You are on page 1of 57

Education System in India

INTRODUCTION
The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient system of education was based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name of Vedic Educational System. Some scholars have sub divided Vedic Educational period into Rig Veda period, !rahmani period, "panishada period, Sutra #$ymn% period, Smriti period etc but all these period, due to predominance of the Vedas, there was no change in the aims and ideals of educations. That is why, the education of these periods, is studied under Vedic period. &Swadesh 'u(yate Ra(a, Vidwan Sarvatra 'u(yate ‖

Education plays an important role in the development of a nation. Education is a very important part of economy. It is said to an investment in human being. 'erhaps this is the reason that every nation tries his best to develop the strategy of education. If we have to teach real peace in this world )nd if we have to carry on a real war against war, we Shall have to begin with the children. (Mahatma Gandhi)

Education in India:'rovided by the public sector as *ell as the private sector, with control and funding +oming from three levels, central, state and local. Education is a co current state level sub(ects and under the Indian +onstitution education is made a -undamental Right and .irective 'rinciples of State 'olicy further needed free education and other facilities to children. There is no discrimination among the people on the basis of religion, caste or creed/faith etc. $owever, the minorities are given right to run their own educational institutions with financial aid from 0overnment and they are free to introduce their religion, language in their institution. Education is compulsory and free upto primary standard. Indian education system has a wide structure and the educational institutions can introduce the education or learning pattern as below V) years in pre nursery schools, in the primary schools upto V class or so. Education is further upgraded 1

upto 1234 system where the e5aminations are conducted by the !oard at 12 and 14. Thereafter, students are free to choose the courses of their own at any stage, i.e. primary, secondary, senior secondary level. Schools are of different levels. 6ocal !oards run the schools upto 'rimary, V standard, both in mother tongue and English medium. Thereafter the schools may upgrade themselves upto 7 known as Secondary schools. They can also be upgraded upto 14, called Senior Secondary schools. The education is a co current #state level% sub(ect and the +entral 0overnment cannot interfere in their functioning. )s such schools are pre primary, pre nursery, then primary, secondary and senior secondary run both by the private bodies as well as by 0overnment. Indian schools are not as well organised as they are e5pected. 'rivate/'ublic school charge high fee and have control on their institution. They only need the registration by the +entre/State 0overnment or their !odies and 8anagement. *hile the Education .epartment has a loose control over these 'rivate/ 'ublic Schools government has its own schools where the normal fee is charged and the students belong with poor section of society. 9verall the condition of government schools is pathetic. )t state level School Education has its own organisational set up. "nder this democratic set up Education .eptt is supported by the 8inister of Education who has a Secretary of Education to supervise the .epartment with the help of .irector Education who belongs to I.).S. cadre of service. The .epartment is further divided into districts .eputy, :oint .irectors to look after the working of schools.

2

Education - Primary Right:

Education is the primary right of every child in a democratic society. *e have made a law to provide free and compulsory education up to the age of fourteen i.e. up to middle standard level. )n uneducated man can neither be a good citi;en nor good parents. $e is ignorant and superstitious. .eprived of knowledge, he falls in the darkness of ignorance and becomes a victim of evil social practices. The problem of drop outs at primary level is <uite serious poor parents force their children to stay at home and look after younger kids. Some are compelled to work as child laborers in homes, shops restaurants and factories. 8ore community centers and adult education centers have to be opened to educate man and woman who were deprived of the fruits of education during their formative years. 9ur aim should bet to provide education to all the people of India. The Indian government lays great emphasis on primary education up to the age of fourteen years #referred to as Elementary Education in India.% The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that any children do get an opportunity to nurture. It is a very important <uestion in the field of education what type of education should be given = This is a reality that ours means of education are limited but our needs are unlimited. So it should be decide that which type of education should be given. So national policy of education 1>?@ has announced the system of education. There have been many proposals for the introduction of education in school. Some of them have been tried success and are going on well. To strengthen the Indian Education System, an educational policy was adopted by the Indian 'arliament in 1>@?. Education was made an important and integral part of the national development efforts. )fter independence there has been an effort to spread education to all levels of Indian society. Statistics point to the fact that >> per cent of children in age group @ 11 years have been enrolled in school. $owever, to bring the remaining into the ambit of universal primary education is proving 3

difficult because some reside in inaccessible areas, there is a deep rooted pre(udice against educating girls there are practical difficulties of distance and inaccessibility of schools. 8oreover, the dropout rate is so high that universal elementary education #"EE% is <uite an elusive goal. Since, education is important for the growth of developing nation like India, various steps have been devised to reduce the percentage of dropouts. Aon formal education to provide educational facilities for the drop outs and to fulfill the desire for additional education in the grown up drop outs is being given a new orientation to make it purposeful and to attract a broad spectrum of the drop out population. In Indian Education system, adult education programmes covers the age group 1 BC and has been vigorously implemented by the government with the cooperation of many voluntary agencies. Even then much has to be done to reali;e the target which is 122D coverage adults. *ith regard to the pattern of secondary education e5periments have been going on since Independence. The 12343B system of education which was recommended by Eothari +ommission of 1>@C is now being implemented in almost all the States and "nion Territories of India. This system #pattern% provides for two streams hi the higher secondary schoolsF the academic streams paving the way for higher education and the vocational stream of terminal nature. $owever, very few schools live been able to provide this terminal education. )s result, schools with academic streams still abound, thereby defeating the very purpose of reducing the acute competition for college education. In many States education is free up to the lower secondary level, and in a few states education is free up to the higher secondary stage.

4

Education System in India

)s far as India is concerned, it is a democratic country. Education is primary of every child in a democratic society. Education is the future of our country. It is distressing to find that during all these years of our independence we have been merely dabbling in schemes and pro(ects, in new fangled ideas mostly borrowed from the west, merely setting up commission after commission at the cost of lakhs or rupees and let matters rest at that. The drive, the initiative, the dynamic vision necessary for radical reforms in the sphere of education are lamentably conspicuous by their absence. *e have allowed matters to drift aimlessly, instead of setting down to grapple with momentous issues. The result has been disastrous. ) life less, mechanical system of teaching in overcrowded schools and colleges imposed by far from competent teachers on students whose only interest is to get through e5amination, has been the bane of our education. *e have completely forgotten the simple yet vital truth that the aim of education is first to build up character in the widest sense and then to impart knowledge. $ere, an educated man is called upon to master more than one language. )n educated Indian re<uires the mastery of an international language. The educated Indian should be able to read and write in many languages. )cross India, particularly in rural societies, girls are not always educated and many have minimal understanding of their own rights. The national average shows that there are twice as many uneducated women as there are men across India. India has some of the worst gender disparity issues in the world. It is estimated that girls average less than four years of education in a lifetime and G2D leave school before they reach the fifth grade. *ith around seven million girls out of school in India, the situation for girlsH education is dismal. This state of education stems from an array of interrelated factors that reduce access to, and retention in, schools. Rural communities are often completely unaware of the benefit or even concept of educating girls. -or every 122 rural girls, only one reaches the 14th grade. *ith only CCD of schools in India having girlsH toilets and only G4D of teachers being female, enrolling marginali;ed girls poses an immense challenge This situation stems from low <uality education, shortage of teachers, poverty, limiting attitudes towards gender roles and a lack of support from parents and the community. Educate 0irls has systematically challenged and addressed these structural, cultural 5

This is especially true in tribal regions. as well as the individual woman. I Improving the <uality of education by reforming schools to focus on creative life and work skills. programs have empowered girls by providing them access to <uality education and development opportunities. I -amily health improves and child mortality fallsF educated mothers are G2D more likely to immuni. changing the future for their children. Educate 0irls has implemented a program strategy in three blocks of the 'ali .ationHs strong conviction that when women are educated. teachers and the government. Educate Girls uses the ollo!ing strategies in order to achie"e its mission I Emphasi. away from rote memori. I Involving parents in the education process. a transformation begins.e by one. I 6iteracy accelerates in future generations as educated mothers are five times more likely to educate their children. and creating a political constituency to support and sustain the reform of primary and secondary schools.ing strong parental and community participation as the key to getting girls back into school.and socio economic barriers through strong program interventions and strategies that work in partnership with parents.ation. I !irth rates fall and each four years of schooling reduces family si. Education and active participation in schools enables women to become central agents of social change. communities. E5tensive research by the "A and the *orld !ank shows that when girls are educated.e as violence and e5tremism declines. The Educate 0irlsH mission has emerged from the organi.istrict in collaboration with the government and local communities to Ensure that all girls have access to <uality education and self development 9pportunities. I !oth -amily and national income grow by 12D for each additional year of schooling There are girl children in many communities who are not easily reachable and thus remain e5cluded from the benefits of education. Im#ortance o Education Educating girls has a multitude of positive effects for the wider community. 6 .e their children. I Regions stabili.

population control. Ra(asthan is known to have adverse figures of girl student enrollment and retention in schools. Education for girls is a crucial matter in Ra(asthan.e the available resources. the reality is different. The now internationally acknowledged 6ok :umbish and Shiksha Earmi $ steady rise in the literacy rate %ut #ersistent gender ga# The rise in male literacy levels in Ra(asthan to above the national average and the . productive lives.oubling of female literacy in the last decade speaks to the concerted efforts made in recent times for educational development in the state. Though the +onstitution of India grants e<uality to both the se5es and does not . impacting health. ne5t generation school enrollment and the potential to earn.iscriminate on the basis of se5. dream and utili. The progress in the two se5es $as been at a varying pace in the field of education with the females lagging behind Their male counterparts. thus enabling them to imagine. The state harnessed innovation and community participation to usher in educational changes. live healthy. Education enables girls to reason. It is well researched that educating a girl has a ripple effect. 7 . make informed decisions and most importantly.Educate 0irls programs have provided opportunities for girls in the region to see and discuss more than their own village or culture.

The disciple was to devote himself whole heartedly to the cause of learning while he remained with his teacher. which we lack so utterly. )* De"elo#ing the !holesome #ersonality: The primary aim of any system of education should be development of a whole some personality. at least 12 years for one Veda. Innumerable signs of social disorganisation are evident everywhere and are continually on the increase. 8oral values are at stake &The old values. low teacher pupil ratio. education started and ended with certain prescribed religious rituals like upnayan and samvartan. -* Starting $cademic sessions solemnly In most cases the boy went to a teacher for studentship. The maximum age of entrance into school was different for different castes. 8 . The !rahmanic system of education stood on former grounds of lofty ideals because its primary aim was development of personality and character. lacks. regulation governing student life. $ow many of the parents look after their children now in this respect. The moral stature of our educated people is deplorably low. The period of schooling was long. 8oral strength and moral e5cellence were developed to the fullest e5tent. The whole session was punctuated with holidays especially on new moon full moon days of the month. and which were the predominant facets of our ancient system relate to admission policies #upnayan%. free schooling and college education. +* 'a. The ancient system gave an e<ual important to informal education as it did to the formal one. and a disregard for public property corruption in public life &The social moral and spiritual values which our ancient system developed in the educand have been totally lost sight of. which held society together are disappearing and as there in no effective programme to replace them by a new sense of responsibility. The ingredients. sympathetic treatment. for e5ample.&UND$'ENT$(S O& $NCIENT INDI$N EDUC$TION The ancient education system has been a source of inspiration to all educational systems of the world. healthy teaching surroundings.ing ormal and In ormal Educations Res#onsi%le Imparting and receiving of education was as sacred as anything can be. Aot every boy was re<uired to enter studentship it was still a custom to receive education at the hands of his father. The academic sessions started with a special ceremony ―upkarman on the !uru "urnima #$ull month of %hra&ana' and as solemnly closed on (ohini #$ullmoon month of pausha' with )utsar*an . which our present system. monitorial system. These include strikes increasing lawlessness. role of punishment in discipline.

