold. Foramen small. . deepening rapidly. Surv. the greatest convexity situated anterior to the umbo and posterior to the middle. or straight. has the square anterior of Rhynchopora and thus is differently shaped from the species under discussion. ETC. figs.

115479). Hypotypes: (U. 8o6d'.1. 806m. Anterolateral extremities elongated and bluntly pointed where they join with the anteriorly angulated flanks of the pedicle valve bounding the sulcus. loc. No. length 13.N.S.G. — 806c. loc. 1 15477).M. Flanks depressed gently below the fold. zone.N. length 10. 1 15478).S. and a slightly convex anterior margin. Tex. new subspecies Plate 15C. width of fold 7.7. Interior details lacking. rarer still . No. (U. The width of the fold and sulcus variable as and on the fold. — The rhynchonelloid form and punctate exterior of it this species serve to place in Rhynchopora.M. I.— U. length of brachial valve 8.9.6. the Phosphoria formation of and occurring in the Mountains. width 15. somewhat and doubtWord formation of the Glass fully in the Permian of Coahuila. Hypotypes. flat to gently convex in profile.S.4. Mexico. lateral pentagonal in outline with straight posterior margins.2. thickness 10. length of brachial valve 11.N. It is a very variable species. nearly a semicircle in anterior profile. with 4 to 5 costae in the sulcus marked by and 5 to 6 on the fold. thickness 8. anteriorly Fold originating slightly posterior to the middle. in mm.. Rare in the Composita zone. length of brachial valve 10. Costate. moderately convex and with very steep sides. Um5 . elevating slightly and occupying about half the width at the front. II9 Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile. loc.3. width of fold 8.3.5. No.9.1.M.3. posterior margin. somewhat nar- rowly rounded margins. as a study of the illustrations of variation is Monos specimens The shown in the relation of length to width which varies beis tween 0. Pedicle valve with gently convex lateral and anterior profiles.. Horizon and locality. in Dictyoclostus zone. 48 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.78 and 0. is also the number North American Permian widely distributed in the This species is Wyoming Idaho.84. Flanks and possibly 6 costae. 8o6i Spiriferellina zone.N.M.8. will indicate. width 16.S. Nos. Anidanthus loc. 5. length 12. 806-I . 11 5476-1 15479. 8o6n Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. Discussion. 8o6h. (U. Fold low. figures 27-31 Known specimens of small size for the genus. 8o6r. incurved and protruding beyond the very gently swollen but bearing a low median depression corresponding to the folded portion of the pedicle posterior. wider than long. loc. Measurements — width of fold 7.M. thickness 11. 8o6v . of costae appearing in the sulcus RHYNCHOPORA TAYLORI ROTUNDA Cooper. width 12. Umbo Beak low.

taylori taylori Girty in its somewhat more rotund outline. Sulcus narrow. Puncta fine and closely . flat in lateral profile.y. 115480.6. geniculation at about Brachial valve with the posterior half moderately convex but the anterior half nearly semielliptical. 2 SPONGES. costae narrowly rounded. erect.— Holotype. crowded. originating at the middle.S. Surface costate Fold narrow. scarcely elevated except at the anterior margin. width of fold 7. This variety is rare and. subpentagonal in outline. confined to the Spiriferellina zone. thickness 8. the last one indistinct. width .0. occupying about half the shell width. Posterior margins gently concave. gently convex. so far as known. width 10. length of brachial valve 8. less robust locality. Umbonal region gently swollen . paratype.6. loc. Flanks narrow. length 9. differs —This variety of costae in form. Beak .6. short. ETC./>^. — Paratype. Cooper.4 holotype. and the flanks marked by 5 to 6 costae. gently concave but upturned slightly along the margins. wide and shallow.. lateral . 8o6f. I. Tongue narrow Flanks and 90° but in a narrow curve. slightly wider than long.9 plus. thickness 7. beak slightly incurved. steep-sided. Measurements in mm. U. — Spiriferellina zone. RHYNCHOPORA BICOSTATA new species Plate 15B. and originating at about the middle.7?. 8o6d'.6. smaller size. the swelling continued anteriorly in the sulcus. No. Pedicle valve gently convex in lateral profile.8.M. separated by narrow grooves. . the floor of which is gently convex. Flanks swollen and with steep sides. Fold low. width of fold 5.N. Flanks moderBrachial valve flatly ately convex. length of brachial valve 9. gently convex in section. geni- culated toward the brachial valve in a broad curve. long. — COOPER Tongue 49 bonal and median regions very slightly swollen. Anterior profile narrowly Fold narrow. Sulcus originating at about the middle. Interior unknown. length 10. figures 22-26 Shell of about medium size for the genus. margins broadly rounded anterior margin straight. moderately deep at the anterior. 8o6g. extended considerably in an anterior direction to unite with the pedicle valve. 12. r3.5. smaller is number from R. gently convex in anterior profile. and the sulcus and on the fold. Horizon and Discussion.G. BRACHIOPODA. NO.M. with 3 costae sulcus narrow with 2 broad costae. originating at or anterior to the middle. convex but with the umbo moderately curved in lateral profile anterior profile semielliptical.

concave to gently convex in anterior ately strongly swollen. Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile almost semicircular in anterior profile. i Sulcus occupied by 4 costae.4. Flanks bounding sulcus flattened to concave between the costa bounding the sulcus and the margin. long. to the lower surface of the hinge plate at the posterior Measurements in mm. taylori. width 13. 11 5481. mid- not strongly elevated above the flanks and flattened in profile. . No. to 5 costae.3.5. thickness lo. length 16. length 12. Flanks convex and with steep slopes median regions swollen. 1 (U. Interior of brachial valve curved crura. Composita zone.1.—U.M. having a narrower and less-pronounced fold with only 3 costae instead of 5 to 6. thickness 10. — Holotype.N.— Holotype. i paratypes: 15535). with short. It differs from that species in being more rounded in outline (L/W = o. — — WELLERELLA HEMIPLICATA Cooper. subtriangular to subpentagonal in outline. and the slightly marked by 2 or 3 Pedicle valve moderately and evenly convex in lateral profile . No. thickness 10. loc.7.0.N.6. width of fold 5.89). width 15. the fold by 2 costae. Umbonal region modermedian region moderately swollen. to the margins. length of brachial valve 10. new species Plate 15E. thickness 1 1. 11 5533). Sulcus occupying about half the shell width at the anterior.0.5.SMM. width 16. .S. length of . figures 1-8 Shell large for the genus. Umbonal and Pedicle interior with short dental plates. width of fold 10.4. and with moderately steep slopes. plate 16A.M. length 18. to broadly rounded lateral margins .2.2. length 17. and a low median septum united apex. Remarks. Beak gently incurved. undivided hinge plate.3.4. II9 Measurements ww.8. length of brachial valve 14. Sulcus or near the middle. anterior margin Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate.2. 8o6r. brachial valve 16. Horizon and locality.S. narrow . posterior margins nearly straight to gently concave and descending broadly curved. shallow. (U. taylori with which it occurs in the Coinposita bed. The 2 prominent and broad costae of the sulcus are in strong contrast to the 4 to 6 occurring in the sulcus of R. originating at profile.50 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS in VOL. Holotype. foramen as usual in the genus. Exterior variable . No. figures 41-63. forming a short. broad tongue. This species in its form and general appearance is related to R. width of fold 10. originating slightly anterior to the dle. width 15. Fold short.i. length of brachial valve 14. to Surface smooth flanks in the posterior half but strongly costate in the anterior half.

2 SPONGES. Posterior margins slightly conanterior margin nearly cave and forming an angle of slightly more than 90° with the beak.S. Confined to the Composita zone. 5 or . Discussion. unfigured paratype.b. anterolateral extremities narrowly straight. 5I width of fold 9. Horizon and locality.S. figured paratypes.G.2.M. ETC. hemiplicata as sulcus. 8o6r.6.M.9. length of brachial valve 12. 115536). length 19.M. Flanks gently convex in the posterior part but gently to moderately concave just inside the anterolateral margin and with the margins deflected noticeably toward the pedicle . Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. slightly wider than long.). loc. BRACHIOPODA.3.M. No.. thickness 11.NO. Sulcus originating at about the middle. widening and deepening rapidly anteriorly to occupy about half the width at the front margin.8. U.5. thickness 10.5. length of brachial valve 15.6. width of fold 8. Types. 8o6h'. 806c.S. figures 28-54 Shell fairly large for the genus.6. (U. width 18. rounded . — COOPER . width 16. rarely 2 or costae narrowly rounded to subrarely i more or 3. Pedicle valve moderately convex in the umbonal region but concave the anterior half when viewed in lateral profile anterior profile 4 costae. new species Plate 16D.M. Wellerella lemasi the only species approachit ing it in size but will not be confused with is because of its more completely costate valves. an anterior-posterior WELLERELLA LEMASI Cooper. thickness 10.2. Variability one of the characteristics of W.9. ii5534-ii5538a. quarters of surface strongly costate angular.N.N. 1 15533. in 6 present on the flanks. width of fold 12. length 17. Nos.M.6.8. — — 8o6h. length 13.5. . Holotype.2.N. subtri- angular to subpentagonal in outline. 2 occupying the sulcus.G. i 15534). No.N. cupy the may be seen in the fact that i to 3 costae may ocConsiderable variation in shape also occurs but this Some of the may be caused by distortion of the specimens during alterations of the rock enclosing them.S. length of bra(U. No. —This species is characterized by is its large size and partially costate valves. (I. and broadly sulcate to nearly flat. U. more elongated specimens have in very obviously been squeezed laterally whereas some of the rotund forms may have been deformed by crushing direction. I. chial valve 17. Umbonal and median areas gently but somewhat narrowly swollen. width of fold 9. No.N.S. U. 115532. 1 width 14. Anterior three3 on the fold.M.

M. Discussion.4.N.0. length 14. 115544. Manuel Lemas. 8o6r.M. width of fold 6. unfigured paratype. 8o6h'. whose honor of Sr. Surface in outline. thickness 18. 11 5544). . loc. 3 costae . length 13. in the Horizon and loc. width of fold 7. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. paratypes: (U.4. ii5543a. lemasi minor but is a much larger species with a deeper sulcus and more exaggerated anterolateral extremities in the brachial is easily differentiated valve. No. Median costa of fold commonly depressed below the others.0.8.6.N. I.4. 115543a). figures 14-27 Shell moderately large for the genus.b. length of brachial valve 12. slightly . Flanks convex. Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile terior profile with a . Nos..M. subtriangular to subpentagonal wider than long with the greatest width at or somewhat anterior to the middle. width of fold 7. width 16. VOL. locality. hemiin Named hospitality — plicata but costated and has a by the fact that it is more completely more depressed triangular outline. (U. length 16.N.S.S. 115541 figured paratypes. U. gently incurved foramen elongate elliptical.9. 806c. costate.S.M.0.9.S. fold originating at about the middle generally flattened and not strongly elevated above the flanks even at the anterior end. WELLERELLA LEMASI MINOR Cooper. 115542a). thickness 15. submesothyrid.2 (U. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Slopes bounding sulcus steep . width 14. faintly sulcate. width of fold 8. It is similar in form to W.9. ii5542a.b. width 16.c. IIQ tongue short.G. In size this species approaches its associate W. Interior as usual for the genus. new subspecies Plate 16C. length of brachial valve 14.N. thickness 10.3. length 17. Measurements in mm. No.S. somewhat flattened summit and steep Um- bonal region flattened. Anterior extremity of fold slightly rounded. rare in the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. thickness 13.3. 8o6i. but . manager of Moreno Mines.1. moderately steep.M. — .M. Beak narrow.N. width 17. semicircular in ansides.0. 8o6v.2.6. —Abundant Composita zone. No. 8o6h.8. serrate. Types. Holotype. —Holotype. costae originating 5 to 7 mm. truncated.9. made our stay at Antimonio a real pleasure. length of brachial valve 12. U. Posterior margins nearly straight forming an angle with the beak of slightly more or slightly less than 90° lateral margins narrowly rounded anterior margin broadly convex to nearly straight. 52 valve. length of brachial valve 14. anterior to the beak. No.

(U. Foramen small. thickness 8.N. lemasi.b. 115547b). width 12. somewhat . figures 32-40 Shell of about medium size for the genus. Costae bounding sulcus considerably elevated at the anterior.N. —Holotype. length of brachial valve 10.2. length 12.NO. Sulcus deepening rapidly anteriorly. Nos. 115546.S. 8o6d. width 15. anterolateral extremities moderately ex- tended toward the pedicle valve. not strongly elevated above the flanks at the anterior extremity.S. and with anteromedian extremities elevated.M.4. new species Plate 15D.3. Pedicle valve moderately convex in the posterior half and flattened in the anterior half profile broadly sulcate.2. Flanks bounding sulcus flattened and with gentle slopes to the margins.8. Umbonal region narrowly swollen. — COOPER 53 in the sulcus. —Confined to the Spiriferellina zone.o. 1 15546). —Holotype. length 12. with steep sides. length 12. submesothyrid. incurved. 2 SPONGES. — Wellerella lemasi minor by IV. ETC.5. width 13. trans- versely semielliptical in anterior profile. 8o6g. paratypes: (U. No. 8o6f.S.M. flatly to Brachial valve moderately convex in lateral profile . I. 2. approach the species WELLERELLA ROTUNDA Cooper. ii5547a. 8o6h2. similar to IV.7.9. 8o6w. No. 8o6d'. 7. subtriangular to suboval in outline with the length and width about equal. thickness lo. swollen. in form and outline is very However. loc. Umbonal region flattened to slightly Interior of bra- Interior of pedicle valve with short dental plates. Greatest width at . 1 15545.4. Fold originating at about the middle. locality.8. width of fold 7. 8o6s. 2 costae (rarely 3 or 4) occurring and 4 costae occupying the flanks. width of fold 6.N. width of fold Types. figured paratypes. U. and extended into a moderately long tongue that is bent nearly at a right angle by a broad curve. length of brachial valve 11. thickness 8. when viewed Beak moderately in lateral profile anterior long. chial valve with undivided short hinge plate and moderately long in curved crura.N.M. Horizon and Discussion.M.M. Measurements brachial valve mm. elongate oval. BRACHIOPODA. the swelling extending to about the middle where the sulcus originates. length of 10.2.G. Flanks moderately rounded. it does not attain the large size reached lemasi although a few specimens assigned to this subspecies in size. unfigured paratypes. (rarely 4 or 5) occupying the fold.S. 8o6b. U. Anterolateral margins of flanks deflected slightly toward the pedicle valve. No. often with median costa slightly depressed.8.5.

Flanks very gently convex in posterior portion but flattened just inside the anterior and anterolateral margins. only 2 costae in the sulcus whereas the Texas species has WELLERELLA species Plate 16B. — Wellerella rotunda characterized by narrow Types. 2. figures 9-13 Shell of about medium . Interior of brachial valve with undivided hinge plate as usual in the genus. to loc. separated by grooves narrower than the costae. Surface costate. originat- ing near the middle. Umbonal region gently convex median region nearly flat. width of fold 5. —Holotype. width of fold 5. . Beak short.0. length 11. Paratype. Sur- face of anterior half costate posterior half smooth. No. lemasi minor which occurs higher in the section.7. unfigured paratype. elongate triangular to pentagonal in outline length slightly greater than the width. is its fold and sulcus. Fold marked by 3 costae. locality. . o plus.G.M. Costae bounding sulcus slightly elevated anteriorly. Costae narrowly rounded.M Horizon and — Confined the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone.7. In outline this species resembles Pugnax pingtiis Girty which is un- doubtedly a member of the genus Wellerella but differs in having 3. I. short and moderately deep.S.9. (I.M. Umbonal region nearly flat. slightly incurved. length 12. size for the genus. width 11. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. Anterior profile strongly arched with gently convex surface and steep sides.1. U.S. slightly elevated above the surrounding flanks. separated by furrows . costae rounded. Brachial valve unevenly convex in lateral profile with the maximum convexity in the anterior part. and faintly convex in anterior profile. It has much more subdued ornamentation and the fold and sulcus are not so strongly developed. thickness 9. Greatest width slightly anterior to the middle. Fold low and narrow. Measurements in mm. flat and the flanks by 5 costae.G. No.54 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. thickness 7.N.1. This species is of about the same size as W.M. —Holotype.0. length of brachial valve 10. U. 11 5540. Tongue short and narrow. Flanks swollen and rounded and with nearly vertical sides. width 11. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate.). sulcus by 2 costae.3. II9 or near the middle. . length of brachial valve 9. Pedicle valve almost in lateral profile . 115539 figured paratype. Discussion. Sulcus originating slightly anteriorly to the middle. 8o6i.N.

Anteromargins narrowly rounded anterior margin gently rounded. Pedicle valve unevenly convex in lateral profile. —The single specimen collected occurs with from which it differs in costae in the sulcus and 4 on the fold. erect . the swelling continuit is lost. length 13. ing to the point of origin of the sulcus where Sulcus originat- ing slightly anterior to the middle. maximum width in the anterior rounded. 10. . 3 It dift'ers Discussion. .5. —From the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. Measurements in mm. I. . bluntly rounded tongue. Figured specimen. Sulcus originating at about the middle. thickness width of fold 6. Costae numbering 4 on the sulcus. rotunda having a more elongate-triangular outline. somewhat subdued. W.M.6. — Horizon and loc.4.G. Flanks concave anterolaterally and deflected in a pedicle direction to produce sharp projec- tions at the anterior bounding the deepest part of the sulcus. Surface costate costae low. Brachial valve moderately strongly convex in lateral profile and strongly vaulted in anterior profile. moderately strongly vated anteriorly and rounded in profile. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. IV.0. leniasi and same reasons. figures 1-5 Shell of about medium . Lateral slopes convex and steep. the posterior twothirds having the greatest convexity. umbo narrowly swollen. and very gently regions Umbonal and beak not preserved. lateral slopes. BRACHIOPODA. fold originating near the middle. and flanks marked by 4 costae located on the part of shell adjacent to fold and sulcus umbonal slopes smooth or with concentric growth lines and costae. Beak elongated. Umbonal region swollen and ele- smooth. STENOSCISMA species Plate 14A. narrow but deep and continued anteriorly as a short. growth varices only convex . posterolateral areas without costae. separated by furrows narrower than the Fold occupied by 5 costae. 8o6i. 2 SPONGES. sulcus with 4 costae. Flanks swollen and with steep Interior not known. hemiplicata for the from W. anterior profile gently convex. 3 in the narrower than the costae. ETC. —Holotype. size for the genus with length and width probably about equal lateral half. . width 13. — COOPER 55 fold. locality. and 7 on the flanks. Pedicle valve of gentle convexity in lateral profile to nearly flat in anterior profile.NO. broad and .

new species 18. The length of the brachial valve was in the neighborhood of 30 mm. the middle. Figured specimen. width of fold 12. subtruncate. plate i-io Species large for the genus. in outline with the greatest width located at about . An- commissure strongly uniplicate. generally slightly longer than wide subpentagonal . depressed below the fold and with prominent anterolateral extremities. referrable to this genus were found. the swelling increasing somewhat to the median area and on to the anterior margin as a low rounded fold.4. II9 tongue of pedicle valve short and broadly rounded. —Two specimens Dictyoclostiis zone. Origin of fold slightly posterior to the middle. 8o6k'. Probably from Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella Interior of pedicle valve with large and deep spondylium — . is one is the specimen figured and the other the right half of a large brachial valve with a small portion of the pedicle valve attached. Measurements in mm.N. Umbonal region moderately swollen. No. lateral margins moder- anterior margin produced. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. thickness 13. Surface marked only by concentric growth lines and varices of growth. Discussion. In its general leiorhynchoid appearance other yet described in North America. but was. Anterior profile somewhat narrowly convex. 8o6i . It this species is unlike any It has the large size oi S. venustum (Girty) but is is not so strongly costate as that species. loc. very suggestive of the specimens figured as Camarophoria crumena Martin by Tschernyschew from Permian beds COMPOSITA GRANDIS Cooper. figures Plate 17A.4. Horizon and locality. variable. Flanks well rounded. — — zone. plate 17B. loc. Brachial valve gently and evenly convex in lateral profile and with the greatest convexity at about the middle. U. Flanks bordering sulcus gently convex but narrowly rounded and with steep slopes in the posterolateral regions. . figures 1-5. median septum low in the brachial valve. figures 6-18.S.7. Posterior margins gently curved ately strongly curved terior .0. Umbonal and lateral slopes steep. This specimen by its sparse and subdued costation indicates the same species it as that of the smaller specimen figured. width 23.0 length of brachial valve 19. 1 15574. Pedicle valve moderately convex in lateral profile with the strongest curvature in the umbonal region umbonal slopes steep anterior pro. in Russia.M. Figured specimen. length not measurable but probably in the neighborhood of 24. a much larger individual.56 shallow . when complete. . .

N. (U. length 34.0. G.6.0. I. 115520.S.M.2. Median region Fold short. confined to lateral anterior quarter. length 49.M. 8o6d'.S. Types. M. shallow.N. thick: ness 31.M.S. length 35. short cones composed of tightly coiled spires. broad.M.2. thickness 28. brachial valve 41.S. broadly rounded with angle of geniculation not quite 90°. NO. 8o6v still .0.N. Median marked by a shallow but narrow groove is that extends nearly to the front margin but disappears on the tongue before the front margin reached. Median region full.8. length of brachial valve 29.6. umbo narrowly swollen. lateral areas. the swelling continued anteriorly. Abundant in Composita zone. . Sulcus . width 43.3.N. at the extremity.5.0. width 41. length 44. with steep slopes to the margins. 8o6z 8o6g. an- moderately but broadly convex. 115517).5. 115519. 806c.N. No. width 37. No.2. No. length of brachial valve 44. defined by fairly abrupt folding of anterolateral extremities.0. round.S. thickness 32.M. 2 SPONGES. loc. rarer in Spiriferellina zone. width length of brachial valve 31. thickness 21. 36. anterior to the beak. thickness 27.S. U.6.6. No. 8o6r.) length 49. Nos. 806k. Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile with the umbonal region just anterior to the terior profile umbo forming the most convex part . 115519). paratypes (U. Umbonal region strongly swollen. unfigured paratypes U. U.G.N. — — 8o6h'. .7. Tongue moderately long. originating about lO mm. — COOPER 57 file Beak suberect line of sulcus moderately convex but with the median portion gently sulcate. Flanks gently swollen especially in and posterolateral Interior. 115591. swollen. Foramen small. protruding posterior to the posterior margin. thickness 25.M.5. ETC. BRACHIOPODA.3. Measurements mm. 115516. This species attains the largest size of any known Composita and occurs in countless numbers in the Monos Hills particularly in the Composita zone. 806k'. 115516). length 48.N. I. width 47. Flanks moderately convex. 115518). hinge plate small. (U. Horizon and locality. 38. 115518.S. thickness 20. length 51.M. figured paratypes. rare in Dictyoclostus zone.0.8. 115521.G. in Spiral coils forming abruptly ex- panding.4.. loc.M.M. 8o6f Discussion. Holotype.5. —Holotype. (U. (I. No. 5520). width 45.5?. 115522. loc. length of brachial valve. width 29. confined to this zone but is It is not quite rare to common in other parts of the .S. No.6. imperforate. supported septa. 8o6x. 115517. 8o6p. 1 1 (U. length of brachial valve 42.7?.3. 8o6b. by short Socket ridges prominent.N.M. length of brachial valve 41. 8o6h.0. The abundance of the species is the — reason for naming this most useful key zone of the area.

this species has some of the features of C.98 and 1.. This species is based on a single specimen figured in lateral view only. which ap- pears to be quite considerable. The most extreme length/width is ratio recorded is 0. Recovery of good specimens from the very difficult. grandis. by virtue of greater thickness. width 45 mm. plana are correct the length/ falls well width ratio of his species fold is without that of C. One is C.27. thickness 40 mm. such as the deeply impressed line in the sulcus of the pedicle valve. hill true also of the abundant compositas that can be found in a east of the zone not far above the Anidanthus zone in the low Moreno house. Measurements given are Length 60 mm. The length/width ratio in this species indicated by the corrected length : is well within the range of this ratio in C. prolific is is The species as described herein it fairly well-preserved specimens. Three other comparable species of Composita are known. A paratype figured by Branson indicates a nearly circular specimen.). (this measure taken from the illustration is 51 mm. consists chiefly in aberrations in the length/width ratio. The indicated in the description as steep and prominent and partially . Although crushed. plana. and measurements of the holotype of C. Composita gigantea. Actually sufficient material to based on about 40 was not possible to obtain show the full variation of the species. Specimens occurring in considerable abundance in features that will distinguish the Dictyoclostus zone at the show no This is Moreno house are poorly preserved but them from higher specimens. Some of the variation is is undoubtedly due to distortion subsequent to burial but this not true of two of the aberrant paratypes which are very well preserved. Branson's figure thus reveals the brachial valve to be strongly and evenly convex with a steep anterior slope and the maximum convexity at the middle. is called C. also described by Branson. grandis. Branson from the Phosphoria formation of Wyoming. grandis. This zone may be a part of the Dictyoclostus zone Coinposita zone but the point has not yet been settled. The second comparable species.5 mm. II9 Monos formation.58 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. on the other hand. The length/width ratio varies between 0. The variation The majority of specimens are slightly longer than wide and a few fairly slender specimens are wider than long. presents a different lateral profile than that of C. if his Branson described this species as wider than long.94 but the specimen somewhat distorted.). the anterior slope is long and gentle and the maximum convexity is located just anterior to the umbo. grandis but the thickness is of C. gigantea far greater than that observed in the thickest of the its Mexican specimens (32. In the Mexican species. gigantea C.

NO. a mere remnant bordering the very wide. terior An- margin narrowly rounded. These features do not appear on Branson's species suggests C. that would differentiate them as a species. . His in being proportionally wider. the anterior portion of the valve being extended anterodorsally as a short. the greatest convexity located in umbonal region. Flanks rounded and steep in the posterolateral regions but somewhat flattened and much less steep in the anterolateral areas bounding the sulcus. figures 1-23 Shell of about medium size for the genus. Meek identified as Athyris roissyi L'fiveille. but smooth or with concentric growth varices where intact. in a generally smaller size. species differs from C. flat to per- ceptibly concave in profile. which the third species comparable to C. ETC. Umbo narrowly swollen. Pedicle valve with unequally convex lateral profile. Posterior margins broadly but unevenly rounded. and the foramen is larger than that of C. narrowly rounded tongue. —COOPER is 59 C. 2 SPONGES. short. new species Plate 19A. mira (Girty). Anterior commissure gently but narrowly uniplicate. ing a narrower fold at the anterior. grandis. fuller. protruding slightly posterior to the nearly straight posterior margin. Brachial valve gently but unevenly convex. Specimens of Composita taken from the Spiriferellina zone are generally smaller than those found in the Composita zone but no features were discovered. Beak incurved. grandis is longer. other than size. The name Composita mira is based on specimens collected from the Phosphoria formation during the 40th Parallel Survey by Clarence King which F. B. Sulcus scarcely defined. the swelling continued anteriorly to about the middle. Greatest width located at or posterior to the middle. the greater curvature in the posterior half giving a shouldered appearance to the shell. Beak small. Girty renamed these specimens. the anterior half flattened to barely perceptibly concave. the greatest convexity located in the posterior half. Surface where exfoliated marked by fine radial threads most conspicuous on the flanks. BRACHIOPODA. grandis in hav- and Furthermore the beak region of C. Interarea narrow. grandis. mira. overhanging the delthyrium. PSEUDOMARTINIA MARTlNEZI Cooper. Anterior profile broadly convex. bifurcated near the margin. elongate ovate to sub- rhomboidal in outline with the length slightly greater than the width. Umbo a moderately narrow fold. open delthyrium. narrowly swollen and extended anteriorly as Flanks bounding fold steep.

Holotype. U. No. Measurements mm. —Holotype. length 23. U.3.G. —This is not a common species in the Composita zone but a few fine specimens were found after considerable search. I.5.N.S. length of brachial valve 17.2. Some of the speci- mens show unweathered portions except for concentric growth lines. not equaling the greatest width which is located near the middle. — — 8o6r.S.4. having a more slender indistinct linear depression mentioned by Girty as occurring in the pedicle valve. length width 8.M.S.9.M.9.7.4.N. Nos. width of fold 8. species i Plate 20E. Surface fascicostellate .N.8. length 20. 115567c). length of brachial (U. thickness 9. Types. II9 Interior of pedicle valve without dental plates but with short oblique lamellae on each side of the delthyrial edge. shell Hinge straight. semielliptical in outline. paratypes: (U. fold . width 20. of the surface which are smooth This species differs in is very similar to Martinia rhomhoidalis Girty.1. length of brachial valve 19.6o SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. All the specimens are silicified but they must have been somewhat weathered before silicification took place because most of them show the fine radial lines of the interior portion of the shell. The Mexican species also tapers more anteriorly and has a much less prominent and much narrower brachial fold and consequently a narrower pedicle tongue. figures 25-27 Shell of about the usual size for the genus. width 18. figured paratypes.0. valve 8.2. ii5567a-c. Brachial interior short with obliquely flattened crural bases. thickness 6. wider than long with narrowly rounded lateral margins and inwardly sloping anterolateral margins. 1 15565. and wider gap between the pedicle and brachial beaks in lateral profile.S. No.9. 115567a). Anterior commissure and sulcus marked by subequal costellae not arranged in bundles. hinge width 6.M. 14. librarian of the Insti- tuto Geologico de Mexico. NEOSPIRIFER. Confined to the Composita zone. 8o6h. hinge width 10. Discussion.2. loc. ii5566a. thickness 12. The Mexican species somewhat more elevated pedicle beak.N. Horizon and locality. Flanks bounding sulcus marked by 3 or 4 distinct fascicles strongly developed in the posterior strongly uniplicate.M.8. No trace was seen of the occurs in the Capitan Formation in west Texas.2. Named in honor of Jesus Martinez in Portillo.b. hinge width 11. No. which lateral profile.M.

Umbo somewhat posterior margin . The specimens are most suggestive of N. narrowly rounded to subcarinate in section fold in- moderately strongly elevated above the flanks. King from the Leonard formation of the Glass Mountains. This length suggests that the species had a width of at least 80 mm. COOPER 6l and median regions but dying out in the anterior portions of the valves. None of the specimens is sufficiently entire to make complete measurements possible. No good specimens of this species were collected. originating at the umbo and continued anteriorly as a moderately long. and a strongly fasciculate surface. 2 SPONGES.N. acutely pointed tongue. Rare in the Dictyoclostus zone. E. Pedicle valve moderately convex in lateral profile sulcus broad and deep. Interarea moderately long. flated Flanks somewhat and with moderately steep slopes to the margins. Nos. Melting of the fascicles into the general convexity of the valves in an anterior direction that of the is a feature of N. lateral margins. Measurements. U. Horizon and locality. Flanks bounding sulcus moderately narrowly rounded with moderate slopes to the cardinal extremities and . figure 28 Among formation the is unnamed species of brachiopods found in the Monos Moreno a large Neospirifer represented by two fragmentary pedicle valves found in the Dictyoclostus zone just west of the . anterior profile broadly convex. Fascicles generally composed of 3 to 5 costellae. 115496a. hakeri. BRACHIOPODA.M. even in its deformed state. narrowly pointed. ETC.G. The few fragmentary individuals found indicate a large Neospirifer characterized by a moderately deep sulcus in the pedicle valve.. The Monos species thus combines features of the two Texas species but better specimens will have to be found before a correct identification is possible. Brachial valve moderately convex in lateral profile and with the maximum convexity at the middle fold originating . curved . anterior margin. a very large brachiopod. terior half of the valve but — — — The fasciculae are strongest in the pos- became lost anterior to the middle.S. This species is characterized by the strong bundling of innumerable costellae but the fasciculation appears to extend to the margins of the valves according to King's figures. 806k. Figured specimens. beak incurved. species 2 Plate 20F. I.M. One specimen has a length of nearly 50 mm.NO. — Discussion. 1 15498. loc. NEOSPIRIFER. narrowly swollen and protruding posterior to the on the umbo and extending to the . which is like Mexican specimens. costellus R.

new species Plate 19C. indicate an unusually large brachiopod with fairly strong costae for the genus. Interarea unusually narrow.M. — Specimens mostly fragmentary. with short gentle slopes to the cardinal extremities. Brachial valve moderately convex in lateral profile and broadly convex in anterior profile. figured U. dental plates strong . No other species quite like this one has yet been described. moderately swollen and with gentle slopes to the margins. slender ridge. figures 28-35 Specimens incomplete and poorly preserved of medium size for and width probably subequal lateral margins gently curved hinge wide. No. slightly less than the greatest shell width cardinal extremities slightly greater than a right angle. length . The interarea is short and strongly curved an incurved beak overhangs the open delthyrium. — SPIRIFERELLA? SCOBINOIDEA Cooper. costae broadly rounded. Figured specimen. Crest of flanks marked by 2 strong costae flanks somewhat narrowly rounded. . . with 3 to 5( ?) costae. the genus. Surface costate. teeth small . . SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. I. separated by narrowly rounded. . strongly incurved beak. increase in costae by bifurcation. steep anteriorly. The flanks are moderately convex but the umbonal slopes are steep.62 house. Umbo narrowing rapidly to form the narrow. Flanks depressed below the fold. Interior of pedicle valve with deep delthyrial cavity usually filled with callus . — loc. located anterior to the dental plates narrow . in —Holotype. anterior commissure uniplicate. 8o6k. Pedicle valve with unevenly convex lateral profile. separated by a low. and occupied by 2 strong costae bifurcated from the bounding costae. IIQ The two specimens . Umbonal region gently swollen. costae . with steep lateral slopes in the posterior but becoming less .G. strongly curved. apsacline.M. Sulcus originating on the umbo with a very narrow groove which continues to the anterior sulcus broad and shallow anteriorly from the umbo vaulted. Dictyoclostus zone. deep furrows often less than half the width of the . The costae are strong and bifurcated or trifurcated but with little bundling. mm.N. . muscular area elongatediductor scars long and ovate. The sulcus originated some distance anterior to the beak and is broad and shallow. 115491. Interarea short. the greatest curvature occurring in the umbonal region.S. not greatly ele- vated above the flanks. Measurements Types. Fold narrow. adductor impressions long and slender. Anterior profile strongly Umbonal region timiid and with steep umbonal slopes. a reflection of the inflated umbo. paratypes. Horizon and locality.

G. a narrow groove extends short distance anteriorly a costa from the umbo to the margin of the specimens (which are incomplete) but 2 large costae appear on the slopes of the sulcus. . and broad costae separated by very narrow species is No first-rate specimens were found although fragmentary specimens are quite numerous. wide. Cooper showed that the American Mississippian specimens so referred actually were unrelated to Spiriferella and proposed a new name for them. ETC. largely based on the belief that S.M. 63 U.S. The Nevada species scobinoidea differs from the has a wide. silicified. The exterior of scobina from the Permian of Nevada is covered by minute granules and is thus placed in Spiriferella. particularly Like S.S. Although the Mexican specimens show none of these granules because the specimens are the broad costae. the Mexican species costae but 5". —This species is characterized by striae. Spiriferella of the Permian was shown to be an impunctate genus characterized by a peculiar external ornamentation as well as having certain internal characters. posterior contains a prominent The less fold at the median costa and a conspicuous one on each side. The anterior portion of the pedicle valve and the brachial valve were much thinner than the posterior of the pedicle valve and were damaged or not preserved. In the Mexican species on the other hand.M. 2 SPONGES. In the posterior scobina the sulcus is occupied by a single costa but in a is implanted on each side of the primary one.M unfigured paratype. . 6^.N. strong. This is a common condition in spiriferoids from all parts of the Paleozoic. BRACHIOPODA. difficult because is it is The assignment very 6". U. and of ornamentation are quite distinctive. Nos. ii5492a. — COOPER loc.NO. locality. scohinoidea is closely related to scohhm (Meek). The fold thus appears to have 3 costae only.b. No. The much thickened in the posterior portion of the pedicle valve which is the only part that abundant and well preserved. its 8o6m. region of 5". At the front of the holotype 5 costae appear in the sulcus. shallow sulcus and a broad. The genus Spiriferella until recently was not recognized in North American Permian deposits but was identified in the Mississippian of the Mississippi Valley. The exterior feature of importance is a fine granulation S'.N. I. scobina. Generic assignment of this species was also not a well-known type in North America. they are assigned to Spiriferella because of other similarities to scobina. Horizon and 8o6n. low fold. Discussion. that covers the entire external surface. is characterized by coarse much less the details Nevada species in being a robust form with much more arched umbonal region. 115492c. —Confined is to the Anidanthus zone.

8o6i Dictyoclostus zone. Median 2 costae separated by a narrow furrow of about the same width as the bounding costae. SPIRIFERELLA. gently convex. King from the Word formation in the Glass Mountains of Texas. the specimens are inadequate to establish a new species. Elivina. Horizon and Discussion. to locality. Figured specimens. That species is provided with a broad fold and with broad subangular costae. but slightly elevated above the level of the larger costae on the flanks of the fold. I.M.G. . species 2 Plate 20A. 8o6n. separated by subangular troughs of equal dimensions except for the median furrow which is wider and deeper than the others and serves as a median sulcus.b. Brachial valve gently convex in lateral profile. . — — loc. 806k. —This species will not be confused with any other sugges- spiriferoid occurring in the Monos formation. E. Nos. ii5493a. low. —Too imperfect measure. Figured specimen. Median 2 costae of fold subparallel. — Lower part of the Leiorhynchoidea-Canloc. Anidanthus zone. species i VOL. Dimensions. tapering to a small. Hinge narrow. figures 24-27 Three fragmentary specimens represent an undescribed species of Spiriferella. Flanks depressed below the broad fold.64 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS SPIRIFERELLA.S. crinella zone. is The specimen indicates another species that probably new. . IIQ Plate 19B. Horizon and locality. loc. small umbonal region anterior profile broadly Hinge narrow . having ornamentation much is like that of the type species of Spiriferella. It is strongly tive of the Spirifer (Elivina) sulcifer Shumard identified by R. figures 1-3 A is large but imperfect specimen with valves injured at the anterior referred doubtfully to this genus. with a swollen but and gently convex. It is also strongly papillose on the exterior. is The latter name the older one and used here in preference to Fredericks's name. median 4 costae elevated strongly above lateral 2 and forming a very broad fold. Umbonal region nar- row and convex. Pedicle valve gently convex in both profiles marked by six strong subangular plications. interarea short and curved.N. —U. strongly incurved beak that overhangs a convex pseudodeltidium.M.

9.. No. fold of pedicle valve at anterior to anterior to the flanks. —Figured. width of fold lobe 9. Prof. p. —Spiriferellina zone. with an elongate-oval outline and greatest width at or near the middle biconvex lateral margins broadly rounded and anterior margin nar. Shell substance punctate. Hustedia meekana Shumard. Louis. 8o6w. 11. Hypotypes. Surv. moderately long.S. form a distinct lobe protruding Flanks of brachial valve narrowly rounded. width of fold lobe 7. 395. ibid. loc. p. length hinge width 4.1. length of brachial valve 12.S. figures 16-24 Retcia(f) Meckana Shumard. median costa and furrow which are slightly Usually marked by 9 costae on brachial valve and 10 on pedicle valve.N. Measurements hinge width in mm. 115557c). beak ridges sharply defined and bounding a curved.N.M. length of brachial valve 12. width 12. 2 SPONGES. angular tongue meeting the enlarged median costa of the opposite valve.N. 11. 394.h.3 14.N. 58. BRACHIOPODA. p. 115557b). 1909. Horizon and locality. 8o6i. Acad.. Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone.3. consequently the "lirae" occurring in the . —Hypotypes: width . U. Anterior commissure serrate. unfigured. slightly longer than wide.M.M. Median fold meeting opposite steep lateral slopes. Geo!. Beak incurved. I. 806b. Large for the genus. Trans. 806s. 115557a.7.9. thickness 10.9?. Retzia Meekiana Sci.c. length 14. Median costa generally perceptibly depressed below the 2 on each side of it. 295. 15558. 8o6f. costae angular. thickness 9. Median four costae slightly elevated and forming an indistinct fold. ETC.2.4. ii5557b. — COOPER 65 HUSTEDIA MEEKANA (Shumard) Plate 20D. (U. St. 1859. Flanks narrowly rounded and with very steep sides. Median 3 costae elevated above the others and forming an ill-defined fold.3. Nos. No. U. Girty. sides almost perpendicular. (U. 8o6g. triangular region formed by the symphytium. round. Pedicle valve gently to moderately convex in lateral profile.M. rectimarginate. mesothyrid. Shumard.4. Surface costate. i. separated by furrows equal in width and depth to the costae except for the larger than their fellows. 8o6y. Discussion. S. rowly rounded. ya. 8o6d'. Nos. U.M. Pap. pi. Foramen small. 8o6h-. very Median sulcus narrow and deep with a short. figs. vol. NO. —None is of the specimens in the collections from the Monos Hills exfoliated.S. 1 loc.S.3. Brachial valve slightly more convex than the pedicle valve in lateral profile and slightly more rounded in anterior profile but with equally gently convex in anterior profile but with sides abrupt. 4.G. 1859. subequal in depth.

