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F.E. van Vliet, A. de Boer TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 96864, 2509 JG The Hague, The Netherlands, Email: vanvliet@fel.tno.nl

Abstract — This paper describes potential stability problems occurring in transistor stages with inductive source feedback. These problems occur at very high frequencies, where modelling of passive components is far from trivial. Due to the increase in maximum operating frequency of submicron pHEMT transistors, this problem is recently attracting attention. After comprehensively showing the problem, a simulation strategy is suggested for a timely recognition of the problem. The effectiveness is proven for an MMIC example. Index Terms — MMIC’s, LNA’s, pHEMT, integrated circuits, stability analysis.

the input impedance for optimum matching and the input impedance for highest gain may move closer together. Further, a lossless series feedback leaves the minimum noise figure unchanged. Using devices at a much lower fraction of the fmax indicates that the stability of the devices must be checked up to much higher frequencies. This would have been a trivial remark except for the frequencies concerned. For 0.15 m pHEMT processes, the fmax may be well above 100 GHz. The general methodology adopted for Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (MMIC) design includes the use of common-source transistor modelled data combined with passive element models and planar EM simulations. Actually, all these three elements generally do not satisfy the accuracy requirements up to the maximum oscillation frequency of the transistor. As a result, the transistor may encounter unexpected impedances at frequencies well exceeding the frequency for which the design was made. This may express itself in unexpected S-parameters or as unexpected stability problems. Potentially, the stability problems can occur up to the fmax of the transistor used. As it is virtually impossible to model everything correctly up to fmax,, the only solution is to ensure the unconditional stability for these frequencies, and accept possible deviations in the scattering parameters as they will generally not affect the system performance. 3. EXAMPLE As an illustration to the problem, consider the first stage of an X-Band LNA. This first stage consists of a 0.25 m pHEMT common-source transistor with inductive source feedback. A photograph of this stage is shown in figure 1.

1. INTRODUCTION Microwave low-noise amplifiers (LNA’s) are increasingly relying on the use of III-V pHEMT devices with shorter and shorter gatelengths. The performance of these devices is ever increasing, with lower noise figures and higher fT‘s and fmax’s for successive process generations. This allows for operation at higher frequencies, but also allows devices at lower frequencies to benefit from the noise figure advantage. In the latter case, the devices operate far below their maximum frequency of oscillation, and extra care must be taken. 2. PROBLEM For the class of amplifiers described, the LNA design uses a device that has excessive gain as compared to devices with longer gatelengths. This elevated gain level introduces a reduced sensitivity for noise introduced in later stages, but does involve a larger risk of instabilities. Series feedback, often referred to as source feedback for unipolar devices, is commonly applied as it can be used to move the optimum input impedance to a desired value. In particular inductive source feedback is often found, since

12th GAAS® Symposium - Amsterdam, 2004

351

4. but for all the rest the amplifier was working correctly. details to be found in the next section. Output m1 m2 Figure 3 Output stability circles simulated using a compact transistor model. minor deviations of the S11 were noticed. 2004 . Markers m1 and m2 indicate 50 GHz. For the 8-finger transistor used in the example. which was here laid out as a microstrip line. 352 12th GAAS® Symposium . Stability circles are shown from 50 to 100 GHz. The darker squares top right and bottom left are via holes. we were able to show that this was indeed a valid possibility and a redesign on the source feedback was performed. The result complied fully with the noise performance expected and is shown in Figure 2. the device should be unconditionally stable. Measurements were performed up to 50 GHz with both a network and a spectrum analyzer. the input and output stability circles are shown below [1]. As can be clearly seen. Surprising results were only noted when the noise figure was measured. corresponding to both grounded source contacts. below the spectrum analyser noise floor. SIMULATION APPROACH AND SOLUTION The simulation of such LNA input stages is generally performed based on a compact model or on measured Sparameter data for the transistor used. Both source inductances are 0. respectively. With unconventional simulation methods. Notice a single-sided source inductance.44 nH in value.Amsterdam.Figure 1: First stage of an X-Band LNA. no modelling errors or process deviations were observed. with 10 GHz step size. connecting the sources to the ground plane. Source inductors are shown on top and bottom of the picture. Figure 2: First stage of the updated LNA. which was far worse than the 2 dB that was expected. Output Stability Circles and Load Impedance Upon measurement of the device. The input and output are on the right and left side. and the only remaining possibility was an oscillation outside our measurement frequency range. Photographs are made with different camera set-ups. or masked by the encapsulating circuitry. After elaborate investigations.