It was demanded of every student whether rich of poor that he should lead a simple life in the 0urukul or in the )shram. sing. It must be noted that schools and colleges were not kept for away from human habitation. discipline that was rooted in morality and religion ) student was re<uired to give up lust. !oth were united by communion of life. the teacher sought the co operation of more advanced and senior boys who were appointed as monitors #'ittiacharya%.* $d/usting School 0ours The school in the )ncient Education System. Individual attention was ma5imum. calm and peaceful. Their personality was respected Teachers were re<uired to use sweet and gentle speech in dealing with pupil. conceit and over (oy. !ut when. The whole atmosphere was <uiet. 4* (o! 5 Teacher #u#il Ratio In all schools and colleges the pupil L teacher ratio was too low. The number of students in a school was kept very small. he was is to nurse. backbite. 1* Close Contact Aever in the history of education will you find such a close contact between the teacher and the taught. In fact they communed together. look or talk or touch the other se5 and kill animals. In fair weather classes were held in the open under shady groves. Temple colleges of the past had been of great renown for having spacious buildings for classroom. In the rainy season schools ran in a set of apartment. gossip. The teacher was the spiritual father. he was to feed. It was ordered to him not to gamble. lie. clothe and teach his student as he fed. but was even more significant than teaching was discipline L discipline inculcated through strict obedience to laws and regulations of student life. 'uplis received very sympathetic. 9 . when the pupil fell sick. Instruction was important. 6* Res#ecting Childs Personality 'unishment had practically no place in the school system. greed. 2* Em#hasi3ing Disci#line The student had to observe strict regulations. 0urukuls and )shrams were generally situated on the river banks or on the lake.. lasted for J to ? hours a day. hostels and residential <uarters for teachers. vanity. under certain conditions the enrolment increased. treatment from their teachers. clothed and taught his son. dance. anger. king K god. hurt feelings of others. In the absence of teacher entire work was entrusted to them. The student also regarded the teachers as he regarded his parents.

development of personality. horse or even vegetables to his teacher according to his financial position in the society. no politics was permitted to enter the school or college system. )* In usion o S#iritual 8 Religious 9alues The primary aim of ancient education was instilling into the minds. "panishads and . There was perfect autonomy. &The result of education is good character and good behaviour. S$(IENT &E$TURES O& $NCIENT INDI$N EDUC$TION )ncient Indian education was primarily the education of the Vedas.‖ *isdom consisted in the practice of moral values. the medical treatises of +haraka and Susruta were other elements of !rahmanic literature. E5ample was better than precept. $e who practices virtue in really wise. if desired but never compelled to offer a field. formation of character. was so much stress laid on character building as in the Vedic period Vyas Samhita states. +* Character De"elo#ment In no period of the $istory of India. Eatyayana. S. of pupils a spirit of being pious and religious for glory of 0od and good of man. 8oral e5cellence could come only through praticising moral values. the writings of )ryabhatta. cow. The student was e5pected. Ao e5ternal authority no e5ternal beneficiary. The life of the pupil was full of ritual acts. Education could not be bought one could go up the 6adder as his abilities permitted . ) con<uest does not make a hero nor studies a wise L woman. ). $e had to participate in all religious festivals. It was free because no student was re<uired to pay any fees. It was free also because no outside agency could interfere in the matters of education. K preservation and spread of national culture. and inculcation of civil and social sense. It was believed that a keener appreciation of spiritual values could be fostered only through a strict observance if religious rites.harma Sutras.r. )ccess to good education depended not on wealth but on talent. )mar Eosha.7* Pro"iding &ree Education Education was free. 10 . ) student had to pay nothing in return for education he recieved in a 0urukul or )shram. +ontrol of senses and practice of virtues made one a man of character. )ltekar says that the !rahmanic education aimed at MInfusion of a spirit of piety and religiousness. The !rahmanic education has been a source of inspiration for determining educational aims and ob(ectives to future generations. promotion of social efficacy. The source springs of education were !rahmans. Eautilya. $e who has con<uered his senses is the real hero. 'anini. 'rayers were common every pupil was re<uired to perform religious ceremonies duly. 'atan(ali. The pursuit of knowledge was a pursuit of religious values. . Education without religions instructions was not education at all.

)fter a certain period of studies he was re<uired to become a householder and to perpetuate his race and transmit his culture to his own off springs. The <ualities of self esteem. -* De"elo#ment o Ci"ic Res#onsi%ilities and Social 9alues The inculcation of civic virtues and social values was an e<ually important ob(ective of education in India.The teacher and the taught were ideals of morality. The cultural unity that e5ists even today in the vast sub continent in due to the successful preservation and spread of culture and the credit goes to )ncient Education System. The !rahmachari after his education in the 0urukulas went back to the society to serve the rich and the poor. 11 . The ancient Indian education system was also successful in 'reserring and spreading its culture and literature even without the help of art of writing it was only because of the destruction of temples and monastries by invaders that literature was lost.ed that the development of personality is the sole aim of education. self restraint and self respect were the personality traits that the educator tried to incukate in his pupils through e5ample. The members of the priestly class learnt the whole of Vedic 6iterature by heart K passed it on.* Personality De"elo#ment The 0uru in the ancient times reali. Every individual was re<uired to commit to memory at least a portion of the sacred scriptures. self confidence. 1* Preser"ing and Di using National Culture Vedic culture was kept intact and transmitted through word of mouth to succeeding generations. $uman personality was regarded as the supreme work of 0od. for both practiced it all through their lives. to relieve the diseased and the distressed. Everyone was re<uired to serve as a medium of transmission. $e was re<uired to be hospitable to the guests and charitable to the needy. .

came in India.ispatch. The thinking principle O manana shakti’ was reckoned higher than the sub(ect of thinking. -resh ideas from the west like freedom. Some were also compelled to work as child labourers in shops. *omen were also compelled to work as child labourers in shops.elhi. 8any Indians sent their children to these schools as they thought it would help them in getting (obs in government offices. e<uality and brotherhood began to have its impact on the thinking of the English knowing Indians which gave rise to national consciousness.and methods were evolved. "se of English by Indians provided one langauge that cut across the entire country and became a common link for them. The educated Indians now thought of getting freedom from !ritish rule. restaurants and factories.o you know that the teaching of English was encouraged by the !ritish rulers to suit their own interest but it proved to be useful for the Indians in a different way. Then after 6ord 8acaulay *ood . Im#act o English Education The !ritish encouraged the teaching of English language in schools and colleges as they needed people to work in the administrative offices either as clerks or babus. education was started by +ord 8acaulay in 1?BC. education was a matter of individual concern. restaurants and factories. $unter +ommission. 9ne such school is 'resentation +onvent in . This knowledge would enhance his/her creative capacity. 12 . )s a result. India was a very poor country and education was the weakest point of our India. This helped in creating a new class of people who later helped them in governance as well as in controlling many aspects of administration in India. It was believed that the development of a person meant. the training of his/her mind as the instrument of ac<uiring knowledge. i. the primary sub(ect of education was the mind itself. They tried their best to develop the system of education. 'eople living in different parts of India spoke different languages and there was no language that could be understood by all. English books and newspapers brought to them new ideas from across the sea. 'oor parents were forced their children to stay at home and look after their younger kids. +hristian missionaries who came to India started opening schools where English was taught. Thus. . democracy. rules . -irst of all. which is still running and providing good education. techni<ues. !ut people were ignorant at that time. primarily. So growth rate of education at that time was very low.Education During the Pre-Inde#endence Period in India !efore getting freedom. 6ord Eerson etc. *omen were totally deprived of the fruits of education. other countries.e. The aim of education was the development of pupilHs overall personality. Pou will find many schools in India even today who were opened during those times. In ancient India. *ith this view of education as a process of oneHs inner growth and self fulfNlment.

'odern Education System The Qakir $ussain committee pointed out that modern educational thought was practically unanimous on the idea of educating the children through some creative work. )ccording to his philosophy of education. including productive work. In that year. $e distinguished between literacy and education. no matter from which section of society they came from. the integrated all sided education balances the intellectual and practical elements of e5perience and serves as an instrument of educating the body and the mind in coordination. a decision of introducing !asic education based upon the educational ideas of 8ahatma 0andhi was taken immediately after the publication of the *ood )bbott report. An attempt would have to be made to give access to the best type of education to the most intelligent children. #Ra(iv 0andhi% *ith the dawn of independence on )ugust 1C. !y education 8ahatma 0andhi meant an all round drawing out of the best in the child. writing and computation of numbers. whereas education is aimed at development of the all round personality. -rom the educational point of view. when the curriculum is related to life and its various aspects.0istory o education in India The year 1>BJ was a year of significance in the history of education in India. 8ahatma 0andhi. new 13 . This would solve the problem of financing education as well. The (ustification given was that the active nature of the child never agreed with the purely academic and theoretical instruction provided in the primary schools. This approach was regarded as the most effective method of providing an integrated all sided education. it is not a process of filling an empty pot with information. it provides scope for correlating knowledge belonging to different sub(ect areas and give concreteness to it. because the income from the craft would support the running cost of the schools.1>GJ. DE9E(OP'ENT O& EDUC$TION $&TER INDEPENDENCE The new policy would be egalitarian. 8oreover. through his articles in $ari(an published during 8arch to 9ct. emerged a new thinking to reform and recast a system of education which may meet the new challenges. The scope of literacy is limited to reading. 1>BJ insisted that manual and productive work should not only be an appendage to the on going productive programme of education but the latter should be woven around the former.

‖ The emergence of this document was an important stage in the process of reviewing and reshaping the education system to enable it to meet the challenges of the future and also to improve its efficiency and <uality. meaningful and relevant recommendations to provide new directions to the prevailing system of education in order to meet changing needs and aspirations of the society. Aational +ouncil of Educational Research and Training #A+ERT%. The +ommission gave very useful recommendations. hundreds and thousands of seminars. e5pert bodies like that of "niversity 0rant commission #"0+%. Immediately. The target of compulsory universal education remained a dream. Aational Institute of Educational 'lanning and )dministration #AIE')% and numerous regional and state level bodies. he pledged to do something practically after evolving a new pattern of education through Aational 'olicy on Education. Eothari as chairman. The students of universities and colleges after completion of their education. 9bviously. S. ). the structure and system of education remained where it was. continued to be unsuccessful (ob hunters. in )ugust 1>?C. 6..r. regarding reform and change in university and college education. Radhakrishnan as its chairman. therefore. )part from bringing minor patches of change here and there. The matter did not end here. The aims of higher education were never defined or concretised. If those involved with programme planning. resource allocation and the actual operation of the teaching learning process. "nder this melee and dismal scenario of education. 8udaliar was set up in 1>C4 to probe into the deficiencies of Secondary Education and to being desirable changes in it. no worthwhile results can accrue. )s per plan. symposia and discussions were held all over the country to suggest the direction in which our new policy should emerge. emerged a new thinking from our youthful 'rime 8inister Shri Ra(iv 0andhi. . This document successfully provided the basis for a nation wide debate to formulate the new education policy. )ll these three commission gave very pertinent. do not understand their tasks or take these casually. . another commission named as Secondary Education +ommission under the chairmanship of another distinguished educationist. Revitalising the standards of education continued to be a slogan.aspirations and new needs of -ree India. another commission under the name of Education +ommission with . a new 14 . 9n the basis of the view points available from various social organisations. he came out with a document &+hallenge of Education L a 'olicy perspective. S. ) feeling emerged in the country that instead of having different commissions on different facets of education. Vocationalisation of secondary education was only on papers. we should have a global view of education.r. The e5ercise of change started with the constitution of "niversity Education +ommission in 1>G? with . after taking over the reigns of the 0overnment. 9n their suggestion. Aorthing was done to make education (ob oriented. was set up in 1>@G with a view to consider changes re<uired in the total system of education. This document categorically stated that a policy takes concrete shape only in the process of implementation.r.