Anterior lobe Interior not formed by folds not extending far known. anterior margin broadly nasute. 115560a).N. No. tions HUSTEDIA MEEKANA PLICATELLA Cooper.N. pi.1.2. length 13.M. U. Brachial valve with in- distinct fold of 3 costae elevated slightly above the flanks.N. a narrower hinge. This variety differs from the species H. length of brachial valve 10. figs. 115560b.3. hinge width 3. width 11.S. species are almost identical to those of the flgured specimen of . locality. yet the subspecies has more numerous costae and therefore a different disposition of the costae although the basic pattern of H. longer than wide and with longitudinally suboval outline lateral margins broadly rounded. anteriorly. Measitrements in mm. —Holotype.6.M.6. It will be noticed that the measurements of the holotype of the sub- H. the deepest but tongue not much lengthened. 115560a. The number and arrangment of the plications are like these features in specimens described by Girty. thickness 9. U.— Holotype. ocDiscussion. paratype (U. width of fold lobe 7.?. and Cloud. The narrower hinge also lends the specimen a much more slender appearance although the measurements are almost identical to those of H. meekana. meekana (Shumard). This is true also of the specimens figured by Cloud from Las Delicias. 115559. No.6. width of U.6. Median furrow costae 4 . are not revealed. meekana. No.3. costae angular and separated by angular furrows of equal size. length 14.S.2. Pedicle valve with profiles like those of the species and with median elevated above the flanks to form a low fold. new subspecies Plate 20C. length of brachial valve 12. The Monos specimens however agree well with the published descrip- and figures of H. curring higher in the Spiriferellina zone. Fairly common in the Leiorhynchoidea-CanHorizon and fold lobe 5 plus.M.66 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. figures 6-15 Shell of about medium size for the genus and species. more numerous and more crowded costae. thickness 8. in the possession of somewhat — more angular costae. 42. meekatia. loc. No.S. King. meekatm is preserved.8. hinge width 3. a less lobate anterior margin and less flaring flanks. II9 troughs between the phcations as I'eported by Girty. 38a-38c) but attain a somewhat larger size. Surface costate.M. Costae numbering 14 on the pedicle valve and 13 on the brachial valve. unfigured paratype. The Monos specimens are very close to those figured by King from the Word formation of the Glass Mountains (1930. width 11. figured paratype.8.S. Ty/)^.N. — crinella zone. 8o6i.

margins gently curved . fairly deep. Interarea long. ing 1 1 . 4. broadly U-shaped in section and extended anteriorly Costae bounding the sulcus slightly elevated above the others flanks narrowly convex and with steep slopes to the margins. Anterior profile broadly convex. suboval in outline and with the length and width about equal. figures 7-12 Shell fairly large for the genus. Surface costate costae numberon the brachial valve.9. . Umbonal region full and extending posterior to the posterior into a long bluntly pointed tongue. differs in its narrowly compressed. Flanks very narrow. figures Shell of about medium size for the genus. beak strongly incurved. thickness width of fold lobe 7. Costae Surface costate. PUNCTOSPIRIFER CONVEXUS Cooper. Entire surface very finely punctate. Measurements in mm. from H. slightly rounded fold protruding anteriorly from . Pedicle valve not well preserved but flanks narrow and steep. — Holotype. the crowded costae.M. length of brachial valve 12.2. with the length about if times the width. — COOPER new 5 dj HUSTEDIA ELONGATA Cooper.0. Brachial valve fairly strongly convex in lateral profile with the . meekana —This species locality. six costae. anterior margin medianly emarginate. loc. the beak short and incurved. length 15. //o/ofy/^^. crowded. BRACHIOPODA. gently curved . NO. new species Plate 21B. Anterior commissure uniplicate. Brachial valve with narrow swollen umbo forming most convex part in lateral profile anterior profile narrowly convex. 8o6d.. Delthyrium elongate. width 9.N. 2 SPONGES. the flanks slightly. open. Hinge narrow. flanks marked by slightly less marked by regular zigzag lamellae than a millimeter apart. Pedicle valve fairly strongly convex in lateral profile with the um- bonal region having the greatest convexity. Lateral margins very gently rounded anterior margin narrowly rounded. No. narrowly rounded. lateral Posterior margins gently concave. —Upper part of Spiriferellina zone. margin. ETC.0. hinge ?.S. elongate-oval outline. Median 5 costae forming a low. 11 5556. elongate-oval. rounded and nearly vertical. Horizon and Discussion.1. species Plate 2oB. width 3.—U. Median 3 costae a little more crowded and slightly elevated above the lateral 2 of the fold. Sulcus originating at the beak. and the fold consisting of 5 costae.

1909. Surface costate. 66. Horizon and loc. somewhat flattened at the cardinal .).8 paratype (I. Flanks flatly extremities. with the small beak overhanging the delthyrium. 3042. figs. Interarea short. 1930.0?. pi. p.N. Geol. 58. 52. S. 21. 115495.9. Ges. Somewhat rhomboidal in outline with straight posterior margin and inwardly sloping but gently con- vex lateral margins. ssh.9. length of brachial — valve 17. wid- ening gradually anteriorly from the beak but only attaining a little more than a third the width of the valve. Surv. with the hinge forming the widest part.9. In its ornamentation this but this is group of Punctospirifer billing si a much smaller form. length 24. 7-1 1. Abh.G.M. Heft 4. 63. slightly wider than long. —This species best recognized by valves with their zigzag. 377.7. hinge width (based on measured half width of 10. Soc. Cloud. 492. Pap.6. distant punctae. Measurements in mm. length 20 plus. Surface marked by coarse. figs. thickness 19. midwidth 24. 16. 8o6i. 19 14. "Spiriferina" laxa Girty. 42. King. the fourth costa very small. Prof. Geo!. midwidth 23.0. ing anteriorly but never becoming wider than the costae immediately bounding it.4.M. locality. its strongly convex numerous very fine Discussion. thickness 15. width of fold 8. E. width of fold Types. Pedicle valve gently convex in lateral profile and broadly convex in anterior profile. 38. Brachial valve unequally convex in lateral profile.S. 7a-c. deepening and widenconvex. figures 1-6 Spiriferina laxa Girty. R. Holotype. Deutsch. Zeitschr. p. Geol. with four costae marking the flanks. p. M. gently curved beak incurved gently.. Sulcus originating at the beak. p. Fold fairly strongly elevated above swollen and convex flanks. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. pi.5) 21. U. 122. figs. I. Shell of about medium size for the genus. pi. U. Anterior nasute.G. Spiriferina haarmanni Haack.3. Fold narrowly rounded. Pap. 7. curved. unfigured paratype. —Holotype. Interior unknown. II9 greatest curvature in the posterior half.68 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. the median por- . Texas Bull. distant lamellae and the punctations on the outside of the species belongs to the shell. Amer. length of brachial valve .. Univ. Spiriferina laxa Girty. 1944. SPIRIFERELLINA LAXA (Girty) Plate 21A. Spec. No.5. Slopes to margins steep. vol. —Upper is Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. hinge width 17. Interarea long.

2. Dictyoclostus zone. E. Hypotypes. figures 26-29 Shell large for the genus. haarmanni which R. Measurements in mm. 2 SPONGES.M. the irregular. Reference to Spiriferellina is based on form and ornamentation. COOPER 69 tion moderately convex.N.2.N. I. Sulcus moderately deep.M. No. U. sulcus with 2 secondary costae and often a third median one. umbonal region flattened and the anterior Anterior profile forming a broad triangle with the fold at the center. 8o6i. This species is elsewhere reported from the Word formation in the Glass Mountains of Texas and from the Permian area of Las Delicias. BRACHIOPODA. Flanks Zigzag marked by 4 developed.. growth lamellae Large papillae scattered over the surface.2. two of them probably the young of the larger one. King has demonstrated are synonyms.S. No. last 4 of which are fine. Surface costate. costae broadly subangular. Umbonal region full. separated by angular furrows of about the same width as the costae. 806k' — length of brachial valve 12.0. Fold originating at the beak. Interior of the pedicle valve with stout fills median septum that partially the delthyrial cavity. loc. Coahuila. 1 15490. — SPIRIFERELLINA SONORENSIS Cooper. Hypotype (U. Leio- rhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. 806k. new species Plate 21C. plate 22D.8) 19. loc. narrow. extending posteriorly beyond the posterior margin. width of fold 4. anterior margin truncate.S. figures 13-27. or 3 costae appearing near the laterally into long middle and extending to the anterior margin.M. laxa and S. length midwidth 16. Three specimens are referred to this species. Interarea moderately long. Flanks gently convex and usually extended . — — . Pedicle valve evenly convex in lateral profile and quite evenly but broadly convex in anterior profile.G. NO.3. which are flattened in profile with gentle slopes to the margins. These specimens agree in most respects with specific descriptions of 5". the part gently convex. width almost twice the length . narrow and quite strongly elevated above the surrounding flanks. with cardinal extremities flattened i. Fold with a secondary costa on each side to at the anterior half . narrowly curved. cardinal extremities strongly mucronate . 8 costae. sloping medially. hinge width (based on half width of 9. ETC. 1 15490). faint or poorly Shell substance coarsely but densely punctate. 16. deepening and widening anteriorly to the front margin. lateral margins slightly concave to straight. Anterior com- missure strongly uniplicate.6. Discussion. Sulcus originating on the umbo. Horizon and locality.

8o6s. stout crural bases having strong socket ridges and deep sockets. pulchra the Mexican species less . 70 points. which strongly is to the umbo and elevated strongly above the flanks with a Fold narrowly rounded secondary plication developed on each side from the middle of the valve to the anterior margin. Umbonal region curved and protruding slightly posterior to the posterior margin. Holotype. Brachial valve in lateral profile Interior of pedicle valve with well-developed apical callosity. 8o6k. — In the field this species is was at first mistaken for S.S. VOL. Compared with cus of S.b. loc. jugum extending at right its angles from the descending lamellae toward the pedicle valve. 8o6f. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Tongue short. Measurements in mm. 806k'. 1 15489. overhanging the delthyrium. Idaho. 11 5485. acutely pointed. Beak small. Teeth slender. The Mexican specimens are characterized by their laterally extended latter species and often mucronate form and the accessory costae appearing on the fold and in the sulcus. loc. it.6. 1 15486. U. 8o6c. Discussion. 8o6x common in — — . 8o6h rare in Dictyoclostus zone. Cardinal process with elongate myoabsent. figured paratypes. end turned abruptly in a posteropedicle direction. rising anteriorly to a sharp crest near the middle Median ridge and sloping Diductor scars long. thickness 16. width 51. midwidth 32. usually not flush with the delthyrial edge but sunken below abruptly anteriorly from the crest. Comparison with the type specimen of the made it clear that the Mexican form is totally different. strong.M. Interior of brachial valve with small. The sulbroader and somewhat deeper than that of S. and Nevada.6. the Spiriferellina zone. 8o6d'.M..S. iiS487a-c. —Holotype. ii5488a.N. 8o6d. pulchra Meek which abundant in the Phosphoria formation in Wy- oming. 8o6b. II9 Beak strongly incurved and overhanging the moderately wide delthyrium. flatly to moderately convex anterior curved. pulchra 6'. Flanks gently convex near the fold but becoming gently concave posterolaterally toward the cardinal extremities. U. moderately deeply sunk in the umbonal cavity and extending anterior to the ends of the dental plates. Nos. width of fold 8.6. Descending lamellae phore buttressed by callus.3.N. Types. Anterior profile broadly convex. I. length of brachial valve 17.2 equals hinge width (based on measured half-width of 25. buttressed by short but thick dental plates.M. Median ridge of spire reaching the middle of the valve. length 21. loc.6). Horizon and locality.G. Rare in the Composita zone.1. costate with broader is and is more strongly numerous costae on the flanks. 8o6p. No.

very narBrachial rowly convex and with valve steep. Two specimens of is sides of the sulcus or in the trough. sharp Interior of pedicle valve with well-developed. BRACHIOPODA. Umbo narrowly the pedicle valve.o. length of brachial valve ii. HETERELASMA CONTRERASI Cooper. S. —Holotype.0. narrow tongue. new species Plate 22F. Brachial valve with short. Musculature median septum extending nearly the full unknown. No. Surface marked by growth lines and growth varices only. thickness 8. . absent loop long. strongly curved in lateral profile with the and umbonal regions anbroad U. Measurements mm. wider than that of the Mexican pulchra somewhat which in is fold sides.0 paratypes : (U. Umbonal region flattened to gently concave. 1 15508).4. the umbo of the brachial valve. strong. thickness .6. Anterior quarter extended toward the brachial valve in a long. low. length 14.M. the Mexican species preserve coarse pustules 6^. round. figures 30-45. width of fold at anterior 6. sharply rounded or flattened depending on age. National Museum preserve no such ornament.0. width 10. Anterior commissure strongly uniplicate. NO. on the surface but the dozen specimens of pulchra in the U. 2 sonorensis and SPONGES. beak incurved. undivided hinge plate median septum and a . the concavity extending anteriorly into a broad sulcus that deepens anteriorly. subparallel dental plates. Beak ridges Brachial valve gently and evenly convex in lateral profile . length of the valve. Pedicle valve shallow. small. Foramen small. length 14. plate 23 A. cryptonellif orm. Another distinction is without plication its and any on species between the two species is in the ornamentation. overhanging greatest curvature located in the posterior terior profile a very .N. with descending processes flaring laterally in a broad curve and the transverse ribbon forming a narrow in posteriorly directed curve. longitudinally elliptical in outline with Posterior margin a broad curve margins gently rounded anterior margin narrowly rounded to subtruncate. Sides nearly flat. with much deeper than swollen . entirely without — COOPER JJ any trace of plication either on the The same may be said of the 5*.6. Beak strongly incurved. descending steeply to the margins. ETC. flat sides in anterior profile. . width 12. median region swollen into a narrow fold. .S.4. mesothyrid. long. figures 1-3 Of lateral usual size for the genus. punctate. 9.. Shell substance finely the length greater than the width.

figured paratypes. Named honor of Prof. No.S.3. figure 25 The illustration of the loop of Heterelasma is introduced here to supplement the partial structures figured for H.6. .N. width of fold at anterior 7. Girty's species has never been well understood and the loop was unknown until the writer was fortunate in securing a perfect loop in a specimen etched out of a piece of Word limestone. 1 15507. Nos. 8o6b. U. U. This cryptonelliform loop and the fragmentary one preserved in one of the Monos specimens confirms this fundamental feature of Heterelasma.M. 8o6w. Heterelasma contrcrasi differs from H. Types.72 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.S. The poor preservation of Girty's specimen has many Hills features of Glossothyropsis in doubt. Confined to the lower part of — the Spirifer- ellina zone. width of fold at anterior 5. loc.M.M. length 14.M. one of the most distinctive species occurring in the make Monos forma- Heterelasma shumardianum Girty is the only other species of this genus so far described although it occurs at several levels in the Glass Mountains of Texas. 8o6h2. 4 miles northeast of Hess Ranch.4. —The peculiar form. Discussion. length of brachial valve 12. width 10. U.0. Genus GLOSSOTHYROPSIS Girty canthia This genus was erected by Girty to care for the species Crypta? robusta which differed from Cryptacanthia in possessing a left median septum. thickness '^. HETERELASMA species Plate 22E. 8o6f 8o6g. Horizon and locality.M.S.G. 1. (I. Holotype. 123297.0.y. deeply sulcate pedicle valve and narrowly folded brachial valve this tion. Figured specimen. II9 length of brachial valve 12.N. — — Texas. 8o6d'. contrerasi. Francisco Contreras of the Instituto Geologico de Mexico. 3).3. Word formation (lower part of limestone No.N. Hess Canyon Quadrangle. longitudinally elliptical outline. Some of these uncertain characters are definitely revealed in the specimens from the Monos and it is now possible to prepare a better definition of the genus. — No. a more shouldered appearance and in lacking the dis- but short sulcus on the brachial valve which in such an important feature of the Texas species. Horizon and locality.). . 115509. 115508.G. shumardianum is in a some- what larger tinct size.

gently concave. COOPER y^ silicate Glossothyropsis. Brachial valve shallower than the pedicle valve. length and width nearly equal. flattened crest . . Shell substance finely punctate. Interior of pedicle valve with strong dental plates brachial interior with strong median septum. convex in posterior but narrowing and becoming more convex anteriorly. . Surface without any other ornament than growth lines. the length slightly greater than the width. to strongly incurved. Interior of pedicle valve with moderately long. broadly U-shaped in profile. overhanging the umbo of the pedicle valve. Foramen small. Anterior commissure deeply sulcate. Anterior profile broadly convex. Posterior margins slightly convex . —Terebratuloid brachiopods. narrowly sullateral profile cate medially and with plicae bounding sulcus narrow.. BRACHIOPODA. undivided hinge plate and long. . where pronounced. indenting the anterior margin. posterolateral extremities broadly . . with strongly Foramen mesothyrid. GLOSSOTHYROPSIS MAGNA Cooper. 2 SPONGES. figures 4-26 Shell large for the genus. deltidial plates forming a symphytium. cryptonelliform loop. NO. Anterior to middle of fold often sulcate sulcus shallow and. Sulcus deepening and widening gradually anteriorly. Interior of brachial valve with moderately long and well-elevated. Beak ridges prominent and extending anteriorly as a narrow fold to the rounded lateral shoulder. gently convex in with an abrupt curvature toward the pedicle valve in the anterior quarter. Pedicle valve unevenly convex in lateral profile. to narrowly rounded and lending a distinct shoulder to the shell lateral margins nearly straight to gently convex. Flanks bounding sulcus gently slightly swollen. anterior commissure. Umbonal region Sulcus originating at varying distances from the beak but usually 3 to 4 mm. mesothyrid . Tongue short and with truncated extremity. sloping toward the middle anterior margin nearly straight to deeply reentrant. ETC. Umbonal region narrowly swollen and extended forward as a rapidly widening fold. Beak erect strongly convex. or with Outline subpentagonal. and separated from the flanks by the cleft fold which forms narrowly rounded bounding plicae. narrow median septum hinge plate undivided ( ?) anchylosed with the expanded median septum dental plates . new species Plate 23B. Flanks steep-sided. the median region gently convex but the anterior and posterior quarters moderately to Anterior profile narrowly convex with rounded to and steeply sloping sides. slightly divergent musculature unknown.

length of brachial valve 17. width of sulcus of brachial valve ca. thickness 12. thickness 8.M. Anterior commissure narrowly uniplicate. like that of Cryptonella. I. strongly lateral profile. 115527-115529. shallow. width 12. narrow groove in the median region and extending anteriorly to the front margin. 8o6f. length width of sulcus of brachial valve 5. width of sulcus of brachial valve 6. 8o6h2. width of sulcus of brachial valve 6.8. proportionately more strongly convex and more convex brachial valve. thickness 13. types: stored) (U.8. . loc. . length unknown. figured paratypes. Pedicle valve moderately and evenly curved in lateral profile terior profile broadly . width of sulcus in fold ca. loc. Flanks bounding sulcus well rounded and .M. (U.N. rare in the Spiriferellina zone. new species Plate 22C. pedicle fold 10. No. 8o6g. ii553ia. U.b. Brachial valve with an almost straight. 8o6h.6.o. greatest thickness at about the middle. Musculature 19. .6. — 11 5526. 8o6g'. . length 20.M. 14.9.N. width of brachial valve 17. Foramen large. DIELASMA FLORESI Cooper. Sulcus deepest at the anterior margin and forming a faint. thickness 11. 4.0. Umbonal region narrowly swollen and convex median region gently swollen median sulcus originating as a faint. II 5527). 8o6i.S. figures 12-24 Shell of about medium size for the genus. Common in the Composita zone. suboval. loc. —The only known comparable species is is Glossothyropsis rohusta Girty which much smaller species having a subcircular pedicle valve.5. Types. 8. Horizon and locality. width of pedicle fold lo. 2. with steep slopes. No.5. ii5530a-c. Surface without any other ornament than growth lines and growth varices. width 17. Nos.M.8.7. 115531b). U.G. an- and gently convex. 806c.S.N.8. outline. 8o6y rare in the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. 8o6w. width of sulcus in fold 1 .S.4.2.S.0. length 20. IIQ at the posterior.5. No.N.0 para. longitudinally oval to subpentagonal in outline with the width equal to about two-thirds the length. —Holotype.5 (U. — a Discussion.7.M.unfigured paratype. barely perceptibly convex with a moderately strongly curved anterior profile. width (partially rewidth of 17.5. Loop in long. widening and deepening anteriorly. length 20. but labiate.5 15529). narrow subangular tongue.0. No.8. Measurements mm.S.M.N.74 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Greatest width at or near the middle . width of fold 12. Holotype. Valves subequal in depth.

DIELASMA cf. length 23. Median region gently convex and with Sides gently convex and with moderately steep slopes to the lateral margins. Sides moderately rounded anterior margin truncate. Brachial valve with moderately deep notothyrial cavity bounded by short plates supporting the crural bases. Length of loop unknown.). longitudinally elliptical. Foramen large.N. U.M. S. unfigured paratype. middle. labiate. producing a short. . 2 SPONGES.8. 331. Instituto Geologico de Mexico.M. and the deeply sulcate anterior half of the valve. 1909. Valves unequally convex. BRACHIOPODA. width 17. longer than wide with slender longitudinally ovate form. paratype (I. p. Horizon and Discussion.8. Surface smooth . locality. No.N. Geol. 16. Sulcus shallow and narrow.G. 115554. Interior of pedicle valve with short.3. Prof. 8o6g.M. U. . strong dental plates separated from the lateral walls by very narrow umbonal cavities. —Holotype. prolongatum Girty but differs in the more pentagonal outline. ETC. Pedicle valve strongly convex in lateral view with the greatest con- vexity located in the median region. —Holotype.3. Anterior commissure uniplicate. U. 1 U. D.S. and much shorter and shallower sulcus of the pedicle valve. 8o6f. — COOPER 75 Umbonal region somewhat narrowly convex. 15555. thickness 12. in mm. The species is most similar to D. figures 1-6 Diclasma prolongatum Girty. director. Shell of medium size for the genus. Named in honor of Dr.M. Pap. thickness 10.G.NO. Greatest width slightly anterior to the . with steep slopes. I. Measurements Types. length No. pi. shell substance punctate. Umbonal slopes steep and rounded. 115553. —This —Rare is in the Spiriferellina zone. figs. Surv. PROLONGATUM Girty Plate 22 A. figured paratypes. strongly . Anterolateral areas convex and lateral slopes. 5-Sc.S.S. width 14. 58. faintly defined fold in the anterior portion. species characterized by the nearly plane lateral profile of the brachial valve.7.N. the narrowed portion ex- tending to the small beak.0. Teodoro Flores. 21.M. the shouldered outline in brachial view. the pedicle valve having the greater convexity and consequently the greater depth. bluntly pointed tongue at the anterior. No. Anterior profile gently convex medianly but with steep narrowly convex Umbonal region elongated and median region moderately and somewhat narrowly convex and with the origin of a faint median sulcus.

anteriorly as Median region narrowly swollen. Hypotypes.5. ately strongly arched in anterior profile. Hypotype (U. 58. 17. Shell of medium size for the genus. Beak small. Horizon and locality. steep umbonal slopes.M. The folding similar to that in both species but the sulcus of the type specimen of D. length of brachial valve ca.5. Prof. elliptical.b. figures 7. figs. poorly defined fold.M. Beak and umbonal region elongated and narrow. Anterior commissure broadly uniplicate. IIQ in lateral profile. SPATULATUM Girty Plate 22B.5. poorly defined fold that plicates the front margin. 115551a). Geol. incurved. 330. DIELASMA cf. Discussion. Anterior profile very broadly and gently convex. floresi. Agreement with Girty's species is to be seen in the oval form which lacks any suggestion of the is shoulders occurring in D.S. Lateral and umbonal slopes moderately long and moderately steep. prolongatum seems and longer. pedicle valve deeper than the wide and with the greatest width in the anterior portion. thickness 10. U. S. deeper. width 13. prolongatum Girty.N. Umbonal area moderately median and is swollen.'J^) SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Brachial valve almost flat VOL. length — 20. loc. ii555ia. Surface smooth. Measurements in mm.3. . and overhanging the brachial umbo foramen of moderate size. — Only two specimens of species were found.N.11 Dielasma spatulatmn Girty. this These agree best with D. . U. 1909. lateral Umbonal slopes steep but and anterior slopes fairly gentle. pi. the swelling continued a low. longer than greatest convexity in the posterior half. strongly labiate.S. 8o6d'. No. p. to be broader. D. Median region gently convex but anterior flattened to form a broad and very ill-defined sulcate portion. Surv. Brachial valve just perceptibly convex in lateral profile but moder. The sulcus of the Mexican is speci- mens extends illustrated to the middle of the valve but never so deep. Nos. Pap. the swelling extending anteriorly through the anterior portions of the valve to the front margin which slightly elevated into a low. 16. Interior unknown. — —Spiriferellina zone. but strongly arched in anterior profile. 3-4C. Apical region fairly broad umbonal region moderately swollen with narrowly rounded. possibly because the specimens are somewhat younger examples than those by Girty. Pedicle valve somewhat unevenly convex in lateral profile with the brachial.

form of the and broadly Discussion. Nucula. —The slender locality. 2 SPONGES. . moreover. Only one locality. One species. BRACHIOPODA. Nevertheless the following have been seen. its true features may have been single specimen obliterated. and another from the Spiriferellina zone at 8o6f. Aviculopecten montpelierensis Girty. locality 8o6i. has yielded trace more than one or two of the hinges and are species.S. —Two specimens having with clearly affinities the Paleozoic pectenoids were taken.8. 8o6i. one. NO. — COOPER 1 'J'J Interior unknown. are rare in the Permian beds northeast of El Antimonio. Myalina. 8o6i. Pleurophorus species specimen is a small form seen at locality 806-0. All the specimens are too poorly preserved for description. 1 15552).4) 26. thickness 8. ellina —A small or juvenile species was taken from the Spiriferthis locality is zone at locality 8o6f Cyrtorostra. Pectinoid pelecypods. One specimen from the latter locality represents a narrowly triangular species and the other seven specimens represent a broadly They are. too poorly preserved to be sure of it that fact or its actual identity except that has the elongated form of this genus. PELECYPODA Invertebrate fossils. Horizon and —U. —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone.S. loc. except brachiopods. was taken from the Composite zone but the exact —A small but poorly preserved specimen of genus not known. Measurements in mm. The Mexican specimen differs from Girty's illustrated types in having a less well-defined fold on the pedicle valve but.. length 20. 3 species. No. from the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. No. . ETC. Most of the specimens show no difficult to identfy as to genus. all small and triangular forms. — Nine specimens are referred to three species of Nucula. profile spatulate found determined its reference to Girty's species. triangular form.N. 15552.M. smallest one. —Figured specimen (U. inasmuch as the specimen has suffered some crushing. greatest width (based on half measure of 13. Hypotype. It is The may be a juvenile. the was taken from the Spiriferellina locality 8o6f the other two species come from the Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone at locality 8o6i.N.9.M.

216.M. U.4. S. 1880. hinge line gently curved.8. Geol. Posterior margin terior narrowly rounded ventrally but gently rounded posterodorsally.M. 389. 115576a.N. Geol. swollen. Geol. S. 115576a). amygdaloidal to subbeaks small. . pressed. Terr. and Geogr.f. Bull.S. 1 15575. Surface marked by concentric lines and varices of growth. Branson.N. size for the genus. . Terr.M. figures 29-32 Nuciilana obesa White. pi. p. opisthogyrate . unfigured paratype. 115580b. somewhat narrower fifths the length . . about 7 in 5 mm. 436. thickness 7.M. 1883. thickness 16. directed small.9. p. 1910. 1879 i. extending to the posterior slope. figs. figs.S. U. . 4. length 33. umbo swollen umbonal and anterior slopes convex posterior gently convex posterior slopes gentle lunule large. length ffy/'ofy/'^. Holotype.M. Cooper. closely appressed. hypotype 11. length about i| times the height outline subtriangular. Surv.7. pi.8. Rep. 2. No. Umbones . length (U. —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. Univ.0. 10. Posterior slope long and gentle umbonal ridge strongly rounded. — Large for the genus. No. loc.S.N. slightly rectangular in outline length slightly more than twice the height . (1878). Measurements in mm. Horizon and locality. concentric lines separated by narrower furrows. 115576b.8.N. anterior margin narrowly rounded ventral margin gently convex posterior produced. No. Bull. 9.) Leda obesa (White) Girty. Measurements in mm. Surface marked by rounded. Surv. 40. Types. 5. 115580b).. 115580a unfigured.N. 8o6i. vol. on the median slopes. figures 10-18 Shell of about medium . Anmargin slightly nasute ventrally ventral margin nearly straight . 34. 115580a). . 2a-c. U. Beaks small. Lunule long and narrow. 43.0 (restored). anteriorly than posteriorly posteriorly. deep.N.N. Geol. . . thickness 12. height 8. U. Surv. U. S. 1909. U. length 43. . .S. 136.S. figured paratype. 1930. No.. S. (restored). height 19. 5.8.M. No. closely ap. Holotype. No. II9 NUCULANA OBESA White Plate 23D. — . umbonal slopes strongly swollen in the median portion but flattened ventrally.— Figured.M. thickness 16. No.0. U. 7-8.N. and Geogr. p. 22. Missouri Studies Quart. Bull. Surv. print.0 ? —Hypotype (U. — height 20. 76. No. pt. pi. No. 21. y8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 32. PLETJROPHORUS SONORENSIS new species Plate 24B.M.S. U. C.S.S. height 14. figs. (Adv. C. bluntly pointed. about three- escutcheon small. p. I2th Ann. p. paratype (U. U.

389. Geol. ventral margin than SCAPHOPODA PLAGIOGLYPTA CANNA Plate 24C. figs.M. 12. ETC. S. Surv.S. Types. ized by its —Pleurophorus sonorensis it —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone.M.y. p. 95. S. Umbonal region somewhat narrowly swollen median region gently swollen. its notable for elongate triangular outline and small size. pi. p. closely appressed. 806m. — COOPER 79 loc. Surv. Ventral margin gently convex . Horizon and Discussion. Surv. niexicanns Girty in size but differs described species in having a less-produced anterior and rounded posterior extremity. 115584a). 11. umbonal angle 120°. thin-shelled. is Phosphoria formation larger and Schizodus conit is cinnus Branson from the same formation a small species but more equilateral and has a more strongly rounded the Mexican species. 1 15583. figures 19. narrowly rounded narrowly rounded posterior margin Beaks small.N. Geol. pi.S. No. Bull. Geogr. 6. 23. idem. 11-13. BRACHIOPODA. 1910. 1874. No. Preliminary 4. —Holotype. S. pt.N. length 12. p. Pap. U. thick- ness 5.4. No. 1909. 8o6n. NO. Horizon and Discussion. . 8o6i. pi. narrow. sonorensis and has a more pointed posterior extremity and less-convex valves. locality.5. 6a-b. U. —Anidanthus zone. ii5584b-h.M. height y. Anterior slopes steep and concave . U. U. 23. 806-0. vol. Prof. is is loc. S.3. 44. subtriangular in outline. 115584a.M. anteroventral extremity very . i. west of looth Meridian.2.N. . 2 SPONGES. fig.. umbonal angle 110°. 1909. U. Bull. U. 450. paratype (U. Posterior slopes gentle. p. anterior margin gently convex hinge line arcuate. U. Plagioglypta canna (White) Girty. 436. —Schizodus parvulus most locality. directed anteriorly. fig. Of North American approaches P. new species Plate 24A. figured paratype.S. Surv. is a large species character- rounded extremities and convex valves. pi. thickness 5. i.— E. 156. 14. figures 1-9 Shell small for the genus. 11. length 13. Schizodus ferrieri Girty from the less elongated. — Holotype. terminating in a ridge at valve junction. 58. height 10. SCHIZODUS PARVULTJS Cooper. 1877.S. figs. Branson. Final Report. Report. Geol. Pleurophorus pinnaformis Branson is a large species but is somewhat smaller than P. B. Nos. (White) 20 Dentaliiim canna White. unfigured paratypes.N. p. Measurements in mm.

Missouri Studies Quart.S. tapering cone very slightly curved. p. zone. 2.80 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Journ. p. vol.o mm. fig. 24. No.N. shell substance moderately thick. . Horizon and locality. 1916. 1930. fig. Branson. Cross section Surface Shell a long. marked by concentric. C. loc. Shell fairly large circular. 15.— C. 6. Figured specimen. pi. vol. 1 16637. No. 5. loc.M.. Anidanthus zone. 806m Dictyoclostus — — . . small diameter 4. Univ. 58.. pi.3 mm. 806m'. large diameter lo. oblique undulations of growth. VOL. IIQ 13. 657. Length of specimen 72 mm. 3. U.. Geol.

158. which adoral end unfortunately does not reveal the nature of the sutures very yjtW. Amer. Rep. 399. 160. 601. — P. 157. 139. Soc. pp. 1944. 190. B. pp. Paleontol. Spec. MILLER Iowa University of (Plate 24D) WAAGENOCERAS DIENERI Plate 24D. 72. 10. 1762. 1934- loS.17. 39.33. 3. i. 1943. Geol. pp. pp. Acta Geol. 2. Animalia.. 1919. pp.. 1940. Univ. 1-27. 43. 32. 27. No. Amer. 18. figs. II. 5.. 161. 131. 45. Amer. fig. Pap. pp. 1-7. 1942. vol. 31. pi. 22. Taiwan Univ.— P. 28-31. fig. Assoc. wide. 192. pi. 18. W. Waagenoceras dieneri? R. 161. vol. pi. pp. Soc. Waagenoceras richardsoni Plummer and Scott.— — — CEPHALOPODA By ARTHUR K. pl. figs. Miller and Furnish. 26. 3701. 156. Bull. 17. 26. 25. 1921. Waagenoceras dieneri Bose. is is about 11 mm. 604. vol. 1-8. 3701. 10. Nat. pi. figs. 8. i). Univ. 74. — Bull. Texas Bull. fig. II. 17. pi. 4. vol. figs. 170-173. Paleontol. 24-25. 2. pi. ser. 3. pp.. Journ. 1-9.. pi. Pl. pi. Amer. 106. 14. 1934. and it also seems to be referable to This individual is W. Taiwanica. 71. dieneri. pi. and near is its conch (which subglobular in shape) umbilicus. — DiENER. Texas Soc. Geol. Miller and Unklesbay. 35. 160. ZZ> 127. B.. King. dieneri Hayasaka. 12.— P. i. pi. figs. PP. ser. Geol. pp. 6-12. 16. Amer. Sci. The rather small and 8i . 25. Plummer and Scott. 3038. 157-158. 398.. A second specimen has been found at the same general horizon at a nearby locality (8o6g). King. Geol. 14. fig. 167. 109. 25-26. 5. 156. pi. Journ. 20-21. 5. p. 44. though deep. 168. King. 21. pp. Bull.. 161. Journ. i. fig. 1921. 22... 1945. i. 52. figs.39. fig. silicified internal a completely septate mold. Bull. 7. Waagenoceras cf. Sci. ser. Texas Bull. 171-176. 1-6. 1930. 5. p. Texas 158-160. Bull. figs. 39. Its maximum its diameter measures about 20 mm. 163. I. King. Univ. pt. 32. The only Permian ammonoid that has so far been described from Sonora is a poorly preserved representative of Waagenoceras dieneri Bose from the so-called Spiriferina beds northeast of El Antimonio (Miller. Pap. II. 19.. 5-8. Texas pi. Fossilium catalogus. high and attains 17 mm. p. pp. 72. 735. Spec. vol. Univ. E. pi. figures 21-23 Bfise Waagenoceras Dieneri Bose. 3042. Amer. E. 18. figs. vol. 26. King. I947(?). figs. 397. B.— R. 1937. Univ. 7. 400. Petrol. pi. 1945. 111-114. Journ. vol. 34. Sci. I. 27. 72. Miller. pp. figs. figs. 8. 1937. 4-7 . 1930. pi. 9-1 1.

The umbilical shoulders are abruptly rounded. 2 km." . M. broad. A single transverse constriction preserved in the adoral part of the specimen. loc. Horizon and locality. and Capitan formations of west Texas and equivalent beds in southwestern Co- The genus is characteristic of the upper part of the Middle Permian. No. —The ascertainable portion of the sutures as well as the W. Remarks. —Spiriferellina zone. Sicily. lower Capitan equivalents in the Delaware Mountains of west Texas and the Valle de Las Delicias of southwestern Coahuila. 8o6g.82 a SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS diameter of only about 3 is VOL.S. and the umbilical walls are very steep. being short. umbilicus. The specimen previously described from this same general horizon and locality came from "top of east knob of Mill San Francisco. and has since been found to occur in the Word and ahuila. dieneri was originally described from the Word formation of Texas. IV. broad. trifid.N. prominently bifid. and are fairly abun- dant in the Word. II9 maximum mm. dieneri general physiognomy of the conch indicate clearly that this specimen belongs in the genus Waagenoceras and almost certainly in Bose.— U. digitate dorsal lobe and on either side of it six digitate lobes which become progressively smaller toward the distinctly arcuate. the ventral lobe is and digitate. upper and middle Delaware Mountain. Hayasaka has recently compared a small individual from eastern China to this species but the published data in regard to it do not enable us to determine its specific affinities. and it is essentially straight and directly transverse. 116635. and the dorsal sutures consist of a short. Hypotype. The septum which forms on each of the sutures is the adoral end of this specimen and dorsal portions of several septa that adhere to the outer volution lateral show that zones of the conch the general course of the convex orad. Hill. north- northeast of El Antimonio. are rare in the Representatives of Waagenoceras occur in the Sosio beds of Basleo beds of Timor and the East Tungkuan black shale of Chekiang (central eastern China).

GASTROPODA By J. C) INTRODUCTION As the science of paleontology grows more mature it becomes in- creasingly apparent that to describe and material name new species on poor and new genera on inadequately known species is no real it is contribution to knowledge. However. all that we truly know of such forms is that we know little or nothing of significance about them. 25 A. However. B. workers there or only advantage to the naming of forms that can be Again. the presumption is false for. BROOKES KNIGHT Museum United States National (Plates 24E. regions with consequent miscorrelations. recognized with even reasonable assurance only at the original when the beds that carry the forms are identified first. what is said in respect to species and genera units based on better material but described based on material inadequate for precise recognition applies also to and figured inadequately Precise for recognition or for significant taxonomic treatment. These may be disastrous to a correct understanding of stratigraphy. that are found empirically to characterize rocks of some stratigraphic or time unit. work requires adequately described and figured units based on adequate material. and genera are described and named on the basis of inadequately known material there is a tendency for some workers to identify them. The requirements of the stratigraphic paleontologist are perhaps less exacting in that he can use for purposes of correlation any phenomena. organic or inorganic. even though no precise identification is possible. 83 . in when species rocks of other. paradoxically. G. for such locality. Needless to say. They are before him by virtue of the fact that they have been described and named and therefore are presumptively a part of our accumulated knowledge. especially to the taxonomist who cannot deal wisely with inadequately known species and genera and yet must deal with them in some way. whether or not the phenomena are amenable to classification or is little taxonomic treatment. F. often far-distant. Rather a disservice.

better-known regions even though descriptions of the genera and species involved are as yet unpublished. using the name in its broadest sense. identify only one previously described species and shall name For unpublished genera recognized among my collections for the above-mentioned monograph of Permian gastropods. some of them etched free from matrix by acid in the laboratory. most are recognizable. Again. Their deficiency in preservation lies in the fact that the specimens may have been worn and abraded before silicification and in any case the mineralization is so coarse that few of the details. Thus. may be recognized. and. From these alone one Such a It based. The specimens are too poorly preserved. are preserved. with a query. am espe- cially grateful to Dr. II9 On the other hand. but in a few specimens. the genera even though the species are not. such as growth lines or the finer ornamentation. I collection consists of 17 specimens of gastropods. the name of some related described genus. a collection of fossils from beds in a region previously unstudied may tell us much. virtually as though it referred to a family or super family. 84 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. if handled may be suggestive even though they can- not be used as precise identities may. collection of poor material is that on which this report is comes from a region hitherto little known stratigraphically. to justify specific naming and description and yet several significant genera. for the most part. both described and undescribed. I shall employ. Cooper for an opportunity to study these I specimens since lections at am currently engaged in a study of the Permian gastropods of the southwestern United States. I shall designate undescribed genera in the Pleurotomariidae (or Pleurotomariacea) as Pleurotomaria{?) yet unpublished generic designations as This procedure will avoid the publication of the more precise but as nomina nuda. even though the specimens themselves are too poorly preserved to warrant detailed descriptions or the naming of species. I shall no new species. may hazard The certain conclusions with more or less confidence. where knowledge of the shape of the apertural margin is essential. and genera alone story. All the specimens are silicifications. Insofar as genera can be determined by gross form alone. the similarities known species may appear. For example.. my disposal for that study enable me to The very large colmake comparisons with forms from standard sections in other. similarities to may be recognized may tell a significant with caution. G. A. . the lack of growth lines makes precise generic recognition impossible.