In general. Potential instabilities for the equivalent circuit are hence proven. the asymmetry would be thought to stimulate odd modes. Any instability occurring inside this transistor can however not be simulated. the inductor was laid out as a microstrip line.5 2. D G S D G S D G S D G S Figure 5: Equivalent circuit for the active device. The sources of the transistor segments are mutually connected with inductances. odd-mode type of oscillations can be found by observing the open-loop gain for loops inside the transistor [2]. The resistors shown at inand output model the port impedances. the stability of the transistor was greatly enhanced.00GHz to 100.0 0. a 0. whereas eight were used for the real simulations.5 -2. as is shown in Figure 6. The equivalent circuit shows four parallel transistors. as an 8-finger transistor was employed.5 Figure 4: Input stability circles simulated using a compact transistor model. the device should be unconditionally stable.22 nH source inductor was formed by two parallel 0. The 1 is enclosed and the real axis is crossed at approximately 75 GHz (marker m1). Segments of the transistor are interconnected at gate and drain with transmission lines. To further increase the safety margin. see Figure 2.44 nH inductors. For the particular example presented before. Stability circles are shown from 50 to 100 GHz.0 -0. Potential instabilities were instantly recognised by observing the open-loop gain. As a single 0. The simplified equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 5.5 0.22 nH inductor has fewer parasitics. freq (50. This simulation method holds for a number of instability problems. with 10 GHz step size. but in this case. In order to take effects inside the transistor into account. including intrinsic technology problems. 2004 353 .0 -1.5 -1. a further analysis indicated that mainly the parasitic capacitances associated with the source of the gate fingers and the source feedback inductors were problematic. one of the source inductors was removed.0 2.Input m4 Input Stability Circles and Source Impedance By doing so. Effectively. n i 1 out 1 i n out 12th GAAS® Symposium . The resulting open-loop gain is shown in Figure 7.0 1. the first thing necessary is to split the transistor in fingers. m3 Open loop gain m1 -2.Amsterdam. As can be clearly seen. Markers m3 and m4 indicate 50 GHz.0GHz) Figure 6: Open-loop gain between 50 and 100 GHz for one of the loops.5 1.

00GHz to 100. The source-to-source inductances introduced in Figure 5 increase in absolute value and increase the imbalance. M. the first stage transistor gate width is determined by the combination of bias point for lowest noise performance and required 1-dB compression point.0 -0. The 1 is not enclosed no potential instabilities are indicated.0GHz) Figure 7: Open-loop gain between 50 and 100 GHz after correction for one of the loops. Ensuring this for transistors with source feedback forces the designer to segment a multi-finger transistor model.2 0. As these transistors still provide gain at frequencies where the accuracy of passive components is clearly insufficient to provide accurate load values. IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory.8 1. “Stability and Power-Gain Invariants of Linear Twoports.4 -0. “Stability Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Multidevice Amplifiers. the device must be unconditionally stable at these frequencies. The number of fingers is then maximised to minimise the contribution of the gate resistance to the noise figure. 41. 983991.Ohtomo. The necessity of open-loop analysis for the segmented transistor model was clearly demonstrated.Amsterdam. pp. The measures clearly show to be effective. vol.”. Normally.4 0. it has been shown that great care is required when applying source feedback to modern submicron technology transistors for LNA’s. this was confirmed by the measurements on the MMIC’s themselves later. It is this latter step. March 1962. ” IEEE Transactions on MTT. which gives a relatively small benefit in the minimum noise performance.REFERENCES [1] J.6 -0. Open loop gain -1. that significantly increases the risk on oscillations. 2004 .6 0. freq (50. 5.8 -0. Rollett. A final remark regarding the number of fingers should be made. CONCLUSION In conclusion. June/July 1993.0 0.2 0. 354 12th GAAS® Symposium .0 [2] ] M.

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