C0$((ENGE O& EDUC$TION :)761.evelopment 4. 0overnment of India. Education. Towards a Aew Education 'olicy II* $n O"er"ie! o Educational De"elo#ment 15 . was released in )ugust 1>?C. as the initial step to evolve national policy on education. The then $uman Resource . ) +ritical )ppraisal IV. Aarsimharao was successful in consoling the members of the parliament that he would come out with a plan of action shortly and took a vow to implement all the elements of this policy. 6imitations of the Education System C. It was titled as &+hallenge of Education L a policy 'erspective‖. The first document of 8inistry of Education. Education.evelopment III. It comprised 11> pages and presented thoughtful observation.evelopment 8inister. fearing it may not meet the deadly fate of earlier three +ommissions on Education. )n 9verview of Educational .evelopment 1. Values and 8odernity @. Social . The members of the parliament were not satisfied with its various recommendations since they wanted a commitment for the implementation of its beautiful recommendations.evelopment G. on following four areas. V. Society and . Shri '. 'riorities in Educational . analysis and developments regarding various facets of education since 1>GJ.evelopment II. Society and . Role of Education B. I. )n )pproach to Educational Reorientation These %road areas ha"e %een discussed under ollo!ing main #oints: I.document titled as &Aational 'olicy on Education‖ was thrashed and deliberated upon by the parliament in 8ay 1>?@.

$igher Education @. C. Secondary Education G. Internal +onstraints. . Elementary Education 4. )dult Education and -unctional 6iteracy B. Vocationalisation C. Enrolment. G. Teachers and Teacher Education >. Teachers @. E5penditure J. B. Aon formal Education and 6iteracy C. B. I9* $n $##roach to Educational Reorientation 1. Teacher Education J.1. 0oal 9rientation for Educational 'lanning. 4. Retention and . 8anagement Education ?.rop outs. Some 0eneral Issues. G. 16 . 6inkages between Education and Society. 0rowth of Institutions. +onstraints on 'olicy 8aking. 4. -actors facilitating Educational Restructuring.ifferential 9utreach and )menities ?. Employment Interface III* $ Critical $##raisal 1.

6egal +onstraints. J. 17 . 1G. 1>. 1C. $igher Education. E5amination System. 14. 11.iversification and Ruality. 4@. Innovation in Aorth Eastern $ill "niversity #AE$"%. +onstraints of the Total System. )pproaches to Resource 8obilisation for Education. Voluntary )gencies. 12. )dult Education. 4C.epoliticisation of Education. . . -inancial +onstraints. Technological +onstraints.iversification. 4?. Ruality and Education. 'erspective of 'olicy formulation. Emergence of +apitation +olleges. 1J. 41. 4G. 42. 1?. 1B. )n )lternative 8odel for Elementary Education. Elements of a Strategy for Educational planning. Economic +onstraints. Social Relevance. Social Relevance and the Aeed for . >. Teacher Training. "niversalisation of Elementary Education. Vocationalisation of $igher secondary Education.@. 4B. 4J. 4>. 1@. Inbreeding and 'arochialism 44. 8anagement System for Education. ?. Social Relevance and Technical K 8anagement Education.

0overnment of India released the Aational policy on Education in 8ay 1>?@. spelled out in the 'olicy. The Essence and Role of Education III. comprises 4> full scape pages. it was borne in mind that India is standing on the threshold of the twenty first century. have been presented in following 14 parts. Introductory II. Technical and 8anagement Education VII. I. 8aking the System *ork VIII. The -uture )dmitting that Education is a uni<ue investment in the present and the future.ifferent Stages VI. The new Education 'olicy. B1. Its contents. well digested and properly organised. )s a follow up measure to a nation wide debate on various issues confronting education. Reorienting the +ontent and 'rocess of Education I7. . it was found necessary to re shape the education system. Resources and Review 7II. The Teacher 7.esign for an Integrated Strategy of Education. are as under. Those being born no will finish their elementary education at the turn of the century. The 8anagement of Education 7I. based on the conclusion of nation wide debate and numerous other considerations. some significant and new features. To prepare for these and also to create a national environment for peaceful and harmonious development. Education for E<uality V. N$TION$( PO(IC< ON EDUC$TION :)762. Aational System of Education IV. based on the document &+hallenge of Education a 'olicy 'erspective ‖. 18 . Reorganisation of Education at . They will be face to face with unprecedented opportunities and challenges. *hile preparing this document. International +o operation.B2.

+* $cculturating Role Education has an acculturating role. This is fundamental to our all round development material and spiritual. -* De"elo#ment o 'an#o!er Education develops manpower for different levels of the economy. followed by 4 years of $igh School. a scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit L thus furthering the goal of socialism. It is also a substrate on which research and development flourish. +* Ne! Structure o Education The Aational System of Education envisages a common educational structure. . It refines sensitivities and perceptions that contribute to national cohesion. Regarding the further break up. have access to education of a comparable <uality. secularism and democracy enshrined in our +onstitution.Salient &eatures o the Policy I* The Essence and Role o Education )* $ll Round De"elo#ment In our national perception education is essentially for all. II* National System o Education )* Conce#t o National System The concept of Aational System of Education implies that. This cardinal principle is the key to the Aational 'olicy of Education. The 12343B structure has now been accepted in all parts of the country. irrespective of caste. all students. creed. 19 . To achieve this. location or se5. being the ultimate gurantee of national self reliance. Effective measures will be taken in the direction of the +ommon School System recommended in the 1>@? 'olicy. up to a given level.* Uni=ue In"estment Education is a uni<ue investment in the present and the future. the first 12 years efforts will be made to move towards an elementary system comprising C years of primary education and B years of upper primary. the 0overnment will initiate appropriately funded programmes.

housewives. Status o ?omen.* Res#onsi%ility o Nation The Aation as a whole will assume the responsibility of providing resource support for implementing programmes of educational transformation. interventionist role in the empowerment of women. adult literacy. :ii. This will be an act of faith and social engineering. universalisation of elementary education. agricultural and industrial workers and professional to continue the education of their choice. te5t books.The Aational Education System will play a positive. In order to neutralise the accumulated distortion of the past. Education will be used as an agent of basic change in the status of women. It will foster the development of new values through redesigned curricula. 1* (i e (ong Education 6ife 6ong education is a cherished goal of the educational process. . The future thrust will be in the direction of open and distance learning.-* Common Core System The Aational System of Education will be based on a national curricular frame work which contains a common core along with other components that are fle5ible. the training and orientation of teachers. scientific and technological research etc. +* Education or !omen>s E=uality :i. at the pace suited to them. there will be a will conceived edge in favour of women. III* Education o E=uality )* Dis#arities The new 'olicy will lay special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to e<ualise educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of those who have been denied e<uality so far. 9pportunities will be provided to the youth. reducing disparities. This presupposes universal literacy. and the active involvement of educational institutions. 20 . Em#o!erment o ?omen:. decision makers and administrators.

setting of time targets and effective monitoring.'. Simultaneously..6. -* Education o Scheduled Castes The central focus in the S+Os educational development is their e<ualisation with the non S+ population at all stages and levels of education. obstacles inhibiting their access to. 9ocational and Pro essional Courses:.E. ob(ectivity will be reflected in the preparation of te5tbooks and in all school activities and all possible measures will be taken to promote an integration based on appreciation of common national goals and ideals.!ard Sections and $reas Suitable incentive will be provided to all educationally backward sections of society.*omenOs studies will be promoted as a part of various courses and educational institutions encouraged to take up active programmes to further womenOs development. etc. The policy of non discrimination will be pursued vigorously to eliminate se5 stereo typing in vocational and professional courses and to promote womenOs participation in non traditional occupations. and protection to their languages and culture. technical and professional education at different levels.R. as well as under the A. . as well as in e5isting emergent technologies.The removal of womenOs illiteracy and :". $ill and desert districts.* Education o Scheduled Tri%es 'riority will be accorded to opening primary schools in tribal areas. in all areas and in all the four dimensions rural male.'. :i". R. The construction of school buildings will be undertaken in these areas on a priority basis under the normal funds for education. Tribal welfare Schemes. and retention in. This will naturally include the constitutional guarantees given to them to establish and administer their own educational institutions.:iii..E. particularly in the rural areas. 1* Other Educationally %ac. Remo"al o Illiteracy:. 21 . 2* 'inorities Some minority groups are educationally deprived or backward.0.8a(or emphasis will be laid on womenOs participation in vocational. through provision of special support services. urban male and urban female. elementary education will receive overriding priority. 0reater attention will be paid to the education of these groups in the interests of e<uality and social (ustice. rural female. in conformity with the core curriculum. remote and inaccessible areas and islands will be provided ade<uate institutional infra structure. ?omen>s Studies:.

to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence. :i". Energisation of the cultural creativity of the people. :ii. trade unions and concerned agencies of government. systematic programmes of adult education linked with national goals such as alleviation of poverty. employers. Strengthening the E@isting #rogrammes* Since participation by beneficiaries in the developmental programmes is of crucial importance. the mass media and educational institutions must commit themselves to mass literacy programmes of diverse nature. students youth. 6* $dult Education :i. and also awareness among learners about the socio economic reality and the possibility to change it. $ence the crucial importance of adult education.4* The 0andica##ed The ob(ective should be to integrate the physically and mentaly handicapped with the general community as e<ual partners. promotion of womenOs e<uality. Instruments or (i%eration* 9ur ancient scriptures define education as that which liberates L i. including adult literacy. :". etc. in addition to literacy. etc. :iii. and environmental conservation. The mass literacy programme would include. The +entral and State 0overnments. +oncerted efforts will be made to harness various research agencies to improve the pedagogical aspects of adult literacy. particularly in the 1C BC age group.e. The whole Aation must pledge itself to the education of illiteracy. In the modern world. including a% establishment of centres in rural areas for continuing educationF b% workersO education through the employers. national integration. voluntary agencies. it would naturally include the ability to read and write. Programme o the $dult and Continuing Education * ) vast programme of adult and continuing education will be implemented through various ways and channels. 'ass literacy Programme. observance of small family norm. U# gradation o S. It will also have to involve on a large scale teachers. provides the instruments for liberation from ignorance and oppression. will be organised and the e5isting programmes reviewed and strengthened. political parties and their mass organisation.ills* The critical development issue today is the continuous up gradation of skills so as to produce manpower resources of the king and the number re<uired by the society. since that is the main instrument of learning. 22 . functional knowledge and skills.