1876.M. northern Arizona. the costae broken into linear series of nodes on the anterior slope. S. Terr. S. Quart. 19-21 (top limestone member of the Phosphoria formation. Beehive Point. 8234d) Smallest paratype (U.N. 12th Ann.." Wild Band Pockets.S. C. developed on an inductural layer of the Rather wide. a comparison with the types and numerous other specimens in Remarks. and Geogr. 116630) 16. S. Bellerophon subpapillosus White. and phosphate beds of the same formation in the Sublette Range.0 14.2 mm. the largest etched free from matrix by acid. 138. figures 1-8 Bellerophon carbonarius Cox. National Museum collections are silicifications.S. Horseshoe Canyon (type near Echo Canyon and near Echo Park. and Geogr. Terr. White.. Missouri Studies 5. 1880 and 1883. 8234c) 18. C. iS miles south of Pipe Spring). shell thick. White. pi. Museum. 117995) Largest paratype (U. Although it might have been difficult to identify the specimens from the literature.0 23. in the — the U. Colorado and northern Arizona. 34. 36 ("Upper Carboniferous. bellerophontiform gastropods with revolving costae shell deposited by the mantle over the outer surface of the shell (the principal diagnostic generic character of Enphemites). 92 (Upper Aubrey group. leaves little doubt of the correctness of .9 15. Geol. Surv. Wyo. 1930. vol. Rep. No. siibpapillosiis White. p. Report on the Geology of the Uinta Mountains. with allowance for imperfections of preservation. Univ.M. S.S. Geol. Bellerophon subpapillosus White. Permian Wind River and Owl Creek Mountains.N. p. p.NO.N. No. the former broken free from the rock and some of the others etched free by acid. pt.. 16. Surv. S. Bull. 218 ("Carboniferous. coarse.N. p." northwestern Euphemus subpapillosus (White). U. vol. Geol. U. pi. with wide interspaces frequently more numerous through intercalation within the aperture than without . var. Lectotype (U. locality).S. Utah).8 12. Terr.) Branson. costae few (8 to 12). U. Surv. No. No.6 21. 54. The Mexican specimens are coarse silicifications.) Width across aperture Diameter (sagittal) mm. i.7 Largest Mexican specimen (U. 17.M. figs. National the identification. No. 1879. 5..0 The lectotype and paratypes and many other specimens U. 2. fig.M. 2 GASTROPODA — KNIGHT (White) 85 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION EUPHEMITES SUBPAPILLOSUS Plate 25A. No specimen is very well preserved but all of them together show clearly the character of the species. Dimensions (Estimated.

86 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Comparison. The Mexican speciscribed two species previously dePennsylvanian age. No. Grand —Eighteen specimens as — listed below. from the Delaware Mountain formation of the Guadalupe Mountains of Texas. Nos.N. (Word WARTHIA. 1941. No.N.M.S.S.M.S. U. The Mexican specimen (U. VOL. Utah.S.S. Utah. two from the lower Bone Spring limestone of Leonardian age in the Sierra Diablo and one from Word limestone No.N. b.N. U.M. II9 — No species of Euphemites its in rocks older than Per- up into rows of pustules on the anterior slope of the whorl. No.M. The other. and a small slab (U. No. and 5 unfigured paratypes. Specimens from the United States include White's primary types (the lectotype. it In other respects impossible to describe so as to differentiate it from other species. 15204) from north of Well Station. 8234a. Horseshoe Canyon. In the Permian there are several species that have this peculiarity but comparison with them had best mian is characterized by costae breaking await their publication. and a slab with a number of poor specimens (U. 15205) with several specimens. species A Plate 25B.M. one of the is a genus that Permian from North America is of late kingi Moore.M. 5 hypotypes (U. for specific discrimination. I5207a-e) from Vermillion Creek. 15208) too poor for positive identification from a locality on Ashley Creek. 2 paratypes figured by White. preferably in abun- dance.N.S.M. Hypodigm. 8234c-g) from Beehive Point. suhpapillosus appears to characterize beds of Phosphoria age) in the United States. Nos. Uintah Mountains.S. Uintah Mountains. In the collections for the monograph mentioned previously I have beautifully preserved specimens of three species. 1 16630) was derived from the Spiriferellina zone at 8o6d. figures 9-12 This species it is is moderately large for the genus. and 2 specimens (U. 89179) from the Kaibab limestone. No. U. i in the Glass Mountains of Texas.N. 117995. E. and approximately Canyon National Park. Species of Warthia being almost without ornamentation of any kind require exceptionally well-preserved specimens.S.S.M. No. described on the basis of such poor material as to be specifically unrecognizable and probably generically misplaced. Ariz. is Warthia americana Girty. 1909. in the Humboldt Mountains of Nevada. 40 other specimens too poor for certain identification. Although Warthia characterizes rocks. Nos.N. Occurrence. Warthia .N.M.N. In addition there are about 40 specimens (U.

respects are closer to any of these three species but in some that from the Word limestone of the Glass Figured specimen. Horizon and locality. On the whorls of the spire it falls a short distance fine above the lower suture. species B. 116627a. The ornamentation appears to consist of revolving lirae. is represented by a single specimen. B Plate 24E. —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. figure 24 loc. I in the Glass Mountains of Texas. I. which lies at about the middle of the whorl. No. Nevertheless the species appears to belong to an undescribed pleurotomarian genus that yields casts that permit generic recognition with reasonable certainty. shows a nearly vertical lateral area just beneath the selenizone. One is seemingly limestone No.NO. silicified and badly weathered shell showing the form and the general nature of the ornamentation. 116632a. —U.N. No. Plate 24E. of the interior of the shell. The selenizone is relatively broad and shows as a gently concave band between two bordering lirae. species A lections Pleurotomaria {?). They are merely or casts. Two un- described species of this genus occur in the Permian of west Texas. 2 GASTROPODA identified with — KNIGHT 87 mens cannot be mountains. species PLEUROTOMARIA(?). 8o6i. —Highest Permian. —U. i confined to rocks of Leonardian age in both the Sierra is Diablo and Glass Mountains and the other in the Glass known only from Word Mountains. The outer whorl face below the selenizone. 8o6t. separated from the gently arched base by an obtuse angulation. fillings. PLEUROTOMARIA(?). by three poor specimens. All these features is show that the species belongs to an undescribed genus that represented in the Permian rocks of west Texas by six undescribed species ranging throughout the rocks of Leonardian age and into Word in limestone No. to identify the Word lime- .S. species A. so far as it is preserved. figure 25 a coarsely Pleurotomaria {?). The shell shows a turbinate form with the area above the selenizone well arched.N. loc. at least within the range of its stratigraphic occurrence.M. In spite of its poor preservation I am inclined Mexican specimen as belonging to a species occurring stone No.M. Horizon and locality. Figured specimen.S. is represented in the Mexican col- all from a single locality.

That it is consists of revolving lirae. What appears to be the selenizone lies at about the middle of the outer whorl face. It is narrow. The specimen is about 25 mm. It is separated from the very gently arched base by a second obtuse angulation. that might be mistaken for a selenizone. —U. Spiriferellina zone. II9 — — loc. is in the upper suture in conformity with the conical shape of the shell for about three-fifths the whorl height. almost rotaliform. The umbilical region seems to be surrounded by a callus.S. No. VOL. high. OMPHALOTROCHUS(?).. the most It striking. slopes steeply downward and little. separated from the upper by an obtuse angulation. on its umbilicus a diameter of about 3 mm. figures 26. The lower two-fifths is occupied between two costae. and the best preserved in the collection. The form appears to be rather low and flat. 8o6i. species B. The upper whorl surface slopes outward and gently downward from the upper suture with very gentle convexity. bad condition. seems to be very probable. In any case I cannot recognize in the specimen any species or genus with which I am familiar. has the form of is based cone with a pleural angle of 55°.88 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Figured Specimen. The ornamentation and more numerous on the base than on the upper surface. Described specimen. concave. Horizon and locality. The apex badly abraded and largely missing. Ornamentation other than the selenizone appears to be lacking on the outer whorl face. 8o6d. single specimen representing this species is the largest. and although enough of the base is preserved to show that it is quite flat and narrowly phaneromphalous it. gently concave . outward.M. 1 16634. suggests characteristics that are worthy of mention even though one cannot be certain of them.S.M. Horizon and locality. 27 The a flat. It is possible that this is a mashed specimen of Pleurotomaria {?). U. The sides of the whorls slope flatly outward and downward from too. species C is The single specimen to which the above tentative designation given. if any. — No.N. while very poorly preserved. loc. its base has a diameter of about 27 mm. Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. species A Plate 24F. but this does not appear to be true. PLEUROTOMARIA(?). The outer whorl face. seemingly finer a pleurotomarian in the broadest sense. 1 16628.N. and bordered above and below by low lirae. The upper of the two costae is the weaker by a raised area.

Straparollus (?). Horizon and locality. U. I of the Glass Mountains by another. No. loc. Figured specimen. to the generic consanguinity. No traces of orna- mentation. The lower costa projects outward more strongly on the whorls of the spire and on the final whorl forms a flange around the base. —Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. 8o6i. U. I am unable to identify the Mexican specimen with any of the west Texas species although there is no doubt whatever as lupian rocks of west Texas. is referable to an undescribed genus seemingly represented in the Leonardian Bone Spring limestone of the Sierra Diablo by one species and in the Guadalupian Word limestone No. No. across the raised area. NO. about as wide as the whorls.N. The form is that of a low dome. forms a conspicuous spiral ribbon winding about the cone of the shell. A Plate 24G. — Horizon and locality. Figured specimen. The present specimens can be identified with neither species. 116633a. Unlike the other specimens of the present collection. species loc.. is about one-third the diameter of the base of the shell. The umbilicus.s. figures 28-32 This Species roughly is represented in the Mexican collection by two very little more than the shape. are preserved on the specimens. Spiriferellina zone. if any existed.S. This species is referable to an undescribed genus of several unde- GuadaPerhaps because they have not yet been studied sufficiently. These are preserved on the flat this one shows upper three-fifths of the outer whorl face and. 2 GASTROPODA —KNIGHT 89 and the more restrained of the two.S. Beginning at the upper suture they curve gently backward and then position. forward at the base of the aperture. The whorls are gently flattened above to conform to the contours of the dome.N. a few growth lines. The outer margin of the whorls is low and is in the form of a blunt acute angle. STRAPAROLLUS(?). 1 16625.M. forward indicating a gentle and broad sinus in the outer lip at this Below on the raised band they pass more strongly forward indicating that the lower costa or flange projected rather strongly base. very obscurely. with its bordering costae.) will be discussed elsewhere. The base of the whorls is flatly arched but bluntly angulated where the steep-sided um- silicified specimens that show bilicus begins. species A. 8o6f — — . This raised area.M. scribed species widely distributed in Leonardian and lower The relations of this as yet undescribed genus to Omphalotrochus (s. They cannot be followed on the There is no ornamentation other than the features mentioned.

Certainly the Mexican specimen is larger and has a much thicker shell than those from the Glass Mountains. 19. pp. Geol.. Geol. 2. C. Cloud. pp. In King. of In Butler. Spec. Journ. Soc. of the Glass Mountains but specific identification would be most hazardous. pp. Prof. Surv. Sci. Carboniferous invertebrates 6. Nebraska GiRTV. southwestern Coahuila.S. Geol. — IV. Geology and Paleontology of the Permian area northwest of Las Delicias. I.90 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS ORTHONYCHIA. pp. W. Pap. Mexico. Orthonychia ranges at resented by crinoids least many species. 672-679. Surv. E. there is little to say about it. pt. The Guadalupian fauna. The fauna of the phosphate beds of the Park City formation in Idaho.N.. 1934. Wyoming and 1920. Geol. S. S. S. Review of the Guadalupian fauna by G. pp. B. and Dunbar. No. C. Thus they are strongly affected by their substratum and difficult to identify. Prof. 26. 1929. 58. ser. and others. U. Univ. No. II9 A Plate 25C. loc. Surv. 5.M. S. —U. 18. U. Nebraska. O. 1909. The ore deposits Utah. 3. Branson.. 49-69. Soc. Pap. species VOL. . H. vol. vol.. Amer. — Anidanthus zone. figure 13 is represented by a single poorly preserved silicified Save to remark that the species is a typical representative of the genus Orthonychiu (sometimes placed as a subgenus of Platyceras) This species shell. Geol. Geol. 52. 1930. J. Amer. Cloud. 2. Washington Acad. 5. U. 116629. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Phosphoria formation. C. vol. H. 24. 1944. Washington Acad. 641-657. pp. Dunbar. 7. 406-415. Condra.. 1-99. Journ. 1909. Sci. No. Bibliographic index of Permian invertebrates. and Miller. many species are Species similar to the one represented by the Mexican specimen are found in the Leonard and Word limestone No. 1910. Mem. in Brachiopoda of the Pennsylvanian System Geol. 1948. Bull. P. G. 1932. E. iii. Journ. Girty. Figured specimen. 8o6m. Pap. 249-266. Horizon and locality. 436. No. No. Bull. Surv. from Devonian to Permian and is repThese seem to have been coprophagous on and attached to their host throughout their lifetime. New New Carboniferous invertebrates — II.. Missouri Studies Quart. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Beede. 17. G. Utah. vol.

C. . J. Contributions to invertebrate paleontology. F. In Ives. 1-64. Geol. 3. The geology of the Glass Mountains. (Advance print from U. Surv. White. Geol. 1928. Bull. 67. North.. Meek. iferous fossils (1878). U. Texas. E. 162-227. ch. S. Contributions to invertebrate paleontology. 1878. Britain. 1872. 138. The Mississippian Brachiopoda of the Mississippi Valley basin. 4. U. Surv. Geogr. Utah. and certain Cretaceous corals from Colorado. Illinois. 1 93 1. Rep. Neues Jahrb. S.. pt. S. No. 482-504.. S. Ne- Mexico. Versuch einer zusammenfassenden Systematik der Spiriferidae King. Quart. Great Britain. 1930. of Pt. Certain Carbonfrom western States and Territories. 2. 1 16-132. i. Geol. vol. Abt. F. p. Soc. 96-161. Carnegie Inst. 1914. Terr. and Wyoming. 12th Ann. Great Newberry. Monogr. 6. The British Carboniferous II. vol. New pt. H. Geol. I 1879. Abh. vol. Rep. 40th Parallel.. Genera Pustula and Overi. and certain Carboniferous Brachiopoda referred to Spiriferhxa d'Orbigny. pt. On Syringothyris Winchell. Ivor. B. y6. Mineral. Texas Bull. by parties of the expeditions of 1871. Report upon the Colorado River of the West. Surv. Geol. U. 12th Ann. Geol. fossils 1880. E. Geological report. 1938. W. Weller. and Geogr. pp. pp. 2-8. pp. Mem. and Geogr. XI. vol. i. pp. und Palaeontol. iiber Devon 4. Utah. Palaeontology. Idaho. 66. Wilhelm. Ges. pp. pt.) Paleontological Papers No. Geol. Lt. Geol. Surv. 119-141. C. Deutsch. vol. Colorado. S. Expl. R. J. 197-366.. pp.. i. together with descriptions of new forms. tonia.NO.) 1883. daselbst. 34. Remarks upen certain Carboniferous from Colorado. Paeckelmann. pi. 492. 1877. Final report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of vada. Paleontology.. pp. west of looth Meridian. the history of the Toroweap and Kaibab formations Arizona and southern Utah. B. i. pt. 4. vol. Surv.| 1877. British Carboniferous Producti. 1914. Productus (sensu stricto) . Thomas. Washington McKee. Uber eine marine Permfauna aus Nordmexiko nebst Bemerkungen Zeitschr. sonircticnlatus and longispinus groups. and Arizona. Rep. J. 209-221. Faunal summary and correlation Permian formations with description of Brachiopoda. 2 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 9I Haack. A. Terr. Paleontology. 5. London. 1921. Surv. Geol. Paleontology. pt. and 1874. 3a. 3042. Heft King. 1914. 11. and Geogr. M. pp. Arizona. vol. D. 1861. 50-99. I. Nos. i. MuiR-WooD. The environment and of northern Publ. Geol. The S. Mem. Surv. III. fig. published separately in 1875. Terr. 1873. Univ. Journ. Producti. (Pt. pp. 4.

N. loc. 123302a. Part of a tangential slice of a paratype. the saddle between Spiriferellina zones as in the preceding.M. U. Plate Parafusulina antimonioensis Dunbar. The dark blocks at the base of the slope are composed of Composita zone and Spiriferellina zone blocks.S. holotype specimen. i Mill Hill from the southwest side. U. Fig. filling is not shown. Small of a tangential slice of a megalospheric paratype. Axial section of the middle part of the specimen 2. Nos.M. No. showing the cuniculi. i23302f.N.N. X 92 . All from the fusuline bed at Moreno house about 2^ miles northnortheast of El Antimonio. No. showing the largest hill (295 m. The right end of the former is restored by reversing the image of the left end. shell.M.S. 3 species new of 15 Slightly oblique 10- axial section a paratype. No. e. No. cut close to the axis. Fig. Sonora. 5. Plate 2 Parafusulina antimonioensis Dunbar. showing well the axial filling and the normal profile of the shell. 8o6j. x 10.N.S. the ends are foreshortened and the axial Fig. X !• Fig. x lO- The cuniculi show well Figs. I. Fig. new species 15 Axial sections of megalospheric shell. 2. 123301. much larger microspheric shell.S. 10.M.S. which forms the highest and darkest wall. 8. U. I23302h. U. All from the fusuline bed about 2^ miles north-northeast of El Antimonio. Slightly more than half of a tangential slice of a paratype. The knob on the left is composed of the Composita zone. for comparison with the megalospheric holotype. loc. 3. U.M.N. 4. X Owing to the obliquity.S. along the middle of the slice. Well-oriented axial section of half of the largest megalospheric paratype seen. No. The saddle divides two sequences of Composita and overlying lying Spiriferellina zone. X 10. 8o6j. No.N. and the over- The hill on the right has the same sequence and them marks a fault. 123302b.M. 3. Sonora. View looking southwest from Mill Hill. 2. I23302d. I. 6. Figs. No. X bit 10. Fig. X 10. X I and x 10.N. Sagittal sections of megalospheric paratypes. Fig.EXPLANATION OF PLATES Plate Fig. I.) on the left.M. 123302c. Median axial surface of a young microspheric U. shown in figure 3. figure Fig. U.N. U. 2. Ink line indicates the middle. 7. I23302g.M.S. paratype.S.

Exterior of a large imperfect specimen with probable outline of complete specimen. No. Streptorhynchus species Figs.M.S. loc.M. 8o6f. 2. No. pedicle. x i. species i 34 and pedicle views of a fairly well-preserved specimen. 2.N.N. Figured specimen. i. posterior. 8o6n.N. . X I. x i- Horizon and same as above.S.NO. Brachial. species Plasticine replica of exterior of an imperfect brachial valve. 5-7. Orhiculoidea. respectively. 8o6i. loc. Orhiculoidea. 5-7. 115474a. Brachial and posterior views of an imperfect specimen. Well-preserved pedicle valve. 12. X i. U. loc. U. Paratype. respectively. Brachial and side views of the inner filling of a large brachial valve. U. the exterior. Figs. interior portion of a small pedicle valve. Plate Derbyia arellanoi Cooper. 8o6n. 9-1 1. loc. Loc. 1-4. X Fig.N. locality U. iiS562a. showing a more elongate interarea loc. I. Interior of a fragmentary specimen with restoration of broken parts.M. X I. loc. posterior. Posterior. Figs. 806m. I. Dictyoclostus zone. loc. and brachial views. 8o6n. 115523. x i.M. 8o6n. 806k.M. Dictyoclostus zone. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES Plate 4 93 A.S. Shows . No.M. show- ing thick dental ridges.M.M. than the holotype. 3. 8. a little more advanced loc. X I. 4. of the holotype. I.N.. I. Young individual attached by the beak to Figs. paratype. No.S. Marginijera.M. view showing the long 21 interarea.S.S. 8. Plate 6 A.Larger specimens broke free from their attachment to surfaces to live free on the sea bottom.. Fig. U.. U.N.N. Paratype. 22 new species 23 Side and pedicle views of the holotype. U.M. 6. X I and X 2. 9-12. new species Fig. 115474b. 806-I. I.N.N. No. in age than the specimen shown in figure Paratype. and pedicle views of a specimen larger than the two preceding ones. Pedicle. B. 13. species 2 Figs. loc.N. paratype. Views of a brachial posterior.M. 3.G. Side.Figured specimen. 5 22 an imperfect specimen of the productid Liosoiclla.S. U. showing long septum . 7. X I. posterior. loc. Figs. x i. showing the cardinal process.S. 115589. No.G. I. Derbyia elongata Cooper.G. 115524a.M. 115563a. 8o6n.S. 4-6. Same zone as above.M. anterior.S. 806k. loc.. U. Figs. x 2. No. 8o6n. side. C. Apical 24 the thick pseudodeltidium 10. 115524b. Figs. Fig. X i. No. Interior 7. Figs. 11547S. 806-I. U. Figs. No. 1 15473. !• 5. D. II. and anterior views of another specimen.M. No.G. i x i- Loc.

No. septa and cardinal process. hori- zon and locality same as holotype. Marginifera.N. Brachial figure 15.. Fig. X hypotype.N.M.M.. showing 15504. 24-26. Composita zone. Anterior view of a fourth specimen. C.G.M.S.M.M.S. 5. 115573b.94 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS new species VOL. 20-22. 27. Figs. Pedicle and brachial views of the holotype.S. 23. Figs. U. 5. enlarged x 2. U.M. and posterior views of an imperfect specimen showing well the wrinkles on the hinge. 8o6i. I. No. X2. 115572a. Brachial view of a paratype. 28.N. species 2 35 Figs. Figs. II. X 2.G.N. 6-8. respectively. pedicle. I.S. pedicle. 33. Brachial new species 27 No. lateral 11 5500. 8o6d. Brachial view of holotype. x i. 1 28 15587.N. Brachial and side views of a nearly complete specimen. Heteralosia mexicana Cooper. side. Cancrinella phosphatica Figs. U. No. view of the interior filling of another specimen. No. folded anterior. 13. X i. Plate 7 A. 8o6r. x Figs. side. horizon and locality same as figures 4. horizon and locality same as figure 15. 115564a. No. Figs. No. Fragment of a brachial interior ridge. 1 15506. X I) SpiriferelUna zone. 1 1 5499. X I- Fig. 8o6f. No. Fig. . Chonetes foshagi Cooper. Anterior. U.N. x showing median U.N. horizon and locality same as holotype. upper part Cancrinella zone. and brachial views.N.M. horizon and locality same as I. U. 806k. 15. loc. 115564b. 16-18. I) X Fig. loc. Chonetes monosensis Cooper. U. Chonetes gihberulus Cooper. 115501. Dorsal view of a somewhat deformed paratype. X I. x 2. showing median ridge. 8o6h. Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone. 3. Dictyoclostus zone. 29.M. hypotype. showing the plicae of the pedicle valve and the broad brachial fold. 19. Pedicle. of the holotype. U.N. Fig.M. horizon and locality same as figure 15. 12. x !> holotype. x ^> Dictyoclostus zone. Brachial and pedicle views of the holotype. 30-32. loc. paratype. respectively.. loc. No. x i> !• Fig. B.M. Pedicle view of the holotype. Posterior pedicle and anterior views of another specimen.S.S. 806-I. Figs. loc. 4. x D. 2. and posterior views of a large imperfect specimen.M. Brachial.M.S. interareas 26 1 and 2. Composita zone. 25 Figs. Figs. adductor and brachial scars. new species Fig.S. 8-10. of SpiriferelUna zone. showing sulcus and costae. loc. new species Figs.G.M. loc. Pedicle. to show the short prostrate spines. I. upper part and pedicle views of the holotype. side. IIQ B. 8o6i. U. E. I. 34.S. loc.N. U. and posterior views of the holotype. showing ornamentation and interareas. 14. x i.S. i. and brachial views. Side. No. ( Girty ) 29 Brachial and pedicle exterior views of an imperfect specimen.

Fig. Posterior. U. locality same as figures 12-15. Fig. 9. No.N. Dictyoclostus zone.M. ing the short prostrate spines 9. U. loc.G. 10. iiS572b.S. No. x 2.M.S. U. 115467. Anidanthus zone.S. x 3Enlargement of venter of same specimen showing tubular spine of bases. X i. Horizon and Fig. Section through trail. U.M. 8o6n. No. Anterior.S. 19. No. Figs. loc. as figures 4. new species 32 indiloc. both X 2. x 4- Fig. 12-15. horizon and and spine bases. 95 Figs. Horizon and of a brachial valve locality same as figures 12-15.M. Hinge area same specimen showing hinge spine bases. 5. pedicle. X I.M. posterior and side views of a large vidual holotype.S. U. 26. Paratype. 2. 10.NO. 4 and 5) showHypotype. paratype.N.M. 115561. Anterior view of a specimen (same as . and high marginal ridge. Fragment cardinal process. M.M. and posterior views of a fairly large individual. x 2.M. No. U. horizon and locality same C. 1-4. 115471. and side views of the same specimen. showing cardimedian ridge. loc. 20. No. x ^• 806k. figs. II. paratype. Same Same specimen. same as figures 4. new species 30 Figs. 22. 16-18. 8o6n. Brachial interiors.S. U. Fig. 7.S. median line of a large specimen showing long thickened pedicle visceral region. showing lamellose anterior margin of showing the hinge spine bases and the brachial valve. Figs. Fig.N. Figs. Plate 8 Dictyoclostus depressns Cooper. 3> peculiar ornamentation of the ear. brachial impression. Paratype. loc. 9. 115483a. and (26) the myophore x 2.S. 5.. 115573b. and (8) exterior of same specimen showing myophore of cardinal process. X showing (25) median ridge. Figs. U. specimen. 23. thickened shell along periph- ery of brachial visceral region. Dictyoclostus zone. 8o6n.M. of the cardinal process. holotype. 115572a. locality. x ^• Paratype. 8o6k.N. Brachial view of a specimen partially covered by chert.M. Anidanthus zone. x x 2. 6. 806k.N. and ponderous cardinal process. brachial. Dictyoclostus zone. I.N. respectively. No. 115468. Fig. 25. 115590a. 6. x i> paratype. and adductor scars. Paratype. Anidanthus alatus Cooper. Anterior.S. X i. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES 10. x i. 24. Pedicle interior showing the large swollen adductor platform. U. side. No. 8. Fig. U. 21.N. 5. Brachial view of a smaller specimen. horizon and locality same as figures 5. Pedicle view of an imperfect specimen showing the costellae x i» hypotype. Fragment of posterior part of brachial interior (7) showing cardinal process and adductor scars.N. Fig.S. x i and x 2.N. No. . pedicle.N. 115483b. Figs. No. loc. nal process.

13. U.N.. new species Figs. paratype. 115459a.S. X Plate 10 A. U. pedicle. Dictyoclostus depressus Cooper. 11 39 5461. x 2.M. No. of i. Plate ii A. loc. Anidanthus zone. 8o6n. 32 B.S. x i. 8o6n. . Horizon and locality same as figures 5-7.S. U. Fig. Paratype. Muirwoodia species Figs.N. 8o6i. respectively. 8o6g.96 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Plate 9 VOL. 8o6n. 1-4. Posterior new species 37 and pedicle views of an imperfect specimen showing the nearly smooth umbo and ear and the costate and spinose venter and trail. 115490a. with somewhat deeper sulcus. x i. Figs. Dictyoclostus depressus subspecies Figs. new species 32 Anterior. No. 115568. 8o6n. I.N. Figs. 12. X pedicle.M.N.M.G. 8-1 1. 8o6n. 33 U. and anterior views of a large specimen showing the numerous costae and spine bases. Horizon and locality same as figures B. loc. pedicle. anterior. upper Spirijercllina zone. paratype. Specimen showing the new species row of spines overhanging 27 the ear. No.G. Anidanthus zone. x i> paratype I. 8o6k. 1 15466. I. Same. Anidanthus zone. C. loc. Brachial view of a somewhat narrower specimen. loc.S. loc. 5-8. Figs. new species 37 and posterior views of a specimen lacking part of the front margin. 1 15484. No. 12. U. of a specimen. loc.N. No. paratype. 8o6d. x i. and posterior views of a specimen preserving the long trail. Brachial. Pedicle.N. Pedicle.S. loc. respectively. Spirijercllina zone. pedicle.M. x i> holotype. I. 5-7. 1 15482. Anidanthus zone. anterior and side views of a large specimen. Liosotella rugosa Cooper.G. and side views of a nearly perfectly formed pedicle valve.S.M. x i. Dictyoclostus depressus Cooper. IIQ A. 8-10. Figs. 9.M. 5-7. paratype.S. x !• Por- tions restored in plaster. Fig. Fig. No. II. Liosotella angustata Cooper.N. pedicle. No.G.M. 1 15465. and side views of a smaller specimen. loc. pedicle. x i.M. paratype. 41 U.S. enlarged x 2. Anterior. Liosotella rugosa Cooper. Fig. Posterior. Liosotella subrugosa Cooper. side. 1-3. x i> horizon and locality same as figures 1-4. Cancrindla zone.N. paratype U. C..M.. showing recumbent spines attached on the inside of the curved margin. and brachial views. 1-3.M. U. Dictyoclostus zone loc. and posterior views.M. anterior. Figs. Side. side. 4. a medium-sized specimen. I. Exterior of a brachial valve. 1-4. anterior. lacking the trail. B. new species Figs.M. Anidanthus zone. Posterior. No.

N.M. 8o6d. median ridge. side. and brachial views of an unusually large speci- men deformed somewhat by resent spines along anterior x i. horizon and locality same as figures 8-11. adductor scars. 8o6d. No. U. and pedicle views of the holotype. and enlarged view of a pedicle valve. No. side. anterior. Hypotype. 806-1. No. loc. x 2. a large specimen. posterior. x i IS. I4> side J Plate Waagenoconcha montpelierensis (Girty) 13 42 115515. 13. new species of the holotype. brachial. Figs. brachial. 6. 115511.S. 7. x i.M. 9-12.M. 115513. ears. Pedicle.M. Figs. new species Figs.N.N.M. Part of the right anterolateral extremity restored in plaster.S. 115512. anterior. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES 97 Fig. 5-8.. 40 X I. Hypotype. Horizon and locality same as figures 11. pedicle. showing spines preserved on Horizon and locality same Plate 12 A. U. 12. No. x ^. Parts of both ears and a portion of the left side of the venter are restored in plaster. one side and the perfectly smooth as figures 11. Fig. 1-5. loc. x i> horizon and locality same as figures 1-4. brachial. Liosotella magiiirugosa Cooper. 14-18. Xi-Hypotype. x i and x 2. loc.N.S. 12-14. and brachial views of a paratype. loc. U. side. 1-4. U. side. Dictyoclostus zone.N. 8o6n. pedicle. vated adductor X I .S. 1 15463. 16.M. 8-1 1. Figs.NO. side.N. loc. and brachial markings. 13.S. U.N. and brachial views of the holotype. Horizon and locality same as holotype. U. 13-15. No. 115460.AL No. Anterior. Side.S. . and posterior views of small specimen. Liosotella subrngosa Cooper. No. Anidanthus zone. X I.Interior.M. Fig. Brachial. I. 115510. Posterior. 8o6i. partly weathered specimen showing the row of strong spines (indicated as pits) along the margin of the visceral area.M. 115459a. and anterior views U. B. Brachial interiors. showing cardinal process. No. 8o6d. ear seen from the inside and enlarged to show the low partition separating it from the visceral area. Anterior. 17. loc.S. and spines along the anterior margin of the visceral area. 1 1 5464. No. Cancrinella zone. U.N. 1 15462. upper Spiriferellina zone.M.S. Elefield surrounded by the large flabellate diductor scars.S. Brachial view of a medium-sized. Brachial view showing narrow median fold.Large pits repmargin of visceral area. view showing spines overhanging ear. pedicle. U. 115458.N. 39 Figs.N. Figs. side. pedicle. and side views of a fairly large specimen showing quincunxial arrangement of spines. Hypotype. X i.M. U. Paratype. Paratype.S. upper Spirijerellina zone. Iimer filling of another specimen of about the same size as the preceding showing impressions of the median ridge. 12. Pits at anterior of figure 4 represent interior spines along anterior margin of visceral area. No.Hypotype.G. Figs. x ii upper Spirijerellina zone. x i> paratype. lateral pressure. No.N. cardinal process.S. U. Figs. Pedicle. Figs.M.

U. C.N. 8o6h. side. and pedicle views of a complete individual. X 2). loc. No. x i.S. II. Cancrinella zone. paratype.M. side. and side views of a small individual. B. 28. holotype. Horizon and locality same as figures 6-10.N. Plate A. No. cality X i. 1 15569.S.S. U. No. Impression of the posterior part of the pedicle interior slight slots left scars. II9 A. 30. 13-15. 115549a. Horizon and locality same as figures 6-10. x 2. Figs.M. No.. Pedicle. 115571.S.N. 15574.S. U. No. Fig. Cancrinella zone.M. paratype.N. of the holotype.M. Horizon and lo- same pit as figures 6-10. 12.M. paratype. 1 15477. Horizon and lo- same as figures 6-10. side. 29. Brachial. Leiorhynchoidea clondi Cooper. 31. Horizon and locality same as figures 6-10. brachial. and pedicle views. tively. paratype. X X I.N. x i. Anterior. Plasticine replica of brachial interior. new species 46 Figs. I. respec- a medium-sized specimen having six costae in the sulcus. new species 44 Figs.M.S. 8o6i.98 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Plate 14 VOL.M. 26-28. Pedicle. Figs. posterior.G. showing lamellose ornamentation. pedicle. Brachial. posterior. from which the beak has been weathered. anterior. Fig. No. Figs. hypotype. U. 115548a.N. loc. and brachial views. loc.N. of 55 1 a specimen. Uncinunellina? pulchra Cooper. 8o6q. 20. Brachial and posterior views of an imperfect specimen having the beak well preserved.S. 8o6i. and pedicle views of a transverse and large specimen. brachial. I.N. Fig. Leiorhynchoidea zone. Impressions of brachial interior. side. anterior. showing by dental plates and indistinct impressions of muscle X 2. 1-5. Posterior chial interior and pedicle views of the posterior part of brashowing the hinge plate and median septum. posterior. Posterior. 11 5570. 115550a. showing median septum and muscle cality (26. 6-10. Horizon and locality same as figures 6-10. No. Rhynchopora tively.. U. Horizon and locality same as figures 6-10.M.N. Figure 4 by solution of the spondylium. respectively.M.S. 21. side. Figs. U. . loc. No.G. posterior. anterior. U. left shows the Y-shaped cavity loc. U. 22-25. Figs. posterior.S. anterior. respec- U. No. Figs.N. paratype. x i> hypotype. 2. Enlargement of anterior portion of pedicle valve of holotype. 115548b. I.S. No. U. and brachial views. 16-19. distorted specimen. Brachial view of a fragmentary specimen showing the beak. Brachial. x ^i Cancrinella zone.M. x Paratype. 6-10. Composita zone. 1-5. of 15 taylori Girty 47 Figs. x i) 27. Stenoscisma species Fig. x !> and side views of a somewhat paratype. 115549b. X I.M. X 2. 8061.M.

loc. 54-56.M.G. X i> Composita zone. and brachial views of a large specimen with the typical narrow fold. 1-5. pedicle. side. 115534. and anterior views of a thick specimen. 115532. taylori rotunda Cooper. X i. loc. No. D. Brachial. type. X I. x i» Composita zone. large specimen with two costae in the sulcus. No.N. zone.G. Braview showing undivided plate.N. Small. Side. 57. No. 1 X ^> hypotype.. side. Composita Figs. brachial. 32-35. 115478.N. new species Figs. No. distorted specimen. x 2 58. Spirijerellina zone. and anterior views of rotund individual having a single costa in the sulcus. and pedicle views I. E. 1 15479. median septum. and dental plates of the pedicle valve.S.S. No.S. and side views of the holotype. Wellerella hemiplicata Cooper. No. side. 49-53.M.M. Large specimen with narrow fold. 8o6c. 115481.NO. X i> hypotype.S. Composita zone. 53 of a paratype. loc. Anidanthus zone. 8o6r. x i> Figs. pedicle. Brachial. Brachial view of an imperfect specimen. anterior. . Composita zone. 50 brachial. pedicle. 28-31. anterior. 115538a. U. 115537. 45-48. Brachial.S. loc. paratype.M.S.N. Wellerella hemiplicata Cooper. loc. anterior. 22-26. 8o6h. Brachial. Posterior. new species 49 Figs.S. holotype. x i. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES side.S. 1 and anterior views.Al. horizon and locality same as figures 41-44. anterior. Figs.N. side. Interiors of brachial valve chial showing hinge plate. side. new species Figs. U. loc.M. 36-40.N. Composita zone.M. U.M. Figs.M. Rhynchopora the holotype. x i> and posterior views of Composita zone.N. paratype.M. para- U. 41-44. 8o6r.S. 58. 15476.S. Posterior. of the holotype. hori- zon and locality same as figures 57. Figs. paratype.G. No. 58. I. side. No. pedicle. respec15539. loc. Spirijerellina zone. U.S. of a 115538b. 57. 8o6n. X i> Cancrinella zone. Rhynchopora new subspecies Fig. Plate 16 A. B. 27. 1 15480.S. and brachial views U. new species Figs.. 8o6d'. U. and side views of unusually slenparatype.N. Anterior. loc.N. pedicle. 16-18. posterior. No. and pedicle views of a large typical specimen. Composita zone. Paratype.N.N.M. brachial.. X I. Figs. 19-21. brachial. bicostata Cooper.M. x '^> hypotype. 8o6h. U. No.N. 8o6i. Figs. U. No. large and typical individual. No. 59-63. . 48 C. Figs. loc. loc. der individual. x i. side. Figs. 99 Figs. loc. horizon and 50 locality same as figures 32-35. U. pedicle. tively. 8o6h. pedicle. Anterior. 8o6c. posterior. Brachial.M. anterior view showing crura. paratype.M. 1 15535. posterior. x 2. I. anterior.M. X I) horizon and locality same as figure 49-53. U. 8o6g. 11-15. Wellerella rotunda Cooper. Anterior. and pedicle views of a U.

