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# Lecture 4

Physics 1502: Lecture 34 Today’s Agenda
• Announcements:
– Midterm 2: graded soon … – Homework 09: Friday December 4

• Optics
– Interference – Diffraction » Introduction to diffraction » Diffraction from narrow slits » Intensity of single-slit and two-slits diffraction patterns » The diffraction grating

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i. i. Minima when "P = d sin! = (n+1/2)# d ! "P=d sin! Screen In Phase.e. Minima when "P = d sin! = (n+1/2)# + 2 . Maxima when "P = d sin! = n# A wave through two slits + Out of Phase. i. i. Maxima when "P = d sin! = n# Out of Phase.e.e.e.Lecture 4 A wave through two slits In Phase.

Lecture 4 The Intensity What is the intensity at P? The only term with a t dependence is sin2( ). +/-2 … 3 . with The Intensity We can rewrite intensity at point P in terms of distance y Using this relation. the intensity would have been.That term averages to ! . So we can rewrite the total intensity as. If we had only had one slit. we can rewrite expression for the intensity at point P as function of y Constructive interference occurs at where m=+/-1.

Lecture 4 Phasor Addition of Waves Consider a sinusoidal wave whose electric field component is E2(t) E1(t) E0 !t+" E0 !t Consider second sinusoidal wave E0 \$ E0 E2(t) The projection of sum of two phasors EP is equal to EP(t) E1(t) \$/2 ER !t Phasor Diagrams for Two Coherent Sources ER=2E0 E0 E0 ER 450 E0 E0 ER E0 E0 900 ER=0 E0 E0 ER E0 2700 E0 ER=2E0 E0 E0 4 .

etc. 5 slits.Lecture 4 SUMMARY 2 slits interference pattern (Young’s experiment) How would pattern be changed if we add one or more slits ? (assuming the same slit separation ) 3 slits. Phasor: 1 vector represents 1 traveling wave single traveling wave 2 wave interference 5 . 4 slits.

S P1 L I Mirror but dark and bright fringes are reversed in order This mean that the sources S and I are different in phase by 1800 An electromagnetic wave undergoes a phase change by 1800 upon reflecting from the medium that has a higher index of refraction than that one in which the wave is traveling. Thus we can think of an arrangement S and I as a double-slit source separated by the distance between points S and I. An interference pattern for this experimental setting is really observed …. 6 ..Lecture 4 N-slits Interference Patterns %=0 %=90 %=180 %=270 %=360 N=2 N=3 N=4 Change of Phase Due to Reflection Lloyd’s mirror P2 The reflected ray (red) can be considered as an original from the image source at point I.

Lecture 4 Change of Phase Due to Reflection n1 n2 n1 no phase change n1>n2 n2 1800 phase change n1<n2 Interference in Thin Films 1800 phase change 1 Air 2 no phase change A wave traveling from air toward film undergoes 1800 phase change upon reflection. The wavelength of light #n in the medium with refraction index n is Film t The ray 1 is 1800 out of phase with ray 2 which is equivalent to a path difference #n/2. Air Constructive interference Destructive interference 7 . The ray 2 also travels extra distance 2t.

A) 113nm B) 250nm C) 339nm Problem Consider the double-slit arrangement shown in Figure below. Find y! where will the central maximum be now ? 8 .33) that results in constructive interference in the reflected light if the film is Illuminated by light with #=600nm. the central maximum of the interference pattern moves upward a distance y!. A sheet of transparent plastic having an index of refraction n and thickness t is placed over the upper slit. where the slit separation is d and the slit to screen distance is L.Lecture 4 Chapter 34 – Act 1 Estimate minimum thickness of a soap-bubble film (n=1. As a result.

Lecture 4 Solution Phase difference for going though plastic sheet: Corresponding path length difference: Angle of central max is approx: Thus the distance y’ is: gives Phase Change upon Reflection from a Surface/Interface Reflection from Optically Denser Medium (larger n) 180o Phase Change Reflection from Optically Lighter Medium (smaller n) No Phase Change by analogy to reflection of traveling wave in mechanics 9 .

Lecture 4 constructive: 2t = (m +1/2) #n destructive: 2t = m #n Examples : constructive: 2t = m #n destructive: 2t = (m +1/2) #n Application Reducing Reﬂection in Optical Instruments 10 .

Lecture 4 D a r f if n o i t c Experimental Observations: (pattern produced by a single slit ?) 11 .