-%oard "nder this scheme.ationsF g% 'rogrammes of distance learning. . including at least two reasonable large rooms that are usable in all weather. I9* Reorganisation o Education at Di erent Stages )* Early Childhood Care and Education Early +hildhood +are and Education #E++E% will receive high priority and be suitably integrated with the Integrated +hild . working children and girls who cannot attend whole day schools. -* O#eration Alac.ing assistance in self learningF and i% 9rgani. and the necessary toys. libraries and reading roomsF e% "se of radio.evelopment Services programme. all children will be provided free and compulsory education upto 1G years of age. )t least two teachers. or its e<uivalent through the non formal stream 6ike wise. charts and other learning material. by 1>>C. TV and films. should work in every school.ay care centres will be provided as a support service for universalisation of primary education. h% 9rgani. immediate steps will be taken to improve the primary schools all over the country. for children from habitations without schools. black boards. 23 . wherever possible. +* Elementary Education $igher priority will be given to solve the problem of children dropping out of school.ing need and interest based vocational training programmes . as mass and group learning mediaF f% +reation of learnersO groups and organi. .c% post secondary education institutionsF d% wider promotion of books. one of whom a woman. maps. 'rovision will be made of essential facilities in primary schools.* Non-&ormal Education ) large and systematic programme of non formal education will be launched for school drop outs. the number increasing as early as possible to one teacher per class. It shall be ensured that all children who attain the age of about 11 years by 1>>2 will have had five years of schooling.

Therefore+ t #as necessar' that all the bo's and ! rls should &art c &ate n the &ro!ramme of &roduct "e and creat "e soc all' useful 24 .enship.'ain o%/ecti"es o Educational System in India • • • • • To develop the economic growth of India. To encourage the feeling of national integration. The number of colle!es and un "ers t es are also ncreased. )*ce&t of all these+ n our strate!' of educat on adult educat on s also encoura!ed. Development of education during planning period : • • • The number of schools and number of students are ncreased. %omen educat on s s&ec all' encoura!ed.bout the &lace of craft n the curr culum t #as clar f ed that bas c educat on as conce "ed b' Mahatma -andh #as essent all' educat on for l fe and throu!h l fe. To develop the scientific attitude. (ll terac' rate s decreased. • • • • To#ards the end of the f rst f "e 'ear &lan+ the -o"ernment of (nd a a&&o nted an . of (nd a+ #h ch thre# further l !ht on bas c craft. . $ome ne# a!r culture un "ers t es are also establ shed.ssessment /omm ttee to stud' ho# bas c educat on #as be n! m&lemented n the countr'.ac l t' for free educat on u& to the a!e of fourteen. The colle!es #h ch ! "e techn cal and "ocat onal educat on and med cal colle!e are ncreased. 0n the bas s of the re&ort subm tted b' th s comm ttee+ a boo1let ent tled the conce&t of bas c educat on #as &ubl shed b' the m n str' of educat on and sc ent f c research+ -o"t. . To establish the resources of human power. To develop the spirit of citi. The &ur&ose #as to create a classless soc et' free from e*&lo tat on and " olence.

Other activities : ma1 n! of albums+ sett n! u& of museums+ hand #r tten ma!a4 ne. $o our !o"ernment ! "es "er' m&ortance to &r mar' educat on. Activities related to citizenship : &ra'er+ $elf3-o"t. The )ational *olicy on Education &('+ emphasi. spanning the first eight years of schooling (class I to VIII) and laying the foundation for the development of personality. habits.( of this lesson. . Primary Education : (n the &ol c' 1986+ a la# s made to &ro" de free+ com&ulsor' educat on u& to the a!e of fourteen . 1. u&to m ddle standard for e*am&le 2 read n!+ #r t n!+ s m&le mathemat cs and some 1no#led!e about our countr' and soc et'+ these are some bas c conce&t of educat on.+ f eld tr &s+ hold n! of e*h b t ons. attitudes.lso all these are some bas c needs to become a !ood c t 4en and to !et h !her educat on. The Constitution under rticle !" provided for the #tate to introduce compulsory and free education for children upto the age of fourteen.overnment for universali. Elementary education is the most crucial stage of education. ii) universal retention of children upto fourteen years of age in the school. Th s s a fact that the n"estment n the &r mar' educat on &ro"es "er' benef c al n future. 3. Activities related to crafts : &a&er+ cardboard+ &a&er machee+ bas1etr'+ creat "e act " t es # th the hel& of sand+ cla'+ &laster of &ar s+ etc. %e $ill read about this ct in detail under #ection &'. $chools to#ards the bas c &attern 2 not sat sf ed # th the &ro!ress made to#ards ntroduc n! the total &ro!ramme of bas c educat on throu!hout the countr' and a&&rec at n! the ma!n tude of h s &roblem+ the stand n! comm ttee on bas c educat on a&&o nted b' the central ad" sor' board of educat on+ -o"t.e. Secondary Education : 25 . life skills and communication skills of the pupils.ation of elementary education started in /00& . The period of elementary school is no$ also recognised as a period of free and compulsory schooling vide the constitutional amendment making education a fundamental right. Social service activities : health cam&a !ns+ census o&erat on+ e& dem cs+ flood rel ef+ ma ntenance #or1+ etc.#or1 rres&ect "e of caste+ creed or class.ed that thrust areas in elementary education $ill be i) universal access and enrolment. The follo# n! act " t es #ere cons dered for th s &ur&ose. 2. iii) substantial improvement in the -uality of education to enable all children to achieve essential levels of learning. Classification of Indian Education System : 1. 2. social confidence. 4. #arva #hiksha bhiyan $as a flagship programme of the Central . of (nd a+ su!!ested n the be! nn n! of the second f "e 'ear &lan that some s m&le act " t es nclud n! craft should be ntroduced n the non3bas c schools mmed atel' for or ent n! them to#ards bas c educat on &attern.

( ") 5ocat onal sat on throu!h s&ec al sed nst tut ons or throu!h the refash on n! of secondar' educat on can+ at th s sta!e+ &ro" de "aluable man3&o#er for econom c !ro#th. ( ) /onsc ous nternal sat on of a health' #or1 ethos and of the "alues of a humane and com&os te culture # ll be brou!ht about throu!h a&&ro&r atel' formulated curr cula. (t s un "ersall' acce&ted that ch ldren # th s&ec al talent or a&t tude should be &ro" ded o&&ortun t es to &roceed at a faster &ace+ b' ma1 n! !ood 6ual t' educat on a"a lable to them+ rres&ect "e of the r ca&ac t' to &a' for t . (c) To de"elo& the r full 26 () () ( ) ( ) . Role of Navodaya Vidyalayas. (d) To become catal'sts of a nat on3# de &ro!ramme of school m&ro"ement. Pace Setting Schools (Navodaya Vidayalayas) () Provision of Good Education. The Policy +ccess to %econdary . ( ) Role of Navodaya Vidyalayas. The Policy +ccess to %econdary .$econdar' educat on be! ns to e*&ose students to the d fferent ated roles of sc ence+ the human t es and soc al sc ences. (b) To &romote nat onal nte!rat on b' &ro" d n! o&&ortun t es to talented ch ldren+ lar!el' rural+ from d fferent &arts of the countr' to l "e and learn to!ether. The r broad a m # ll be2 (a) To ser"e the ob9ect "e of e*cellence+ cou&led # th e6u t' and soc al 9ust ce (# th reser"at on for $/s and $Ts). 7ace3sett n! $chools or 8a"oda'a 5 d'ala'as ntended to ser"e the abo"e sa d &ur&ose # ll be establ shed n "ar ous &arts of the countr' on a ! "en &attern but # ll full sco&e for nno"at on and e*&er mentat on. (c) To de"elo& the r full &otent al.ducation will be widened to co&er areas unser&ed by it at present. In other areas. (t s un "ersall' acce&ted that ch ldren # th s&ec al talent or a&t tude should be &ro" ded o&&ortun t es to &roceed at a faster &ace+ b' ma1 n! !ood 6ual t' educat on a"a lable to them+ rres&ect "e of the r ca&ac t' to &a' for t .ducation will be widened to co&er areas unser&ed by it at present. Aims of Navodaya Vidyalayas. The r broad a m # ll be2 (a) To ser"e the ob9ect "e of e*cellence+ cou&led # th e6u t' and soc al 9ust ce (# th reser"at on for $/s and $Ts). (b) To &romote nat onal nte!rat on b' &ro" d n! o&&ortun t es to talented ch ldren+ lar!el' rural+ from d fferent &arts of the countr' to l "e and learn to!ether. The schools will be residential and free of charge. 6. In other areas. 6. Pace Setting Schools (Navodaya Vidayalayas) Provision of Good Education. the main emphasis will be on consolidation. ( ) Th s s an a&&ro&r ate sta!e to &ro" de ch ldren # th a sense of h stor' and nat onal &ers&ect "e ! "e them o&&ortun t es to understand the r const tut onal dut es and r !hts as c t 4ens. 7ace3sett n! $chools or 8a"oda'a 5 d'ala'as ntended to ser"e the abo"e sa d &ur&ose # ll be establ shed n "ar ous &arts of the countr' on a ! "en &attern but # ll full sco&e for nno"at on and e*&er mentat on. the main emphasis will be on consolidation. ( ) Aims of Navodaya Vidyalayas.

" million children are enrolled in secondary education. 5o$ever. %hile a great increase has taken place in number of schools and in enrolment. 27 . has remained marginal and confined to a fe$ states.2 There has been a phenomenal e3pansion of secondary education since independence. 5o$ever enrolment figures sho$ that only 6& million of these children $ere attending schools in /00&4/00/. not more than half of those $ho pass the upper primary stage 8oin the secondary classes. $hich $as e3pected to include around "0< of students at the =/ level. b) -ourses and programmes will be redesigned to meet the demands of specialisation better. there has been a lesserincrease in the number of teachers. Th s t'&e of educat on ncludes "ocat onal educat on. It aims at preparing students for various occupations involving various kinds of activities. ccording to the planning commission report for the &&th five year plan. 3.ation of secondary education under the 9ashtriya :adhyamik #hiksha bhiyan. Higher Education : Higher Ed cation a) +utonomous colleges will be helped to de&elop in large numbers until the affiliating system is replaced by a freer and more creati&e association of uni&ersities with colleges. ccording to /00& census ''. (d) To become catal'sts of a nat on3# de &ro!ramme of school m&ro"ement. the attempts made till no$ have not borne fruits and enrolment in the scheme. there are about "&&! Industrial Training Institutes (ITI>s) imparting training in "? engineering and "0 non4engineering trades. ( ") The schools ill !e residential and free of char"e. fter the success of ## at elementary stage.fter ! " n! the 1no#led!e about the bas c conce&t of educat on+ secondar' educat on should also be ! "en. It is also the period of intense vibrancy and energy. lthough anyone in India $ho $ishes to pursue secondary education (upto class 7) is allo$ed to do so. There s no need that th s t'&e of educat on should be ! "en to all.&otent al. . Vocational education is a distinct stream at #enior #econdary #tage. about $hich $e $ill read in some detail under #ection &'. Vocationalisation of higher secondary education $as a ma8or ob8ective of the reforms envisaged in the . The pressure for e3pansion $ill most certainly continue and may indeed increase as the country progresses to$ards the universalisation of education.(. positive step in this direction in recent times has been the setting up of a )ational #kill @evelopment :ission and Training. It is obvious that.irst Education *olicy adopted in &(+'. 0ur !o"ernment has establ shed some tra n n! centers to ! "e th s t'&e of educat on. the central government is all set to achieve the goal of universali. It covers children of age group &!4&' (classes (th to &/th). on the $hole it has adversely affected the teacher4pupil ratio. 1#econdary school is a period of intense physical change and formation of identity.