42-46. pedicle. and brachial views of a slightly crushed specimen. paratype. 49. 51-54. U. in Figs.M. U. Anterior. 24. pedicle. No. Fig. No. 37-41. horizon and same as figures 28-31. Brachial interiors. 115543b. Brachial view of a small individual.. x i. Figs. U.S. Figs. and brachial views of a well- formed but small individual fairly typical of the specimens taken from the lower Spiriferellina zone.M.S. D. 24. side. Wellerella species loc. U. 806b. x i- Horizon and locality same 51 as figures 23.M.N. B. Fig. 48. pedicle. horizon and lo- cality same Figs.M. and posterior views of an obese individual. 25-27. show foramen and paratype U. loc. Beak of a large specimen magnified X3 to deltidial plates. new spe- X i» Cancrinella zone. paratype.S. 8o6i. Paratype. U. 115542a. side. Anterior. having three costae horizon and locality same as figure 49. X i. horizon and locality same as figures 28-31. Composita zone. Pedicle.M. 115547a. Fig. Composita grandis Cooper. I. U. pedicle. No.M. brachial. 9-13. U. U. loc. 19-22.M. 28-31. loc.G. representing a possible cies. respectively. and brachial views of a fairly large specimen. showing hinge plate and crura. side. side. Side. Figs.S. 115542b. No. 54 Figs.. 8o6h. Pedicle.N.N. 50. 15546. side.N.S. U. to show foramen and plates. anterior. paratype. paratype. 115545. No.S. X if Composita zone. 14-18. anterior. 115543c. and brachial views of a well-formed specimen. No. posterior. Anterior.100 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. No. No.M. new species 17 56 Figs. and side views of a paratype. C.S. 6-8.N. pedicle.S. x 3. 47. loc. No. x i. No. 32-36. 115541. and posterior views of the holotype. lower Spiriferellina zone. locality x i.N.S.M. loc. paratype. pedicle. posterior. side. and brachial views of the U. No. 115591.S. 1 15544. 8o6g. Brachial. 1-5. paratype. X i» horizon and locality same as figures 28-31. X 1 Ij lower Spiriferellina zone.M. new species Figs. side. Figs. I.N. anterior. and side views of a rotund individual hav- ing two costae in the sulcus. side. Fig. Wellerella lemasi minor Cooper. U. paratype.N. posterior. new subspecies 52 loc. Wellerella lemasi Cooper. 1 15536. as figures 28-31. anterior. 23. 115543a.M.N. brachial. 8o6h2. . anterior. ii5S47b. I X J Figs. posterior. respectively. Plate A.N. zone. deltidial No.S. pedicle. and brachial views. 8o6r.M. x i.S.N. the sulcus. Figs. lower Spiriferellina x i and x 2. No. Anterior. Brachial. loc. of a paratype. Anterior.G. 8o6h. Brachial view of a well-preserved specimen. X i.N. Brachial. and pedicle views of an unusual specimen having a single costa in the sulcus. holotype.M. II9 Figs.M. Beak of same enlarged.M. 8o6g.N.S. U.

Brachial. and brachial views of a paratype. species Figs.S. posterior.G. 115521. 1 15522. of and brachial views. posterior. U.M.M. side. 8o6h. Res- toration indicated in figure 26. Figs. posterior. No. X 2.S.N. and pedicle views of a large adult. 8o6h'. paratype. Fig. and anterior views.M. paratype. Fragment of posterior part of brachial interior showing hinge plate. anterior. 115566b.NO. X I. 115520.S..G. 11-15. 1 1 -15. Brachial i 64 and posterior views of a very imperfect specimen.N. brachial. Posterior. 8o6i.N. Figs. Composita zone. Posterior. Pseudomartinia martinesi Cooper. of a narrow specimen resembling the above variety. paratype. brachial. respectively. Brachial x i- Horizon and locality. x i. X and I. 115566a. U.M. . X I. paratype. Figs. x i- Horizon same as figures 1-5. brachial. respecof a large individual. x i. the ridges supporting the crural bases and the thickenings along the U.M. Figs. Composita grandis Cooper. side. anterior. 10. 24-26.Horizon and locality. 1-5. 115516.M. brachial. 16-20. 59 young individual. and anterior views of a broad young individual. loc.G. paratype. Horizon and locality same as figures 1-5. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES new species lOI 56 B.M.S. 115517. X i> Composita zone. pedicle. respec1 a well-formed individual. and pedicle interior showing. pedicle.N. Horizon and same as figures 1-5.S. I. and brachial views. anterior. loc. Cancrinella zone (?). paratype. 22. pedicle. 8o6h. Figs. No.N. No. No. tively.S. 1-5. 23. posterior. 16-18. Side. Figs. side. No. loc. U.N. Anterior. x i.M.M. x iHorizon and locality same as figures 11 -15. U. Left side partially restored. U. and pedicle views of a same as figures 1-5..N. X i> Composita zone. respectively. No. Plate 19 A. paratypes. and pedicle views of a large individual. 6-10. 115567b.M. 8o6r. locality U. posterior.S. loc.N. Figs. Composita zone. same as figures 7-9. 115493a. holotype. No. loc. sita zone. U. No. Plate Composita grandis Cooper.S. type. x ^> Composita zone. paratype. loc. Brachial.N. side. loc. Figs. 8o6h. 806c. Brachial view of a large slightly distorted specimen. locality 15565. 6. locality Horizon and B. and pedicle views of a young but fully grown specimen with narrow fold. Side. U. I. 7-9.N.N. tively. Spiriferella. side.M. side. Nos. same as figures 1-5. No.S.S. the paratype. 6-10. Pedicle.M. 115567c. U. Fig. new species 18 56 Figs.. anterior.M. paratype. No. Pedicle. new species Figs. 21.S. Composide. dental ridges. holo- Fig. 115567a. x 2. U.M. I. Fragment of shell showing fine radial lines that appear on worn portions of the valve.

loc..N. No. anterior.N. Fig. IIQ Fig. F. loc. 115496a. X I.G. 34. Figs. species Fig. and brachial views of the holotype. I.M. Spiriferellina zone. Small and large fragmentary brachial valves. as figures 24-26.S. 22.S.M. No. Fig. posterior. No. Side. Dictyoclostus zone. respectively. loc. 115557c.M. horizon and locality same as figures 28.M. of a smaller specimen.N. Plate 20 A. Figs. species 2 64 Figs. Portion of a pedicle valve showing the broad plications. x 2. 8o6b. 8o6k. Pedicle and brachial views of a specimen with the posterior i> horiportion of both valves. x i. D. paratype.N. x i> ^wi- danthus zone.M. X I. Hustedia meekatm new subspecies 66 Figs.N.M. 8o6d. No. 5. and pedicle views of an imperfect specimen. side.M. C. 25. men. 30-32. U. Posterior. Figs. X i. 21.N. 15498. U.102 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. holotype. Hustedia elongata Cooper. posterior. loc. X i- Horizon and locality same as figures 6-10.S.M. i 60 sulcus. Figs.S. Figs. No. No. 29. 115560a. Figured specimen. plicatella Cooper.M. No. 8o6i. U. x i- Horizon and . pedicle.M. horizon and locality same as figures 28. 115492a. 28. 11-15. upper Cancrinella zone. Pedicle. of a complete specimen.N. 115559. Neospirijer. 35. x i. C. I) Anidanthus zone. Pedicle view of an imperfect pedicle valve. 115557b.G. No. X B. paratype. 29. 115492b. hypotype. U. Side. X I- Horizon and locality same as figure 25. anterior. 16-19. 115493b. 61 Fragment of a large pedicle locality same as figure 25. I. pedicle.N. X i) U. 23. Hustedia meekana ( Shumard) and brachial views of a large speci- 65 Figs. 27. Spirijerella..S. species 2 Fig. 6-10. respectively. paratype. 20. Brachial view of same. valve.M. X I. and interior views of an imperfect pedicle valve. I. Side and brachial views of the holotype. No. Fragmentary pedicle valve showing the median 1 U. Spirijerella? scobinoidea Cooper. 24. horizon and locality same new species 62 Figs.S. x zon and locality same as figures 28. U. upper part of Spiriferellina zone. and side views.S. Figs. U.M.S. 8o6n. hypotype. 15556. X ^. I. U. 1-3. 27.S. anterior. 1 new species 67 4.. E. loc.M. Horizon and locality same as figures 16-19. No. 8o6n. and brachial views. Neospirijer. 23. Side. 26.M. 29.N.M. U. and U.S.N. of a specimen lacking the front half. loc. brachial. Anterior. 28. paratype.N. pedicle. brachial.G. Posterior and interior views. side.G. No. 29.S. 115491.

posterior.S. 115488b. 115490. No. x i- Fig. I. 806b. 27. 25. Spirijerellina zone. I. D. x i. Fig.S. Posterior end of a brachial valve showing crural bases and cardinal process. x i> upper Cancrinella zone.G.M. and brachial cardinalia. respectively. U.N. 115551a. 12. and brachial views calated on sides of fold and sulcus.G. X I. loc. 1-5. U.Horizon and locality same interior I. pedicle.. 8061.S. x i- Horizon and lo- same as figure 21. show scattered U. Punctospirijer convexa Cooper.M.. Figs. 115551b. B. Dictyoclostus zone. new species 69 Figs. Brachial and half side views.M. as figure 21. I. 806k. Fig. U. 68 and pedicle views. cf . No. new species 67 Figs. 17. posterior. Pedicle. showing costae interparatype. 18-20. x i> Spirijerellina zone. Enlargement. hypotype. paratype. X i> loc. 115487b.M.M. loc. and pedicle views of a small paratype. respectively. No. C. No. X 2. No.S. No. Plate 22 A. paratype.N. 22. No. Brachial view of a large individual.S. tively. X i> Spirijerellina zone. Spirijerellina laxa (Girty) Figs. Fig.S. respec- U. 7-1 1. 1 15486. dental ridges. Brachial and pedicle views of a wide individual. No. of a complete specimen.NO. side.M.M. prolongatum Girty 75 Brachial view showing the labiate foramen.N. 2-6. Anterior.N.N. Spirijerellina sonorensis Cooper.M. 8o6b. same as figures 13-15.M. paratype. respecof a small specimen. loc. loc. x showing lamellose ornamentation. side. hypotype.S.N. and anterior. paratype. Spirijerellina zone.G. of the pedicle showing the large and elevated median septum. cality U.G. U.S. 22. Dielasma Fig. View from the anterior looking at the cardinalia and showing the delthyrial cavity. and brachial views. 115488a. Side. posterior. Spirijerellina zone. paratype.Horizon and locality same as figure 21. Fig. 26. hypotype. 6. Side view of interior of a specimen with both valves in contact. figure I.. Fig. Pedicle. Posterior. 16. 806b. x IHorizon and locality same as . U. x i. 3> 115495.N. Horizon and locality Figs. 115487c. U. U. 21. of the holotype.M.N.M. 8o6d'. tively. Fig.S. hypotype. 13-15.M. No.M. brachial.M. Interior of pedicle valve of a mucronate specimen showing hinge points and median septum. No. X I. loc..N. brachial. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES Plate 21 IO3 A. locality x ^^ Horizon and same as figures 1-5. 8o6d'. Anterior portion of beak restored. paratype.N. anterior. brachial. loc. I.S. Part of surface of brachial valve enlarged to pustules. Figs. Figs. Horizon and locality same as figure 21. X I- Intercalated costae may be seen at the anterior end of the fold and sulcus. 115487a. median septum. 24. anterior. paratype.

posterior. 7. 8o6i. Fig. 1 15485. showing the dental plates and cardinalia of the braU.S. Spiriferellina sonorensis Cooper. 41-45.S. B. new 74 14. com- U. Figs. Brachial. plate. I. Brachial and pedicle views (30 and 31. brachial.N.N. U.M. Spirijerellina zone. paratype. No. Cancrinella zone. Interior showing a well-preserved loop and hinge plate. species x i- Anterior margin restored in plaster. 1 15529.. No. Dielasma floresi Cooper. loc. I. 4 miles northeast of Hess Ranch. and hinge zone. contrerasi.S. Anterior and brachial views of a deeply sulcate individual. D. Side. to show descending lamellae of loop Paratype U. No. 12-14. x 2. anterior. side. rangle. for U.. Enlargement of portion of surface showing large puncta X where outer layer is worn away. new species y^ and brachial views of an immature individual. pedicle. and posterior views of a paratype.M. brachial. 115507. and posterior views U. 15-19.M. 8o6g. 1 15553. No. 38-40. 1 15508. U. 32 enlarged. paratype. 25. 806b. Cancrinella zone. E. Heterelasma contrerasi Cooper. Brachial. new species of 69 the holotype. paratype. Anterior. Word Quad71 formation. 8o6g. pedicle.S. large paratype. 7-1 1. tively. new species Figs. Plate 23 A. 1 15509.M. 8o6f. Figs. F. holotype. X I) lower Spirijerellina zone. locality x i- Beak partially restored.M. Spirijerellina zone.S. posterior. VOL. I.G. X 2.S. Figs. No. Heterelasma contrerasi Cooper. 8o6i. Anterior. U.M. enlarged 8o6f. loc.M. Glossothyropsis 71 magna Cooper.N. loc.N. Hess Canyon Tex. No. loc. spatulatum Girty y^ Figs. and pedicle views of plete individual. No. Figs. U. Figs. x 2. 1 15489. 115555. chial valve. loc. No.N. brachial. 806b. 30-32. lower Spirijerellina 8o6h2. loc.N. Glass Mountains. hypotype. loc. Brachial. 33-37. Side. U.S. C.M.M.N. Spirijerellina zone. pedicle.G. 8. 26-28.M. 123297. No. 115552. posterior.N.S. and brachial views of a young individual.G. X i.S. . Heterelasma species loc.M.S.N. loc. loc. pedicle. Figs. pedicle. x i. x i> lower Spirijerellina zone.M. and posterior views of a Horizon and and side views. 8o6b. Dielasma SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS cf. 20-24.M. anterior. paratype. U. loc. side. 8o6d. No. 4-6. respec- same as figures 12-14. I. paratype. Exterior and interior views of a fragmentary specimen. Figs. No. of the holotype. 1-3. x ^i Spirijerellina zone.N.S. x i) of a broken specimen. pedicle. comparison with those of H. side. 8o6f. loc. new species Figs. x i> Spiriferellina zone. Fig. paratype.N. anterior. X4> 72 upper Spiriferellina zone.. II9 D. Figs. 29. Figs. side. Side.104 B. and brachial views of a well-preserved individual. 115S30C. Pedicle.M. x i> lower Spirijerellina zone. Compare with figure 25. and anterior views of an elongate individual.

U.S. loc. x i- Fig. 11 6638.S. 8o6g.N.M. Fig. Horizon and locality same as figures 13-17. Plate 24 A. 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATES young speci- IO5 Figs. tively. x I. x i.M. x i. respeci> U. Anterior. X 2. 116636. showing the nature of the C. 115531a.S. dorsal. 1-4. Brachial. ventral. No. 8o6h. 13-17. Nuculana obesa White Figs. and anterior views of a men having a deeply concave anterior margin. No. and side views. No. E. enlargement (23). loc. x 2. looking into the cup and showing septa and columella. tively. No. 8o6i. Pleurophorus sonorensis Cooper. brachial.M. U. side. respectively. Interior views of two brachial valves showing hinge plate and median septum. ventral. loc. cate paratype. type. .N.M.N.S.S. Brachial view of a large. Spiriform of the loop thickly U. 1 15526. x i> holotype. x i- Cancrinella zone. 8o6g.N. paratypes. and anterior views. U. Lophophyllidium species Fig. 8o6i. 1 x i> hypo- U. Anterior. 79 new species 78 Figs. new species Figs.N.N. X Composita zone. 25. of a complete specimen. respectively. Plagioglypta canna Figs. left. paratype. and left views. loc. loc. of the holotype. 19. of a 78 i. Side view of the interior showing the encrusted by quartz crystals. dorsal. 10-13. of partially restored specimen. 26. loc.M.* 17. holotype. 27.N. dorsal. Figs. Anidanthus zone. Horizon and locality same as figures 24. U. Small slab covered by hexagonal sponge spicules of several sizes. 115584a. anterior.M. 115580a. 9-12. x 2.M. loc. 10-18. U. paratype. 18-21. No. of the beak of same showing mesothyrid Paratype. X U.N. pedicle.S. 115576a.N. Brachial. U. (White) 79 Two views of a large but incomplete specimen.N. Right. of and anterior views. respectively.S. 23. No. 25.S. and right side. Schisodus parvulus Cooper.M.S. 9. D. 8o6n. 28. side. No. Dictyoclostus zone. 22. 1-9.N. 806-0. 8o6g.N. No. U. respec- a nearly complete and perfect specimen.S. Spirifcrellina zone. 1 . Dorsal. respectively of another complete and larger specimen. 21 Fig. 15575 14-16. and ventral views. 806m'.Horizon and locality same as figures 13-17. Figs. and a plasticine replica of the interior prepared from the mold and teeth.S. 29-32.S.M. posterior. U. pedicle. U. No.M. paratype. posterior. Figs. well-formed specimen (22) and foramen. left side of the holotype.N. X I.M. 11 5527. X2.M. 20. 5-8.b. Nos. iiS53ib.M. View I. No. Sponge x hypotype. ventral. impression of the interior 18. loc.S. C. showing mold of teeth. 20 ferellina zone.M. x i> paratype. No. B. U. right.S. Figs. 24. 16637. complete specimen. ii5530a. No. and pedicle views of a deeply sulx i. left.N. right. No. 115583. loc. Side view of an average specimen. 23. 1 15528.NO.

No. .M.N. 85 A U. 86 Apertural. respectively. 116630. respectively.S. Anterior and apertural views of another specimen. 1-8.N. The hills on the right extend to the east. x IJ 12. showing notch and revolving lines. 13. same as preceding tilted to the side to show revolving lines and in apertural view. 25. respectively. X I. No.M. Dorsal.S. No. C. x hypotype. respectively. x 2. 8o6d. Mill Hill is at the end of the latter mass. and posterior views. Fig. Plate 25 A. and another view showing trace of septa. 5.S. No. The hills in the background are the Monos Hills.M. Apertural. lectotype. showing selenizone. X I and X 2. No. Waagenoccras dieneri Bose Figs. species Figs. 1 16635. Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella 88 Figs. Leiorhynchoidea-Cancrinella zone.S. X 2.N. oblique. Utah. apertural view of the same specimen. side. and apertural views.N. Fig. View looking northeast from El Antimonio mining settlement.N. E. 32. hypotype. Utah. view of another but larger pleurotomarian. Orthonychia. Spiriferellina zone. loc.N. 116625. x 2. of a small specimen. species A U. Views of a poorly preserved individual.S. 8o6f. Permian. 9-1 1. 8. X I. B. U. Omphalotrochus(f). 24. 8o6m. loc. G.N. and side views. Posterior view of an incomplete specimen. of a poorly preserved specimen. near Beehive Point. loc. Anidanthtis zone. 8o6t.N. Vermillion Creek.I06 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1 17995. Horseshoe Canyon. No. 24. Pleiirotomaria{?) species B. species A U. Spiriferellina zone. 1 90 16629.M.M. . which form a crescent. A. No. greater detail. No. U. U. View of a specimen tilted slightly to the side to show the nodes on the anterior part of the shell. 26.S. 14. hypotype. 116632a. 1-3. No. 9-12. 28-31. loc. U. 6. loc. posterior view of same specimen. a small specimen. F. x Spiriferellina zone.M.S. U. The gap in the center is at about the maximum curvature of the crescent. U.S. Aubrey formation. 8o6g. X 2. of a fairly well-preserved individual. those on the left to the northwest. Straparollus(t). Warthia. side. 28-32. i- 89 Figs. x i.N. 21-23. dorsal. 8o6i.M.S.M. Pleurotomaria ( ?) Figs. 116633a. zone. No. 116628. 8o6i.M. species A U. showing the aperture in loc.M. Euphemites snbpapillosits (White) Figs. Posterior. D. The settlement in the foreground is underlain by Triassic rocks. 4. II9 D.S. loc. 27. 25. 116627a. x 2. Highest Permian. Uinta Mountains. umbilical. 81 ii species A and B species 87 Pleuroto-maria(f). 15207a. X I.N. 7.






4 Orbiculoidea. NO. PL.) .SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. and Streptorhynchus (see explanation of plates at end of text. 119. Derbyia. 2.

5 Derbyia (see explanation of plates at end of text.) . 2. 119.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. PL. NO.

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.) . PL. NO. 119. 6 Marginifera and Chonetes {see explanation of plates at end of text. 2.

2.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.i^^'cM^jf' ' 'SjTJ^V 'VvM V- '''. NO. PL. 119.'.<1.>'' i^^:p 5^ / m i( X Heteralosia. 7 Jy. and Anidanthus (see explanation of plates at end of text.) . ^/ . Cancrineula.

* •-' -V. 119.:^r ff--* -Jt' -. NO. PI j^fr. 2. '»• « .' • -^^S3**iW SI'S •. •- iM I « ^ \J ^ .SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.^.

• .MITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. PL.-&\.- -:-^ . NO.-. 9 . 119. 2.-^^^ -.

*<'S 'f -^ .SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 119.^ \f-i i. 2."#c'^ 7 . 1^ - - -^^ "^^ '^^ ^^mm. NO. .





PL.) . 15 Rhynchopora and WELLERELUA (see explanation of plates at end of text. 119. 2.^ITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. NO.

16 Wellerelua (see explanation of plates at end of text. 119.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 2.) . NO. PL.




PL.) . and Neospirifer (see explanation of plates at end of text.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. NO. Hustedia. 20 Spiriferella. 2. 119.





AND ORTHONYCHIA El Antimonio Mining Camp with Monos Hilus in Background (see explanation of plates at end of text. "y>»*r''»''vjS^'' *->^ > - - * EUPHEMITES.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 25 ^"^'S'^. >ir.) . PL. NO. 2. 119. !".^K^^iiS^iti ^MCOMfi^SKB^^^t* C- . 2 *^. «. i^ wjLit - jf. . ^ X^k 11 -' 8 fa .- ' — . WARTHIA.


2g. E. pi. 25. pis. 58 grandis. 75. 9 Composita gigantea. robusta. pi. pi. 74. depressus subsp. 48. 27. 7. 51. 23 occidentalis. pi. 25 gibberulus. 4 alatus. 38. 2 Composita bed. Francisco. 20 Cooper. 18 Heteralosia hystricula. 33 invesi. I. 45. G. 78. 75 ^5. 74 4. 36 waagenianus. 77 Leiorhynchoidea. 87. Composita zone. pi. 72 sp. R. pi. 23. 28 foshagi. 22 spatulatum. 69. 30 phosphatica. 48. pi. 35. 59 Gomez. 10 33. S8. 79. kaibabensis. 11. 70. 22. 42 4. 23. 4. 13. 66. i. pi. 23 71. bassi. 45 57. 6 monosensis. 56. shumardianum. 38. Dielasma floresi. 80. 64. 43. 62. 31. Gamusa beds. pi. Arellano. 45. 27. Anidanthus zone. 41. 42. 34. pi. 74 (first). 72 ? W. 9. 30. 22 prolongatum. plicatella. Dr. 5. 72 meekana Keller.. 59. 26. 33 4. pi. 69. 30. 43. 34. 41. 57. 2S. pi. 90 2. elongata. 3:3. 24. 9. 43 Elivina. 72 magna. 46. 48. 58 mexicana. 56. regularis. pis. 11. 60. i Glossothyropsis. 5 5. 48. 57. 22 4 55. V. 73. 5. 68. 8. 22 7 Cancrinella zone. 22. 70. 43. pi. 7 Heterelasma contrerasi. 2 Cryptacanthia.. 88. 89 109 .. 35. 28 pi. 22 12 Hustedia elongata.. G. depressus. 58. 38. 19. 66. 5. 37. 61. 76. 6 Euphemites subpapillosus. 63. Flores. pi. 28 Cloud. 29 mira. Teodoro. 64 Chonetes deliciasensis. 2 robusta. 53. 74. 59 plana. 23 Composita. 66. 7 Dictyoclostus. 26. 65. 33. 40. A. pi. 12. i Camarophoria crumena. 56. 9... 52. 43. 56 Cancrinella cancrini. 64. pi. 76. 77 Dictyoclostus zone. 20 Contreras. 6 phosphoriensis. A. Derbyia arellanoi. 80 Caborca Division. 20 meekana. 45 Leiorhynchoidea and Cancrinella zones. 79. 22. 52. 32.INDEX (Principal references are printed in italics) Anidanthus. 64. II. P. 72 Cyrtorostra. 72. 59 Aviculopecten montpelierensis. 50. 67. 38. 21. pis. 17. 10.. 72. 32 33 deminutivus. T.. 23. 63. 77. 36 Athyris roissyi. 2. Jr.

63. 82. 68 pi. 15 taylori. 23 Spiriferella. 56 Stoyanow. 22 utahensis. pi. 36 34. Hills. pi. Pugnax. 21. 18. 24 Spirifer (Elivina) sulcifer. 88. I. 64. 8. 10. magnirugosa. 4 Parafusulina bed. 89 antimonioensis. pi. pi. sp. 2 . 28. 49. pi. 24 Torres. 45 pinguis. taylori rotunda. 50. pi. Sponges. pi. pi. 79. Neospirifer bakeri. 44. Rhynchopora. 37. 77 Plagioglypta canna. pi. 53. B. 2 5. 79 sonorensis. 20 Marginifera popei. 2. 2. parvulus. 19 3 74. VOL. sp. sp. 12. 38. II9 Leiorhynchoidea cloudi. 14 deliciasensis. 48. pis. 36 pi. 3 sp. 20 20 7S. pi. pi. pi. 61 costellus. pi. J5. 6^.. 72. 64. subrugosa. 21 4 4 A. 35. 52 Linoproductus. 79 ferrieri. 5. pi. 90. 69 Orbiculoidea ovalis. 14. pi. 87. 9. 12 pis. (?) sp. 20. 65. pi. I. 75. 21 haarnianni. K. 16 virgata. pi. 10. I. 47. 12. 71. pi. 4. 41. 41. sp. 29. 79. 2. J. 18 venustum. 14 Leiorhynchoidea zone. 36. 43. 77 9 Schizodus concinnus. 42 Pseudomartinia martinezi.. 19 Malonophyllum. 49. 29 Pectinoid pelecypods. 18 megalospheric form. sp. A. sp. 61. angustata. sp. 24 Streptorhynchus 4. (?) scobina. 38. 24 Spiriferellina. 24 rugosa. 86. pi. 79. 5. 79 pinnaformis. S7. 75. pi. 69. 48. Orthotetes sulcus. (?) sp. 6 i Monos Monos 15 beds. il 11. pis. californica. 77. Nuculana obesa. 60 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Pleurophorus mexicanus.. sp. 21. pi. 54 Pugnoides. ^4. 12 Lophophyllidium. 63 (?) scobinoidea. 23 Productus geniculatus. 64 60.. Manuel. 76. 24 87. 70. 24 77 sp. 23 Parafusulina. pi. 25 Spiriferellina zone. 38 Lemas. A. 60 Martinia rhomboidalis. 19 sp. convexus. 39.. 70. 2. 49. 15 Muirwoodia Myalina. 21. I. 39. 20. 35. 35. <SS. 42 multistriatus. pi. 40. A. 33. pi. 66. 10 Strophalosia. 22 Orthonychia. 2. Pleurotomaria (?). 89.. 5. 5. 69 laxa. 2. 21 Miller. 13. A. 68. pi. 59. 6 6 Martinez Portillo.. pl- n 41. 19 sp. 63. 67. 77 I. 88 A. 57. pis. sp. Nucula. 78. pulchra. 7 sp. 30 Liosotella. ^g. 20 Omphalotrochus (?). 47 bicostata. Mill Hill. C.. i Straparollus ( ?). 21 18 Stenoscisma sp. 71 sonorensis. 15 microspheric form. 6. pi. 79 pi. 7. 69. ^^.. 64 pi. 49. 45 Punctospirifer billingsi. 61 sp.

pl. 53. pl. ^i*. theobaldi.^5 sp. pulchra. 15. Waagenoceras zone. 54. A. 52. 43. pi. 2. 53. 47. 53. pl. 55. 22. pis. 50. 81. INDEX ? III Warthia. 13 lemasi minor. 46.. 86 sp. 47 pi. P'. 54 hemiplicata. 2 Uncinunellina jabiensis. 55. 5^. 54. 47 14 25 Waagenoceras. 51. 47.. 52. 81 Wellerella.NO. 24 16 lemasi. 16 rotunda. pl. dieneri. 21 Waagenoconcha montpelierensis.16 2. 44. americana. 55. pl- 16 . 86. 86 kingi.




E. H. 1958 . Miller John (Publication 4313) CITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AUGUST 8. Sanders Brookes Knight Arthur K. NUMBER 3 (End of Volume) Cijarleji ©. Easton J.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOLUME 119. anli jUarp "Faux OTaltott jf unli ifleSeartl) FAUNA IN NORTHWESTERN SONORA MEXICO MISSISSIPPIAN (With Nine Plates) By W.


Miller John (Publication 4313) CITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AUGUST 8. 1958 . E. Easton J. NUMBER 3 (End of Volume) CfjarleS 2i. Sanders Brookes Knight Arthur K. H. anlr jWarp "^nux Sllaltott Jf unlr S^ejieartf) FAUNA IN NORTHWESTERN SONORA MEXICO MISSISSIPPIAN (With Nine Plates) By W.SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOLUME 119.


Soc. Pleospongia. Mr. pp. Smithsonian Misc. pp. Trilobites. 11-13. Duncan. Pre-Cambrian algae and a few Devonian species are the only other fossils collected by the expeditions of 1943 and 1944. L. p. No. pi. 9. Pelecypoda.B. Bowsher's opinion that the fauna of the eastern Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology near Caborca. Mississippian formations of southwestern Mexico. 24D Gastropoda. Corals. figs. . The original collection of 59. 22. 36-48.B. J. 1-88. 1949.C. A. Mexico. by G. northwestern Sonora. 60-101. Johnson.. The faunas of the Cambrian and Permian sediments have already been published. Coll. Laudon of the University of Wisconsin. pis. 24E. 60. 21-80. 119. 1953: Stratigraphy and faunal zones. 1-23. 14. and Scaphopoda. Stoyanow. 1-3. Cooper and A. 7-10. western Sonora. by V. pis. pp. Mexico. 27-35. Amer. Sponges. pp. 119. by G. K..C. Smithsonian Misc. Mississippian rocks occur in a limited area. by H. V. pi. pi. 1-13. pp. Some excitement resulted from the early report of Cambrian in an area that had hitherto been thought to contain mostly Mesozoic rocks. vol. R. Mississippian. by C. A giant Permian fusuline from Sonora. pp. pis. Knight. 2 pis. R. Lochman. Cooper.. Stratigraphically the Sonora Mississippian offers nothing unusal and can be correlated satisfactorily with Mississippian strata of the Great Basin Province of the United States. V. New Laudon. pp. by C.FOREWORD This is the third of a series of descriptive papers on the paleontology of the rocks exposed in the vicinity of Caborca. and Permian. Okulitch. . pis. 25A. 81-82. Cooper. R. The work in Sonora was undertaken to establish a Paleozoic se- quence in that region. and Bowsher. however. 4-24A. Bowsher pian of southern has studied intensively the fossils and stratigraphy of the MississipNew Mexico where a fine fossiliferous sequence has been described by him and Dr. Sonora. pi. H. 1952: Introduction and stratigraphy. Dunbar. pis. vol. United States Geological Survey.^ 1 It is Mr. 1-7. 15-31. i.^ This description of the Mississippian fossils is the last extensive paper in the series. A. L. 20. by A. by J. by G. The easternmost of the produced a fair fauna but only a few fossils were found in the western hill. The work of A. by G. 24-26. O. A. I. figs.. Cambrian trilobites from Sonora. by A. pp. actually consisting The hills of two small hills about half a mile apart. pis. pi. Geol. Bowsher. A. Coll.. Arellano. 3. 8. A. 49- Permian fauna at El Antimonio. 1-5. These were sufficient for dating. by J. Brachiopoda. In connection with correlation of the fauna of the eastern is hill it of interest to note here that the Mexican fossils were examined by Arthur L. 14-19.. Brachiopoda. Cooper. figs. Miller. 2. Girvanella. 6. 2. Bull. vol. Cephalopoda. No. pp. 25D. B. pp. 83-90. Lowell R. Cooper of the Smithsonian Institution resulted in the discovery of Lower Cambrian and Devonian as well as confirmation of the presence of Middle Cambrian. A. pp. pp. Arellano of the Instituto Geologico de Mexico and G.

The middle portion of the eastern hill from which most of the fossils were taken contains much silica.iv FOREWORD VOL. Some were sufficiently large that they could be pieced together and thus saved. A. Thanks go him for his work on this poorly preserved part of the fauna. Many were lost in the process because they were seamed with small cracks and fell apart in the acid. Thanks are extended to Dr. Sanders of Yale University for his work on the Mississippian brachiopods of the Caborca area. Easton kindly studied them and their relationships to the Mississippian corals of western United States that he visited the Caborca region with a party of students from the University of South- ern California. therefore. freed. Preparation by Cooper of the Mississippian fossils from Sonora offered considerable difficulty. In New Mexico this forma- tion occupies a position intermediate allero formation between the Kinderhookian Caband the Osagian Lake Valley formation. Sanders has been studying the little-known sequences of Mississippian in eastern Tennessee and was thus able to bring his knowledge of this region to his study of these western Mexican fossils. This is a poor specimen at best. Arthur Cooper Head Curator. for describing the one specimen of cephalopod collected. The preparation of the specimens thus proved a laborious and time-consuming task. Easton and Sanders in their comments below emphasize the intermediate character of the Mexican fauna. Dr. H. the corals and became so interested W. Brookes Knight was unable to make good specific identifications of many of the snails. Dr. This separate expedition yielded additional material. II9 hill like those of the near Bisani. Indebtedness must be acknowledged to Dr. K. Miller. In spite of the difficulties a fair number of species was obtained. he was able to indicate the generic representation of the Gastropoda in a geographic area in which they are poorly known. In some of the silicious masses fossils were buried that could not be recovered. G. J. John E. These all proved to be silicified but the specimens on being freed from the limestone by acid were unusually fragile. Department of Geology United States National Museum . It is. in- teresting to note that a specimen of the large brachiopod Syringothyris was seen on the outcrop but could not be I take this opportunity to thank my in colleagues for describing the interesting fossils recorded here. but it is an interesting and important genus of the Mississippian. the fossils of which are described herein. Although Dr. are most Andrecito formation. to University of Iowa.

Mexico. by John E. Sanders Introduction 41 Acknowledgments Brachiopoda Systematics Suborder Dalmanelloidea Family Rhipidomellidae Family Schizophoriidae Suborder Strophomenoidea Family Leptaenidae Family Schuchertellidae Suborder Chonetoidea Family Chonetidae Suborder Terebratuloidea Family Dielasmatidae Suborder Rhynchonelloidea Family Camarotoechiidae Suborder Spiriferoidea Family Spiriferidae Family Athyridae Family Cyrtinidae Family Spiriferinidae Family Rhynchospirinidae : 42 42 42 42 43 44 44 47 49 49 SO SO 52 52 55 55 61 63 64 67 V . Arthur Cooper MississiPPiAN CORALS from NORTHWESTERN SoNORA. by G. by Easton Introduction iii W. H.CONTENTS Page Foreword. i I Acknowledgments Geology Relationships of the fauna i 2 7 lo Age of the fauna Geographic relationship of the fauna Systematics I2 13 13 Order Tetracoralla Family Cyathaxonidae Family Laccophyllidae Family Metriophyllidae Family Hapsiphyllidae Family Caniniidae Family Clisiophyllidae Family Lithostrotiontidae Family uncertain Order Tabulata Family Favositidae Family Syringoporidae References 13 14 20 22 27 30 31 33 36 36 37 39 41 Brachiopoda and Pelecypoda.

2. 4. Rotiphyllmn. Schuchertella. 8. 7. Pleurodictyum. Sketch map of the geology near Bisani. Platyschisma. Koninckophyllum. Sonora. Schisophoria. 6. and Schcllzvienella. strotionella. Trochophyllum. Girtyellaf. Borestus. Cyrtina. Hustedia. Dielasmoides? . Baylea. Triplophyllites. Miller Explanation of plates 79 81 ILLUSTRATIONS PLATES (All plates follow page 87. Bellerophon. and Syringopora. Neozaphrentis." Composita. by Arthur K. 5. Leptaena. Triplophyllites. and Punctospirifer. and of Mississippian Represo CONTENTS VOL. Mexico 3 5 2. Platyceras. Crurithyris. Diagrammatic cross section of the adoral portion 39 80 . Parallelodon. II9 Page Pelecypoda References 68 68 J. Straparolus. by Introduction Brookes Knight 73 73 7Z Systematics Cephalopoda. Camnophyllum. Stratigraphic section of Mississippian strata near Bisani 4. and Reticularia. " Cleiothyridina. and Cyrtospiriferf. and Plicochonetes. Perditocardinia. Dorsisinus. Girtyclla. Triboloceras. Cystelasma. Dielas- moides. and Phancrotinus. 3. Cyathaxonia. Conocardium. Litho- and Syringopora. Beecheria. Platyceras. Rhipidomella. Gastropoda. Lithostrotionella. Transverse section of several corallites in a colony of Syringopora tubifcra Easton Triboloceras diconum (Meek and Worthen). Tylothyrisf. 9. Rhineoderma. Camarotoechia.) 1. hill TEXT FIGURES Page 1. Caninia. 3.