… So. … See Huygen’s Principle So we can calculate where the minima will be ! sin & = ± m #/a m=±1.Lecture 4 How do we understand this pattern ? First Destructive Interference: (a/2) sin & = ± #/2 sin & = ± #/a Second Destructive Interference: (a/4) sin & = ± #/2 sin & = ± 2 #/a mth Destructive Interference: sin & = ± m #/a m=±1. ±2. when the slit becomes smaller the central maximum becomes ? Why is the central maximum so much stronger than the others ? 12 . ±2.

using Phasors ! Let take some arbitrary point on the diffraction pattern This point can be defined by angle & or by phase difference between first and last ray (phasor) ' The resultant electric field magnitude ER is given (from the figure) by : sin ('/2) = ER / 2R The arc length Eo is given by : Eo = R ' ER = 2R sin ('/2) = 2 (Eo/ ') sin ('/2) = Eo [ sin ('/2) / ('/2) ] So. the intensity anywhere on the pattern : I = Imax [ sin ('/2) / ('/2) ]2 ' = 2) a sin (&) / # 13 . "' / 2) = "y sin (&) / # ' = N "' = N 2) "y sin (&) / # = 2) a sin (&) / # 2nd max.Lecture 4 Phasor Description of Diffraction Let’s define phase difference (') between first and last ray (phasor) central max. ' = ( ("') = N "' (a/#) sin & = 1: 1st min. Can we calculate the intensity anywhere on diffraction pattern ? Yes. 1st min.

Fraunhofer Diffraction (or far-field) ! Lens Incoming wave Screen 14 . … • Note the bright spot at the center. A diffraction pattern consisting of bright and dark fringes appears on the screen in the region above the edge of the object.Lecture 4 Other Examples Light from a small source passes by the edge of an opaque object and continues on to a screen. when positioned midway between screen and light source ? • A penny. What type of an object would create a diffraction pattern shown on the left.

Lecture 4 Fresnel Diffraction (or near-field) Lens P Screen Incoming wave (more complicated: not covered in this course) Resolution (single-slit aperture) Rayleigh’s criterion: • two images are just resolved WHEN: When central maximum of one image falls on the first minimum of another image sin & = # / a &min ~ # / a 15 .

7 km Earth Moon &min = 1.7 ] R = 120 m ! 16 . c. 384 000 km away.943 10-7 / 2.Lecture 4 Resolution (circular aperture) Diffraction patterns of two point sources for various angular separation of the sources Rayleigh’s criterion for circular aperture: &min = 1.22 ( # / a) R / 3.0 km 2. What is the radius of the big red spot on the moon? a. e. 500 m 250 m 120 m 1.22 [ 6. b.22 ( # / a) EXAMPLE A ruby laser beam (# = 694.84 108 = 1.7m diameter telescope to the moon. d.3 nm) is sent outwards from a 2.

Idiff smaller separation between slits => ? The combined effects of two-slit and single-slit interference. Is it possible that the first minimum of the interference pattern occurs at the location of the first minimum of the diffraction pattern for light of wavelength # ? 1st minimum interference: d sin & = # /2 1st minimum diffraction: a sin & = # The same place (same &) : # /2d = # /a a /d = 2 d No! a a 17 . smaller slit size Animation => ? Example The centers of two slits of width a are a distance d apart.Lecture 4 Two-Slit Interference Pattern with a Finite Slit Size Interference (interference fringes): Iinter = Imax [cos ()d sin & / #)]2 Diffraction (“envelope” function): Idiff = Imax [ sin ('/2) / ('/2) ]2 ' = 2) a sin (&) / # Itot = Iinter . This is the pattern produced when 650-nm light waves pass through two 3.0.mm slits that are 18 mm apart.

. like proteins.562 nm. 18 . This enzyme is present in plants and takes part in the process of photosynthesis. Determining the atomic structure of crystals With X-ray Diffraction (basic principle) Crystals are made of regular arrays of atoms that effectively scatter X-ray Scattering (or interference) of two X-rays from the crystal planes made-up of atoms Bragg’s Law Crystalline structure of sodium chloride (NaCl). length of the cube edge is a = 0.Lecture 4 X-ray Diffraction by crystals Application Can we determine the atomic structure of the crystals. 2.. produced with a wide-band x-ray spectrum. by analyzing X-ray diffraction patters like one shown ? Yes in principle: this is like the problem of determining the slit separation (d) and slit size (a) from the observed pattern. 2 d sin & = m # m = 1. but much much more complicated ! A Laue pattern of the enzyme Rubisco.