The number of students in the age group of &'4/0 years enrolled for higher education is lo$. Thus #e #ant to ! "e the &r mar' educat on to all+ secondar' educat on to some &eo&le. Teachers performance will be systematically assessed. late *t.ut t should be ! "en to a fe# &eo&le. %hile fe$ colleges and universities are playing a crucial role in academic e3cellence. particularly in case of $omen. The rest of the e3penses on his education is paid by the #tate or the Central . aimed at the development of personality.overnment. West European. Thus secondar' and &r mar' educat on should be 6uantat "e and h !her educat on should be 6uant tat "e. the development in this field has been e3tremely uneven. research and teacher orientation will recei&e attention. : !her educat on s a "er' m&ortant &art of a de"elo&ment nat on. scheduled castes and tribes. 5e then enters a college $hich is part of a university. The first *rime :inister of India. This is public money $hich must be carefully spent for those $ho deserve higher education. @espite the key role assigned to higher education. Means of educat on should be d " ded accord n! to &r mar'+ secondar' and h !her educat on. The #tate has subsidised higher education very greatly. curricula and material. college student pays by $ay of fees a very small amount of money. This will re/uire preparation of teachers at the beginning of the ser&ice as well as continuing education thereafter. the general condition of universities and colleges is a matter of great concern to the nation. Russian and Chinese niversities! "ndian students are larger in number in any university abroad in search of #uality education $ew sub%ects & new methodology' inter disciplinary 28 .c) + ma*or effort will be directed towards the transformation of teaching methods. +udio. Th s t'&e of educat on s ! "en n colle!es+ un "ers t es and n tra n n! centers. 9ural areas have been touched only marginally by higher education of -uality. 1Education is the manifestation of perfection in :an2 C #$ami Vivekananda Quality of higher Education D D D D Remarkable achievements of western universities Student migration to American. declared that if all is $ell $ith the Bniversities. It is important that courses in higher education offer programmes of study and courses closely related to life. . de&elopment of science and technology. The facilities in colleges vary $idely. Aa$aharlal )ehru. The proportion is even more adverse in some regions. $ho laid the foundation of the process of India>s modernisation. (t also ncludes techn cal educat on. all $ould be $ell $ith the nation. reasoning and learning capabilities of students. 5igher education begins after a student completes senior secondary (class 7II) stage. &isual aids and electronic e/uipment will be introduced.

+llowing expanding self financing pri&ate institution with recognition and also without recognition. %actors &es$onsible for Privati!ation of Higher Ed cation (Need for Privati!ation) 1. . 5owe&er. %teps such as offering tax concessions8fiscal incenti&es for setting up campuses are under consideration. The areas of shift in the education sector are mainly decision and responsibility of money.financing courses within go&ernment institutions. +ccording to 2andhyala 3. public funding for higher education should be drastically reduced.uni&ersity. which may be termed as commercial pri&ate higher education institutions. Need for competitive efficiency: . India needs to ha&e a proacti&e demand based policy towards pri&ate higher education including foreign institutions8uni&ersities desirous of setting up campus in India or entering into *oint.ducation in India. both uni&ersity and non. %uch institutions generate their own funds through higher fees.merit good for the first time while elementary education remained )merit. 1.&entures. 2112'. the !o&ernment of India in its proposals for subsidies accorded higher education the status of a )non. his family and e&en his employers and the society which includes the community and the state. 9. (ecourse to /uality pri&ate higher education. pri&ati7ation can be seen as part of the wider reform of the public sector. "ri&ati7ation is management by pri&ate sector with total absence of go&ernment inter&ention. Thus the era of serious thought on pri&ati7ation of higher education in India has began.PRIVATI#ATI$N $% &IG&ER E'(CATI$N Towards Privati!ation of Higher Ed cation in "ndia The 1001s saw ma*or de&elopments and turn of e&ents in higher education in India. "ri&ati7ation of higher education has emerged in several for#s and ty$es in the recent decade in India. user charges and full use of resources. 2. In 1006. <peration of public sector enterprises is considered inefficient. They sur&i&e on the philosophy that they do not ha&e to pay for those who can pay. !o&ernment super&ision of higher education is dismal.good which need not be subsidi7ed by the %tate at the same le&el as merit good. The !o&ernment resources for higher education are simply not enough. -on&erting go&ernment aided pri&ate institution in to pri&ate self financing institution. 29 . It is belie&ed that pri&ate ownership and control are more efficient in terms of resource allocation and work. which India is fast losing. administration and a rele&ant curriculum of high /uality. the road ahead for India is directly linked to creation of /uality higher education institutions in a big way to meet the challenge of being the knowledge hub. It is therefore the responsibility of both the indi&idual including the student. Tilak of the then 4ational Institute of . "ri&ati7ation within go&ernment higher education institutions takes place in the form of introducing self. !radually there has been a general trend towards liberali7ation and opening of education sector to pri&ate initiati&e.ducational "lanning and +dministration #"ri&atisation of 5igher . Ed cation and Privati!ation +pplied to the education sector.!.ain *ustification for pri&ati7ation rests hea&ily on the grounds of efficiency to promote a more competiti&e economic en&ironment.ducation is both a pri&ate and social in&estment.

6. Education is an economic good: . complementing each other in reaching their &isions. more pri&ate institutions are needed.ducation is no more being as a social ser&ice but as a necessary economic input. In this effort pri&ate initiati&e can help since the pri&ate sector is the beneficiary of the knowledge industry. Growth in population: India has a population of nearly one hundred and se&en cores. buildings. B. pri&ate sector is much needed. This will remo&e political interference in areas of administration. different types of laboratories and /ualified and competent academic staff.2. "ri&ate institutions are free to initiate modern and ad&anced courses in order to fulfill the demand for sub*ects which facilitate economic de&elopment of the market and the nation. industry. urtailment of corruption: In order to control the corruption in the go&ernment sector. +s a result there will be capacity utili7ation. Rapid growth of school education: !rowing number of schools naturally push the demand higher education which the go&ernment is not able to pro&ide.=> of !?". In order to purchase and maintain good /ualitati&e infrastructure and e/uipment like furniture. The center itself concedes that the minimum should be @>. Financial burden on government: 5igher education in India is in financial stress. 11. To fulfill the demand for higher education of young people in the country pri&ati7ation of higher education is needed. @. "ri&ati7ation stops the corruption to some extent and brings about some discipline. A. there is a need for pri&ati7ation. 30 . "ynergy for information based economy: In the present times there is a need for interaction between C!-. -urrent spending on education in India is not more than 9. !esire for more autonomy: "ri&ati7ation of higher education will pro&ide autonomy to institutions and there will be less dependency on the go&ernment. This could be achie&ed by a synergy process wherein they will be partners in &arious acti&ities. (D? institutions and funding agencies. The go&ernment can no longer bear the financial burden of public enterprises. management and finance. 9. Very little is being spent on higher education. academic institutions of higher learning. This compares unfa&orably with the international le&els. In&estment in education is treated as a factor contributing to the de&elopment of human resources. Quest for quality: "ri&ate institutions do not re/uire long procedures for procurement of human as well as material resources. ob*ecti&es and goals. 0. Therefore there is a need to e&ol&e policy through which pri&ate resources are mobili7ed. who can be paid as per the demand. Fulfilling the need for skilled manpower: There is &ery little initiati&e from the public sector due to limited freedom. =. In order to pro&ide to a large number of people.

12. di&ersity and openness 9' ?oes not address issues of e/uality. #echnological developments: Information re&olution has been brought about and strengthened due to technological de&elopments such as microchips. communications. growth of satellite TV and computer technologies. fairness and responsibility A' . Greater responsibility with the recipients of education: <&er the years education has been considered as a free public good thereby de&aluing education. national and local needs B' +&ailability and better maintenance of resources 0' Transparency in all procedures 11' $ulfill the need of the country in liberali7ation.11. +s a conse/uence. robots. ?ue to limited resources public sector cannot meet the demands of the industry and other sectors of economy. and globali7ation. Thus pri&ate sector can undertake to train manpower in technology and respond to market demands. 11' Ctility of human and physical resources in proper way %ears in Privati!ation 1' Fill ad&ersely affect the poor 2' Cndermine e/uity. "ri&ati7ation of education where the recipient will bear the full cost will help bring greater responsibility in them.xorbitant fees will depri&e many of a&ailing education =' +ccountability problem will arise @' -ourses in humanities and social sciences will be sidelined due to no economic gain 31 . lasers. genetics. students are likely to demand greater efficiency and /uality in teaching. 'dvantages of Privati!ation 1' ?ecentrali7ation and debureaucrati7ation of educational institutions 2' Initiati&es in educational reforms 9' Inno&ati&eness in teaching and e&aluation A' Tailor made ser&ices and pro&ision of wide choice of courses and sub*ects to students =' -ompetition @' Euality education and training 6' %haping of the curriculum according to global. pri&ati7ation.

$as formulated on the strength of considerable achievements in the last fe$ years. The male literacy rate is '/. Technical and management curriculum $as targeted on current as $ell as the pro8ected needs of industry.&!< and female is +". It aimed to promote national progress. India already has e3tensive net$ork of schools. $ho are highly educated and talented. %hen brilliant young men and $omen. (echnical and )ocational Education (raining *()E(+ It is impossible to overestimate the importance of technical education. leave the country and go to a foreign country in search of better income. There are several centres of e3cellence in technical and professional educaiton in India like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and Indian Institutes of :anagement (II:) $ational Education . it is called brain drain. the )ation has invested a large part of its resources in education. the cultivation of moral values and a closer relation bet$een education and the life of the people.!+<. ppro3imately ("< of the population is $ithin one kilometre of a primary school 32 . The literacy rate after independence in &("& of ?= population $as &'. a sense of common citi. India already has one of the largest reserviors of trained manpo$er. The ne$ )ational *olicy of Education (&('+). It.6< $hich increased in /0&& to ?!. It laid stress on the need for a radical reconstruction of the education system. dult education particularly in the age group of &"46" years has been included as part of the minimum needs programme in the si3th plan.6' -i&ic and democratic &alues may not get passed down B' +pprehensions about *ob security and retrenchment of staff 0' -ost sa&ing will lead cost cutting 11' -ollected funds may be misused by the owners 11' $a&oritism towards family members and friends 12' 3enefits remain un pro&en Adult Education 9emoval of adult illiteracy has also been accepted as an imperative goal.olicy #ince independence. therefore. It is often suggested that talented engineering students are not provided the kind of 8obs and $ork environment $hich $ould give them a sense of achievement and 8ob satisfaction. This has resulted in a significant incidence of brain drain either to the developed countries or to the management stream. Technically trained persons have already been a source of strength for scientific and industrial development.enship and culture. The first )ational Education *olicy of &(+' marked a significant step in the history of education in post4independence India. technology. In this regard )ational Eiteracy :ission ()E:) ob8ective is to impart functional literacy to '0 million illiterate persons. has a right to e3pect the efficient functioning of educational institutions. and to strengthen national integration.0 percent.