NO. MEXICO By W. as well as with strata in Missouri (this latter resource being necessary in the earlier draft of the paper). MEXICO MISSISSIPPIAN CORALS FROM NORTHWESTERN SONORA. VOL. 1943 1944 course of geologic investigations carried on by them in the vicinity of Caborca in northwest Sonora. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer takes pleasure in acknowledging his indebtedness to Dr. Nevada. 2. 3 . 9C. During the years between first preparation of the report (1948) and now (March 1956) the writer has had many opportunities to study and collect from strata of similar age and physical character at numerous localities in California. and Utah. the to visit the Mexican locality himself study the stratigraphy first hand and to acquire duplicate corals with those was encouraged collections for the University of trip Southern California. anb iWarp ^aux Malcott ^eitavtf) jFunb MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA IN NORTHWESTERN SONORA. Arizona. Arellano during the by G. text figures 1-3) INTRODUCTION upon which this study is based was collected in and A. H. R. Cooper and A. In view of the significant similarity of these Mexican writer eventually in order to from the western United States. Easton University of Southern California (Plates I. Cooper of the United States National Museum for making available the specimens collected by Cooper and Arellano. these recent investigations also permit a close correlation of the coralline strata from Sonora first The material with deposits in the Great Basin of the western United States. Accordingly. He is indebted also to the following students from the University of Southern SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. This collecting was made in December 1955. G.€\)Ht\ti B. V. Mexico. A. 119.

shown herein C). II9 California for assistance in the field and for the use of equipment on this collecting trip R.5 mile west of the above-mentioned hill. The top bed shown is on the eastern face of the hill. . Nevertheless. hence. and rises 65 feet above the playa lake sils on its west side. The stratigraphic section on the main hill contains only 164 feet (53 meters) of strata. The fossiliferous portion of the outcrop consists mainly of a very cherty interval (unit 2 of the stratigraphic column) bounded by two lighter intervals.4 miles (2. disassociated brachiopod valves. D. this being the apparent order of succession. more from faith and less roads in moister climes. LoBue. as exist is generally true in the arid parts of western North America. presumably. Mexico. Pesci.3 miles (21. Financial assistance in this project was made available by the University of Southern California. as shown in text figure 2. For various reasons the solution of this elementary confounded. In addition to the above silicified fos- four more corals and a few brachiopods were collected from the north end of the small hill 0. clear-cut instances crossbedding or graded bedding such as would indicate order of super3 Incidentally. from the norththe positions of which are in text figure hill shown The most of the silicified fossils east fence corner of Bisani. Sherman. J. are testified to by broken problem is and waterworn corals. in otherwise fine- grained sediments.2 kilometers) road distance^ on a bearing N. R. Hammer. A description of the measured section of Mississippian is strata i^ miles west-northwest of Bisani. rural roads in this region. great variation the interpretation of parts of the road system may exist from ballast than do from time to time in (see plate 9. This hill is about 300 feet in diameter. from which were collected is located 1. Ingebrigtsen.2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. and occasional of truncated streaks of coarse fossil debris such as criquina. isolated hills. and R. is almost circular. : GEOLOGY The alluvial plain near Bisani laps up against various i. Bisani is 13. The physical features and paleogeographic significance of the section will be presented in a publication of the International Geological Congress (XX) which was held at Mexico City in September 1956. of shallow water. given below. or 2 miles west of Bisani. The action of occasional strong currents and the presence.3 kilometers) west of the southwest corner of the town of Caborca. The writer entertains the greatest doubts that the apparent order of is superposition as seen in the outcrops the actual order of strati- graphic succession. 71° W.

nor does he has visited the outcrop who was able N DEVONIAN LEGEND Qal II Qal =---- ALLUVIUM ROAD 72">v.. Some.DIP 11 /Qal >f— X.^. Moreeither to enable over.-SILURlAN?^> — Sketch map of the geology near Bisani. the faunas of the beds are not distinct enough evaluation of evolutionary changes or to enable correlation with the inadequately known faunas of the western United States. like Caninophyllum. discussions of the order of stratigraphic succession mostly concern the significance of orientation of corals present in various beds. so lithologic correlation is not possible. all trace of bedding in several places has been destroyed by brecciation and by alteration through either recrystallization or dolomitization. I. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. Almost enough all the simple zaphrenthid corals lie prostrate in parallelism with the bedding.':^^ I KM. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. Bottom markings or other details at bedding planes seem to have been obliterated by the extensive shearing and gliding coincident with the deformation of these strata. position were not seen by the writer. '<S<^'''^ ORD. in con- Older and younger strata crop out in the vicinity but not tinuity with these beds.FENCE LEVEE i ^yyyyy^^ CO Ml. nr Qal Fig.NO. CO ill fc^^^^c. As a matter of fact. removal of most of the One remarkable speci- . Mexico. Qal Sonora. As a result. also were abraded in locally strong currents to cause theca and thereby to expose the dissepiments. know of anyone who on these grounds to verify the structural attitude.

but chert amounts to about 75 percent of 3. 6 164 Total Base not exposed. bedding up to 6 inches. medium-grained to fine-grained. unfossiliferous 5. fine-grained. Limestone. 7 lay with their concave or is The writer did among about which he determined orientation. Limestone. It is easy to verify direction of growth on the outcrop by determining normally upwardly convex dissepiments or tabulae in the former case and by noting normally upwardly diverging new not observe a single colony of either genus right side up colonies. . coarse-grained 6. II9 men however. as in bed unit 3. 40 19 2. fossil remaining balanced on end amid evidence of strong current colonies of Lithostrotionella and Syringopora on the action. gray. Some other corallites in the latter case. which were directed up in life. Limestone. . 5 percent brownish weathering chert nodules Limestone. VOL. Numerous large hill are now oriented upside down. 5 percent dark gray nodular chert weathering reddish-brown. dark gray. fine-grained with medium-grained streaks.4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS of Caninophyllum on the east side of the main its hill. colonies seem to be resting on their convex. it is difficult to imagine this elongate Feet Top not exposed. calical surfaces. Although this aggregation may indicate that currents overturned a coral in a normal sedimentary sequence so that the Syringopora now points down. not only was oriented with tion but its long axis normal to the planes of stratifica- calyx it is encrusted with a spherical growth of Syringopora so as to make abnormally topheavy. unfossilferous. bluff-maker. cliffy western face of hill. 20 large colonies for however. mostly fine-grained. chert in nodules and beds. 1. seemed equivocal. the concavity of laminations in the bedding over the upwardly directed apex of the Caninophyllum seem to indicate downward depression of soft sediment during growth. bedding to 2 feet. dark gray. 20 5 Criquina. weathering light brown. Moreover. gray. bedding up to i foot. 3050 percent reddish-brown weathering. Of ii disassociated single valves of Perditocardinia for which orientation could be determined. 74 4. Limestone. 35 percent dark gray bedded chert. Evidence on orientation of fossils in the western Mississippian hill meager. dark gray. or necessary features could not be seen. increasingly fossiliferous up-section. In general. weathering light brown. .


therefore. Lithostrotionella is XX right side up. it should be remem- bered. This opinion is not shared by some or possibly even by any studied the field evidence. Those undififerentiated collections." The writer had an opportunity nomenon of mixed evidence of in coral colonies in Early same phePermian strata in Nevada. the physical evidence so in the case of the Mississippian strata near Fossils collected by Cooper and Arellano from various beds in the main hill are referred to herein as "undifferentiated" collections. O. the writer concluded that strata in both of these hills are structurally overturned and that apparent dips of 22° to 46° eastward should be interpreted as indicating the western limb of a westerly-overturned anticline. January 10. G. Cooper reports (correspondence. just a few weeks before the above discussions is it is Mexico. is in conflict with that revealed by the score or more of colonies studied by the writer. it developed that Dr. C. This is a common condition in Michigan where there are no structural complications and is simply evidence that the corals lived in rough water then as they to observe the do now. This evidence. cavo-convex objects a current-swept environment (that with their concave surfaces down). Dunbar definitely established on the excursion that one colony of International Geological Congress. and 3 as shown in text figure 2. Cooper informed the writer in conversation that most of the collections came from the cherty strata near the summit of the hill and that he did not collect from strata on the east slope. mostly came from unit 2 of the measured section. however. In view of the evidence presented in the three foregoing paragraphs. Dr. 2. II9 inner surfaces up and with their convex surfaces down. In none of these other instances. 1956) that elsewhere he has "seen coral heads several feet across over- turned with the bottom staring one in the face. Dr. Corals and brachiopods from units 2 and 3 were not . Collections made by the writer's party were differentiated as to units i. Along these lines. whereas only 4 single valves were observed in to retain the normal orientation of conis.6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. duhia) and of Caninophyllum sonorense in unit i and in the hills ^ mile west of the main Mississippian hill would indicate that these represent the same stratigraphic unit. strongly one-sided as Bisani. The presence of the same species of Perditocardinia (near P. and indicates that both orientations exist. A. although about a other geologists who have score of geologists examined the area in late August on excursion A-8 of the During a discussion of this subject by several paleontologists at section 7 of the Congress in Mexico City in early September 1956.

In addition. which would place them in normal position above the Represo beds. the writer has adopted the objective viewpoint and has presented the measured section. then Perditocardinia it has an earlier range in the Cordilleran region than has in the midcontinent United States. seems apparent that the so-called Venada beds with Perdito- i of text figure 2 and the so-called Represo beds with Kinderhook-Osage fauna are units 2 and 3 and presumably units 4-6 of text figure 2. nodules are located. 2). although interiors of some of the larger specimens calcite. for the In this case the various are is lines of evidence for structural overturning other hand. the writer thinks that evidence is equally strong that both of the hills are structurally inverted. plus a considerable corals. pp. 173 specimens are identified.NO. partial local silicification of the matrix. 137) without de- cardinia are unit the scription or designation of a type locality. pp. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. the col- lecting party from the University of Southern California obtained 137 . which is the way they appear in the outcrop. 1948. Replacement generally complete and homogeneous so that very tensive. found by the writer western one of the two Mississippian By p. Fine stringers of quartz or of calcite them commonly transect when prepared an acid bath. 136. correlating the writer's findings with statements et al. 136. RELATIONSHIPS OF THE FAUNA colonies. In view of the conflict of evidence. Silicification is best may contain considerable amounts of is nearest the surface. The known range of Perditocardinia indicates a late Meramec age Venada beds. causing in few specimens are coarsely beekitized. 1948. It is quite probable that this problem will is be solved as soon as the meager fauna of the Venada beds identified to the north in definitely as are available in more complete stratigraphic sequences such Nevada and California... Exwhere incipient chert has almost obscured morphologic features in some in the latter case to fall apart specimens. Material received by the writer included 188 individual corals or number of fragments of syringoporoid Of these. the fossils. These names (Venada and Represo) were proposed by Arellano (in Weller et al. it by Cooper (in Weller 610) 137) and by Cooper and Arellano (1946. On the the physical evidence valid. i) as if the beds are all in normal stratigraphic position. As a matter of opinion. The corals are nearly all siliceous replacements. 7 hills. however. if all invalid in this area. and index map (text fig. but is generally evident even in the centers of blocks. graphical stratigraphic section (text fig. SONORA at the —EASTON ET AL.

new species Rotiphyllum vesiculosum Easton. 1944. new species Cyathaxonia cordiller crisis Easton. Moreover. 50). new species Neozaphrentis tcnclla (Miller). Consider first the two previously described species. new species Syringopora. Joe limestone (both of Osage age in Mis- and at other localities of uncertain stratigraphic position. A list of the i8 species in the coralline fauna from the main locality follows Caninta comiculum (Miller) emend. 1891 Pleurodictyum siibramosum Easton. Easton is abundant in the Chouteau limestone of Missouri and souri). but the material does not justify making types of the specimens. is possible to make a reasonable correlation of the Mexican corals with some corals in the standard Mississippian section of the midwestern United States. II9 additional specimens which were identified plus a few which were not. five corals identified represent new species. known it In spite of the apparent scarcity of useful coral species. Caninia comiculum (Miller) emend. Illinois but also occurs in the Pierson limestone and St. Easton. Only two species are assigned to previously corals. p. new species Triplophyllites (Hontalophyllitcs) species Trochophyllum (Barrandeaphyllum) species Trochophyllmn (Trochophyllum) species It is apparent from the faunal list that most of the elements are only as "sp. 1944 Caninia species Caninophyllnm sonorense Easton. Consider next the new species Rotiphyllum occidentale is related to Rotiphyllum hians in lower and upper parts of the Chouteau limestone (unrestricted) of Missouri. new species Cystelasma invaginatum Easton. Neozaphrentis tenclla (Miller) is common and abundant in the Pierson formation of earliest Osage age. occidentale occurs commonly in the Great Basin of the . al- though within the limits of the beds cited (Easton. new species Rotiphyllum occidcntale Easton." certainly new species. new species Triplophyllitcs B {H omalophyUitcs) circularis Easton. new species Koninckophyllum species Lithostrotionclla confluens Easton.8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. new species Syringopora tubifcra Easton. It also is known from the Chouteau limestone at the Kinderhook-Osage boundary in Missouri. new species A Syringopora. R.

confluens and Lithostrofion microstylum White. LithostrotioneUa (Lithostrofion of authors) has been Genevieve limestones. which is the only related Kinderhookian coral. in addition to long overdue. The however. Cystelasma invaginatum other is known species. Syringopora tubifera has the same faults as the next preceding species. tantilla from from various other formations near the Kinderhook-Osage boundary Caninophyllum sonorense in the Mississippi River Valley. sedaliense from the Redfrom near the Kinderhook-Osage boundary in Missouri. 1944. species. (Homalophyllites) circularis is closely related to T. which may indicate a possible Osage age for the new species. namely. (H. . Called Cyrtospirijer? latior (Swallow) by Sanders. from the Chouteau limestone. but the systematics of these western cyathophyllid corals has not been worked out yet. Other species range in age from upper Kinderhookian younger and some occur even in upper Meramec strata. LithostrotioneUa confluens belongs to a genus whose stratigraphic range in North America has not been accurately determined. There is no practical similarity between L. It is which a revision of the syringoporoid corals not of great stratigraphic importance at present.NO. * 9 United States in association with Spirifer centronatus hook-Osage range. so this species very probably indicates Kinderhook age. p. The latter species occurs in the upper part of the Chouteau limestone (unrestricted) of Missouri (Easton. incrassatum wall limestone and C. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA.) pinnatus (Easton). Similar corals occur abundantly in the Monte Cristo formation and correlative strata in the Great Basin. Until fairly recently. Louis and is now known to occur well down in the Osage series. Rotiphyllum vesiculosum Triplophyllites is of Kinder- at present a stratigraphically insignifi- cant relative of R. considered an index of upper St. 1944. not well enough preserved to is Consider next the corals identified as "species" Caninia species •* is make it very useful. It seemingly an odd form not very closely related to is more primitive than species from simply another species in a genus of the Salem limestone of Indiana. It Meramec strata. is related to C. are flattened on the convex side. Pleurodictyiim suhramosum is long range and uncertain stratigraphic value. Cyathaxonia cordillerensis the Chouteau limestone and is very closely related to C. into the Osage. St. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. occidentale. 44).

as in the observed corals of this sort most commonly in the Great Basin. when Easton published a review of the Chouteau corals (1944) the precise stratigraphic positions from which each of the types came was not determinable in most cases. unrestricted. to the only other ler) . Trochophyllum {Trochophyllum) species and possibly Lithostrotionella confluens and Cystelasma invaginatum indicate an age younger than Chouteau. Trochophyllum (Trochophyllum) species is rather closely related known species Trochophyllum (T. they Dawn Limestone member of the Monte Cristo limestone. Koninckophyllum species not very close to the lower Mississipis pian K. AGE OF THE FAUNA Among the various corals known. A much larger form occurs in the Yellowpine member of supposed Meramec age in southern Nevada. new spe- A. in other words. The type Mississippian sections are not yet known well enough to permit accurate correlation of the Sonoran beds with them on the basis of corals. The genotype of Barrandeophyllum occurs in the lower Middle Devonian of Bohemia and other species are known from Russian strata equivalent to some of the lower lowan beds in North America. Triplophyllites {Homalophyllites) circularis. Syringopora. and was considered to span the Kinderhook-Osage boundary. the following indicate an age transgressing the Kinderhookian-Osagian boundary. Subsequently efforts have been started to re-collect the strata and to . and Neosaphrentis tenella.) declinis (Mil- from the Keokuk beds of Indiana. Accordingly. Trochophyllum {B arr and eophy limn) species belongs to a subgenus not previously reported from North America. new species is B are not diagnostic of subdi- visions within their late Paleozoic coralline genera. to the writer's knowledge. Where the writer has are generally pre-Meramec. For instance. II9 It known close relatives in North American Mississippian faunas. other than to indicate a general relationship with Tournaisian- Visean corals in the European succession. roughly the age of the Chouteau limestone (unrestricted) and the Pierson formation of Missouri: Caninia corniculum. Cyathaxonia cordillerense. and Syringopora. Trochophyl- lum {Barrandeophyllum) species. much of the fauna was assigned to the Chouteau limestone. glahrum from Missouri and so of uncertain significance at present. Triplophyllites cies (Homalophyllites) species. Rotiphyllum occidentale. Caninophyllum sonorense might indicate either Lower or Middle Mississippian age.10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS has no VOL.

on the east side of the northern Nopah Range in southeastern California. 72. but so far the fanua has only been cited infrequently. p. 84) indicate to those authors that the Chouteau should be raised to group rank and that its components. tantilla.NO. Sedalia. work (Beveridge and view formations. 28). and which indicate relationships with the Sonora fauna. Rhipidomella. the 28) where Dawn and Anchor limestone members are not readily separable. and Northportant Clark. and therefore the presence of Cyathaxonia in the Fern Glen lends additional weight to assigning the Sonoran strata a basal Osage age. 333 1954a. A revised Kinderhook range chart of species has not Cyathaxonia Triplophyllites {Homalophyllites) sedaliense. Triplophyllites (Homalophyllites) circu- Rotiphyllum occidentale. to the Kinderhook series. the Fern Glen is considered by Beveridge and Clarke (1952. 1954a. 1937. It is in normal strati- graphic succession above the Sultan limestone (Devonian) and be- neath the Anchor limestone (Mississippian). S. logani are noteworthy in both formations. Providence Mountains of California (Hazzard. and brachiopods such as Spirifer cen- tronatus. the evidence indicates that the Sonoran corals are about at the Kinderhook-Osage boundary and are most probably basal been published. 883. p. 1952. at least in part. the Compton. p. Lithostrotionella confluens. The first results ']6'. There. 275. Dawn limestone member is 350 feet thick. 274. Unpublished information available to the writer indicates that the . and then only in part (Hazzard. 1954b. p. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. pp. pp. insofar as the writer knows. of the coralline population is also of Kinderhook age. 84) the lower Pierson fauna Osage forms Caninia corniciilum. The is best place to collect this fauna. p. species as does the Mississippian section near Bisani. In any case. species. y6) to be correlative with the Pierson. p. They at the base of the Pierson lime- As contains the published by Spreng (1952. Caninophylliim {V esiculophyllum) it is not possible now to make an evaluation of how much. 1952. 883) the . if any. Schizophoria. so Osage. and Spirifer ci. Neosaphr cutis tenella. The writer has encountered the foregoing association of species in Mississippian strata over much of the Great Basin of the western United States. 332. of this im- Spreng. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. 1954b. II establish the ranges of the species on the basis of new collections referred to current stratigraphic usage. in Hazzard's measured section G-G' (Hazzard. Moreover. all should be referred place the Kinderhook-Osage boundary stone. The Dawn limestone member of the Monte Cristo limestone carries some of the same laris. member is of the Monte Cristo formation The fauna almost equally well represented in the p.

and Lithothe Rogers in strotioncUa are common). and in Australia. and Spring limestone in Utah in the Midridge limestone and .12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 146. of rare N eozaphrentis The presence of Osage Lithostrotionella. The Redwall limestone. Arizona in the Redwall limestone. 143) the Cyathaxonia. 1953. 142. almost certainly a bit younger in part than are the other formations (Easton and Gutschick. 1953. (3) some elements occurring as far east as western Europe. Caninophyllum. plophyllites (Homalophyllites) . (4) some elements from the western United States. pp. Nevada. 9). GEOGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIP OF THE FAUNA hand contains elements of all three Carboniferous by Hill (1948. pp. The approximate relationship of these various formations has been shown elsewhere (Eastern Nevada Geological Association. the foregoing formations may of the same precise age. compound. Utah. and Homalophyllites links the Sonoran deposits with other deposits in and bordering the Cordilleran geosyncline in California. the Mexican coral fauna consisting of (i) an isolated population some ubiquitous genera. is In summation. and and Cyathaxonia signify a distant connection with the Mississippi Valley seas. 121. and caniniid-clisiophyllid faunas. p. (2) a few elements char- acteristic of strata in the Mississippi Valley transgressing the Kinderhook-Osage boundary. and Australia. Owing to uncertainties about the precise not be is all ranges of the species in the Cordilleran region. Rotiphylhmi. lacking but characteristic of and Also common in the equivalent beds of the Mississippi Valley are any species of Clinophyllum. the Bristol Pass limestone. and Arizona. 147). for instance. eastern China. and Microcyathus. and of Caninophyllum. The presence of abundant Triof rather common Rotiphyllum. Noticeably absent from the collection are Cleistopora and Palaeacis. . . calceolid HomalophylUtcs. II9 fauna also occurs in Nevada in the Joana limestone member of the White Pine shale (where Rotiphyllum. and (5) some elements occurring as far west as central Russia. collection at facies faunas recognized The — Some species of these genera are characteristic of equivalent strata in the Mississippi Valley. The species of Trochophyllum signify relationships not only with Russian and Chinese seas but also with English seas all of the same general age. in western Europe.

counter.) has 33 subequal septa in an evenly concave calyx. coral.5 mm. mella is thickest where joined by the septa. above the calical floor. new species figures 14. i. and tapers to a point.7 mm. in length by 3 septal mm.C. The counter position is marked by axial fusion of three septa. . striae. 18 Diagnosis. upon the cardinal side of the next septum. The fig. diameter 2.0 mm. has 36 long septa arranged in pairs one septum of each pair here and there seems to be clearly contingent The holotype (pi. collection are about 10 mm. The columella Other long. and two alars. long and mm. figs. The calyx is 2.C.5 mm. One incomplete paratype in the U. Septa are spinose. No cardinal fossula is present. 17. Theca with grooves and encircling is Apical angle 25°. pi. by 3 mm. but at its terminus smooth. curved. lo mm.0 in the in U. ceratoid corals. Three have 32 septa and one has 28 septa. Externals. by 4 mm. The is colufree. 1847 CYATHAXONIA CYATHAXONIA CORDILLERENSIS Plate I. i. One of these has seven septa in each quadrant. cardinal septum on the convex side of the Calyces. plus the cardinal.NO. 18. . circular in cross section. diameter 3. — Cyathaxonia measuring about — Small. At the position of the very short cardinal septum of a fossula but is a large space which has every appearance may be the result of faulty preservation.S. observed. There are four groups of septa in each quadrant. with 32 spinose septa in adult stages. 17. in calical diameter. details obscured with matrix. Tabulae and septal spines not Four paratypes are about 3. diameter at the calyx. — One is specimen (a paratype.). I3 SYSTEMATICS Phylum COELENTERATA Anthozoa Class Order Tetracoralla Family Genus CYATHAXONIDAE Michelin. probably in 14. and oval in cross section. deep and the boss stands 0. Alar septa are indistinguishable from the other major septa. Easton. One is order of septa slightly shorter than the other.S. collection is now 17 mm. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. late maturity. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. but the loculus on the counter side of each septum is very slightly wider than the neighboring loculi.

and Syringaxon to be possibly synonymous. arcuata Weller." Butler (1935. it is notably different from Cyathaxonia tantilla and C. In summary. and Barrandeophyllum "seemingly identical. Butler's view was followed by Lang. U. Laccophyllidae Grabau. U.S. but an appeal has been made to the Commission of Zoological Nomenclature to suppress Ludwig's genera. which . vol. as reviewed by Conkin and Conkin (1954. 127950. So far as is known to the writer. Laccophyllidae Prantl. 4061. AUeynia. there is still some doubt as to the position of Metriophyllum. p. Family 1928. diameter. Sinica. arcuata. 1938. 2. and has 32 spinose at septa. Occurrence. from C. Ann. Unit 3. 129) who state without reservation that the generic names are synonymous. p. p. p. 21) considered AUeynia and Syringaxon to be synonymous but he reserved opinion on Laccpohyllum. 82. 87) considered Laccophyllum. then. apical angle. C. long when complete. cordillerensis. Gorsky (1932. and epithecal features. 2. 127951 i 4 paratypes. 2 specimens. figured paratype. Nat. p. It is 3. Lastly. —Holotype. Laccophyllum. 118) considered AUeynia. Unit 2.N. — entiated units. Remarks.5 mm. B. vol. 7. there is strong reason to believe that the family name should be based upon either Syringaxon. ser. p. Prantl (1938. or Ptychocyathus. paratype. it about 15° to the axis.S. Material.. and Thomas (1940. Mag.M. Smith. cordillerensis. No. 2.14 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. i specimen. Even if all the above names are synonyms and Syringaxon is the prior genus. Ptychocyatlius has priority over International all other names. LACCOPHYLLIDAE ser.C. Inasmuch as Conkin and Conkin report the absence of spines in C. and should be placed in some other genus. possibly new. 4 specimens. Spines are arranged rows which are inclined apically Comparison. 215) is twice as large as C. II9 long and was probably over 20 in diameter at the calyx in mm. most closely resembles. p. Metriophyllum. The Laccophyllidae as used here may . — Prantl's work is the best to date on the family and should be consulted for types details. Hist.. Undiffercordillercnsis differs — C. which may be a senior synonym of Syringaxon.S. fasc. tantilla (Miller). and has more septa (34 to 36) as an adult. 20. Pal. the Commission has not yet acted. 11.C. The species are similar in size. Numerous taxonomic problems con- cerning laccophyllids cannot be solved until further study of genois made. U. in having 32 septa in mature stages instead of having 28 or fewer septa. 4060.

The of these is typified by Laccophyllum. Genus 1850. (2) at the present time only a few species are known and these are not adequate for evolutionary purposes. Permia Hudson. 1940. British Mus. the second by Trochophylhim. namely (i) the convergence of structure in several lines of development does indicate that Trochophylhim can be used as a composite genus. and the Metriophyllidae Hill. Index of Paleozoic coral genera. Journ. those in forming an axial tube. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. In any case. vol. or with septal grooves. 356.). the writer considers the family provisionally to first contain three homoeomorphic groups. Ixvii. p. p. Systematically. 18. Nat.. moderately deep. and Thomas. Paleont. vol. 16. Ixvii. 1902. — Trochophyllum — 1850. the writer proposes a new arrangement of these groups under the genus Trochophyllum. 3. p. Hist. Milne-Edwards and Haime. i. 1939. Mus. No. Remarks. Tabulae may the axial tube constituting "inner tabulae. 166.. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. (Nat. These beds have been wellknown collecting grounds for fossils from the New Providence shale Genotype. 135.. Trochophyllum Lang. at or striate. in the Keokuk portion of the Mississippian period. — Small. Arch. Midi. simple corals. p. Smith. pseudocostate. 368. 1850 Trochophylhim Milne-Edwards and Haime. Paleont. The genotype was collected by de Verneuil from the hills 7 miles south of Louisville. by original designation. Calyx inverted. No. vol. Ky. 1948. Pt. Much confusion exists regarding tabulae and dissepiments in . there is nothing to be gained by changing the family name now with so many uncertainties apparent. Septa in one or two orders. 359 [in part]. TROCHOPHYLLUM I. Palaeont. Hist." stituting "outer tabulae. No. 71. Occurrence. 5. 1 eventually prove to contain the Lindstroemiidae Pocta. Nat. Epitheca smooth. therefore. — Even so. 1935- Crassiphylliim Grove. p. 1944. p." and those in loculi con- verneuli Milne-Edwards and Haime. Trochophyllum Stumm. pp. ceratoid. a Monograph of the British Fossil Corals. Journ. the significant variations known to occur warrant some subdivision of Trochophyllum . The writer considers it advisable to apply and extend Hudson's broad interpretation of Permia (to the same corals but under the name Trochophyllum) for several reasons. most meeting be in two orders. 22. Trochophyllum Milne-Edwards and Haime.. curved or geniculate. Amer. Diagnosis. and the third by Laccophyllum cyathaxoniaeformis Gorsky. vol.NO. 4. Soc. 1851.. (3) stratigraphic usefulness is enhanced by having fewer narrowly restricted genera to consider.

] Haime. iwanowi. technically As such . the weakly or strongly developed cardinal fossula on the convex side when corals are curved.) compressum (Grabau) [ = Barrandeophyllum compressum Grabau]. only one (major) order of septa. outer tabulae present in the loculi.) choniukounense (Grabau) [ = Barrandeophyllum choniukounense Grabau]. 1850 [Synonymy the Diagnosis." therefore. but unless details of microscopic structure are discernible. and Hudson have avoided any inferbeen to refer to the skeletal elements in loculi as dissepiments. Trochophyllum (T. septal grooves usually absent. Occurrence. On the other hand. typical dissepiments are convex axially and are arranged in series sloping from the epitheca proximally and axially. it should be pointed out that the "dissepiments" referred to by these writers resemble the dis- sepiments of other corals less than they resemble tabulae of other corals. II9 Permia and The tendency in the hterature has Apparently by so doing. The central tube seems generally to be formed of the fused inner ends of the septa with addition of stereoplasm. Remarks.) species described in this paper. — Same as for the genus. but 6d on plate 3 shows some transverse structures in loculi near the lower right edge of that specimen that might be transverse skeletal structures. skeletal elements within the central tube —these to the In order to clarify the terminology. and stereoplasm deposited on the axial tube. whereas the "dissepiments" mentioned above slope from the axial region proximally and peripherally. Trochophyllum (T. — Trochophyllum with a nontabulate axial tube. Subgenus TROCHOPHYLLTJM Milne-Edwards and same as for the genus.l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS related subgenera. — Included here are Trochophyllum {Trochophyllum) Type. is dc- clinis (Miller). Grabau. There seems to be no disagree- ment about horizontal are termed tabulae. For example. —The occurrence the same as for the genotype. Grove. it may be termed a stereotheca. this feature cannot be recognized the writer uses the looser terminology "axial tube. the writer proposes that the horizontal skeletal elements within the tube be referred to as "inner tabulae" and the elements sloping epitheca from the axial region be termed "outer tabulae. VOL. and probably ." down his generic his figure Stuckenberg (1895) does not refer to tabulae or dissepiments in and specific descriptions of Permia and P. Trochophyllum (T. ence that the aforementioned structures extend across the entire calyx as would typical tabulae.

vol. curved geniculate. on sixth septa character of the the distal ends of the septa sloping which are contratingent against the seventh septa. 127949. The calyx (diameters 9. in length. Minor septa are not present. 2. the axial tube is nontabulate indeed. —Undifferentiated.5 mm. Apical angle is 35°. by 8. . whereas those of both counter quadrants are flexed counterclockwise. p.M.NO. Diagnosis. indication that it The outer surface of the axial tube bears here and there the traces of septa or of tabulae.) is shallow with Calyx.N. where the bending of the coral carries the tube out of sight. —U. new combination du Centre de la Barrandeophyllmn Pocta. but there surficial is no composed of fused . 190. t. This deep is interpretation borne out by the This fossula. measuring is 20 mm.S. BARRANDEOPHYLLUM (Pocta) Easton. Boheme. —Medium size. Tabulae are present in the cardinal quadrants they are very steeply and may be confused with septa because they also are directed counterclockwise. cardinal to be the short either side of the cardinal septum. — down toward the calyx floor. is or above the floor of the calyx. Subgenus 1902. in specimen. equal length for one very short about septa of major There are 25 which side of become progressively either it on three one and two or side the convex of the coral is assumed on depression longer. — Trochophyllum rapidly. Syst. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA.5 mm. and older portions of the calyx sealed Occurrence. SONORA —EASTON [ ET AL.) disjunctum (Grabau) junctum Grabau]. The more axial tube is a thin subcircular cylinder which rises 2 mm. its interior walls are quite smooth down a distance of perhaps 10 mm. with inner tabulae in the axial tube which may expand in the loculi. = Barrandeophyllum dis- TROCHOPHYLLUM (TROCHOPHYLLUM) Plate I. Septa of the cardinal quadrants are radially arranged. Dissepiments were not observed but rejuvenation resembles broad dissepimental structure where a new i inner theca has been deposited off. A long oblique scar of attachment is present at the apex. Silur. 1/ Trochophyllum (T. and little or no stereoplasmic thickening of the axial tube. Internally. outer tabulae present grooves present. septal two orders of septa. Tabulae are also indicated by horizontal traces on . 8. inclined the inside of the theca. ceratoid. 21 Externals. Barrande. Material. The theca smooth except for rugae. species figures 13. skeletal elements.

No. Theca without angle 25°.) is moderately deep and walled. perplexum (Pocta). specimen. Mem. ser. Calyx. — Small. The is density of packing of tabulae within the axial tube tabulae are quite closely spaced not known. Trochophyllum (B. it affords a bit of evidence as to the geographic distribution of Mississippian faunas. Permia Grabau. The calyx (diameter 3. 2. Geol. i being steeply arched distally to where they meet the axial tube. The against axial tube consists of a tabulate tube lying halfway to the axis theca. and Trochophyllum {B. 2. Apical — vertically Apex marked by oblique scar of attachment. vol. Sinica. from the it Most of the major is septa terminate at right angles it is and there no external indication that formed of the bent inner ends of the septa. 23 Externals. ceratoid. actually being subtley pentagonal in the specimen at hand. this is time that Bar- randeophyllum has been reported from the Mississippian of North America. II9 —Barrandeophyllum perplexum Pocta. p. for four which almost meet the tips of four others at the axial tube this distribution appears to be fortuitous. B. VOL. species figures 19. The 16 major septa are radially arranged and These septa are equally spaced. Further details be furnished by study of additional material collected in the future. in length. TROCHOPHYLLUM (BARRANDEOPHYLLUM) Plate I.. except terminate at the axial tube. measuring 8 mm. 3. 26. curved. Pal. Com. interseptal ridges but with encircling rugae. rather than being related to the basic plan of septal insertion. vol. Remarks. 95.5 mm. Permia Stuckenberg. 186. Occurrence. 10. Outer between the axial tube and the theca. 127952. specimen. —U. — Included here are Trochophyllum (Barrandeophyllum) Occurrence.S.M. it was not sectioned. —Lower Middle Devonian of Bohemia. The axial tube is subcircular in cross section. Material.N. Remarks. Subgenus 1895.l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Type. 1928. but at present there would be nothing gained the first by giving this As far as known to the writer.) turbinatum (Gorsky) [=Laccophyl- lum turbinatum Gorsky]. Although the specimen has no value in detailed correlations. PERMIA Stuckenberg. fasc. Short minor septa alternate with the major septa.) species described in this paper. is —Undifferentiated. 1895 pp. . 1902. —There being but one may specimen a new name.

Trans. No. p. Trochophyllum (P. 18. pp. The cardinal septum is shorter than the other septa of the first order and is inserted in a fossula.) caverna Hudson. [in part]. U. Other septa of that order reach the columella and they alternate with in shorter septa of the second order. Journ. namely. of fairly large size. on the village district. I9 1944." this point not contained .. Genotype. of —The (1944. MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. 4.). Diagnosis. the cardinal fossula weakly or strongly developed and lying on the convex side of the coral when the coral is curved. — Trochophyllum turbinatum (Gorsky) [ = Laccophylit lum turbinatum Gorsky] has belong in this subgenus. Septa two generations. Geol. Hudson genotype The holotype and paratypes of P. 97. iwanoivi were designated by Hudson (1944. For an English translation of 6a-6g. is from the Lower Carboniferous of the west slope of the Urals. 27. Laccophyllum Gorsky. Permia Lang.. —Permia izuanowi Stuckenberg. vol. Smith. British Mus. 68) says two The German in the text (p. Permia Hudson. then would As it stands. "The calyx is circular. Stuckenberg's description of the genotype. p. and Thomas. Gubacha River round about the Gubacha (otherwise known as Ivanoff) in the Perm first new species to Permia Trochophyllum {Permia) iwanowi. 187. — Trochophyllum with a nontabulate axial tube. Serv. outer tabulae in the loculi. Paleont. Included here are Remarks. Original diagnosis. 186) has an extra sentence at Russian text. p. tubelike a space in the central part of the cup. and the axial tube thickened with stereoplasm. see Occurrence. of fairly large and hollow. 3 1940. 51. two orders of septa. 6 Diagnosis.R. — Trochophyllum If with inner tabulae in the axial tube. SONORA —EASTON ET AL.S. and Trochophyllum (P." text. Gorsky (1932. pi. 360). p. Remarks. 359. —"Solitary corals having slightly curved cups in the shape of a small horn. Index of Palaeozoic p.S. coral genera. outer tabulae present in the loculi. septa of one order. — Hudson (1944) referred the Subgenus not named 1932. pp. Hist. fasc. 3.. 359.) carhonaria Hudson. 5 just one order of septa. since Stuckenberg's work.) (Free translation of the Russian 1895. and the axial tube thickened by stereoplasm.NO. (Nat. with corrections from the published figures.^ Columella occupying size. septal grooves usually present. Prosp. figs. 359).

long and has calical diameters of 8." but one cannot be sure nifies that if this sig- two major septa or a major and a minor septum are involved in each case.) has 20 major septa. Family Genus METRIOPHYLLIDAE Hudson. The columella is narrowly elliptical. i specimen. Easton. by 4 mm.5 . i. In a specimen in early maturity or late youth ter 4. 1944.S. 2. 1942. cal. long loculi. 4 of which have just been inserted. The cardinal septum extends across the fossula below the calyx floor. —A diameters 6 mm. The columella narrowly Another specimen in late youth (diameters 4 mm. as large. or Easton. as in later stages.20 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 4066) in late maturity is 14 mm. The from "alar fossulae indis(Hudson. 1942 see ROTIPHYLLUM Remarks. by 9. i. 7 mm. II9 septa "bifurcate at the periphery. The short cardinal septum is bordered by 6 majors plus the alar . new species figures 1-3 mature specimen (the holotype. deep. by 5 mm. and alar pseudofossulae can be distinguished elliptical. figs.8 mm. ROTIPHYLLUM OCCIDENTALE Plate I.) is there are 24 major septa but no minor septa. by but retreats distally. 1942. The apical angle is 35°.) has 26 major septa alternating with an equal number of short minor septa. The columella is thin and tall. —For a diagnosis from other Hudson. diame- mm. Septal grooves are faint. septa plus alternating minor septa. hence the generic diagnosis should be changed tinguishable loculi" sulae either indistinguishable or present as pseudofossulae with each alar septum contratingent against the adjacent counter septum and occupying an extra wide loculus axially.) has 24 major The columella is narrowly elliptiTraces of tabulae can be seen along the fractured edge of the (pi. p.1 mm. pi. 3. the counter The cardinal fossula septum extends is farther distally than in later stages. Description. A paratype (U. fig. 257) to alar fos- material under study shows well-developed alar pseudofossulae. The cardinal fossula is on the convex side of the corallite and is keyhole-shaped (axially swollen). Another mature specimen (width of calyx 6 mm.C. The calyx slopes toward the counter side and apically at 35° and is 4 mm.

long with a circu- lar calyx 1 1 mm.— Holotype. Rotiphyllum — differs from R. nent ridge. 4066.N. The columella is prominent. 4063) is attached along its cardinal side to a brachiopod shell for a distance of about 10 mm. the total being 30 major septa.M. The thick and 3 mm.C. wide and standing 3 mm. hians Easton. The evenly ex- panding calyx.S. 127947. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. occidentale but having a fragment 20 dissepiments. unit 2.N. is mm. In summation. 4062 and 4064.N. U. Remarks. Alar pseudofossulae are distinct. The prominent cardinal fossula is on the convex side of the coral and is slightly swollen axially. and the long counter septum is also bordered by 7 majors. — Unit 22 specimens. Ma^ma/. U. The stage of old age may be said to commence when the calyx ceases to expand and the spaces between major and minor septa become equal. Comparison. 137146. The columella at the axial end of the counter septum extends slightly into the cardinal fossula and stands up 2 mm. U. The counter septum is not clearly distinguishable. The two . —Rotiphyllum resembling R. 127946. U. continues to maintain the apical angle (about 45°) by insertion of minor septa in late maturity. i specimen. The columella changes thin its cross section from narrowly elliptical in early stages to and bladelike in late stages.3 mm. in diameter. and a deeper and less flaring calyx. The most advanced at a calical stage seen (U. in having slightly more septa at comparable stages. 4066) has 35 major septa occidentale width of 10. The cardinal septum is very short in the calyx but extends across the floor of the cardinal fossula and runs up the side of the columella as a promi- calyx contains 31 major septa. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA.S. U. 2 specimens undifferentiated.S. unit i. 21 septum in each quadrant.M.S. there U. Occurrence.M. The holotype. 3.S. paratypes.C. 6 specimens. new species figure 25 Description. Dis- .S. Another paratype (U. however.S. ROTIPHYLLUM VESICULOSUM Plate I. Easton. from the floor of the calyx. therefore. of which 8 (including the alar septa) are in each cardinal quadrant. a thinner columella above the calical floor. above the calical floor.S. topotypes. being i mm. and — is no evidence that minor septa are inserted until after all the major septa are present.NO.C. and 4063. Rudimentary to short minor septa alternate with the majors. 4067. 1944.C.C. species resemble each other rather closely.

