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# A partial list of mathematical symbols and how to read them

Greek alphabet A Z Λ Π Φ α ζ λ π ,̟ φ, ϕ alpha zeta lambda pi phi B H M P X β η µ ρ, ̺ χ beta eta mu rho chi Γ Θ N Σ Ψ γ θ, ϑ ν σ, ς ψ gamma theta nu sigma psi ∆ I Ξ T Ω δ ι ξ τ ω delta iota xi tau omega E K O Υ ǫ, ε κ o υ epsilon kappa omicron upsilon

Important sets ∅ N N+ Z Q R R+ C empty set natural numbers positive integer numbers integer numbers rational numbers real numbers positive real numbers complex numbers {0, 1, 2, . . .} {1, 2, . . .} {. . . , −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, . . .} {m/n : m ∈ Z, n ∈ N+ } (−∞, +∞) (0, +∞) {x + iy : x, y ∈ R} (i is the imaginary unit, i2 = −1)

Logical operators ∀ ∃ ∃! ∧ ∨ ⇒ ⇐⇒ ¬ for all, universal quantiﬁer exists, there is, existential quantiﬁer there is exactly one and . . . over an index set or . . . over an index set implication, if-then biimplication, if-and-only-if negation, not alternative notations for negation Arithmetic operators || absolute value summation product ! n m mod div factorial n choose m, combinatorial number modulo, remainder integer quotient | − 7| = |7| = 7
−i = i∈N+ 2 n i=1 i = n!

∀n ∈ N, n ≥ 0 ∃n ∈ N, n ≥ 7 ∃!n ∈ N, n < 1 (3 > 2) ∧ (2 > 1)
i∈N Bi

= B0 ∧ B1 ∧ B2 ∧ · · · = B0 ∨ B1 ∨ B2 ∨ · · ·

(2 > 3) ∨ (2 > 1)
i∈N Bi

∀a, b ∈ R, (a = b) ⇒ (a ≥ b) ∀a, b ∈ R, (a = b) ⇐⇒ (b = a) ¬(2 > 3) (2 > 3), 2 > 3

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7! = 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 = 5040 n m = n! (n − m)!m!

7 mod 3 = 1, -8 mod 5 = 2 7 div 3 = 2, -8 div 5 = -2

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