In accordance $ith the )ational *olicy on Education (&('+) a comprehensive programme F)ational Eiteracy :ission> ()E:) has been started for imparting literacy amongst the &"46" age group. hard $ork and e3cellence has to be built up through a programme $hich involves everybody as a promoter as $ell as a recipient of ne$ attitudes and ideas. will be strengthened! """! (his powerful instrument will have to be developed with care and e5tended with caution! There are many learners $ho are compelled to discontinue their studies in the formal system. Gpen and @istance Eearning (G@E) system is meant for such learners. These institutions $ill go a long $ay in taking education to every Indian citi. 5e is at a distance. The system is open because there is fle3ibility in terms of pace. Gpen #chool at present offers both secondary (Class 7) and senior secondary (Class 7II) education. In this system the learner can learn through lessons sent by the institutions of distance learning $ithout attending classes. Hou have 8oined Gpen #chool.en $ho may not have been able to continue $ith the regular stream of education. This may be because of financial.lthou!h+ the t#o streams of techn cal and mana!ement educat on are funct on n! se&aratel'+ t s essent al to loo1 at them to!ether+ n " e# of the r close relat onsh & and com&lementar' concerns. integration.istance /earning "! (he open niversity system has been initiated in order to augment opportunities for higher education and as an instrument of democrating education! ""! (he "ndira 0andhi $ational open niversity established in 1234 in fulfilment of these ob%ectives. education has developed at a rapid pace in India since independence.and '0< is $ithin three kilometres of a middle school.andhi )ational Gpen Bniversity. These lessons have been prepared $ith a lot of care. academic or medical reasons. Hou are free to select any combination of sub8ects and pass them at your convenience over a period of five years. #imilar facility is being provided at higher level by the Indira . The re3or!an sat on of Techn cal and Mana!ement )ducat on should ta1e nto account the ant c &ated scenar o b' the turn of the centur'+ # th s&ec f c reference to the l 1el' chan!es n the econom'+ soc al en" ronment+ &roduct on and mana!ement &rocesses+ the ra& d e*&ans on of 1no#led!e and the !reat audances n sc ence and technolo!'. These students can keep themselves engaged in service or business $hile studying. Thus. Hou kno$ that $hile retaining your regular employment. -pen niversity and . The national goals of development. Technical and )ana"ement Education . holistic atmosphere of development. e3cellence and e-uality in the sphere of education can be fulfilled only $hen every child in the country crosses a minimum threshold of educational attainment. place and time. 33 . geographical. The learner is not in direct touch $ith the teacher. you are also studying through the lessons sent to you.

0or+ E1$erience Fork experience would comprise acti&ities in accord with the interests. . it should lay primary emphasis on this aspect. promote the reading habit and encourage creati&e writing. national goals uni&ersal perceptions. "#$rove#ent of . %pecial attention will be paid to the production of /uality books for children. (oral Val es.easures will be taken to impro&e the /uality of books. "ro&ision will be made in all educational institutions for library facilities and the status of librarians impro&ed. abilities and needs of students. Positive )ontent.s interest.ality. In our culturally plural society. %uch &alue education should help eliminate obscurantism. Eternal Val es. "". "re. +part from this combati&e role &alue education has a profound positi&e content.ffort will be made to secure easy accessibility to books for all segments of the population. )hildren *oo+s. religious fanaticism.&ocational programmes pro&ided at the lower secondary stage will also facilities the choice of the &ocational courses at the higher secondary stage. The a&ailability of books at low prices its indispensible for people s education. /. . This experience to be helpful on his entry into the workforce. The growing concern o&er the erosion of essential &alues and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for read*ustments in the curriculum in order to make education of social and moral &alues. including text books and work books. + nation. education should foster uni&ersal and eternal &alues. "#$rove#ent of . "V. superstition and fatalism. *oo+s and . +uthor s interest will be protected. based on our heritage. ' thor.. 'vailability of *oo+s. V".Val e Ed cation ". the le&el of skills and knowledge to be upgraded with the stages of education. !ood translation of foreign books into Indian languages will be supported. Translation of %oreign *oo+s.wide mo&ement for the impro&ement of existing libraries and the establishment of few ones will be taken up. 34 . V.ibraries. &iolence. """. "".ibraries ". """. oriented towards the unity and integration of our people.

creati&ity. "".&ery effort will be made to extend science education to the &ast numbers who ha&e remained outside the pale of formal education.2. . %cience education will be strengthened so as to de&elop in the child well defined abilities and &alues such as the spirit of in/uiry.cast the examination system so as to ensure a method of assessment that is a &alid and reliable measure of student de&elopment. the teaching of mathematics will be suitably redesigned to bring it in line with modern technological de&ices. outside the institutions. etc. sports and games will be built into the educational edifice.emphasis of memorisation. + nation. Eval ation Process and E1a#ination &efor# The ob*ecti&e will be to re. industry and other aspects of daily life.athematics should be &isualised as the &ehicle to train a child to think. ob*ecti&ity. 35 . %cience education programmes will be designed to enable the learner to a/uire problem sol&ing and decision making skills and to disco&er the relationship of science with health. S$orts and Physical Ed cation %ports and physical education are an integral part of the learning process and will be included in the e&aluation of performance. $ollowing measures will be taken: a' The elimination of excessi&e element of chance and sub*ecti&ity. b' The de.n&ironmental consciousness should inform teaching in schools and colleges. +part from being a specific sub*ect. "". reason. the youth will be encouraged to take up programmes of de&elopment reform and extension. 4ational -adet -orps. it should be treated as concomitant to any sub*ect in&ol&ing analysis and reasoning. agriculture. Fith the recent introduction of computer in schools. 6. The &ole of 4o th <pportunities will be pro&ided for the youth to in&ol&e them sel&es in national and social de&elopment through educational institutions and outside them. educational computing and the emergence of learning through the understanding of cause. . Science Ed cation ". (athe#atics Teaching ". It must permeate all ages all sections of society beginning with the child. the 4ational ser&ice %cheme. Ed cation and Environ#ent There is a paramount need to create a consciousness of the en&ironment. the courage to /uestion and an aesthetic sensibility. namely. The 4ational %er&ice Volunteer %cheme will be strengthened. This aspect will be integrated in the educational process. 3. %tudents will be re/uired to participate in one or the other of existing schemes. . analyse and to articulate logically.effect relationships and the interplay of &ariables.wide infrastructure for physical education.

ssay type test /uestion to be supplemented by the introduction of ob*ecti&e type test. a thorough reform of these is still more necessary‖. The work done by the students all through the year should also be taken into consideration and 189rd mark should be reser&ed for it. Cni&ersity . hearting 8rote memory.ffecti&e use of the e&aluation process by teachers. %econdary .ducation -ommission #10AB. Proble#s with the Present E1a#ination Syste# The entire education system is centered around examinations. d' Impro&ement in the conduct of examinations. said that ―we are con&inced that if we are to suggest one single reform in the uni&ersity education.ducation -ommission #10AB. 36 . It is restricted to only by.A0'. There should be one public examination at the end of each of the 9 years of the degree course and not only one examination at the end of the three years. e' Introduction of concointal changes instructional materials and methodology. who chaired the Cni&ersity . Their innate talents are not recogni7edJ instead their capability in writing examination is being tested. students and parents. f' Introduction of the semester system from the secondary stage in a phased manner. for not being scientific and comprehensi&e for not considering the practical skills re/uired for good ad*ustment and for its traditional methods of measurements.A0'. Need for E1a#ination &efor#s The Indian education system is critici7ed for a number of gaps in its examination system.@@' and the Hashpal -ommittee #2110' ha&e suggested examination reforms. (adhakrishna.=9'. the Gothari -ommission #10@A. ?r. +fter independence. %tudent s knowledge is often limited to rote memori7ing and reproducing the same in the examinations. 4obody should be appointed as an examiner unless he has = years teaching experience in the sub*ect. It is critici7ed for not keeping pace with the demand of the outside world.ducation -ommission #10=2. it should be that of the examinationIand if examinations are necessary. %. g' The use of grades in place of marks. The system of grace mark should be abolished. Time and again &arious committees and commissions ha&e tried to address the inherent malice in the examination system. Vi&a Voce examination should be held to test the competence of the candidate in general knowledge.c' .&aluation means to conduct the examination and to gi&e marks and ranks to students. . %ome recommendation of The (adhakrishna -ommission with regard to impro&ement of examination system are:. .

There is no uniformity in e&aluation. !o&ernment.&aluation should ha&e a broader framework and it should not be limited to examinations alone. note.&aluation should be continuous and comprehensi&e and it should be the part and parcel of daily teaching learning process. The examinations should not create fear or stress for the student.ducation #(T.e. . The examinations should not be restricted8limited to writing but extended to assessment tools like obser&ation.. along with the teaching K learning process. taking8recording. parents and other. &efor#s Pro$osed in the E1a#ination Syste# To follow what is espoused in (ight to . The tests and examinations conducted at present are only testing the memory power of the studentsJ they are not measuring the higher order skills of learning like analysis. I-%. collection of information and reports. and reser&ations. pro*ects. for it is merely a source of unneeded pressure for both students and parents. 5owe&er.xaminations are not helping in assessing the all. $or a student studying within the same institution. a pro&ision will be made for an optional all. seminars. collection of opinions etc. health status and le&el of competencies.personal /ualities. 5owe&er. both in terms of fee. etc.round de&elopment of the student that is in co.India exam for students entering pre. an internal assessment is sufficient to determine the sub*ects he must pursue further. social. . It is the rigid 3oard examinations that are only helping in classifying students as meritorious and slow. synthesis and problem sol&ing. discussion.e. . It should not restrict to rote K memory.xams should include students displays. In&ite $oreign ?irect In&estment #$?I' in the education sector as India becomes an attracti&e economy. The examinations are mechanical -orrecting and posting of marks is done routinely. e&en big names like 5ar&ard and Fharton must adhere to Indian norms. ?ifferent types of e&aluation systems are pre&ailing in different 3oards i.uni&ersity 8 *unior college after class 11. 37 . .e. The assessment should be based on day to day acti&ities. "n 5677 the #inistry of H&8 has $ro$osed the following: %crap the compulsory class 11 board exam.curricular acti&ities. Fhen construction of knowledge becomes primary in curriculum the e&aluation should be continuous and comprehensi&e i. the assessment should not only be teacher K based but also on peer groups. There is no flexibility in the conducting of tests. in turn pass8fail This leads to unhealthy discrimination. There is no scope for remedial teaching and testing to know how far a student is lagging behind. -3%.' 2110. These are strategically termed as affirmati&e action. learners i.

irrespecti&e of their le&el or status.T' will be established with the capability to orgainse pre.ducational ob*ecti&es and strategies are planned in isolation of those who ha&e to implement them. #d' The teachers. 38 . a process needs to be generated right away to ultimately place the responsibility where it legitimately belongs. which by the (ight to . Fith appropriate inputs and mechanism for their growth. strategy formulation. In this. teachers and teacher educators. #b' Teachers and teacher educators do not ha&e any concern role in policy implementation or its monitoring. Teacher Ed cation a' Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre. %hould also ha&e exposure to the outside world at large in order to ac/uire a broader perspecti&e. Cnless this is done.graded to complement the work of %tate -ouncils of . -onse/uently. they interpret the ob*ecti&es and strategies according to their own perception and this can e&en result in action that may be diametrically opposite of what was intended. Pre$aring Teacher Ed cators for . the teacher educator would ha&e a pi&otal role. meeting the expectations of policy framers.formal and adult education. 1.ducational (esearch and Training. implementation and monitoring role. are essentially ser&ice institutions.ser&ice components are inseparable. #c' The teacher training institutions. Their role is confined to doing only what they are told. the system is unlikely to respond to exhortations to change and ser&e the society.ducation bill is meant to be free for all. 2. i.Impro&e the /uality and standard of primary education in go&ernment schools. teacher educators and the training institutions must be assigned a leadership. %hould preferably belong to the cadre of school teachers and must ha&e experienced the system at least for a few years.ser&ice courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non.ducation and Training #?I.. aptitude and competence to assume the leadership role but this cannot be excuse for not taking the first step forward in the right direction. b' ?istrict Institutes of .ser&ice and in. They lack today the necessary moti&ation.e. c' %elected %econdary Teacher Training -olleges will be up.ser&ice and in.eadershi$ &ole The committee notes the following situation with concern: #a' .