C. —The presence of tabulae would ordinarily be . vesiculosum resembles R.M. mm.C. then a new genus should be made for them. Calyces. — Calyx of holotype all (diameters 7 but 5 maturity has 31 major septa. but the counter septum is attached to the prominent columella in typical lophophyllid fashion. Two Theca with rugae and striae but rarely with septal grooves. is 9 mm.S. — Holotype. 7-9 Externals. ticularly in At present this procedure is unwarranted. yet the two specimens at hand seem clearly to be merely extreme variations of R. 1951 (HOMALOPHYLLITES) CIRCULARIS Easton. Apical angle 25° to 30°.S. Family Genus HAPSIPHYLLIDAE Easton. U. in length but averaging 10 mm. If a population is discovered in which the to separate this species specimens are consistently dissepimented. to 15 mm. The paratype.N. parview of the known tendency of zaphrenthid corals to develop a trend toward dissepiments. occidentale with which they occur. One rank of concentric dissepiments occurs in the right cardinal quadrant. 4067 paratype. 1944. Tabulae arch up steeply and then are depressed around the columella so that they make a horseshoe-shaped mound around the axial region.C.S. have girdlelike epithecal indenta- tions or constrictions. emended 1951 TRIPLOPHYLLITES Subgenus HOMALOPHYLLITES TRIPLOPHYLLITES HOMALOPHYLLITES REVERSUS species group. R.) in late terminate around an which of . 1944 Easton. to 22 —Small to medium-sized. U. II9 sepiments are lacking in a narrow zone on the counter side. Tabulae are not discernible. I27945e. figures 4. but occur in as many as five ranks on the cardinal side. Remarks. measuring up mm. from all other Rotiphyllum. but several lonsdaleoid dissepiments clearly span two or three septa. Minor septa are sparse and only occur est in the outer region of the thick- dissepimentarium. occidentale Easton in — all features except that the former species possesses dissepiments. The cardinal septum is as in the holotype. ceratoid. Easton. sufficient from Rotiphyllum. curved. Occurrence. Minor septa occur between all majors and traverse the dissepiment. In this same respect it differs 3. U. Material. Most are concentric. by 7 mm. U. species new- Plate I. 4068. 4068.S. —Unit 2 specimens. in diameter at the calyx and has 31 rather radially arranged major septa. Comparison. paratypes.22 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.

forming a solid fossular wall. holotype. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. . Minor septa are absent adjacent to the last-formed septum in each counter quadrant.N.S. mm.) . 127945c (diameters 3 early maturity. U. by 3 mm. U. by 2 mm.M. of which 11 are in the car- Only 19 have been inserted at the level of the calyx however.) 30 major septa distributed essentially as in distributed in identical fashion as in the is the holotype. there are 24 major septa of which 11 are in the cardinal quadrants. Minor septa are very short.M.NO. I27945d.N. In a paratype.S. 127945a (diameters 6.N.N. In a paratype. by 4 mm.S. 2 are very short and are present near the periphery of the calyx 2 are long down in the fossula and eventually would have become longer to add their substance to the fossular wall (as in the This specimen slightly . 127945b (diameters 2 mm. there are 22 dinal quadrants. what before alar position is U. Minor septa are not present on either side of these last-formed major septa in the cardinal quadrants. In a paratype.S.N. the loculi being no wider than other loculi. is as the counter septum bordered by extra wide In a paratype. The two short septa in the cardinal fossula bordering the cardinal septum are short major septa instead of minor septa. except at the alar and cardinal positions. U. These latter septa resemble minor septa but are longer and are fused with the next adjacent counter septa. Alar septa do not quite reach the fossular wall and are a little depressed beneath the floor of the calyx this rudimentary fossula. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. floor. The cardinal septum is even shorter than either of the adjacent short major septa in the fossula.5 mm. Minor septa extend one-fourth of the radius and alternate with the major septa.M. Minor septa are more mature than the holotype and thereby affords an opportunity to determine the order of septal insertion in a late stage.) in major septa. The cardinal is less well marked than before loculi. Alar pseudofossulae are poorly differentiated. There are 5 major septa in the cardinal fossula. The cardinal and counter quadrants contain 15 and 16 major septa and 10 and 13 minor septa respectively.M. and the specimen therefore represents a stage someearlier than in . 23 axially enlarged cardinal fossula. i27945d (diameters 4 mm.M.S. but the last-formed counter septa extend less far distally than other majors and hence lie in depressions.) in middle maturity.5 in late maturity there are mm. The cardinal fossula is slightly swollen axially. by 6. holotype). U. combined with the usual development of alar pseudofossulae makes a distinctive break in symmetry at the alar positions. fossula .

then it any phylogenetic significance to the it would seem that not impossible evolved from an unflattened ancestor. unit 2. The cardinal quadrants contain 3 and the counter quadrants contain 5 septa.N.) cularis cir- and T. major septa adjacent to the There are 9 major septa on the cardinal side and 9 on the counter side. in are not present. U. is evenly circular in cross If there is — sections throughout. T. (H. (H.S. undifferentiated.M.S. progressive flattening of T. two orders of septa behave similarly. U. .).8 U.S. (H. — Holotype.S. 2 specimens Material. Inasmuch as the two species quite similar in other respects.M. Early stages.N. (H. on the other hand. has 8 septa. b. I27945c-g.) calceolus evolved from T. the length of the minor septa. only other variable character in T. unfigured paratypes. (H. i. I27945d. 127945.) circularis.N.N. II9 there are i8 major septa with rudimentary minor septa present at a few places.S.) circularis. 8 specimens. (H.N. (//.S. (H. U. 127944.) circularis in differs from T. Occurrence. 1953.C. 4069 and 4070.) calceolus is seen in the presence of epithecal con- strictions. —The earliest stage observed (diameter about 0. topotypes. i27945f are steeply convex distally. Tabulae observed among U. 127945a. in the other species. (H. and in having longer minor septa. (H. —Unit 3. Comparison. — T.) subcrassiis Easton and Gutschick. They are not commonly discernible in calyces and are generally incomplete or at least not present at the same level in all loculi.24 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Minor septa mm. which are longer corals. Each of the cardinal septum resembles the minor septa. (H.M. The cardinal septum is long and extends completely across the large cardinal fossula.M.M. 26 speciments.) is circularis. 93 specimens. which are rare in the former but common in the latter species. figured paratypes.) calceolus (White and Whitfield) It differs being circular in cross section instead of being flattened on the convex side. but (H. Further indication of the close relationship between T.) calceolus in T. Remarks.N.) calceolus. . tally. it named above are The is that T. U.) calceolus becomes increasingly flattened disT. (H.S. then there substantiating evidence for the possible ancestry of T.M. U. from T. unit in having a thinner theca and fewer septa.) circularis than is Ammany plexoid retreat of the major septa it is a significant feature of not known whether is a phylogenetic interpretation can If the be applied to shortening of minor septa.

2. dissepiments. vertical plates 35 radially arranged major septa traverse two-thirds of the radius as and then extend across the tabulae as low ridges twisted loosely counterclockwise at the axis. minor septa are lacking. pi. in diameter has about 30 septa which extend about three. —U. Rep. —U. Journ. This is about 0. ceratoid.NO. At a diameter of 13 mm. Mexico.5 mile west of the major locality at the lime kilns. figs. Illinois Geol. ceratoid coral with the cardinal fossula side. 1944 figure 5 Surv. curved. 20°-30° of and a circular cross section. there are about 45 to 50 is major septa. 399. —This of sort coral is common in late Paleozoic rocks. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. Theca with growth lines and occasional concentric ridges — and depressions. 45.S. Externals.C. p. Inv. 4231. figure 7 Triplophyllitcs (Homalophyllites) sp. figs. 3. vol. Curved. Ncozaphrentis tenella Easton. TRIPLOPHYLLITES species Among the few fragments seen. 26-30 (contains prior synonymy). Paleont. (Miller). Material. In a calyx 16 mm. 1891. 1935 NEOZAPHRENTIS TENELLA Plate 1944. emend. and there a prominent key- hole-shaped inner wall in conjunction with the cardinal fossula. Remarks. p. —Unit specimen.C. on the convex The cardinal septum is very short and lies in a slightly axially swollen cardinal fossula. —This specimen seems Occurrence. Easton. 3 specimens. i to be a little more mature or at least has more and longer septa than does the specimen from Arizona cited above. by 14. 3. 4170. 61. Tabulae axially depressed. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. 2. simple corals with an apical angle Externals. species 25 TRIPLOPHYLLITES (HOMALOPHYLLITES) Plate ?I9SI. pi. 1-3. 4. pi. No. 16. Genus NEOZAPHRENTIS Grove. figs. — Simple.fourths of the radius and are free axially. 25.. Occurrence. Easton.. No Material. Escabrosa limestone. mm.S. Arizona. one measuring 8 mm. Minor septa are absent or are represented by septal ridges. 97. 8a-8c. but septal grooves are . — North end of low hill 2 miles west of Bisani. Remarks.

In late ephebic stage at a width of 9. little past the axis and into the distinct. . dinal fossula is Specimens range up to 25 mm.0 mm. Tabulae slope region.S. as ridges in most loculi.S. U. 4166 and 4167. The axially swollen counter septum stands higher than the other majors in the calyx and extends to the axis where it occupies an open space formed by the union of the narrow alar pseudofossulae with the cardinal fossula. tenella passes through a stage in wdiich the septa of the cardinal quadrants are notably pinnate.5 cardinal septum right mm. Each cardinal quadrant contains five radially arranged major septa and each counter quadrant contains six major septa.3 mm. steeply Minor septa occur away from the axial 3. Material. In early neanic stage a calyx 3.C.C. . in diameter contains a short cardinal septum in a V-shaped cardinal fossula. tally Alar pseudofossulae narrow. The slightly axially swollen counter septum extends a parallel-sided cardinal fossula. the cardinal septum extends about one-third of the length of the V-shaped cardinal fossula. but dissepiments and minor septa are absent. Trace of a convex tabula is visible. —Figured hypotype. width contains a very short and four and five strikingly pinnate majors in the and left cardinal quadrants. In midephebic stage a calyx at 6. —Neocaphrentis Occurrence. The material at hand is is only known to This difference too slight to warrant separation have up to 24 major septa. Each counter quad- rant contains seven radially arranged majors. although as many as 34 major septa have been observed. in length. tenella from the midwest usually contain from 25 to 27 major speta. tenella is counter septum and by rudimentary or absent dissepiments. Mature A^. . the right cardinal quadrant contains two pinnate majors quadrants each contain four majors slightly into the cardinal fossula .C. Dissepiments absent. respectively. 4165 unfigured hypotypes U.S. particularly steeply into the car- dinal fossula. . 4168. The caron the concave side of the corallite. N. II9 not discernible. Alar pseudofossulae but dis- sepiments and minor septa are absent. material. other characterized by the long Remarks. —Unit 7 specimens. the right and left counter the counter septum extends the left cardinal quadrant contains dis- three pinnate majors.26 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. from the well-known midwestern species. U.

M. by 11.S. pi. The counter septum is longer than the other majors. This specimen 1. 127948. this side. but the dissepimentarium has five or six rows of vessicles and minor septa are present on the surface of the innermost row. although weakly developed on the outer dissepiments and the theca. 12.. Calyces. U. is trochoid At a slightly later stage. 127956c (diameters 5 mm. 2/ Family CANINIIDAE (Miller) figures 5. 5 of which meet axially. Caninia corniculum (Miller).5 mm. has 33 long major septa extending two-thirds of the radius. —The specimens at hand illustrate very well the variable nature of this species. figs. Easton. rugose. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. 1-3. two kinds occur in early maturity broad isolated patches consisting — of one large vesicle may be seen . 40-42. I. 1840 CANINIA CORNICULUM Plate 1944.) one specimen.5 mm. (incomplete). — Calyces are moderately deep. by 8. widely flaring examples with an apical angle of 40° through the normal or at least more frequent examples with apical angles of 10° to 15°. A dissepiment . there are about the same number of septa. Minor septa short or rudimentary to absent and not present on the surfaces of the innermost dissepiments. (This reference contains prior synonymy. U.N. with tabulate floors usually horizontal. 127956a. Thecas only rarely show traces of septal grooves. Septa are fre- quently rather sinuous. long (incomplete). Corals range from short. 97.M. continue to be inserted during calical growth. most exteriors being striate.) has 25 major septa. figs.N. 49. and contorted all together. Easton 6 Illinois Geol. p. Rep.N. pi.NO. mm. Genus CANINIA Michelin in Gervais. 16. and finally into specimens which are subcylindrical. emend. and Dissepiments present in one to three ranks. emend. U. This specimen is elongate in one diameter because of modifications for attach- ment a rather carinate ridge extends along .S.S.M. Surv. but also inclined at greater or less angles. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. and may or may not meet the theca. Inv. long In early maturity a specimen. This specimen is subcylindrical and 4 cm. When dissepiments are observed.) Externals. The cardinal septum is short and in a very deep fossula where the tabulae are steeply invaginated. in late maturity the patches become more general and finally overlap to form a lonsdaleoid dissepimentarium three or four vesicles deep in In late maturity (diameters 12 late stages.5 cm.

— Caninia corniculum Material undifferentiated. — Slightly is The epitheca contorted ceratoid coral with an apical angle nearly smooth. 3. At a diameter of 2 cm. Calyx depth not known.N. terial — Remarks. g (about 10 mm. One of these in is the in which will show minor septa and dissepiments is rows which is with few minor septa and sparse dissepiments. It is the cylindrical phase (Easton. being invaginated one inside the next. but can be recog- nized as occurring in two intergrading phases. Individuals may be different enough to be termed separate species. Minor septa and dissepiments are both less well developed than in earlier stages. 4079is highly variable. II9 present at one place and minor septa are present on the theca at that place. 3 specimens. of 35°.M. They are flat axially and strongly recurved peripherally. If dissepiments and minor septa are not observed.S. the slightly sinuous major septa and geniculate habit of growth aid in determinations.S. U. but when a suite is available there is apparent line of demarcation between variations. That it is referable to Caninia is borne out not only in the morphology of mature calyces.M.S. 27 specimens. 4071. flaring type late stages. by 14 mm.N.M. unit 2. CANINIA Plate I.M.) has 36 major septa. unit i.N. species figure 10 Externals.N. U.M. of one specimen shows six or eight septa meeting Tabulae. i specimen . 4078. in diameter) have 22 major septa. there are about 40 septa of equal length.N. 1944.28 is SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. U. with a few minors and no dissepiments Two cylindrical examples. may Occurrence. there being only faint encircling irregularities.S. observed. Although not always discernible. there —Tabulae —Unit in U. . 3 specimens. extending two-thirds of the radius.S. U. but also in the axial meeting of septa in young stages. apart or be six in 5 mm. 127956. 50) characterized by amplexoid retreat of the major septa and The other not known what significances should be attached to the two no extremes of variation. Hypotypes. Calyx . I27956e (diameters 13 mm. The broken apex at the axis. p. 127948 and I27956a-g other maU. 127956b are about i mm.C.S. the species converges upon Amplexus of authors and cannot be certainly identified without sections. The most advanced stage observed. I27956f.

new species figures 1-4 Description. diameters 25 holotype (pi. Major septa are not dilated in the dissepimentarium. long and 3 cm. tiated.S. Vesiculophyllum is now considered by the writer to be a subgenus of Caninophyllum.N. Dissepiments occupying about one-half the lonsdaleoid.M. was erected for caninioid which differ from Caninophyllum chiefly in having the dissepimentarium well developed only in late stages. 1929 CANINOPHYLLUM corals Remarks. Occurrence. therefore. The outer row or two of dissepiments are inner rows are concentric. — CANINOPHYLLUM SONORENSE Plate 2. 4164. Vesiculophyllum Easton. diameters 15 mm. 127953. of which the cardinal 2. but are strongly recurved near their peripheries. 2) has 36 almost equally dilated septa. rough longitudinal section is observable where etching has destroyed a side of the coral. the holotype (pi. —These are large solitary corals. commonly about 10 cm.NO. Minor septa extend across the dissepimentarium. this would be of subgeneric rank. curved ceratoid to in diameter nearly cylindrical.S. 2. undifferen- specimens. Only . respectively. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. unit 3.C. The right and left cardinal quadrants contain eight and nine major septa. with four bundles of septa. by 15 mm. 3 specimens . Material.. In early maturity. Calyces are deep. i specimen . As presently interpreted by the writer. and the cardinal septum rants. The cardinal quadrants contain six or seven major septa. mm. Tabulae are horizontal or very slightly sagging axially. 1944. by 25 mm. but the theca. Septa of the cardinal quadrants are more dilated than are septa of the counter quad- The counter side has about three ranks of concentric dissepisepta. is Specimens are commonly decorticated. 4163. —U. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. where thin and is only fairly ridged longitudinally. the radius. the 3) has 47 long major septa which are grouped into four distinct pinnate bundles. at the calyx. Dissepiments very steeply inclined. Easton. is longer and thinner than the adjacent majors. In transverse section at maturity. Genus 127961 . ments between major and minor and has a narrow peripheral zone of lonsdaleoid dissepiments. Lewis. 2 A —Unit 2. descending steeply to almost touch pinnately at the axis. U. is short.. fig. correspond- ing to the four quadrants. 29 floor smooth and flat. fig. observed.

Comparison. dissepimentarium.S. —This species differs from C. Unit i.C. are commonly incomplete. 35 specimens. 4172. Mexico. ceratoid corals with an apical angle of about 30°. North end of small hill 2 miles having a much narrower — west of Bisani. Cardinal quadrants con- 9 and 10 long major septa which are grouped pinnately against and the alar septa. U.S. Theca with concentric striae and irregularly placed constrictions. and dissepiments are absent. 1880.S. U. C. KONINCKOPHYLLUM species Plate 2. 127959. specimen. and shorter minor septa.C. 4225 paratypes. Material. 1953. incrassatum. Dissepiments are quite elongate and nearly vertical.N. Occurrence. and . The counter quadrants. septa barely reach the inner edge of the dissepimentarium.. In a paratype about 30 the base of the mm. in diameter the long cardinal septum in retreats narrow cardinal fossula upward as the fossula progressively invades the dissepimentarium. — Simple. 4224. 4228. Cardinal fossula on the convex side of the corallite. — Holotype. 4226. 4227. Lonsdaleoid dissepiments uncommon but are present. It has lonsdaleoid dissepiments in the margin of a dissepimentarium which extends about half of the radius.M. has about 50 major septa in pinnate groups. or slightly convex. in having only rudimentary minor septa even into late maturity and in having concentric dissepiments instead of herring- bone dissepiments.30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. The dissepimentarium tain the cardinal fossula extends one-half to two-thirds of the radius in some places. II9 one or two very short minor septa are discernible. including the counter septum. 4229. i U. and faint . sonorense differs in is generally from Caninophylliim scdalicnse (White). curved.S. contain 26 major septa which are grouped in pinnate bundles which almost reach the axis.C. longer and more quadripartite groups of major septa. 4171. and may be slightly concave. Family Genus CLISIOPHYLLIDAE 1876 KONINCKOPHYLLUM Thomson and Nicholson. sonorense narrower than than of C. hicrassatum Easton and Gutschick. 4179. U. 4222. figure 6 Externals. being about 4 or more times as long as wide. Minor Another paratype at a diameter of about 25 mm. topotypes. In transverse section dissepiments usually appear concentric but a few angulo-concentric instances are are present. The dissepimentarium of C. In longitudinal section the tabulae occur irregularly about 10 in 2 cm.

above The cardinal Each car- septum is a ridge in the slightly swollen cardinal fossula. Silicification may merely lie upon upper sur- Lamellae and tabellae absent. has obscured details on the one cut surface prepared. Axial structure seemingly consists of tentlike all tabulae and minor septa fused to an axial rod. Dissepiments 23 major septa. SONORA —EASTON mm. plate 2. . broad. but still hand measuring over 14 cm. strata elsewhere often clisiophyllid corals. The two specimens at hand may even be juveniles. LITHOSTROTIONELLA CONFLUENS Plate I. 4169. mm. LITHOSTROTIONELLA Yabe and Yabe and Hayasaka. A calyx at a diameter of 13. —Coralla irregularly spherical.NO. Corallites contorted where they are in border positions in the colony. vi^alls are essentially vertical. vol. Family Genus 1915. wide) and traversed by the cardinal fossula and by the thin minor septa which stop at the axial or inner end of the dissepimentarium. Lithostrotion of authors [especially in North American literature]. Soc. 94. is 3I septal grooves. Lithostrotionella p. Material. dinal quadrant contains 10 major septa and the counter quadrants together with the indistinguishable counter septum contain a total of Dissepimentarium narrow (i or 2 mm. lacks the long major septa and very conical tabulae. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. longer. is mm. 22. —U. deep but has a very large.0 Calical mm. 6 ET AL. Tokyo. the largest specimen at in greatest diameter. 8. but the writer has not discovered in the abound in United from Sonora. i. —Lower Carboniferous Occurrence. tapering majors. and reinforced by extensive stereoplasm. The figured specimen is 22 long and circular in cross section.S. Remarks. LITHOSTROTIONTIDAE Hayasaka.C. Easton. States a species closely resembling this one more tentlike tabulae. 1915 Journ. conical boss in the axial region w^hich stands 3 the calical floor. Corallites in a small corallum with well-preserved externals vary from polygonal cross sections in the center of the corallum to circular cross section level. Koninckophyilum glahrum (Keyes) from the Chouteau limestone of Missouri. It has and narrower dissepimentarium than has typical Koninckophyllum. seemingly concentric. Locally septa faces of tabulae. where several individuals extend above the general surface Epitheca coarsely wrinkled. figures Externals. Geol. new 9 species figure 12. incomplete. —Unit 2 specimens.

One major septum is longer than the others and may fuse with another major opposite it to form a continuous median septum. floor. separated from the adjacent epitheca by a dark line. If tabulae are present. with an average of about 10. where they flare broadly. Calyces shallow peripherally and bounded by a thin theca separating adjacent polygonal individuals. and others convex axially. occupying one-fourth to one-third is of the diameter of the calyx. are Tabellae occur in the axial region. . in diameter on the aver- Septal traces on the calyx floor become increasingly prominent axially. Axial portions of corallites moderately deep. Where lonsdaleoid dissepiments are absent and the rows can be counted.32 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. axially A section of the holotype shows a band of convex elongate dissepiments sloping proximally at an angle of about 45° near the epitheca but becoming smaller and vertical Longitudinal section. II9 CoralHtes nearly cylindrical except near the calyces. the calyces most often have about 20 major septa. Major and minor septa are equally thin and somewhat sinuous in the dissepimentarium. axially. The dissepimentarium some of septa. neither order touching the epitheca except locally. The major portion of the dissepimentarium thickened with stereoplasm to approach the character of an inner wall. by 15 mm. Only the very tips of the minor septa extend into the tabularium from the dissepimentarium. with a thin bladelike columellar plate extending above the deepest part of the of the peripheral age. there from 8 to 12 rows of dissepiments. others may have up to eight rows. some concave axially. Transverse sections. Its outer portion typically lonsdaleoid. — In a transverse line there are usually about seven rows of dissepiments. —A mature calyx of the holotype (diameters 9 mm. Although as many as 24 major septa may be present. is broad. but in any case the long septum is much thickened by stereoplasm to form the narrowly elliptical axial plate. Within the tabularium the major septa are slightly thickened and tend to fuse with the axial complex.) has 24 major septa alternating with minor septa. but they are roughly concentric. they cannot be distinguished from the dis- sepiments and tabellae. Some loculi lack tabellae and Some tabellae are straight. calical floor but i not reaching the level Calyces about cm. Each corallite has its own epitheca. the larger vesicles occupying the space between three or four The inner portion of the dissepimentarium consists of nearly concentric dissepiments spaced somewhat more closely than in the is outer region.

Lithostrotionella confluens differs from L. and the stereo- plasmic thickening of structures to resemble an inner wall. longer septa. 68. 127960.M. Irregularly spaced rugae occur. to 3 cm.S. topotypes. U. from which low angle and then slope steeply at their outer edges. and with the calyx from 6 mm. — Small. 4 specimens in collection. and a coral may be contorted (geniculate) at one or more of the constrictions.S. Two . short. 1891 Stumm (1948. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA.C. from I cm.N. 127939. 9 specimens. Theca thin.S. and less steeply which major it resembles somewhat. long.M. distally concave tabulae. 33 In the tabularium is the sohd area of the axial plate. — possible that the axial structures referred to as It is . tabellae here are really tabulae. undifferentiated. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. unit Material. Apical angle about 35° when coral is regularly flared. the irregular pattern of the lons- daleoid dissepiments. Occurrence. 3. —Unit i. The outer sag corresponds in position to the very rare. i 127938. Comparison. Externals. castelnaui Hayasaka. numerous specimen. — Holotype. Prominent constrictions indicate rejuvenescence. in having stronger minor septa. curved. This species is characterized externally by the broadly large tabellae slope proximally at a very — flaring distal portions of the calyces and the depressed calyx floor in the axial region. U. 69) has recently reviewed the genus and has redescribed several species. and contorted. 20.N. Interseptal ridges faint to absent. pp. Easton. Family uncertain Genus CYSTELASMA Miller. ceratoid to cylindrical.NO. a thicker columellar plate. outcrop. Internally it is characterized by the similar major and minor septa in the dissepimentarium. in diameter. CYSTELASMA INVAGINATUM Plate I. dipping tabellae than has the latter species. the tendency of major septa to touch the column. U. 4071 and 4072. U.N. 24 new species figures 11. to 8 mm. left on A few more or less horizontal elements with a proximal sag were observed locally between the dissepiments and the tabellae the writer refers to the inner elements as tabellae and the rare periaxial series as tabulae. Remarks.S. the slightly thickened axial portions of the major septa. Some tabellae even have a sag in them before turning down abruptly and another sag where their extreme outer edges curved distally a short distance.M. paratype.

S. In a paratype. there are 19 septa about half of which nearly touch axially. Most of the other septa extend out onto the distal ° surfaces of the tabulae about one-half the radius but retreat in a short distance to their normal length of less than one-quarter the radius. occupies the it and two septa curve away from the counter septum proximally. Altogether. II9 of the high geniculate paratypes have strong spinelike processes indicating the side of attachment along recumbent individuals. internal structure can be seen. Tabulae are complete and are inclined steeply.). whose illus- trates the very late ephebic or the gerontic stage. extremely deep. The distal edge of a tabula lies deep in the counter foscalyx sula but cannot be seen elsewhere. inclined cardinally at about 45 to the axis. I mm.). U. being slightly thicker and persistently longer It than the other septa in the distal portions of the calyx. apart. The short right alar septum occupies a true fossula of weak expression. by 8 mm. —Where the theca of the holotype is broken away. usually without tabulae on their floors. The cardinal septum is somewhat swollen counter fossula formed by somewhat wider spacing between The latter but is almost the shortest septum. including the counter septum. Notable features are their crowding and their approximately parallel arrangement. each adjacent septum. slightly swollen proximally and at the bottom of the calyx. from less than more than 2 mm. The counter septum est long- and most prominent. Secondary septa not observed. The short cardinal septum crosses the cardinal fossula. except where they are abruptly depressed into the nearly vertically walled cardinal fossula. there are 21 septa. 127942 (diameters 4. Four tabulae are present in the calyx. Calyces.5 mm. is the calyx of which illustrates the early ephebic stage.M. seven of the septa are long. It occupies the faintly differentiated cardinal fossula formed by the curving away laterally of each adjacent septum. one septum On the cardinal side of each alar septum. Internal structure. ter and the second and third septa on both sides of the coun- septum. to They are quite irregularly spaced. whereas the short left alar septum is fused to the adjacent strong septum on its cardinal side and is bordered on the counter side by an alar pseudofossula. — Calyces opening at a right angle to the axis. at geniculations latter This a low feature transgresses other structure so that the tabulae are steeply inclined proximally and may be nearly vertical or at . by 6 mm.N. In the holotype (diameters 7 mm.34 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Septa thin and margin- ally retracted distally.

invaginatum differs from C. although the . of the paratype (diameter about 1.M.) has C.N. 4270. It is appar- from the geniculate form that C. counter. Identical changes in shape are known for other rugose corals. There is no indication on the apical portions of the corals examined that the species was attached to any solid foreign object. depending upon the directions in which the coral chanced to grow. invaginatum readily distinguished from Amplexus by the steeply sloping tabulae and by the swollen septa. In the proximal portion of the holotype in the figured calyx of the paratype. 1/a^ma/. followed by normal flaring of the skeleton when favorable conditions of growth were attained. in having the tabulae inclined steeply proximally. 4065.M. followed by rapid flaring of the individuals . paratype. invaginatum grew from the sea floor directly.S. arranged as in the paratype.N. instead of having them horizontal. Fossulae are discernible in the cardinal. 1901. these phenomena can be interpreted as an initial effort to increase the speed of elongation in order to get above the ocean floor. C. six septa Comparison. . U. Convergence of catchall that this nature has led authors to make Amplexus the is has been. C. 127958. U.M. SONORA —EASTON ET AL.NO. —Unit 3. yet related to the other species of the genus. 127941 127942 topotypes. This ent direction of assumption tends to be substantiated by the fact that the apical portions of some specimens show a cylindrical phase in early maturity.S. however.S. C. Cystelasma invaginatum may be confused with Am. is a stage similar to that Eighteen septa are present.— Holotype. 35 angle in other portions of the coral. undifferentiated. particularly in the prominence of the metasepta (rather than having majors other than protosepta represented by ridges on the interior of the calyx). — it plexus or with amplexoid phases of other genera. it must be assumed that C. or to right itself after having become recumbent through some accident.5 mm. The apex and a tabula.C. Presumably the impelling cause would be either an effort to achieve better position with regard to current and food while standing erect on the sea floor. U. and right alar positions. i specimen. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. 15 specimens. notably Caninia. septatum and from all other species of the genus. — Cystelasma invaginatum it resembles septatum Greene. invaginatum possesses morphologic features of a low order of specialization. . i specimen. more closely than resembles other American species. U. hence.S. invaginatum could change its growth one or more times. Remarks.N. possibly 2 others unit i. Occurrence.

invaginatum the animal did not increase in diameter after maturity. septatum. p. the writer retains Pleurodictyum for Michelinia of authors. invaginatum with dissepiments in early is stages more primitive in this character than are species like C. In this case the recumbent animal would grow in a new direction in order to get above the zone of moving sediment and into a more favorable environment. lanes- and C. Better evidence than the foregoing has been marshaled (Easton. Ridgelike metasepta in most Cystelasma must be from an earlier septate condition. C. Petrefacta Germaniae. 628) for Amplexus adnatus. The thin theca with faint septal grooves sometimes present. Paleontologists are not even in approximate agreement as to the taxonomic status of Pleurodictyum. Several schools of thought exist with diverse interpretations of Pleurodictyum. but did continue to build up its of its late maturity. 1944. and C. 1829 vol. Michelinia of authors. 55). and related genera or subgenera. C. p. Dissepiments in many strains of corals progressively occur higher tion and higher in corallites as evoluprogresses. tahulatum (all from the Salem limestone of Meramec age) in one or more of the following features. skeleton to In C. Remarks. invaginatum is more primitive than C. septatum. These evolutionary features indicate that C. Michelinia^ — 1943. II9 not aware of previous attempts to explain the changes. nongrooved thecae of the higher species. septatum. invaginatum occurs in strata older than the Salem limestone. for feeble The foregoing explanation is difficult of absolute proof. but at least utilizes ecologic considerations in explaining the morphology of one geniculate coral species. p. invaginatum and to a lesser degree in C. villensis Order Tabulata Family Genus 1829. in which spines of attachment bear a definite relationship to geniculations. As previously utilized ( Easton. such as exists in C. i. p.36 writer is SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. It is quite possible that the form the cylindrical phase organism fell over because considerable length and weight proved to be too its much of a strain method of fixation to the substratum. PLEURODICTYXIM Pleurodictyum Goldfuss. 1945. . In terms of evolutionary development. lanesvillense. 136. is more primitive than the very thick. 113. FAVOSITIDAE Goldfuss. hence C.

—Although several syringoporoid genera have been prois unable to assign specimens of the material under study to any of the genera as described. in having Coinparison. Remarks. — The fragments in question are recumbent series of . Description. it is better to use the old genus Syringopora as generally understood and posed. i. Epitheca with numerous fine encircling wrinkles. Where two erally oval in line.N. is and in having funnel-like calycal it sufficient to distinguish floors. —Under recent tendencies Occurrence. 127943. Pleurodictymn subramosum differs from P.NO. ET AL. SYRINGOPORIDAE Goldfuss. When mural pores are roughly occur in 3 mm. Calyx walls septal traces or spines. The material at hand approaches Kueichowpora but also has affinities with Tetrapora. —Undifferentiated. in late corals. SONORA —EASTON Easton.N.M. Much of it is probably referable to Syringopora.M. 76. Its growth habit from other species of Pleurodictyum known to the writer. Petrefacta Germaniae. the writer avoid possible further systematic complications. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. 127940. Family Genus 1826. gen- mural pores are present. 1826 vol. paratypes. or may be free and lined with obscure may be covered with vesicular tabulae. i6 lites Pleurodictymn with nearly ramose cylindrical coralfrom a massive region of polygonal or subcylindrical corallites. SYRINGOPORA Syringopora Goldfuss. Under the circumstances. expansuni (White) in changing from massive to ramose habit. five corallites are in contact. deep. the systematics of the tabuRemarks. In view of the fact that growth habit of is this species the best specimen incomplete proximally. or 8 mm. Remarks. U. species 37 PLEURODICTYUM SUBRAMOSUM Plate I.S. U. the would be of sufficient importance for the erection of a new genus. Among the detritus from acidization of the limestone is a large amount of fragmentary coralline material of doubtful affinities. Material. new figures IS. 4 specimens. —Holotype. arising — More or less complete tabulae irregularly spaced but usually notably depressed at one place. Syringopora of authors. but some may be Cladochonus. large. — septal spines. p.S. the writer prefers to pro- pose the species as a readily recognizable Pleurodictyum. in diameter and up to 5 mm. Mature calyces 7 mm. irregularly spaced.

text figure 3 Description. Occurrence. corallites are lined internally In some instances open ends of with rows of very faint septal spines. and about Connecting processes prominent. ovals.M. fragmental topotypes. specimen. in four rows. 4073.fourth to one-fifth of the diameter. Material.5 mm. 127954. U. SYRINGOPORA TUBIFERA Plate 2. — Corallites subparallel.S. U. U. in This species differs from Syringopora harveyi White having mural processes in four rows. much shorter septa (really — septal spines). topotypes. i specimen. Comparison. Other examples show a roughly syringoporoid alignment of corallites with irregularly placed connecting processes. b. examples occur frequently which show traces of septal spines. 1.S. there being about 30-34 in each corallite. apart and are slightly arched the latter may be locally as abundant as the former and may be located at the level of the former.S. The processes in one plane are more consistently present than are those in the other plane. the former are 3 mm.5 mm. fewer and longer tabulae. In any case. U. apart at their proximal ends. —Holotype. It is probable that these fragments represent the ontogenetic change from recumbent to erect habit of growth in result of differential silicification Syringopora.C.M. II9 budded tubes. Unit i. Epitheca . undifferen- — tiated.S. paratypes. new species figure 10.38 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 2 specimens. U. new Externals.N. to 4 mm. in di- — . 2 specimens. Easton.o mm. i 127955a. and a nontabulate central tube. Small Tabulae appear as concentric rings or to 4. but the hollow ones may which did not allow preservation of the tabulae. SYRINGOPORA. number from 2 In longitudinal section the tabulae are sharply curved proximally and fuse at their inner ends to form a slender open tube located axially and occupying about one. 3 specimens.M. in diameter. with the individual corallites becoming erect.S. species A and closely This species is principally characterized by its slender packed corallites. thin with faint encircling striae. Tabulae are about 0. 127955. unit 2. In transverse section the corallites are circular or nearly septal spines line the epitheca.N. 4074. The corallites are about i.C. Some corallites are hollow be the and others contain tabular structures. varying in so.N. 10 4 corallites occurring in mm.

. Revision of stratigraphic units in Great Basin. Petrol.N. Inv. 1952.. 93 pp. in diameter. 21-24. pp. 1946. Occurrence. 16-123. 17.S. Missouri Geol. Assoc. Material. Fig. 4.. 71-79- Butler. 30. No. 2. A. SONORA —EASTON in lo ET AL. i specimen. Journ.. T. A. Kansas Acad. No. 37. 13. Amer. —Unit very closely constructed Its corallites are Syringopora observed about 4 collectable. V. connecting processes and of external structure were not observed. 1 Geol. Geol. R. Corals from the Chouteau and related formations of the Mississippi Valley region. new Externals.. U. pis. mm.. Geol. i. 97. i43-i5i- CoNKiN. 4. Mag. Amer. . 39 Details of ameter and about six subparallel rows occur mm. Bull. H. 4 specimens . vol. SYRINGOPORA. On J. Cyathaxonia from the Fern Glen formation. fragmentary i. Sci. Illinois Geol. 4075. 1954. of the Pitkin formation of Arkansas. northwest Sonora. vol. pp.C. 3. specimen. 127954. Inv. E. 1953. 17 pis. Rep. pp. R. W. 1944. 1935- J. Assoc. 57. vol. G. 4076. U. and Conkin. 125-154. field B in the —A was not Occurrence. A.. Easton. 2.M. Mexico. 4 specimens unit i. holotype. Stratigraphy near Caborca. the Silurian coral Cyathaxonia silwiensis M'Coy. X REFERENCES Beveridge. Unit 3. — Transverse section of several corallites in a colony of Syringopora hibijera Easton. Surv. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. Petrol. Rep. Paleont.S. 214-217. vol.. 1943.. and Arellano. 72. pp. No. No. Surv. — — . Bull.NO. Trans. species i specimen. L. B. pp. The fauna vol. Cooper. pp. and Clark. 606-610. Eastern Nevada Geological Association... A revision of the early Mississippian nomenclature in western Missouri.

273-339.S. 51-71. D. No. 3. zaphrentids. 1948. Hazzard. 1-27. 85. 3. H. Geol. Nat. 3. Reprinted as Missouri Geol. J. 91-196. pp. 170. California Div. of Devonian and Carboniferous sections. Soc. III... pp. Hudson. Kansas Geol. Geol. H. C. C. Geol. Petrol. Thomson and other genera of the "Zaphrentis" 5. 1944.R. The Lower Pierson fauna Surv. Hist. vol. VOL. 1-24. 25. California. Paleont.S. A revision of some Mississippian pp. 1948. pp. Amer. 10. M. Mag. vol. 257-263. Com. Easton. ET AL. pp. Mag. 1895. ch. Inv. Spreng.. 1935. No. 79. 355-362. California. Sci. Mem. pp. 1932. GORSKY. Smith S.). Corals from the Lower Carboniferous beds of the Khirghiz Steppe. II9 Paleont. pp. No. Paleont. State Paleozoic 1954a. Mines. section in the Nopah and Resting Springs Mountains. California. Mississippian cuneate corals. Journ. pp.. Trans. a. Correlation of the Mississippian formations of North America.. Hill. C. Mag. pp. Rep. 2. pp. 6. No. pp. 2. No. London. Grove. 11. Geol. 878-885. tetracoral genera. from the Redwall limestone (Mississippian) i... 1953- W. C. 1952. Stuckenberg. 51. No. D. 22. Revision Mineralogist 22. F. i-viii. vol. Rep. 625-632. D. No. 1948. pp. No. 380-404. 16. ser. Bull. G. vol. Lang. . and Corals Gutschick. pis. of west-central Missouri. 1942. Fasciculophyllum pp. .. and Permia. 4. pp. pp. Southern California Acad. 81-86. Midi. pp. No. 27-35. pt. Illinois and Arkansas. 59. Prantl... Korallen und bryozoen der Steinkohlenablagerungen des Ural und Timan. some Mississippian I. A J. 2>?>7-27^- Amer. Bull. vol. 1-244. Inyo County. H. The distribution vol. Amer. Nopah Range. Paleont. (Nat. 18-41. fasc. 1938. a. vol..40 1945. 4. Hist. Bull. omaliusi group of Carboniferous corals. W. Ann.. 1954b. 3. 1-94. r-231. vol. corals of the genera Rotiphyllum 18. No. Prosp. 1937- J.. Journ. R. Geol. Journ.. 38. 121-148. Index of Palaeozoic coral genera. E. . 7. i6th Region Field Conf. Assoc. 5. Geol. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS Amplexoid corals 9. vol. pis. Inyo County. Nat. R. Mines Geol. of Arizona. British Mus. California Journ. 1940. and Thomas. 13. Guide Book. vol. Some Laccophyllidae from the Middle Devonian of Bohemia. pp. revision of vol. Surv. 68-74. San Bernardino County. Soc. from the Chester of No.. 195 1. Studies in Paleozoic corals. 52. S. Lower Carboniferous Journ.. Weller. Rocks and structure of the northern Providence Mountains. B. U. Stumm. vol. and sequence of Carboniferous coral faunas.

are exceptionally good. (Burlington). Hustedia circularis (Miller). such as the Reticularia cooperensis which 14-feet thickness (Cooper The collection of brachiopods is small are the first good interiors to be figured for this genus. Cyrtina burling tonensis (Rowley). Others had to be patched together. range into the Osagian Absence of productids Chouteau fauna and condition. This unfortunate condition was brought about by the necessity of dissolving them from limestone. and Reticularia cooperensis (Swallow) are characteristic Chouteau species. although fragmentary. Many of the specimens fell apart and could not be saved.BRACHIOPODA AND PELECYPODA By John E. is The age of the Represo brachiopods clearly Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) but some species suggest an early Osagian age or Medial Mississippian age. 1946). noteworthy but this may be due to incomProductids are not abundant in the one their absence in this may be due to a facies Actually the outcrop from which these fossils were taken very small and the specimens collected may not represent a good sample of the fauna. Venada limestone Specimens of one species of brachiopod were taken from the in the small hill i^ miles west of Bisani. except one species as noted below. Cyrtospirifer latior (Swallow). and most of the specimens are fragmentary. in northwestern Sonora. A few of the specimens. Nearly all the specimens from this knob come from the middle cherty limestone of and Arellano. Sanders Yale University (Plates 3-7) INTRODUCTION All the brachiopods described herein. These brachiopods belong to the genus Perditocardinia now known only from 41 . and Dielasmoides. In spite of all these difficulties 21 genera and 25 species are described. whereas Crurithyris laevicula (Rowley). al- though present in the lower Mississippian. is is plete or selective silicification. came from the small knob of Represo limestone located i\ miles west-northwest of Bisani. These silicified specimens are generally very fragile and the rocks much fractured. Leptaena.

1-8. Weller's subdivision of the Mississippian Rhipidomella chiefly is based Three of the species he recognized. Geol. and photographing the specimens.. i.N. The Represo collection contains only a single complete specimen and fragments of two others. On the basis of size and shape the internal features. 1914. Illinois. Rhipidomella dubia Weller. figs.S. hurling tonerisis (Hall). Rhipidomella missouriensis Weller. G. figures 1-3 Sci. My thanks also go to the Bursary Aid Program. and to Mrs. Beach for typing the manuscript. and R. PERDITOCARDINIA Schuchert and Cooper. Orthis missoimensis Swallow.. St. 20. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to Dr. DUBIA (Hall). M. Monogr. Surv. pi. which were useful in settling certain systematic problems. 1931 PERDITOCARDINIA cf. Walker Museum. II9 the Warsaw to Ste. . 12. Oehlert. figs. Yale University. and M. for aid in making the plates. 127910. p. A. i860 Plate i860. 83. Genus —U. but to exteriors. Surv. pi. i. Curator. missouriensis. Albany Inst. M. MISSOURIENSIS 3. H. 4. 639-640. pp. 148-149. Monogr. A. Orthis dubia 1914. 1857 Plate 3. 1857b. Nitecki. on some extent on the species appears closest to R. figures 4-7 vol. 9-10. 160-161. Trans. i. Trans. Cooper for the opportunity to study this for preparing Mexican fauna. 1890 RHIPIDOMELLA R. University of Chicago. R. pp.M. Williams. B.42 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. vol. BRACHIOPODA SYSTEMATICS Suborder Dalmanelloidea Moore 1952 Family RHIPIDOMELLIDAE Genus Schuchert 1913 RHIPIDOMELLA cf. none of which reveals internal characteristics. (Swallow). F. Figured specimen. Hall. P. resemble each other very closely externally and require confirmation of interior details for accurate specific designation. and for conferences on identifications. missouriensis (Swallow). Louis Acad. kindly lent some of Stuart Weller's types. pp. Geol. Genevieve divisions of the Middle Mississippian and thus younger than the Represo fauna. Illinois.B. R. oweni Hall and Clarke.

slightly recurved over dental sockets. convexity anterior commissure rectimarginate . beak curved. Genevieve horizons.. not separable from supporting plates . —U. 12. gently . crural — Delthyrial cavity deep oblique . margins rounded hinge line straight cardinal margins obtuse rounded . 43 Rhipidomella (Perditocardinia) Schuchert and Cooper. b. pt. 19. more prominent on dorsal . slightly curved brachiophore supporting plates. A forward edge of the diductor impression. sulcus faint on both valves. umbone pointed. front margin slightly emarginate valve. f ossettes dental plates located directly under teeth. Shell transverse. Surface multicostellate. length to . vol. each pair separated large trunk of the by a faint low ridge.S. 1929 King. 4. borne on median . chiophores stout. figures 8-22 Exterior. divergent. Family SCHIZOPHORHDAE Schuchert and LeVene. 1850 Genus SCHIZOPHORIA SCHIZOPHORIA SULCATA Sanders. Hist. Mem. inverted V-shaped prominence adductors small. new species Plate 3.NO. . continued forward as ridges bounding muscle field muscle field bilobate. widest at mid. curved curved Ventral interarea gently apsacline. clublike. figs. Ventral interior. lateral profile biconvex. some Shell finely punctate. dubia are younger than the Chouteau because Hall's species ranges from the Warsaw to the Ste. . divided by narrow ridge whose base widens anteriorly to form raised. . and both of these overlie the Chouteau equivalents in the Mississippi Valley this collection sections. little wider than long. cavity wide. Examples of shells closely resembling Hall's species are present in and come from the Venada limestone in the small hill i^ miles west of Bisani. Nat. deep. but forming walls of delthyrial cavity and edge of delthyrium. — Notothyrial f ulcral . so far as is presently known. Peabody Mus. pointed dorsal interarea orthocline. gently curved beak faintly umbone small. SONORA dtibia. i. The beds containing P. attached to inner over- hanging edge of palintrope very faint denticle along free inner edge . 127911a.M. costellae hollow with holes leading to exterior. pallial sinuses originates at the bounded by divergent. ET AL. diductor scars elongate. with dorsal valve having greater . Figured specimens. MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. plates curved. 3 1932. ridge . teeth stout. 16-17. a . — . . with posterior surface parallel to interarea and with small accessory sockets . . 20-22.N. 135. which are continued anterolaterally as faint ridges bounding muscle field braDorsal interior.C. pi. —EASTON p.

unfigured paratype. Leptaenella Sarycheva and Sokolskaja.S. 1914. four originating near median line. is The species further distinguished externally by the sulcus on each valve.M. is also biconvex. so other possible differences that may exist beit tween S. The writer has made no attempt to trace the original usage and genotype to determine if his usage corresponds exactly to the original. Unfortunately the interior details of Weller's species are not well known. I279i5e). so far as the writer is aware. chouteauensis Weller. U. low median ridge. The interior of Phillips's species is unknown. S. U. but seems to have a deeper ventral valve and lacks the dorsal sulcus. U. .S. . pp.N. a feature name.S.M. shaft a . This species resembles lacks a sulcus scdaliensis Weller.M.N. Cardinal process prominent. II9 of palintrope. is a synonym of Leptagonia McCoy.44 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 1956 Genus Dalman. 127915. — Holotype.N. speof Distinguishing characters. 127915a figured paratypes. just lateral of sockets. analoga Phillips has hitherto been regarded as a Leptaena. tremities of ridges separating adductors. but when known might provide a basis for generic distinction. two on each side of the median ridge and two more at anterior ex. ^S. especially that inspired its by the prominent sulcus on the dorsal valve. also based on Producta analoga Phillips. lateral profile this cies is very characteristic and somewhat unusual for Schisophoria. but that species on the dorsal valve. 1828 Leptaena as here described follows the long usage expressed in Weller (1914) and elsewhere. (1844. figure 17 (U. Furthermore.S. 1836.N. 1952. but McCoy's name has not been used McCoy because P. cannot Remarks. I279i5b-h.M. —The biconvex Types. —An interesting example of repair of a is during the lifetime of the animal of the specimen figured on plate shell break made shown near the anterior margin 3C. narrow septumlike ridge myophore bilobate. Suborder Strophomenoidea Maillieux 1932 Family LEPTAENIDAE LEPTAENA Cooper. sulcata and the two species externally resembling be determined. Pallial sinuses prominent. divided by faint. with muscle markings on posterolateral sides accessory cardinal processes present on floor of notothyrial cavity between shaft and brachiophore supporting plates. Muscle area large. 1914. 116-117) proposed Leptagonia based on Producta analoga Phillips.

3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. beak slightly curved delthyrium closed at apex by a broad pseudodeltidium. corresponding part of dorsal valve late anteriorly. more obtuse toward . narrow.NO. pointed elliptical. obsolete. for a genus based on Leptaena rhomhoidalis ventricosa Hall. the point of geniculation planoconvex. 1857a. undivided . sharply genicu- on the dorsal valve being cardinal front margin semi- sharply angular in front and becoming extremities. figures 1-5 Most Mississippian leptaenas are referred to L. cline. clublike. LEPTAENA COOPERI Sanders. the author erects a new species for these Mexican shells. analoga (Phillips) and from L. Exterior. irregular. with growth track forming crenulated area from beak along outer edge of delthyriimi. gently convex. convexa Weller. Leptaenella Sarycheva and Sokolskaja is thus a homonym as well as a synonym and must be discarded.A. teeth blunt. based on their internal morphology. costellate. rounded . bounded posterolaterally by thickened valve margin supporting teeth. with posterior portion of ventral valve flat. crenulated. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. beak only faintly pointed. flattened. both of these modified by rounded consemicircular. Muscle areas occupying pitlike notothyrial cavity. ventral interarea apsa. twice as wide as long. but the internal morphology of Phillips's species is still undescribed. nearly Surface of both valves multisuperposed on larger. widest at hinge line. analoga (Phillips). — Shell transverse. Dorsal interarea anacline. 45 the name Leptaenella is preoccupied by Fredericks (1917). with posterior portion ets dinal area smooth. This new species appears to differ externally (and the few interior details that from the shells Weller (1914) assigned also can be seen from the illustrations) to L. with much finer pattern of concentric lirae costellae. forming great sunken pitlike area for muscle attachment. 1836. centric corrugations. apex with triangular flattened area. separated for most of extent by a wide. a Lower Carboniferous species from England. Cardinal extremities acute. elongate. new species Plate 4. hinge straight . gently concave . deep. with long axis directed laterally. bounded posteriorly by small accessory sock- which merge laterally into a small groove along inner edge of carand apparently extending to cardinal extremity. Rather than assign the present specimens to a widely used species whose interior is poorly known and where interiors are unavailable for comparison. slightly emarginate . Ventral interior. anteriorly by a curved elevated ridge. — Notothyrial cavity broad.

Belgium.M. analoga (Phillips) shows the Belgian specimens to be wider. coopcri. bounded posterolaterally by stout rounded ridges parallel to ridge made by inner socket plate. These Mexican collections shells agree in general with the shells illustrated by Demanet. c. but comparison of Leptaena cooperi with Demanet's L. 7) illustrated the interior of a species from Tournai.N. fig. except for large pallial trunks at front of muscle interior. low. with anterior adductors occupying deep elliptical pits on opposite sides of narrow median ridge just . which closely resembles L. — Interarea separated from filled rest of valve ridge notothyrium wide. coopcri. and with slightly less abrupt geniculation than in L. with pointed median ridge located atop this broader rounded ridge. of the dorsal valve is Interiorly. edge of raised muscle platform. by a faint by cardinal process chilidium fused to posterior face of cardinal process.M. . .N. (Phillips). but appear to differ significantly in certain proportions. and the median septum extends to just the midpoint of the visceral area. II9 ridge which bears elongate adductor impressions. merging posteriorly with lobe of cardinal process. crenulated. pi. posterior to pointed anterior termination of median ridge pallial trunks diverge widely from anterior adductor impressions of visceral area papillose. with the muscle area distinctly raised and the median septum extending about two-thirds of the distance across the visceral area. bounded on both sides by ridgelike outer and inner socket plates. Remainder of interior of valve papillose. occupying about one-fifth of the area within elliptical visceral region. 5. divided medianly by a Y-shaped ridge which culminates anteriorly about right angles in a pointed.S. . with median groove leading to beak over space between two lobes of cardinal process bilobed cardinal process with diductor scars on vertical posterior face dental grooves rounded. posterior adductor field anterior to this junction of ridges. on the other hand. —Demanet (1934. . slightly indented along the front edge. referred to Leptaena analoga —Holotype. . Diductor impressions field. Types. 127916a Remarks. bisected slightly more than by the straight hinge line in the Belgian specimens. U. raised knob and divides a flattened area just posteriorly to join bounding ridges which lead to cardinal process at .S. figured paratypes. anterolaterally by Dorsal . In L. widely divergent. the muscle area is not so prominently raised. cooperi. remainder 127916b. . the visceral area forms a nearly complete ellipse. with extended cardinal extremities. the visceral area semielliptical. U. .46 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. floored by posterior wall of valve muscle area diamond-shaped. Large might invalidate these distinctions. not shown on shells examined.

delthyrium bounded by wide perideltidial Ventral interior. muscle marks fused together . bounded posteriorly by margin of valve . is thought to differ from Schellwienella in lacking denthis col- This difference holds true for the specimens of the lection.S. SONORA —EASTON Girty.M. SCHUCHERTELLA Schuchertella tal plates. delthyrium. Cooper (personal communication) indicates varia- in development of "dental plates" may invalidate the supposed generic distinction based on bly this feature alone. . platformlike. A. — Cardinaha cardinal process bi- lobed. in plane of commissure base divided. I279i7a-c. tellid Only fragments of the valves near the hinge line are preand they represent an apparently flattened.N. SCHUCHERTELLA species Plate 4. served. formed by upward growth of stout inner socket plate-brachiophore.NO. The dorsal interiors of many of the Mississippian — — strophomenoids are poorly known consequently. bility but G. biconvex schucherwhich gradually increase in size — bearing rounded. 1954 47 Family SCHUCHERTELLIDAE Genus Stehli. unsupported below to apex.B. forming the inner socket plates (bra- chiophores). not strongly impressed into shell. U. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. the writer is in a poor position to assess the significance of the variability of these structures or to follow the changes during growth of an individual. fused to inner edges of pseudodeltidium closing delthyrium growth track of tooth. sockets not excavated from shell. flat. Remarks. 1904 ET AL. which taper anterolaterally to rounded bladelike ends. . erect. shell. and might ultimately provide a reliable basis for generic distinction if this information can be obtained from the type species of the two genera concerned. chilidium fused to base of cardinal process. The dorsal interiors of the shells here assigned to Schuchertella differ considera- from the corresponding parts of shells referred to Schellwienella. over- hanging outer surface of dorsal valve at apex. rounded ridges. Dorsal interior. Other specimens in the collection show a median ridge on the inner side of . No muscle marks impressed on Figured specimens. with base of each half fused to stout. interarea areas. threadlike costellae separated by implantation in the interspaces of smaller costellae anteriorly. —Thickened teeth occurring along inner edges of . figures 6-14 Exterior.

a new species is here basis of the admittedly somewhat incomplete The byia or Orthotetes. flattened. the median profile sloping abruptly posteriorly and more gradually antecardinal margins flattened. fused to posterior wall of valve and brachiophores. costellae of several sizes present. dental margins. Ventral valve . These have also been assigned here. Surface multicostellate. Though numerous species of this genus have been described. . bounded posterolaterally by interarea. apsacline pseudodeltidium completely clos- ing delthyrium. . . interarea plane. especially posteriorly. with slight reticulation where threadlike concentric lirae cross narrow costellae. plates divergent. floored by stout f ulcral plates which are fused to brachiophores. cardinalia in shown conceivably could belong to DerHowever. . rotund. hinge straight . visible faint. and as that valve seems to be the more useful one for erected even on the material. widest at or just anterior to hinge line. .48 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. — than twice as wide as long. Weller (1914) described several new species from single dorsal valves only. Surface ornament poorly preserved. plane. figures 15-21 A large dorsal valve and a smaller basis of a fragment of the hinge portion of a ventral valve are presumed to belong together and are made the new species of Schellmienella. Genus SCHELLWIENELLA Thomas. nearly right angles. the internal characters of the dorsal valve are scarcely known. low. anacline. rounded median ridge. greatest convexity just posterior to middle. 1910 Sanders. and rounded. filled erect cardinalia.C. Exterior. semicircular in plan. specific determination. with greatly swollen umbonal region. but largely by default. cardinal extremities blunt. Dorsal valve convex. II9 the cardinal process and large muscle areas separated by a faint. supported by thin dental —Teeth low. with diductor attachment areas . but riorly . and inseparable from inner walls of sockets cardinal process erect. stout. chilidium fused sockets divergent. ridge median muscle area not completely with — Notothyrium wide. with slightly concave contour fold and sulcus lacking dorsal interarea narrow. a little less this possibility. Dorsal Ventral interior. as too few specimens are available to evaluate the signifi- cance of these changes. except for growth track of dental groove along outer to outer side of cardinal process. SCHELLWIENELLA UMBONATA new species Plate 4. low. interior. status of our knowledge of the dorsal these genera does not provide confirmatory evidence on dorsal valve Shell transverse.

NO. 3

closely set parallel striations,




marked by

rounded ridges

interior side of cardinalia nearly

laterally by stout smooth except for

irregular, offcenter ridge.



deeply impressed, circular,

separated by a broad, low, rounded median ridge, which extends the

length of the muscle area.


— Holotype, U.S.N.M. 127918a; figured paratype, U.S.N.M. Distinguishing characters. —The swollen umbone and



concave cardinal extremities of the dorsal valve are especially

compared with others previously that this comparison is made upon this single specimen versus a very small number of specimens of the other species. How the cardinalia compare with other species of the
characteristic of


described, but


must be admitted

genus, unfortunately, cannot be stated.

Suborder Chonetoidea Muir-Wood, 1955



Hall and Clarke, 1895
Paeckelmann, 1930
(White), 1862



Plate 3,F, figures 30-32

Chonetes geniculata White, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Chonetes geniculatiis Welles, Geol. Surv.
pi. 8, figs.

vol. 9, p. 29.




pp. 92-93,



—Paeckelmann (1930,

pp. 222-223) proposed Plicocho-

netes as a subgenus of Chonetes, based on Chonetes buchiana de

Koninck, 1844, for Devonian and Carboniferous chonetids with radially plicated shells, which were assigned by de Koninck (1847) to the
"plicosae" and a

few to the "striatae" and "rugosae." No internal were cited. The present shells are referred to Paeckelmann's genus on the basis
based on external characters.

of external ornamentation.

The assignment to P. geniciilatus likewise The present shells agree well with

Weller's (1914, pp. 92-93) description of White's decidedly concavoconvex species, though the Mexican shells are a little larger than the

ones figured by Weller.
but has a wider hinge

G. glenparkensis (Weller, 1906)



and more

definite auriculations.


Other specimens in the collection show interior details of the venvalve and indicate flat, rounded, unsupported, shelflike hinge teeth flattened parallel to the hinge line, and a short median septum.
Certain other specimens in the collection
(not illustrated)





belong to Chonetes logani

Norwood and

their crenulated ornamentation


Pratten (1855) because of wider hinge line.

Ty/)^.—Holotype, U.S.N.M.


Suborder Terebratuloidea Muir-Wood, 1955



Schuchert and LeVene, 1929
Weller, 191
12, 13


Plate 5,C, figures


fragments of dorsal valves are assigned to Girtyella species on

the basis of punctate shell structure and the presence of a concave

hinge plate supported by a median septum anteriorly. The loops are not preserved. The specimens are too incomplete to attempt species

Figured specimens.

—U.S.N.M. 127923a,
Plate 5,C, figures 9-1



This small terebratuloid assigned to Girtyella? yields no clue as to its interior details. Whether it belongs with the incomplete dorsal
valves of Girtyella species above


Figured specimen.

—U.S.N.M. 127922a.
Weller, 191


Stehli (1956) has revealed that the dorsal interior of the genotype

of Dielasma has a sessile cruralium with crura arising from the walls
of the cruralium near the inner socket plates, a plate arrangement

hke that of the species upon which Weller (1911) erected the genus
as a junior

Stehli (pp. 300-301) therefore regards Dielasmoides

synonym of Dielasma,

as the latter that the


now known. How-

he also indicates


genotype of Dielasma

has a cardinal process, a feature which
the etched

likewise clearly

specimens of Dielasma

shown on from the Middle Per-

mian of Texas




Mississippian shells in this

collection clearly lack a cardinal process.


present writer therefore

recognizes Dielasmoides Weller, 191

from Dielasma King, 1859, ^s restricted by Stehli (1956), on the basis of the absence of a cardinal process in Dielasmoides.
as a distinct genus

NO. 3







Plate 5,D, figures 18-20


incomplete specimens showing the dorsal interior morphology

of Dielasmoides occur in this collection.


external configuration

cannot be determined from these fragments, so species assignment is not attempted. Weller (1914) lists only one species of Dielasmoides, D. bisinuata Weller, in the genus. Even though specific assignment

not made, the shells here discussed probably belong in a different

species than D. bisinuata, as the

Mexican specimens are very much

Figured specimens.


Plate S,D, figures 14-17


generic assignment of the specimen illustrated on plate 5,D,
is in

figures 14-17,


The specimen

doubt because no internal morphology can be deis assigned with query to Dielasmoides.

Figured specimen.

— U.S.N.M. 127924.
Hall and Clarke, 1894


In his study of the genotype species of Dielasma King, 1859, {D. elongatus Schlotheim, 1816), Stehli (1956, pp. 300-301) showed that the dorsal interior plate structure of this Permian species from Europe
closely resembles that of the Mississippian species

from the United

States which Weller (1911) took as the genotype of Dielasmoides,

but that the European species contains a cardinal process and does not

have the plate structure commonly regarded as characteristic of "Dielasma" by Weller (1914) and other authors. Stehli also pointed out
that Beecheria Hall

synonym for "Dielasma," should be revived widely misnamed Dielasma.

and Clarke, 1894, which has been suppressed as a for this group of shells

characterized by unusual plates on the floor of the

dorsal valve that support the crura and the position of the crural bases.


crural plate

and associated

plate unites to

form a structure


resembles the pointed roof of a house. These plates are attached to the floor of the dorsal valve and are entirely separate from the inner
socket-plate-fulcral -plate structure that encloses the teeth.






Plate 5,E, figures 21, 22


incomplete specimen on the posterior portion of a large species

of Beecheria occurs in the collection.

The complete shape and

type of

folding cannot be determined in the absence of the anterior part of the




morphology of the dorsal

valve, however, is

well preserved, and clearly indicates the genus Beecheria, as revived

by Stehli (1956). The loop is only partially preserved. Although the specimen is fragmentary, it preserves a hole bored by

some predatory organism.
Figured specimen.

The death

of this individual could be

attributed to the boring organism.

—U.S.N.M. 127927.
Schuchert and LeVene, 19G9

Suborder Rhynchonelloidea Moore, 1952




Hall and Clarke, 1894


Plate s,A, figures 1-3


— Shell subtriangular, with
; ;



straight, front


straight, anterior corners

curved about as wide as long, widest

just anterior to midlength

biconvex, with both valves about equally

deep and with flattened profile both valves deepest at midlength folding reverses as shell matures, with the dorsal valve in young stages
bearing a small median sulcus, becoming a low fold in maturity, and
the ventral valve having a raised median portion, not sharply set off

from the contour of the valve


becoming a wide,


sulcus near front margin of mature shell.

Costae simple, rounded,

defined on beaks, becoming larger and deeper anteriorly, each lateral
slope bearing about five costae, the sulcus eight, with furrows a bit

wider and


than the costae on dorsal valve. Beak erect, pointed,


delthyrium narrowly triangular, with small discrete

deltidial plates

not extending across delthyrium.

Ventral interior.


plates divergent, discrete

from walls of

forming steep-sided delthyrial cavity, joining valve wall along furrow which bounds sulcus laterally, extending one-fifth the distance to front margin. No muscle marks. Dorsal interior. Dental sockets following posterorlateral margin of valve, with socket floor plates curving up and inward to form inner

walls of sockets


hinge plate attaching to inner socket plates, divided

NO. 3





medially by flat-bottomed, shallow cruralium, supported by a thin median septum, with free edge tapering gradually toward floor of
valve and extending about one-third the distance to the front margin

crura slender, joining hinge plate at junction of edge of cruralium and
inner side of divided hinge plate

cardinal process lacking.


markings not present on specimen.
Figured specimen. U.S.N.M. 127919a. Remarks. This is a most distinctive shell and can be accurately characterized in spite of the fragmentary condition of the single speci-

men examined.

interior details,

Its broken condition permitted description of the which would not have been possible had the only specimen available been complete. This shell may belong to Camarotoechia tiita Miller, but seems much

larger than any examples illustrated by Weller (1914,

24, figs.

Branson (1938, pp. 45-46) regarded C. tuta Miller and C. chouteanensis Weller (1914) to be the same species, holding Weller's species to be larger forms of Miller's. The C. tuta of Branson (1938,
pi. 5, figs.

14-18) has unequally deep valves, a feature in



shown on Weller's illustrations of C. tuta. This shell also approaches some of the specimens of C. mutata (Hall) shown in Weller (1914, pi. 24, figs. 53-60). These differ in profile from the other specimens of C. mutata (Weller, 1914,
Weller's C. chouteauensis, but which
pi. 24, figs.




new genus

Centronella louisianensis Weller, 1914.

closed by sulcus

— Smooth-shelled rhynchonellids with deltidium


incipient deltidial plates, having fold

on dorsal valve median septum.

on ventral valve and dorsal interior with cruralium supported by




Camarotoechia Hall and

Clarke, Nudirostra Cooper and Muir-Wood, 195 1 (formerly Leiorhynchus), and Paraphorhynchus Weller, 1905, by its dorsal interior structure of a cruralium supported by a median septum. Dorisisnus differs from all three by its smooth shell and in having a fold on the
ventral valve

and sulcus on the dorsal



folding of Dorsisinus

resembles that of Centronelloidea Weller, 1914, but Centronelloidea is a punctate, loop-bearing terebratulid, whereas Dorsisinus is impunctate

and contains only crura. The external homeomorphy between these two genera is indeed striking.




The Mexican
Weller's species.


available seems complete

show internal details chiefly, but the material enough to confirm the assignment of them to


original specimens

generic diagnosis is based on study of Weller's (Walker Museum 6730) and these Mexican in-


the interior details of Weller's specimens cannot be

absolutely confirmed, the writer found no punctae in the shells and in
several specimens could detect the trace of the dorsal septum through

the shell.

Cloud (1942, p. 74) correctly noted that Weller's species is not a terebratulid. Cloud regarded it as an immature rhynchonellid, but the
present writer
is satisfied is


it is

a reliable basis for a

This conclusion

strengthend by observations

new genus. made on some shells in

the writer's Tennessee collections.


(Weller), 1914

Plate S,B, figures 4-8

Centronella louisianensis Weller, Geol. Surv.





30, figs. 26-29.


— Shells smooth, with oval outline; valves nearly equally

biconvex, with ventral valve having slightly greater convexity. Ventral
valve with long, slightly curved, pointed beak
partially closed

delthyrium triangular,

by incipient deltidial plates umbone bearing well-defined median elevation, becoming broader and less distinct anteriorly. Dorsal valve circular in plan folding absent in posterior portion, but

with wide, shallow, V-shaped sulcus beginning about one-third of the
distance to the front margin and becoming wider anteriorly


commissure gently
Ventral interior.


Teeth supported by dental plates which are disfrom posterolateral valve wall. Muscle markings not impressed

into shell.

Dorsal interior. Beak pointed, slightly curved dental grooves follow posterolateral valve wall, with floor of groove curving around to

form inner socket



hinge plate divided, with outer



attached to inner socket plate, inner edges forming small cruralium,

which is supported by prominent median septum. Septum continues forward of cruralium halfway to the front margin. Crura long, slender, arising from inner edges of flat portions of hinge plate, supported below by a thin, vertical plate formed by forward extension of the walls of the cruralium. Muscle attachment areas not impressed
into shell.


— Figured hypotypes, U.S.N.M. I27926a-e.

NQ. 3





Suborder Spiriferoidea Allen, 1940



King, 1846

Nalivkin, 1930

Though the spiriferoid species here considered has always been referred to the genus Spirifer, discovery of the full morphology of
the shell requires that

be assigned elsewhere.

Nalivkin's Cyrto-

spirifer appears to be the best resting place for these shells,


must be admitted

that his generic diagnosis


incomplete. Nalivkin

emphasized the presence of a transverse delthyrial plate in the apex of the ventral valve as a prominent feature of Cyrtospirifer and fully ignored the dorsal interior. On the basis of external ornamentation

and the transverse

delthyrial plate the present writer assigns these

shells to Cyrtospirifer,

but with full realization of the insecurity of assignment because of the lack of important interior details of Cyrtospirifer. If these Mexican shells are Cyrtospirifcrs, then this is



record of that genus from undoubted Mississippian rocks. possession of a transverse delthyrial plate alone scarcely seems a reliable generic character among spiriferids, but the validity of this






spiriferids awaits further detailed

study of this large group of brachiopods.

Swallow, Trans.

(Swallow), 1863

Plate S,G, figures 27-37
1863. 1914.

Spirifer latior


Louis Acad.

Sci., vol. 2, p. 86.

Spirifer latior
figs. 9-13-

Weller, Geol. Surv.



pp. 316-317, pl- 38,


— Shell

spiriferoid, rotund, transverse, about half again

as wide as long, widest at hinge; outline semicircular to triangular, with front margin slightly emarginate, cardinal extremities pointed,

acute. Valves subequally biconvex, with ventral valve having slightly greater convexity umbones prominent on both valves. Lateral slopes

ornamented by 18 to 20 small, generally simple costae and furrows similar in size, narrowly rounded with most originating at the beak and continuing to front margin, becoming gradually smaller toward cardinal extremities, with a few costae near the fold and sulcus bifurcating


the umbone.


fine surface



present, not

preserved on these specimens. Sulcus on ventral valve costate, narrow, V-shaped, and sharply defined at beak, widening gradually anteriorly

on dorsal valve only slightly elevated above the contour of valve; anterior commissure gently uniplicate.




Ventral interarea apsacHne, curving gently posteriorly; beak incurved, overhanging

interarea sharply defined


lateral slopes

hinge line nearly fully denticulate, except for small distance on each
side of delthyrium, with irregular traces of hinge teeth covering inter-

area except for small triangular areas on each side of the delthyrium

grooves prominent. Median costa of sulcus extending from

beak to front margin, with other costae in sulcus branching from


Dorsal beak incurved slightly over wide notothryium; interarea
orthocline, gently curved, low, sharply defined


lateral slopes;

costae of fold originating by bifurcation


a single source

on the





by furrows which are slightly larger than other

furrows on

lateral slopes.

Ventral interior.

— Hinge teeth

supported by prominent, diver-

gent dental plates, joining valve floor well outside borders of sulcus,

with transverse delthyrial plate joining dental plates in umbonal region,

extending one- fourth to one-third the distance from the beak to hinge

muscle areas well impressed, forming oval-shaped



nearly halfway to the front margin, outlined by forward continuation

of dental plates


adductors attaching to low, rounded thickened areas
(pi. 5,G, fig.

with V-shaped anterior outHne between dental plates
faint, low,



diductor field enclosing adductors, divided for most of

length by

rounded median ridge.



— Dental grooves bordering notothyrium, widening

gradually anteriorly

with interarea forming posterolateral boundary

floor fused to inner side of palintrope

inner socket plates vertical,

increasing in thickness and height anteriorly to

form prominent


angular terminations.
pillarlike thickening

Cardinal process spiriferoid, supported by a

extending to floor of valve and also supporting

posterior portion of inner socket plates; crural bases attaching to

lower distal edges of thickened inner socket plates


muscle areas not

deeply impressed, divided by a low, rounded median ridge which extends about halfway to the front margin along the floor of the valve.



—Figured hypotypes, U.S.N.M. I2792ia-f. —As noted by Weller (1914, 317), Swallow's original

specimen was not illustrated and has been lost. Weller regarded the specimen in the Greger collection, labeled by Swallow, as an accurate
representative of this species and based his description on Greger's



present usage follows Weller's concept of S.


which was based only on external characters.


collection provides

on certain



Weller emphasized the

NO, 3






rotund form, lack of change of convexity of the ventral valve near the lateral extremities, and lack of elevation of the fold above the contour
of the dorsal valve of the distinguishing features of this species and


shells assigned here

agree in





North, 1920


Plate 7,A, figures 1-3



valve transverse, widest at hinge, with slightly

mucronate cardinal extremities; interarea nearly rectangular, with
inner half near cardinal extremities denticulate; each lateral slope ornamented with 8 to lo simple, rounded costae and similar interanteriorly, bearing faint

vening furrows, fold defined from beak, becoming wider and higher median furrow anterior half of valve bearing

well-developed concentric imbricate lamellae, which are lacking on posterior half of valve, other fine surface ornament lacking or not preserved. Shell impunctate.
Interior. Notothyrium wide, with interarea forming outer edge of narrow dental grooves inner socket plate thickening and rising above plane of palintrope anteriorly, forming a clublike process which is rounded below and pointed above floor of sockets formed by a plate
; ;

attaching to inner surface of palintrope, line of junction of this plate

with palintrope forming boundary between denticulate and nondenticulate portions of hinge line cardinal process spiriferoid, prominent,

rising above plane of palintrope, supported only

by coalescence of base

with crural bases and inner socket plate crural bases rounded, diverging from base of cardinal process, joined to lower, inner edge of
inner socket plate by crural connecting plates.®



deeply impressed, slightly wider than sulcus, extending

about halfway to the front margin, divided by low, rounded median ridge, extending one-third of the way to front margin, each half subdivided by a rounded ridge which coincides with border of fold.

Figured specimen. U.S.N.M. 127932. Remarks. This single distinctive dorsal valve of a spiriferoid shell in this collection warrants special notice because of the cardinalia.

These features indicate the shell is similar to Tylothyris, but probably belongs to an unnamed genus which the writer discovered among specimens from the Belgian Lower Carboniferous in the collections of
the British


(Natural History) in 1953.



here used for plates which extend from crural bases to inner socket Crural plates extend from crural bases to floor of valve.







diversity of internal structures

concealed beneath a nearly uni-

form external shape and ornament in reticulariid brachiopods. T. N. George (1932) and Minato (1953) have discussed these shells and have based genera on internal plate arrangement and types of spines. On the basis of their dorsal interiors, the Mexican shells belong to Reticiilaria, as that genus was diagnosed by George (1932). These silicified specimens reveal for the first time the internal morphology
of this genus in great detail.


(Swallow), i860

Plate 6,D, figures 21-30

Spirifer cooperensis

Swallow, Trans.


Louis Acad.

Sci., vol. 1, p. 463.

Reticiilaria cooperensis

Weller, Geol. Surv.


pp. 428-


pl- 75, figs.



following observations are

made on

the basis of disjoined indi-

vidual valves which preserve the hinge structures very well, but which are not complete enough to
the shell.


the entire external configuration of


— Shell



circular, cardinal extremities broadly

wider than long, widest at midlength, rounded valves

biconvex, with ventral valve having the greater convexity, greatest

convexity at midlength


anterior commissure rectiniarginate to faintly

surface noncostate, but ornamented by narrow concentric,

imbricate bands of double-barreled spine bases; shell nonpunctate;
internal surface of valves faintly radially striated.

Ventral valve with prominent umbone


interarea small, triangular,

faintly striated vertically (trace of fine hinge teeth?), differentiated


lateral slopes

by faint angular change of contour, apsacline, curv;

ing faintly posteriorly to incurved, overhanging beak

sulcus defined

on umbone, narrowly rounded, becoming broadly rounded and illdefined anteriorly. Dorsal valve with nearly uniform convexity, with
fold absent or only faintly raised above contour of valve interarea narrow, orthocline, curving very faintly rearward to gently curved beak edge of notothyrium bounded by low ridge along free edge of


Ventral interior. Delthyrium broadly triangular, bounded by stout hinge teeth; dental plates divergent, extending along floor of valve about one-fourth the distance to front margin, continued a little
farther anteriorly as faint ridges flanking the muscle area;


NO. 3





ridge low, pointed, extending from beak about halfway to front

margin muscle


not deeply impressed.



—Dental grooves

widening anterolaterally, floored

by a plate which is parallel to the palintrope, joining rear wall of valve just below plane of the palintrope inner socket plate vertical, becoming thicker anterolaterally, termination club-shaped crural con;

necting plates thin, vertical, fused to inner socket plates, supported
at rear of valve

by a flangelike plate tapering rapidly along the

floor of

the valve and continuing halfway to the front margin as a thin, low,

rounded median ridge; cardinal process spiriferoid, not well differentiated, occupying rear of shell where interarea, dental grooves, and inner socket plates coalesce overhanging slightly, supported at sides by inner socket plate and crural connecting plates muscle field not


impressed on


Types. Figured hypotypes, U.S.N.M. i2793ia-d. Remarks. The present shells agree externally with those assigned to R. cooperensis by Weller (1914), but he was unable to illustrate Swallow's holotype which may be lost. Weller's mention of a median septum in the ventral valve and in the dorsal valve of R. cooperensis



based on specimens not illustrated, so the writer cannot be certain a true median septum or only a median ridge is present in R. coo-



the possible exception of this

median septum which

rapidly becomes only a slight, raised rib along the floor of the valve

with the Mexican

(Weller, 1914, p. 429), the dorsal interior described by Weller agrees shells. No difference exists if one is allowed latitude

in interpreting the

word "septum."
Clarke, 1894, revived by Cooper

The genus Torynifer Hall and

(1942) resembles Reticiilaria externally, but differs from it in possessing a concave hinge plate supported by a distinct median septum in the dorsal valve. On calcareous specimens one can see the trace of the
hinge plate and septum as dark T-shaped lines at the rear of the dorsal
If the type of Spirifer cooperensis

Swallow bears

this internal

hinge plate and septum

must be assigned to Torynifer and another name sought for the shells here described which are true Reticularias. Weller (1914, p. 428) considered Spirifer hirtus White and Whitfield, 1862, to be a synonym of 6". cooperensis Swallow, i860, and illustrated the holotype of S. hirtus (Univ. Michigan No. 1367) under
Reticularia cooperensis.


possibility of

differences of internal

arrangement among external homeomorphs in this group of shells, however, suggests such synonymy should be suspended until full knowledge of internal morphology of both species is revealed.





George, 1931

Amhocoelia levicula Rowley, Amer.

(Rowley), 1900

Plate 7,B, figures 4-8
Geol., vol. 25, p. 262, pi.
5, figs.





Weller, Geol. Surv.




p. 462, pi.

77, figs. 26-29.


Shell transverse, a


wider than long, widest at mid;



hinge straight

cardinal extremities blunt, rounded


nearly straight

front semicircular, faintly emarginate

valves biconflatly

vex, the ventral valve having greater convexity, dorsal valve

convex; ventral interarea apsacline, nearly catacline, gently curved, rounding broadly onto lateral slopes, only faintly outlined beak in;

curved, overhanging


umbone swollen


dorsal interarea anacline



gently curved, pointed ventral sulcus narrow, well defined on umbone,
anteriorly profile of valve straight from median line to flattened central portion dorsal valve also with faint median sulcus; anterior commissure rectimarginate delthyrium and notothyrium triangular, open, with no covering plates preserved. Ventral interior. Teeth thickened, unsupported by dental plates, joined at apex by small transverse delthyrial plate. No other features observable on specimens examined. Dorsal interior. Palintrope overhanging, forming outer boundary of dental sockets sockets floored by fulcral plate parallel to palinslightly
; ;

widening only



trope, but set a




attaching to posterior wall of valve

inner socket plates inclined toward socket; cardinal process large,
clublike, attaching to posterior wall of valve

crura diverging from

base of cardinal process and projecting into valve following close

along the contour of the valve wall, joined to junction of inner socket


fulcral plate

by thin crural connecting


supported by

small crural plates which join valve wall near base of cardinal process


or jugal processes lacking


muscle markings only faintly imin outline.

pressed, appearing elongate

and oval

— Figured hypotypes, U.S.N.M. I27933a-b. Discussion. —The of the dorsal valve of Rowley's species

was not described by Weller,

so the present assignment rests entirely

on the close external similarity of the Mexican shells with Rowley's species. Weller indicated that Amhocoelia levicula possesses a smooth
exterior but the


shells contain hairlike spines.

Whether or

not Rowley's species

spinose cannot be established here, but the

nearly identical external morphology suggests that fine spines might

NO. 3





have been present originally on the specimens studied by Weller, but

were not preserved. Remarks. The Mexican shells reveal the morphology of the dorsal interior in great detail, and also indicate the presence of a small transverse delthyrial plate in the ventral valve. This latter feature was not noted by George (1931) as occurring in Crurithyris, but is so small that it could easily have been unnoticed in the material examined by

George. The interior of the complete specimen figured can be seen in
part through the open delthyrium and one of the spirals of the lopho-

phore supports


present attached to one of the crura. This specimen

confirms the fact that no

jugum or

jugal processes are present in


Brown, 1849






Plate 6,C, figures 16-20


— Shell about as wide as long, widest

at midlength, obese

valves nearly equally convex, the ventral valve with slightly greater

convexity; ventral valve with swollen

umbone and evenly convex

curvature from edge of delthyrium onto lateral slopes, bearing very faint, wide median sulcus; dorsal valve with small umbone, beak
slightly incurved, lacking fold

anterior commissure gently and faintly





sockets bounded posterolaterally by wall

of valve, with socket floor attaching to posterolateral valve wall just below plane of commissure, curving medially inward and upward;
cardinal "process" formed by

upward continuation of inner socket

crural bases attach to inner socket plate in a plane parallel to


above plane of commissure hinge plate unsupported, set and parallel to plane of crural bases, not extending to umbone, leaving a small triangular visceral foramen just under beak; muscle scars not impressed into shell. Types. Holotype, U.S.N.M. 127930a figured paratypes, U.S.N.M.

just below


127930b, c; unfigured paratypes, U.S.N.M. i2793od,e.

— Most

Mississippian species of Composita have well-

defined fold and sulcus, but C. ohesa shows only faint traces of a sulcus on the ventral valve and no fold on the dorsal valve. The dorsal
interiors of the species of

Composita are poorly known, so the internal
of the ventral valve and

features here described cannot be readily compared with those of other
species of the genus.

The obese appearance




faint folding are readily recognized external features of this species.

C. lezvisensis Weller, 1914, closely resembles C. ohesa, but the latter

seems thicker and has a more rounded outline. A large suite of specimens for comparison might show C. ohesa to merge into C. lezvisensis,
but the two appear distinct on the basis of the available specimens.
Genus "CLEIOTHYRIDINA" Buckman, 1906


writer's unpublished studies of the British

and Belgian Lower

Carboniferous brachiopods indicate that the taxonomic status of the

genus Cleiothyridina
tion, the


in doubt.

Pending publication of a



used here within quotation marks.


species of this genus occur in this collection.

6, A,

Weller, 1914

figures i-ii

Cleiothyridina glenparkensis

Weller, Geol. Surv.



pp. 473-474, pl- 78, figs. 21-24.