B.9. @. from within and outside the community. d. 5igh inter. %hould ha&e empathy and burning concern for the under pri&ileged. both human and financial. %hould ha&e competence for research and an aptitude for using research as a powerful tool for educational and social de&elopment. A.economic understanding of the problem and issues faced by Indian society. + desire to achie&e b. 6. d' +bility to lead both by precept and practice. affecti&e and operational components of the role expected of a teacher educator. a special programme of education. b' +bility to act against the pre&alent or populist opinion. f' +bility to mobili7e resources. %hould be distinguished by ha&ing personal attributes such as: a' +bility to think and work with a sense of independence. including the !o&ernment. %hould be of high academic competence. g' +bility to work with different segments of society. =. %hould possess as integrated &iew of knowledge and con&iction in the inter&entionist role of education. ha&ing the necessary status and resources would ha&e to be de&eloped. Institutions running these programmes must play an acti&e role in 39 . h' + high moti&ation for need achie&ement which will include: a. as also the world. %hould ha&e a historical and socio.personal skills. c. e' +bility for creati&e and sustained action. c' +bility to con&ince and cataly7e people. In order to de&elop such a teacher educator. + willingness to accept responsibility and feel accountable. The programme would gi&e ade/uate weightage to cogniti&e. +bility to work e&en when demoti&ating factors are present.

sub*ect to proper management.ASTAGE AN' STAGNATI$N IN E'(CATI$N )eanin" of . through appropriate bodies.ducation on the lines of -+3. "ndian Ed cation Service + proper management structure in education will entail the establishment of the Indian . 't State .n' student+ #ho rece "es educat on at an' sta!e+ s e*&ected to com&lete h s educat on # th n the &rescr bed &er od. 9. b' Local communities.educational policy making. thereby also pro&iding a field situation in which the trainees of a teacher educator programme would recei&e training.ducation %er&ice as an +ll India %er&ice.go&ernment and Voluntary effort including social acti&ist groups will be encouraged. The (anage#ent of Ed cation 7.evel %tate !o&ernment may establish %tate +d&isory 3oards of . and financial assistance pro&ided. PR$*+E)S $% . 't National . determining the changes re/uired to impro&e the system and monitoring implementation 5.ocal . planning. %asta!e can occur at the &r mar'+ secondar' or at the h !her educat on le"els.ducation will be created to manage education up to the higher secondary le&el. Vol ntary 'gencies and 'ided "nstit tions 4on. /.. will be assigned a ma*or role in programmes of school impro&ement.evel The -entral +d&isory 3oard of .ducation will play of pi&otal role in re&iewing educational de&elopment. . implementation and monitoring from the &ery beginning. 't 8istrict and . (f one # thdra#s from the 40 . 2.asta"e %asta!e means &remature # thdra#al of ch ldren from schools at an' sta!e before com&let on of the courses.evel a' ?istrict 3oard of .

(n the case of ! rls+ an earl' marr a!e &re"ents the r educat on. . nanc al hand ca& and no t me to stud' s res&ons ble for #asta!e and sta!nat on.ccord n! to the -o"ernment of (nd a <The educat onal nst tut ons be n! ll3e6u &&ed+ &oorl' housed and # th dull and de&ress n! en" ronment unfortunatel' 41 . (n 7r mar' )ducat on+ the ma n ob9ect "e s the atta nment of stable l terar' throu!h f "e 'ear school n!. Musl m &arents are 6u te orthodo* about the r ! rls. )"en n the case of bo's some &arents due to caste restr ct ons do not #ant the r ch ldren to m * # th u&&er caste bo's and ! rls.course before com&let on+ then that nd " dual or nd " duals are deemed to be #asta!e to the course. :ence the most &o&ular use of the #ord <%asta!e< n educat on means the #asta!e of t me+ effort and mone'. . Thus+ the' fa l and rema n n the same class. Thus sta!nat on means the sta' of students n a &art cular class for more than one 'ear. . Thus sta!nat on also n a #a' means #asta!e.ut t has been found that n !eneral &ract ce man' students are not able to &ass the e*am nat ons n one class or n more than one class # th n the &rescr bed &er od. Th s &rocess has been called the &rocess of sta!nat on. 3) Educational Causes: )ducat onal causes are res&ons ble for another 30? of #asta!e. =$ta!nat on= n educat on means the detent on of a student n a class for more than one 'ear on account of h s unsat sfactor' &ro!ress. (f a ch ld enter n! school lea"es t or s # thdra#n from school before com&let n! class 5+ t leads to #asta!e n educat on.asta"e and Sta"nation The causes of #asta!e and sta!nat on can be cate!or sed as econom c+ educat onal and soc al. $uch students #ho do not com&lete the stud' of the r curr culum and conse6uentl' the t me+ mone' and ener!' e*&ended on such students &ro"e to be sheer #asta!e. 0r&han ch ldren dro&3out from school # thout com&let n! educat on+ and so the #asta!e. )"en thou!h there s the &ro" s on of free educat on of the r ch ldren+ mmense &o"ert' ma1es the &eo&le unable to meet other e*&enses connected # th the educat on. 2) Social Causes: /lass and caste d st nct ons &re"a l n (nd a+ the former n urban areas and the latter n rural areas. Causes of . These fa led students re&eat the same class and course #hereas the r other collea!ues &ass that class and stud' n the ne*t u&&er class. 1) Economic Causes: 7arents n"ol"e the r ch ldren n domest c #or1 or n #or1 outs de the home to su&&lement fam l' earn n!s+ due to &o"ert'. >eath of one of the &arents or both causes much hardsh & to ch ldren. . There s an o&&os t on to send !ro#n u& ! rls to schools es&ec all' to the m *ed schools # thout #omen teachers. )eanin" of Sta"nation The students at e"er' sta!e of educat on are e*&ected to &ass the e*am nat on after f n sh n! the #hole course.!a n+ out of &o"ert' ch ldren lac1 m n mum d et and are unable to sta' for lon! n schools. . $omet mes ch ldren n schools suffer from d seases and the' are # thdra#n for a lon! &er od from school caus n! #asta!e. rou!h and read' method to measure #asta!e s to com&are d m nut on n enrolment from class to class n ser es of 'ears.

A"C(E D 9ob -riented courses for employability D Add on courses & Certificate. the school mangement committee or the local authority $ill identify the drop4outs or out of school children above si3 years of age and admit them in classes appropriate to their age after giving special training.urther+ neff c ent and &oor 6ual t' of teachers+ defect "e e*am nat ons+ un nterest n! curr cula+ lac1 of &ro&er &arental att tude+ absence of school health ser" ces and school m d3da' meals are res&ons ble for much of #asta!e and sta!nat on n schools.rofessional bodies like $AAC D Supervision and Control by .rofessional 8odies like 6C". /h ldren are not attracted to schools. The ma8or target of the scheme is (i) Bniversal access of #econdary level education to all students in the age group &"4&+ years by /0&" by providing a secondary school $ithin " kilometers of any habitation and a higher secondary school $ithin ? kilometers of any habitation and (ii) Bniversal retention by /0&0.could not e*erc se effect "e nfluence<. !.iploma Right to Education Act The '+th Constitutional amendment.egree Conferring status to colleges D Accreditation by .rivate+ D Autonomous status to colleges D . $as passed by the *arliament in pril /0&0.E)E/-.6E$(S "$ E. follo$ing strategies have envisaged in the 9:# frame$ork.ree and Compulsory Education ct. CA("-$ D $ew Colleges and universities under Self 7inancing Scheme *. a la$ to enable the implementation of the fundamental right. t present.+ per cent of these children (nearly (/ lakh) are out of school. The 9ight of Children to . @ac1 of ade6uate hostel fac l t es+ too much of o"er3cro#ded schools # th h !h &u& l3teacher rat o become the ma n causes of #asta!e and sta!nat on. 42 .!a n+ ncreased number of s n!le3teacher schools+ neff c ent teach n!+ lac1 of teacher3&u& l contact+ and fre6uent transfer of teachers d sturbed the 6ual t' of nstruct on #h ch ult matel' cause much #asta!e and sta!nat on. RECE$( . . there are nearly // crore children in the relevant age group. The la$ makes it obligatory on part of the state governments and local bodies to ensure that every child in the age group +4&! gets free elementary education in a school in the neighbourhood.. 5o$ever. s per the ct. making education a fundamental right $as passed by *arliament in /00/. . The goal of 9:# is to make secondary education of good -uality available. Strategies for implementation of R6SA (i) To provide access of secondary school to students. accessible and affordable to all young students in the age group &"4&+ years (classes I7 and 7). Rastriya 6adhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan *R6SA+ 9:# is a centrally sponsored scheme for Bniversalisation of access to and improvement of -uality education at #econdary stage $as implemented during &&th five year plan period.

separate toilets for girls and boys. /onse6uentl'+ there #as no a&ath' for manual #or1 n those da's and there #as no d st nct on bet#een the ntellectual #or1ers and the manual #or1ers. :o#e"er the commun cat on s1 lls #ere de"elo&ed b' m tat n! h s fam l' members and h s ne !hbours. .: (n the &r m t "e soc et'+ there #as no d chotom' bet#een educat on and #or1. (iii) To improve the -uality of 9:# scheme it has been proposed that follo$ing $ork should be carried out. . computer rooms.s a result of th s+ the d st nct on bet#een the ntellectual #or1er and the manual #or1er became d st nct. library rooms. Co4curricular activities h.c6u r n! and d s&ens n! of l terac' and numerac' rema ned the &rero!at "e of the brahm ns onl'. strengthening of lab facilities and repair and renovation of e3isting school buildings. Eeadership training of school head d. Teaching learning aids $ri"in of 'ichotomy Education and . appointment of additional teachers and (b) #trengthening of e3isting secondary schools through construction of classrooms. headmaster room. appointment of additional teachers. computer rooms. libraries b.or. The "er' l " n! &rocess #as educat on for e"er' nd " dual. . Curricular reforms e. a. In service training of teachers c. -a n n! of 1no#led!e for ts o#n sa1e had l ttle s !n f cance for h m. Th s led to the de"elo&ment of d chotom' bet#een !eneral educat on and 43 . The "ar ous utterances meant for &ro& t at n! the !ods and 1no#led!e about does and do notAs for better l " n! #ere transm tted to h m orall' b' h s elders+ and he memor 4ed there b' re&eat n! #hat he l stened to. #cience and :aths education f. There #as d " s on of labour #h ch resulted n the de"elo&ment of the class and caste s'stem based on occu&at ons. Construction of science lab. separate toilets for girls and boys.ut !raduall'+ as the nd " dual fam l es concentrated on s&ec al s n! n &art cular occu&at onal s1 lls+ the &anorama of soc al structure also chan!ed. Those #ho #ere concerned # th ntellectual and academ c &ursu ts #ere re!arded as belon! n! to the h !her order and those #ho #ere concerned # th manual #or1 suffered a lo#er status. Computer aided educaiton g. the scheme envisages the special incentive for students belonging to #CI#TIminoritiesIother $eaker sections of the society. Thus+ the bul1 of h s educat on #as throu!h do n! and n"ol"ement n &roduct "e #or1 and ser" ces. : s &h's cal en" ronment+ soc al en" ronment and the #orld of #or1 around h m &ro" ded all the e*&er ences necessar' for h s sur" "al and de"elo&ment of h s &ersonal t'. (ii) To remove disparity among the different social groups of people.(a) up gradation of upper primary schools through construction of classrooms laboratories.