Ventral interior.
wall of the valve


teeth stout


dental plates forming walls of

rostral cavity, extending a short distance

forward of posterolateral

muscle area faintly impressed, extending to about midlength of valve, bounded laterally by very faint ridges. Dorsal interior. Dental sockets with outer margin formed by pos-


edge of valve inner socket plate and f ulcral plate continuous, with fulcral plate meeting posterolateral valve wall perpendicularly,

curving abruptly upward into inner socket plate; inner socket plate curving upward and posterolaterally, forming half of cardinal "process"

cardinal "process" containing fine parallel muscle striations

hinge plate

projecting toward opposite valve at a high angle to

plane of commissure, with small visceral foramen between hinge plate

and posterior wall of valve and between two halves of cardinal "process"

crural bases attaching to lateral edges of hinge plate, projecting

into shell in a plane parallel with hinge plate

muscle area not



faint, low,

rounded median ridge occurs

in the posterior part of the



—Figured hypotypes, U.S.N.M.




dorsal cardinalia of the different genera of the

athyrids are poorly known.
sibly a diagnostic structure,

writer indicates that they are similar in
large group of brachiopods,

known of these structures by the many genera. The jugum, posis known in only a few species within this and is not known in "C." glenparkensis.



shells assigned

here are a


thicker than the specimen

NO. 3





by Weller (1914.

pi. 78, fig.

23), but otherwise agree in

external configuration.

The important

external features emphasized by


in defining this species are the equal convexity of the valves,

the rounded to transversely elliptical outline, and the slight median
flattening or faint sulcus present

scribe the interior details,

on both valves. Weller did not dewhich are here added from broken speci-

mens which preserve

the hinge structures.



Plate 6,B, figures 12-15

broken specimens of a much larger species than "C." glenparkensis are present in this collection. These are nearly as large as the specimens of "C." incrassata (Hall) figured by Weller (1914,


pi. 79, fig.

12), but are so incomplete that the writer cannot assign


any species. Figured specimens.

—U.S.N.M. 127929a,






Davidson, 1858


Rowley, 1893

Plate 7,C, figures 9-24

Cyrtina bitrlingtonensis Rowley, Amer. Geol., vol.

12, p. 308, pi. 14, figs.


Cyrtina burling tonensis Weller, Geol. Surv.
289, pi. 35, figs. 22-31.




pp. 288-

Three specimens of this species occur in the collection, two complete shells and one fragment of a ventral valve. All show clearly the diagnostic spondylium with median septum continued through
the united dental lamellae, possibly like the structure Fredericks (1926) called a tichorhinum, but this could not be verified without

preserve the deltidium and foramen (pi. 7,C, figs. 10, 21, 22). Weller (1914, p. 288) indicates a small foramen for this species. The writer has not seen Rowley's original specimens and cannot compare directly the size of the foramen between the original and these Mexithin sections.

The two complete specimens

reveal a large oval pedicle

can specimens. Small importance, however, is assigned to the obvious fact that a large foramen occurs in the specimens under study here. The outline of the two complete specimens differs somewhat, but
this is ascribed to difference in




age and a slight variation in rate of growth stages are distinctly preserved on both




specimens and appear to be very similar. The subconical, erect ventral

from uniform growth of shown in plate 7,C, figure 11, developed by more rapid growth of the anterior margin, causing the interarea to incline progressively backward in later growth stages.
in plate 7,C, figure 17, resulted


the whole ventral valve.


contrast, the apsacline profile

A fragment of a ventral valve (pi. 7,C, fig. 24) reveals the high median septum and short spondylium, the dental lamellae curving toward the septum close to the cardinal area. Because of the small size of the spondylium and its closeness to the cardinal area, the adductors and diductors may not have been seated within the spondylium, but may have been attached to the sides of the high septum. No muscle markings have been seen to confirm such a view, but it seems likely by reason of the possibility that a large pedicle may have attached to the spondylium and perhaps occupied most of it.


proposed the genus Davidsonella,'' based on

Spirifer septosa Phillips, 1836, from the British
ous, for cyrtinid shells with special apical plates

Lower Carbonifer-

which he characterized
different external con-

as "spondylium sine tichorino."

The completely


size of Z). septosa places

in a different

group from the

shells here



shown. The presence of the "spondylium sine tichorino," emphasized as a generic character of Davidsonina, may occur

and requires thin sections for veriMexican shells to Davidsonina because the external morphology of the shells is so different and the interior details of the dorsal valves unknown in both
in several

groups of cyrtinid



writer therefore declines to assign these



— Figured hypotypes, U.S.N.M.



Davidson, 1884
North, 1920



original diagnosis of Punctospirifcr

was incomplete (North,

1920) and considerable latitude of interpretation has grown up in consequence of this. The genus was diagnosed as consisting of punctate spiriferids

which contain a prominent fold and sulcus which is and which are ornamented over-all by a concentric pattern of imbricate lamellae, and bear a median septum in the ventral valve. Dorsal interior details were not discussed by North, nor was the fine surface ornament.
larger than any of the simply rounded lateral costae


adjusted to Davidsonina by Schuchert and


(1929a, p.


M. valves subequally convex. new species Plate 7. Crural bases pro- jecting anteriorly from posterior pillar. both valves ornamented by regular pattern of concentric imbrifine. each lamella bearing in the plane of the lamella. Exterior. sharply defined . SONORA —EASTON ET AL. median septum and and apical callosity in ventral valve. figures 25-30 Diagnosis. —The important features of Punctospi- rifer are the width of the rounded fold and sulcus compared to the lateral costae. nearly subpyramidal. attached to inner socket plates by crural connecting plates. the pillar dividing anteriorly into stout muscle field bisected rounded ridges which bound the muscle field laterally by low rounded median ridge. Careful study reveals different patterns of arrangement. front margin semicircular. 65 The writer had the opportunity to study the holotype and topotype specimens of P. Dorsal interior with pillarlike thickening supporting cardinal process. hairlike cating lamellae. —Punctospirifers about twice as wide as long. the genotype species. deepest at midpoint . Sanders. — Shell spiriferoid. about twice as wide as long. widest at hinge. with acute cardinal extremities slightly flattened a median sulcus. with greatest depth at umbone dorsal valve gently con.NO. in the collections of H. widest at costae on both valves on top bearing fold on ventral valve which contains . however. cardinal extremities acute. apsacline curving gently backward to slightly incurved beak. Ventral interior with spines which lie flat median septum end- ing posteriorly in an apical callosity. and Punctospirifer can be recognized readily on these features alone after some experience. vex. and has elsewhere discussed the results of these observations (Sanders. Geological Survey and the British Museum (Natural History) in London during the winter of 1953-54.D. The Mexican collection contains excellent material for illustrating some of the features not described by North. Primary lamellae joined by U-shaped jugum. PUNCTOSPIRIFER SULCIFER. The elements most of the dorsal interior are simple superficially similar in spiriferinids. ventral interarea gently concave. concentric imbricating lamellae bearing hairlike spines. hinge line. . and the nature of the dorsal cardinalia. the following revised and extended diagnosis of Punctospirifer is possible Punctate spiriferids with fold and sulcus wider than any of simple costae . scahricosta North. the ventral valve having greater convexity. in preparation). 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. Distinguishing characters. With the additional observations.

not otherwise supported. which possess imbricate concentric lamellae are "Spiriferina" 295) suhtexta White and "Spiriferina" subelliptica (McChesney). concentric flat imbricate lamellae. sulcifer to prevent confusion. low. median septum extending from apical callosity to about midlength.U. closely spaced. teeth Ventral interior. gently posteriorly. extending about one-fourth the distance to the front margin.N. each lamella bearing fine hairlike spines lying in the plane of the lamella.S. well defined at beak. umbone. No muscle marks seen. attached to thickened inner socket plate by thin crural connecting plate. sulcus of ventral valve narrowly rounded. rounded median ridge extending about three-fifths of the way to the front margin crural bases diverging forward from pillar at base of cardinal process at the same angle as ridges bounding muscle field. united posteriorly by small apical callosity. U. —Holotype. II9 from very small. widening anterolaterally. I27935b-d. . —Punctospirifer Distinguishing from the characters. dental plates slightly divergent. pp.M. narrowly rounded costae separated by similarly shaped fur- rows surface covered by regular pattern of . simple. curving abruptly at forward edge. 127935a. orthocline. Dorsal interior. N. pillar diverging anteriorly rounded ridges bounding the muscle field laterally and extending forward along edge of fold about halfway to front margin. sulcifer differs its median sulcus on from the Mississippian of previously described species of Punctospirifer by the dorsal fold.66 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS lateral slopes. Other punctate spiriferids the Mississippi Valley described by Weller (1914. Until the interior details of the above- . 292. distal edge parallel to convexity of valve. widening anteriorly . bounded posterolaterally by palintrope. Shell coarsely punctate. — Hinge curving gently inward toward median plane valve along . figured paratypes. two seen. The general configuration of these two species is sufficiently distinct from Upper P. and a low. widening regularly forward. supported by pillarhke thickening at posterior of valve into .M. attaching to floor of first furrow outside sulcus. No adductor muscle marks stout. . whose inner edge slightly overhangs outer portion of each groove floor of dental sockets formed by fulcral plate extending from posterior wall of valve to inner socket plates. dental sockets defined at plate parallel to palintrope. cardinal process spiriferoid. curving fold of dorsal valve steep sided.S. socket — Notothyrium bounded by thickened inner . bearing small median sulcus anterior commissure uniplicate lateral slopes of each valve bearing six to eight . dorsal interarea VOL. Types.

SONORA —EASTON ET AL. Weller. circularis (Miller) by Weller occur in this collection. both being deepest at about midlength .N. 127920a. 62. lateral slopes five . gently concave. rounding broadly onto lateral slope bearing beak slightly overhanging . U. Types.F. just forward of . 451-452. ventral interarea nearly orthocline. cardinal extremities acute . p. unfigured paratypes. 9. figs. . 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. Surv. Geol. bear hairlike spines. Hiistedia circularis pi. — b. p.M. Illinois. valves about equally biconvex.S. PUNCTOSPIRIFER GLOBOSA Sanders. widening gradually toward the front. .M. 34- 1914. 47-52. species differs from P. containing a faint median costa sulcus from the umbone forward dorsal fold similarly bearing a median surface ornamented by concentric imbricate lamellae which . bluntly rounded lateral profile rotund. 22. 1892 HUSTEDIA CIRCULARIS Plate 5.E. their proper generic assignment can- not be made with confidence. widest . Two are small specimens similar to the shells assigned to H.NO. figs. U. Geo!. each four or . simple rounded costae separated by furrows of similar shape ventral sulcus well defined at the beak. 452). Figured hypotypes. 1929 HUSTEDIA Hall and Clarke. 127936b. (iTJ cited "Spiriferinas" are known. Monogr. Family RHYNCHOSPIRINIDAE Genus Schuchert and LeVene. sulcifer in its much nar- rower valves. Indiana. Surv. Remarks. the strong costa in the sulcus of the ventral valve and the strongly incurved ventral beak.M. —This U.N.N. Types. Shell coarsely punctate. figures 23-26 1892. pp. 76. new species Plate 7.S. i. figures 31-36 Description. The internal characters unknown so the generic assignment is subject to the same uncer- tainty expressed by Weller (1914. the hinge line — Shells about as long as wide. Sheets. Adv. Retsia circularis Miller. i8th Rep.S. —Holotype. pi. 1894 (Miller). 127936a.

. Geol. — U. 1938. vol. R. 228-235. Index fossils of North America. 324-326. 205 pp. Surv.68 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Soc. Figured specimen. Journ. Illustrations of the fossil conchology of Great Britain p. 4. 127913. Amer. figures 26-29 Several well-preserved specimens of a Conocardium species occur in the collection. Spec. sulcatus Weller. Mag.. 254 pp. No. 2. 92. 131. Stratigraphy near Caborca. pp. in Shimer. 1834 species Genus CONOCARDITJM Plate 3. 1917. genera of North American brachiopods. Cloud. A. 20 pis. the Namyau beds. Petrol. No. G. vol.. No. P. Shan states. India. T. Indica.. northwest Sonora.E. 1866 PARALLELODON SULCATUS Weller. Hist.S. silicification. Mississippian of Mis3. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the souri. 7. Geol. 242 pp. Assoc.. No. . The Brachiopoda of Mem. Burma. 1834. pp.M. Nat. Pal. Missouri Studies. V. Ann. 107.M. H. Mexico. 1942. H.. 30. Bull.. pi. A. New . Univ. Louis Acad. Buckman. Amer. 3.S. 1946. — REFERENCES Branson. 1942. 6-9. northern s. 2. 8.. S. Trans. figures 23-25 1906. vol. London. No. Geol. vol. B.. pp. Sci. CONOCARDIUM Bronn. Lower 13. Weller. pp. and Ireland. vol. Cooper. 127912a. St. Lethaea Geognostica. Brown. p. 606-610. 38. 1944. Pap. Brachiopod nomenclature. p. 277-365. Jr. Washington Acad.. E. n. 18. vol. The hinge details are obscured by U. S. pis..D. E.. No. 21 pis. 1906 Plate 3. 1849. 450-451. S. II9 PELECYPODA Genus PARRALLEDON Meek and Worthen. G. Phylum Brachiopoda. 1906.N.. pp. and Shrock. Cooper.N. A single right valve of a Parallelodon is referred to P. i. Mem. R. R. A. 16.. Bronn. New York. G. W. and Arellano. 21-48. Terebratuloid Brachiopoda of the Silurian and Devonian.. Sci. 74. 32. 4. ser. Figured specimen. figs. vol.

66-68.. Trans. J. 8. 1857a. '57. Recherches sur Productus et les animaux fossiles pp. pp. HiSINGER. Journ. 88. Hist. N. pp. vol. Protremata (pars). Neotremata. Hist. vol. H. M. Acad. Nat.. 30-61. 393-422. Paleontol. Les brachiopodes du Dinantien de la Belgique..NO. Tabula synoptica familae Spiriferidarum King. Svenska Vet. pt. Liege.S. Ann. British Spiriferidae. D. de Belgique.. 716 pp. 1847. Carboniferous reticulate Spiriferidae. Washington Acad. for 1827. Handl. vol. Musee Roy. 246 20 Liege. 1892. 1904. 2. No. 120-122. Atremata. made during i. pp. Pt. Paleontology. 2. J.. W. Svenska Vet. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. Rep. pp. J. G.. 4.-Akad. from the Carboniferous limeAlbany Inst. Ambocoelia Hall and certain similar British Journ. 1917. DeKoninck. Hall. vol. VON. pp. Nat. 1858. L. 1894. Kon. Geol. pis. and Muir-Wood. T.S. : Pt. A. Sci. p. vol. New molluscan genera from the Carboniferous. Geol. 1857b. Mem. 27. U. 1844. Paleont. Soc. 1926. pt. pis. 1931. Upper Helderberg. Premier volume. Journ. 20. 1932. G. pp. London. Demanet. Sci. New York State Cab. 1934. vol.. F. Quart. Hamilton and Chemung groups. London. 1826. pp. 5. 473-724. Pt. i'^i-^iy- . loth Ann. p. An An W.-Akad. 2-36. U. H. Proc. 10 pis. 1-6. Report on the geological survey of the State of Iowa. George. II. Russie. pp.. 2 vols. and Clarke. 8. London. 61. vol. 89 (not seen). Nat. Descriptions of new species of Palaeozoic fossils from the Lower Helderberg. T. Description des animaux fossiles qui se trouvent dans le terrain Carbonifere de Belgique. introduction to the study of the genera of Paleozoic Brachiopoda. vol. Bull.. 189-192. i Uppstallning och Beskrifning af de Sverige funne Terebratuliter. Girty. 87. Gottland geognostisk beskrifning. 41. Handl. 2. S. Davidson. i. pp. Fredericks. Monographic des genres Chonetes. The Carboniferous Brachiopoda. M. Dalman. pp.. 116 pp. pis. G. New York. I.. 1828. introduction to the study of the genera of Paleozoic Brachiopoda.. J.. pt. 19S-196. Oriskany sandstone. 85-155. pp. Description of new species of fossils stones of Indiana and Illinois. 1951. 342-343. vol. 56-60. vol. Kon. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. embracing the results of investigations '56. 1858. British fossil Brachiopoda. 69 Cooper. 146 pp. portions of the years 1855. Mus. Quart.R. I. Brachiopod homonyms. 516-573. vol. Hall. Soc. Soc. 734. Paleont. New York.

4. 1855.R. vol. 3. McChesney. H. p. 1930. with descriptions of eleven western States and Journ. 1928. 65-73. 257-356. McCoy. pp. Chicago Acad. 13 pis. Illinois. R. Com. Japan. J. 196-197. conchology. Resources. B. Miller.70 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Heft 122. pt. F. Journ. Nalivkin. pp. Rep. D. N. Trans. 3. p. . Dublin Univ. Subcarboniferous fossils from the Lake Valley mining district of New Mexico. vol. delphia Acad.. pp. Proc. Mem. Indiana Dept. Preuss. Geol. pp. 25 pis. ser. U. Pt. (Reprinted 1862. Synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous 274 pp. vol. 1894. 180. of the On Dielastita. Surv. Advance sheets. pp. London. The Mountain Limestone District. Soc. Die Orthiden. s. as found Territories. Strophomeniden und Choneten des Mitteleren und Oberen Unterkarbons. i. 1892. S. vol. pods referred to Spiriferitta d'Orbigny. p. 253 pp. Teil I. three new genera. London. Descriptions of Paleozoic fossils from the Silurian. Permian fossils of England. 1859. Zool. W. William. II. No. M. Proc. 3. 1844. 1930. Assoc.. Chicago Acad. s. i. 1893. In i8th Ann. Proc. vol. Soc. C. 76. Sci. pp. Hist. pp. reticulate Spiriferidae. 256-262. Norwood. pp. and Mines. Early Mississippian formations in Missouri. Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of and other western States. Die Brachiopoden des deutschen Unterkarbons. Phillips. Paeckelmann. 31-326. Geol.. 283 pp. G. ser. 315. 1953- On some n. p. Missouri Bur. Illustrations of the geology of Yorkshire. London... Landesanst. J. Journ. London. in the Notice of the genus Chotwtes. vol. Moore. 21.. H. vol. 106. 29 pis. 1890. Geol. western States... 1881.) fossils of Ireland. MiNATO.. Nat. and Worthen. 81. Paleontology.. 23-31. A. Brachiopods from the Upper and Middle Devonian of Turkestan. 76 pp. 11-23. 2. Extract from Trans. and Pratten. Bot. Phila- new species. and Macandrevia. II.. n. 1866.. II9 King. 62. Indiana. North. J. H. i8th Rep.. vol. Geol. Meek. No. Journ. Nat. Sci. A monograph Gwynia. 1859. 372 (not seen).. A. D. J. pp. etc. 1850. 123. 2. 1836.. Descriptions of new species of fossils from the Paleozoic rocks of the Sci. Geol. 162-227. i. F. On Syringothyris Winchell and certain other Carboniferous brachioQuart. Abh. Palaeont.S. with descriptions of new species. F. Paleontology. vol. Oehlert. 1920. 30. Cincinnati Soc. F.S.

Paraphorhynchus. its external homeomorph Beecheria. Amer. ScHucHERT. of the Glen Park lime- Trans. Inst. pi.1 22.. 635-659. 303-309- Descriptions of new species of fossils from the Devonian and sub- Carboniferous rocks of Missouri. ScHUCHERT. s. Soc. vol.. studies. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. F. 9. Journ. ser. Trans. Brachiopoda. 1905. British Carboniferous Orthotetinae. Description of some new species of crinoids. Munclien. New names for brachiopod homonyms. 30. pp. 15. Louis Acad. pp. p.. vol. 4. vol. Trans. 1 1 Amer. Paleontology. The Weller. 1863. R. V. Trans.. 1932. i. with notes on the Telotremata. Geol. Descriptions of new species from the Carboniferous and Devonian Sci. Geol. vol. Journ. Beitriige zur Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen in geognostischer Hinsicht. M. Hist. 1893. a genus of Kinderhook Brachiopoda. 83 pis. Sci. Journ. pp. Geol. 1816. 299-302. G. Geol. Swallow. pp. Amer. 2. 265-332. R. vol. St. Surv. 12. St. vol. vol. Louis Acad. Louis Acad. 1956. 22. and Cooper. pp.. vol. N. Sarycheva.. pp. Animalia. faianal studies. Berlin. 1931. 443-444. 20. 17. 6. ser. 27. St. . A description of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda of the Moscow Basin. 81-100. 7I Rowley. pars 42. Monogr. 35-36. pt. C. 40 A. 25. A.. Nat. Sci. C. pp. The fauna Sci. Geol. Sci. 270 pp. blastoids and brachio- pods from the Devoiiian and sub-Carboniferous rocks of Missouri.. Denckschr. vol. 1906. 1929b. 5. F. pp. Moscow. Illinois. Dielasma and C. 2. L 1910. i. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. E. Mem. No. S.NO. Geol. i. vol. Kinderhook faunal stone. Sci. The fauna of the Fern Glen formaloop-bearing Bull. Fossilium Catalogus i. and Sokolskaja. 7. Paleont.. 1914. Akad. Trans. C. Brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea. pt. 19. i. Descriptions of some new fossils from the Carboniferous and Devonian rocks of Missouri. Thomas. vol. Kinderhook tion. Mem. Genera Mississippian Brachiopoda. vol. Math. 509 pp. G.. Paleont. 261-273.. of 191 1. 1929a. T. Synopsis of the brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea. 140 pp. A. vol. Surv. i860.. vol. Great Britain. Journ. 1952. G. Peabody Mus. Louis Acad. SCHLOTHEIM. IV. St. B. vol. pp. Wiss. 1900. Kl. 259-264. rocks of Missouri. 38. pp. pp. and LeVene. Amer... 1909.. Stehli. 241-251. 92. G. The Mississippian Brachiopoda of the Mississippi Valley basin.. Amer. pp. 435-471. p. 16.

Iowa. Nat. Boston Soc. pp.. 9. C. II9 1862. A. Description of new species of fossils iferous rocks of the Mississippi Valley. Proc. vol. pp. Hist. 289-306. R.. SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.. Nat. and Whitfield. Hist. P. Boston Soc. Observations upon the rocks of the Mississippi Valley which have been referred to the descriptions of Chemung group of New York together with at new species of fossils from the same horizon 8. A. Burlington. vol. 8-33. White. C. 1862.^2 White. . from the Devonian and CarbonProc.

Considering the time aspect these American faunas are of middle or possibly early upper Mississippian age. The meaning of this is difficult to interpret with the little information available to me. and northwestern Europe and very little with the better known Mississippian faunas of the United States or Nova Scotia. a facies in Mexico much more similar to that of northwest Europe than to that of the Mississippi Valley and northern it likely Rocky Mountains from which come the richest and best-known gastropod faunas of the American Mississippian.GASTROPODA By J. Platyschisma and Phanerotinus. figures 2 The there collection includes three small specimens of a species of Bel- lerophon.A. probably juveniles. Brookes Knight Research Associate in Paleontology Smithsonian Institution (Plates 8. At in the first glance it may seem significant that two of the gastropod genera from Mexico. and even this has 73 . From them I am able to identify nine genera or subgenera. the fact that both Platyschisma and Phanerotinus occur only in the lower Mississippian so far as is known in North America coupled with the close lower Mississippian Northview shale. The startling thing about this gastropod fauna is that its affinities are with the lower Carboniferous faunas of England. is nothing very much that one can say about Except that the species has no umbilici it. also of early Missis- SYSTEMATICS BELLEROPHON species i. Ireland. Sonora.A-J. are represented United States only in the little-known gastropod fauna of the is But the force of this coinciweakened by the range of both genera throughout both the Tournaisian and Viseen in Belgium. yvanii of the Belgian is Tournaisian suggests that the Mexican fauna sippian age. text figure 4) INTRODUCTION The Mississippian collection comes from the Represo formation at Bisani. A. However. Although the time factor may enter into the question seems to me that so striking a resemblance in general terms is more due to facies. dence greatly affinity of one of the species of Baylea with B. Plate 8. and 9. Mexico.

sippian rocks. Figured specimen. —U.B.G. 127984. YVANII (Leveilld).S.C.M. II9 significance. The species can neither be identified nor described from the material at hand. —U.N. BAYLEA This is B. a group that includes the genotype. There is a a turreted pleurotomarian with the slit within the outer margin of the whorl shoulder. 1939. However. B. its slit and selenizone are just within the margin of the shoulder as is characteristic for the genus. a single specimen. it is not closely comparable with any described species. Although it is clearly of the group within the genus that occurs only in Missis- pleural angle (about 61°). BAYLEA Plate 8. aff. species b. yvanii (Leveille) from Tournai. is too poor to form a basis for a newly described species. note that this and the following species are the It is interesting to only two species of the genus Baylea as yet to be recorded from Mississippian beds in the Western Hemisphere although somewhat adIt is vanced species occur throughout the Pennsylvanian and even Permian beds of the United States. 1835 Plate 8. Belgium. figures 8 This species is represented by a single rather poor specimen but seems clearly referable to Borestus Thomas. The genus Bellerophon is abundant throughout the world in rocks from Devonian to Permian age at least and its actual range is even a little greater.N. Plate 8. figures 15-16 A somewhat less-turreted species than the foregoing with a wider It has a narrower whorl shoulder and fewer revolving lirae.74 little SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. M. The material. Figured specimens. 127988a. figures 3-6 and selenizone just its narrow pleural angle (about 50°) and its exclusively even revolving ornamentation it is very close indeed to the genotype.S. Figured specimen.M. Although the geno- .S. as identified by de Koninck in 1883. In respect to possibility that it is identical with the Belgian species but with only it is the old and inadequate literature as a basis for judgment sible to impos- be certain. 127986a. —U. above all interesting that the affinities of both Mexican species are with those of the European Mississippian forms and not with the hitherto recognized forms from the American Pennsylvanian or Pennian. BORESTUS species 7.N.

PLATYSCHISMA species Plate 8. 75 type of Borestiis and several other species were derived from late lower Carboniferous beds in Scotland the species is not close enough to European species to warrant detailed comparisons. 21 A This species is a typical member of the subgenus Euomphalus. for it is impossible to establish either identity or close Mexican specimen badly preserved in its details but de Koninck's dsecriptions and figures are inadequate.M. Euomphalus has a long range in the late Paleozoic (Devonian-Permian) and few faunas of Mississippian.N.E. U. —U. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. figures 10. This species is clearly referable to the genus Rhineoderma Koninck 1883 and appears to resemble most closely R. or Permian . 127985.S. Figured specimen. —U.H. — new species. cf.M. nystii de Koninck from Assiz III. Figured specimen. Pennsylvanian. It shows no close affinities with the species from the United States.S. Again. NYSTII de Koninck. 127990a. species STRAPAROLUS (EUOMPHALUS) figures 20. It has not been reported from the not only is the Pennsylvanian or younger beds anywhere. Plate 8. affinity. The reported De- vonian occurrences refer to what of the is now regarded as a different and not closely related genus. SONORA —EASTON ET AL. Rhineoderma ranges throughout the Belgian lower Carboniferous and is represented by several species in the American middle Mississippian Salem and Brazer limestones.NO.M.S. it The single specimen is too poorly preserved to employ as the basis for describing a Figured specimen. RHINEODERMA R.N. hitherto authentically known only from Europe where it ranges throughout the lower Carboniferous and from the Northview sandstone of Kinderhookian age in the United States. The genus ranges throughout the Pennsylvanian in the United States and possibly into the lower Permian but is known from Mississippian beds only in Europe. 1883 11 Plate 8. figures 17-19 This species is a typical representative of the genus Platyschisma. 1844.N.1. 127987. However. on account of the poor preservation Mexican material it is impossible to do more than identify the genus.

P. M.76 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Louis. 2. figure 9 B This species is a member of the group for which de Koninck in 88 1 proposed the name Phymatifer. 114). Mexican collection are more numerous and somewhat better preserved. —U. where a species very similar to the Mexican species has been described.N.S. All but one the St. 8.N. II9 age of both hemispheres are without one or more species.. there is the most complete intergradation. species PLATYCERAS (PLATYCERAS) Plate 9. I regard the 1 name as a junior synonym of the subgeneric name Euomphalus Sowerby (Knight. outlier: VII.S. Pennsylvanian Platyceratidae. Kinderhookian. PARADOXUS 22 Winchell Plate 8.. Missouri. B. However.J. —U. specific identification or description is not warranted. 127989a. 139-166.D. to species one needs the best of specimens. vol. pp. is is abundant in the European is almost unknown in the Mississippian of The sole recorded occurrence in the United States Northview sandstone. Paleont. 1934. 1934. p. Figured specimen. platyceratids which. Knight. figure This openly coiled straparolid genus lower Carboniferous but the United States.M.^ The phymatiferoid euomphalids are also widespread and long ranging. — PHANEROTINUS cf. Consequently. figures 1-5 A The as is collections contain some 15 specimens of life habit. species STRAPAROLUS (EUOMPHALUS) Plate 8.A. . Because of the great similarity between numerous of them.N. U.M. usual in this genus of stationary are highly variable in respect to details of shape 1 and of the apertural margin. The single specimen in the Mexican collections is far too imperfect for more than subgeneric identification. J. No. 127982. 127983a.S. Neither the Mexiin the can specimens nor the description or figures of the species described are adequate for precise identification. in respect to the characters that are supposed to distinguish Phymatifer from Euomphalus. evenly spaced tubercles on the upper and lower angles of the whorl. Figured specimen. The gastropods of The Euomphalidae and Journ. preferably many Although the specimens in the than those of other species make positive identifications. Figured specimen.

Silurian-Permian. it is without finer ornamentation other than growth lines and on this account it is very difficult to characterize.NO. but one has the coiled apex of the typical subgenus. same size Specimens of both species and general form but the form in both is b. Figured specimens. 127993a. Unless species are characterized by distinc- tive ornamentation most of them are very difficult to discriminate and have little value for time correlations. The growth lines delineate irregularities of the apertural margin which seem to reflect irregularities of the object to which it was attached. Figured specimen. at the apertural margin four other abandoned broken bases. SONORA —EASTON ET AL.N. —U. moreover.M. are of about the quite variable. figures 12-14 A This species has the hooked apex of the subgenus Orthonychia instead of the coiled apex of Platyceras (s. The earlier half of the whorl was spineless. 3 MISSISSIPPIAN FAUNA. Unlike the foregoing species this one does not bear a row of spines. has a long range. .l.).S.S. Like it. can be counted in a row above it.) Platyceras is also absent. presumably a crinoid spines.F.N. in that at maturity its margin on the Beside right side was spine that was open produced periodically into a gutterlike spine. This specimen differs from the all the others.M. —U. In all other respects the two subgenera are very similar and had similar habits. Other than growth lines and the spines the shell is without ornamentation. I am them.s. and is usually abundant where crinoids are present. species PLATYCERAS (ORTHONYCHIA) Plate 8. "JJ Specimen have the hooked apex of the subgenus Orthonychia. 127992. In f acies without crinoid remains Platyceras (s. or their unable to assign any definite function to the periodic gutterlike spines on this or on other species of Platyceras that bear calyx.


14. 222. 4 .CEPHALOPODA By Arthur K. 114. p. pp. Philadelphia Acad. 124. Paleont. Trans.B. Triboloceras digonum? Weller. However. 5. 455. Journ. 607. 149. 1928. 1894. des Karbon. 1949. 7. . Triboloceras digonum Miller and Furnish. Lief. Geol. 153-156. 2-8 . 1899. pi. 5. and Youngquist. 18. Journ. Texas Geol. Miller University of Iowa (Plate 9. pl. 150. fig. 115. 9. 9. 97. 23. Paleont. 100. Sci. Triboloceras digonum Moore. and Mines. 12-15. pl. Nautilus digomis Keyes.. Tierische Leitfossilien 6.. 6. vol. 6. U. text figure 4 Nautilus (Discus) dig onus Meek and Worthen. . Studies. Bull. 418-419. and incomplete both adapically and adorally.) digonum Hyatt. vol. pp. [1938]. 27. 1929. figures 6-8 i860. 13. Downs. 163-164. Nat. pi. i-n. S. 1901. Missouri Geol. Geol. p. digonus Proc. 6. 40. North American geology and palaeontol- ogy 1893. fig. p. Surv. vol. Surv. figs. pl. Journ. Meek and Worthen. p. 21. 603. . Surv. 1939- 58. Triboloceras digonum Miller Triboloceras digonum Miller. 95. pp. 66. No. 153.. A cies single representative of this well-known somewhat variable spe- was obtained in Sonora. 14. 3. 5. figs.. 635. 4. St. Surv. 143. Illinois.4- 1947. figs. (Triboloceras) digonus Schmidt.B) TRIBOLOCERAS DIGONUM (Meek and Worthen) Plate 9. Nautilus (Trematodiscus) 1889. Missouri Bur. It is entirely silicified. Cincinnati. pi. pp. Giirich's Leitfossilien. subcircular or subelliptical in cross section and to have had a diameter of something like 6 or 7 mm. . Rep. 99. 1866. Triboloceras digonum Weller. slightly distorted. 2. vol. S. vol. figs. 21. pl.. figs. ga-ge. 5 . 45. pi. vol. not very well preserved.. it is particularly in a lateral direction. Trematodiscus digonus Miller. p. Coelonautilus ser. and Youngquist. 104. pl. Geol. Triboloceras digonum Weller. Geol. 1898. Sci. figs. Louis Acad. 470. pp. 602. pl. figs. and near its adoral end is almost 79 . figs. loosely coiled adapical portion of the conch. This specimen represents about three-quarters of a volution of the Near its adapical end is (which poorly preserved) it appears to have been more or less rapidly expanded orad. 43. Missouri Univ. pp. 45-46. 41. 4. p. pl. pp. vol.. . figs. 2. Triboloceras (Tremat. 113. 17. 39. 68. vol. Ann.

S. With Missouri. Diagrammatic cross section of the adoral portion of the specimen represented by figures 6-8 on plate 9. in Mexico and Arizona. and the upper part of the Redwall limestone of Arizona. II9 it is nearly flat (slightly convex) venand broadly rounded dorsally. originally described species from the Rockf ord limestone of Indiana. the Caballero formation of New Mexico. — — .N. semi- which also belong the few specimens known from New It seems likely that all these individuals lived in a Kinderhookian sea that extended from Indiana southwest across Illinois and Missouri to New Mexico. The maximum height and width attained by the preserved portion of the conch measure about 15 mm. It is estimated that on the adoral part of the specimen there are some 15 of these ridges on the flattened ventral portion of the conch and some 20 of them on the corresponding rounded dorsal por- semicircular in cross section as trally. and has since been found to be of widespread occurrence in the Chouteau limestone (and the Northview shale) of Illinois. On the surface of the specimen there are prominent angular longitudinal ridges which are separated by relatively wide. Occurrence. Arizona. Figured specimen. circiilare. FiG. X 2. respectively. tion. the sutures and the siphuncle cannot be ascerthough near the midlength of the specimen there are traces of transverse structures that Remarks. Mexico. last.8o SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. and 27 mm. 127991. the containing strata in each case Miller and Furnish divided the Missouri representatives of this species into six varieties. equivalent beds in the possible exception of the are Kinderhookian in age.M. Represo beds. T. B. subangular laterally. broadly rounded grooves. —This may was it represent septa. and the Sonora indi- vidual appears to be referable to their most abundant form. d. The nature of tained. 4. and Sonora. U. small hill i^ miles north-northwest of Bisani. Triboloceras diconum (Meek and Worthen). Sonora.

holotype. X 2. paratype.S. 25.M.N. paratype. holotype. Caninia corniculmn (Miller) emend. 4226. 4229. U.) Plate Figs. Calyx. 5.S.S.N.S. Calyx. 33 20. 16. U. X i. 1-3. U.M. 127941. Caninophyllum sonorense Easton 29 X Transverse thin section in mature stage. 9. Figs. I. somewhat decorticated. 22. U. Transverse polished surface in 2.EXPLANATION OF PLATES (All plates following page 87.M. U.N.M.N.N. Surface. theca. 18.S.M.M.S. 20.S. Calyx. 12.N. Lithostrotionclla confluens Easton 31 U.S. 23. 21.N. 4225. 127945b. U. 13 Calyx. Trochophyllum (Trochophyllum) species 13. X 3. 127945a.C. paratype. holotype. X 3. X 3. Easton Calyx. 14. Fig. 3. Trochophyllum {Barrandeophyllum) species 19.N. Figs. paratype.N. 127952. U. 7. X 4. Syringopora tubifera Easton Corallum. Surface of small colony. 127947.S. II. X i.M. 19. paratype. X i- siibramosum Easton Side view showing mural pores at uppermost Pleurodictyiim 37 tip of figure. 7-9. X 3. holotype. U. Calyx. X !> same specimen. paratype.S. Cystelasma invaginatum Easton I. X 3. i. 21. hypotype. If holotype. 16. 17.C. Calyx. 127946.M. paratype. Rotiphyllum vesiculosum Easton Oblique calical view showing dissepiments.N. 28 Calyx II. Calyx. 4. 127938.C. 127942. 127950. holotype. X i. Transverse polished 4.N. 2. "X i. 3. 13. U.N. U. surface in mature stage. 14.C.S.S.Al. 3.S. side view.M. Side 24. Side view.M. X U.S. 17 Figs. Fig.M. 4225. U. X i.N. holotype. Cyathaxonia cordillerensis Easton holotype. 127948. X if U. U. Caninia species in late stage. 127949. 10. CoralHte.S. X 3.M.C. 18. young X i. i Page Rotiphyllum occidentale Easton 20 2. X partype.S.N. Figs. 8.S. Corallite. 127944. 1-4. Calyx. Side view of holotype. 3. 127940. X I.N. view showing section Weathered showing steeply Fig. U. 15. X X X 5. 23. 8i_ . X 3. Plate 2 Figs.6. 12795 1. Figs. specimen. Calyx. i| holotype. holotype.N.M. U. 17. X 3> U. stage. X i. Calyx. X I. 127955a.S. side view. TriplophyUites (Homalophyllites) circtilaris Easton 22 Natural transverse section. I. X 2. tilted tabulae. holotype. 127953.M. Figs. Side view of same Fig. 18 38 21 4067.M. U. U.S.S. paratype. U.S. holotype. 27 6. Side view. 15. Figs. 24. same specimen.

Figs. I279i5h. lite X 4. Exterior and interior views Xi. 13. 14.C. U. ID. 17.N. 127954. 17.S. of a complete ventral valve. U. Dorsal interior. 4165. 9. Parallelodon sulcatus (Weller) 68 Figs. U. interior views of a nearly complete ventral Figs. paratype.M. teneUa (Miller) emend.82 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL.M.S. cf. Exterior valve. 8. U. paratype.S. U.N. both X i- Ventral exterior enlarged to outside. fulcral plates. Syringopora tubifera Easton Longitudinal section. Koniiickophyllutn species 30 25 31 Calyx.N. Ventral. of an incomplete specimen. 127915! Ventral interior of a fragmentary valve.S. dorsal.S. and X I. area. all . i. I.N. 14. 4170. and pallial sinuses. 18. B. X i- IQ. 5. I279i5d. 16. 1-3. costellae and openings paratype. Easton 25 Calyx. the largest in the collection. showing impressions of 15.C. D.S. and median ridge. 20. 127915b. paratype. missouriensis 127910. Figs. Figs.N.S. 127939. X3 hollow 127915c. Schisophoria sulcata Sanders. 16. X 2. Lithostrotionella confliicns Easton Holotype. U. and lateral views of a complete specimen. II9 Page Fig. Both X . P. 6. 15. II. and dorsal views of a right valve. 8.N. Figs. Ventral and lateral views 22. of the same. showing muscle U. 19.S. X holotype. 13. I279i5e.M.M.N. 12. interior. Triplophyllites (Homalophyllites) species Calyx.M.N.N. dubia (Hall) 42 Exterior and interior views of a complete ventral valve. 7. median ridge.M. new species 43 Exterior and interior views of a nearly complete ventral I. 7. 22. Fig. Ventral interior of a nearly complete valve. 9. cardinal process. brachiophore supporting plates. I279i5g. of shell in Dorsal exterior showing median sulcus. U. X 3. 21. accessory cardinal processes. dental plates.M. U. 127911a. X i. Exterior. Fig. Paratype.S. ( Swallow) 42 Figs. Fig. muscle area. holotype. X 4.S.S. portion of the same. R.S. with dissepimentaria of adjacent Transverse sec38 tion of several corallites. brachiophores. U. U.N. X 4. Fig.