ducation system in India is similar to that of &arious other %outh +sian countries. It plays a prominent role in all. i. + large number of books ha&e been written on the importance of education. :o#e"er+ ts effect #as not so far reach n!+ because e"en n the anc ent and med e"al soc et es+ d " s on of labour #as less mar1ed and e"en those #ho &ursued ntellectuall'3b ased non3formal as #ell as formal educat on+ had to do all sorts of ndoor as #ell as out3door manual #or1.ducated manpower constitutes precious assets as well as agents for ad&ancing the nation. *enefits of 'evelo. It is an integral part of the social sector of the economy. 44 . Thus the se&arat on bet#een the ntellectual #or1ers and the manual #or1ers ncreased further+ and nclus on of &roduct "e manual #or1 n !eneral educat on #as res sted b' the former. . disciplined and producti&e manpower. In fact correspondence education has opened new &istas for the educational system which could not successfully meet the challenging problem of pro&iding infrastructure for multitudes of new entrants into the portals of higher education. The public demand for higher education was initially met through e&ening collegesJ now correspondence education has come to the rescue of the worried education administrators. one such being correspondence education system. The latest inno&ation of open uni&ersityM has also been introduced in India in the form of 4agar*una Cni&ersity at 5yderabad. . education to the citi7en is the responsibility of the %tate since India is a welfare %tate. The role of %tate is important in education sector for its &ertical and hori7ontal growth. It consists of three ma*or components. .aster le&el into 16 years. It adds to the efficiency and producti&ity of human resources leading to sustainable economic growth. Its direct and indirect effects can be obser&ed on the performance of economic sector and social sector of the country.ducation is fundamental to human progress. which till liberalisation of economy were public domain. .ducation means the fostering of personality through the unhampered de&elopment of innate /ualities of a human being. The &roducts of such educat onal s'stem+ also des& sed #or1 n! # th the r hands and the' had to de&ends u&on the r less fortunate brethren for e"er' 1 nd of manual #or1.up such as uni&ersity is called the basic infrastructure which is determinant of educational de&elopment. Today &irtually e&ery uni&ersity in India is offering correspondence courses for different degrees and diplomas. It aims at integrated de&elopment of personality.ment of Education : In recent times new educational opportunities ha&e been in&ented. -orrespondence education pro&ides an important means for drop.outs to impro&e their /ualification and.e. for the employed the means to impro&e education and ser&ice prospects. &ocational and technical. +n open uni&ersity imparts education only through correspondenceJ and. In course of time the glamour for college education may decline if correspondence education is made &ery effecti&e. they were %tateMs responsibility class grading di&ided education system from "rimary le&el to .#or1. . is to be differentiated from the regular uni&ersities which take up correspondence education in addition to the college education. in this respect. The Indira !andhi 4ational <pen Cni&ersity has been created at a national le&el.around de&elopment of indi&idual as well as society.ducation plays a key role in creating patriotic. There #as no &ro" s on of an' #or1 educat on n these nst tut ons+ #h ch cont nued to ser"e the cause of the &r " le!ed el tes #ho solated themsel"es from those #ho #ere not educated n th s s'stem. general education. In principle. Institutional set. (n other #ords+ the clea"a!e bet#een the #orld of educat on and the #orld of #or1 #as not so # de as t became later.

This mentality has many socio. /uality and standard. The greatest drawback of present education system lies in the fact that there is a wide gap between education and its marketability. lack of uniformity in examination e&aluation system. %ometimes these frustrated youth come into the contact of anti. and only a few lucky ones are able to secure *obs in go&ernment or "ri&ate offices. semester examination is better in this regard and it is gradually becoming popular. It was in fact drawn by the 3ritish who actually wanted to exploit the intellectual resources of the intelligent people for their own benefits.led which was thought good but the limited resourcesM allocation to education had limited its growth pro*ects. but add to its woes. It merely acts as preparation ground for uni&ersity education. pattern of annual examination is said to be critically contro&ersial for effecti&e measurement of performance. when the country was faced with unemployment problem. -omparati&ely. The 3ritishers. This class later becomes an integral part of their administrati&e set. The worst &ictims of the whole system are the unfortunate students who are caught in a situation of complete chaos and confusion. the products of such education system do not contribute to the de&elopment of the country.economic scenario. 3efore 1001 when education sector was %tate. <ur education system does not groom young men and women in a way that they can meet the re/uirement of *ob market. national. In other words. succeeded in their mission. . This is clear from the growth of coaching institutions and the increasing number of students *oining them or rising trend of pri&ate tuitions.dri&en. the education sector has been opened up for the pri&ate sector and for the *oint &enture in&estment. <f course. ob&iously. howe&er. 3esides. 5owe&er. /uantity and other parameters. not in accordance with the changing socio. In course of time. + ma*ority of these young educated persons ha&e to struggle hard to fulfil their basic re/uirement which.%ince the liberalisation of economy. while people send their wards to the pri&ate schools. brings in them a deep sense of frustration and confusion. disrupti&e and destructi&e acti&ities. &ariation in syllabus and pattern of education.up and &ery loyal to the foreign forces. 4aturally. our education system is not indigenous. <ur secondary educational system is e/ually plagued with problems which ha&e negati&e bearing on the education system. they were merely interested in producing a class of officers who may efficiently carry on their plans and programmes and implement them with sincerity. It is a highly debatable issue and much has been said on this system.&ery educated person wants to be a /uill.economic e&ils rooted in it. 3esides. instead of becoming a man of good character and sound temperament. +gain. the sincerity or otherwise of our teachers cannot be guaged by any yardstick. the syllabus itself is unwieldy and often redundant. This pri&ileged class had nothing in common with &ast ma*ority of illiterate people who were looked down upon by them. + sense of accountability is completely lacking on the part of the teachers. the greatest irony is that the best teachers are supposed to be employed in go&ernment schools. This contributed to the emergence of the free educational market keeping the consumers at the centre with choices of /uality.social elements leading them to in&ol&e in anti. <ne of the ma*or drawbacks of our present system of education in India is that it gi&es our students the impression that their aim in life is to pass the uni&ersity examinations. they lost charm and utility. 3ut it is really an irony that the country after gaining independence did not realise the need to bring about changes in the education 45 . It is next to impossible to *udge the efficiency of a student in a sub*ect within the stipulated time of three hours.

3esides.system in conformity with the needs of a new society which got independence after centuries of sla&ery.inister of India. the need is to make it uniform throughout the country. . diseases and other ills of society. +n independent autonomous body should be formed to guide. gi&ing more emphasis to oral and practical learning. The -ommission was to be a think. Though this system has been started in some %tates. monitor and super&ise all these things.anmohan %ingh. +ccountability should be laid down on the teachers in case of poor performance. it has not been changed e&en today. education in&estment should be gi&en top priority. 0or+ing of the N:) The 4G. In addition. NATI$NA+ /N$. uniformity should also be followed in the examination e&aluation system and in syllabus as well. paying little attention to merit. 4o doubt. ?r. The /omm ss on+ n &art cular+ #as to ad" se the 7r me M n ster=s 0ff ce on &ol c es related to educat on+ research nst tutes and reforms needed to ma1e (nd a com&et t "e n the 1no#led!e econom'. <f course. The remedial measures which are re/uired to be taken should be started from primary le&el. there should be a proper performance appraisal system for the faculty members.website was launched in $ebruary 211@. hunger. 5ence. This could reduce the anxiety about the une&enness of marks offered by different high. In&estment in education is a core factor of educational de&elopment. the growth of education in&estment leads to good performance of education.ducation can be sensed as an instrument of enlightened social ser&ice and solid cultural attainments. sound.consults a wide range of stake.holders and experts on each area before submitting the recommendations to the "rime . $urthermore.intensi&e ser&ice sectors. Cnfortunately. commercialisation of education should be stopped. +t the secondary le&el a pattern of common entrance test should be introduced in which merit should constitute main consideration and e&eryone should be gi&en e/ual opportunity. .tank which would consider the possible policies that might sharpen IndiaNs comparati&e ad&antage in the knowledge. . The 4G. a good. realistic education system with a scientific base can eliminate want.inister. -hildrenMs national curiosity should be aroused and it should be satisfied logically and rationally so that it may encourage their sense of learning. (t #as also to cons der #hether the -o"ernment could tself u&!rade ts use of the latest techn 6ues to ma1e ts #or1 n!s more trans&arent. The e&il practice of charging capitation fee is an open manifestation of this in which the highest payer is assured a place in educational institution of high repute. %yllabus should be fashioned in this way that it looks en*oyable and not gruesome burden. The system of pri&ate tuition should be banned completely.le&el schools. The /omm ss on #as to recommend reform of the educat on sector+ research laborator es+ and ntellectual &ro&ert' le! slat on. because the teachers ha&ing secured increased pay packets from an obliging go&ernment do not take interest in performing their duties with full sincerity and de&otion.ach area has a working group 46 .+E'GE C$))ISSI$N The National :nowledge )o##ission #4G-' was constituted on 19 2une 211= by the "rime . (esource constraints constitute a ma*or problem of an education system. It should be more creati&e and interesting.

an extensi&e coordination also takes place with the "lanning -ommission of India and rele&ant ministries of the !o&ernment. %ive /ey Areas of the /no led"e Paradi"m The 8at onal Cno#led!e /omm ss on del berat ons ha"e focused on f "e 1e' areas of the 1no#led!e &arad !m. N:) &eco##endations for Higher Ed cation The ob*ecti&es of reform and change in the higher education system must be expansion. $ome of the ma9or areas under #or1 are h !her educat on+ "ocat onal educat on+ entre&reneursh & and school educat on. independent of !o&ernment. . The' should not &a' the r s&ec al attent on to some s&ec al class students and r ch &ersons.ll th s s because onl' of commerc al l e!as on of educat on. +s many of the components of the education sector remains state sub*ects in India.members then hold discussions on the report before submitting it to the "rime . its ministries and all other stakeholdersJ 9. (t s reachable onl' to some s&ec al &ersons or r ch &eo&le.or Thr sts (n >ecember 2006+ the /omm ss on brou!ht out a =Be&ort to the 8at on 2006=. The benef ts of educat on should be reachable to the each and e"er' educat on # ll n! &erson.ducation #I(+5. . excellence and inclusion.e. class of some self sh cate!or cal teachers has been ntroduc n! n the f eld of educat on.which is headed by a prominent person in that field. I)PACT $% G+$*A+I#ATI$N $N &IG&ER E'(CATI$N 47 .inister. Th s ncludes areas such as l brar es+ e3!o"ernance and translat on. (t ncludes the follo# n! recommendat ons subm tted to the 7r me M n ster on l brar es+ 1no#led!e+ )3 !o"ernance+ translat on+ lan!ua!es+ and nat onal &ortals.representati&es also &isit &arious state go&ernments and conduct deliberations with secretaries of education departments for reforming of the education sector at the state le&el.'. The' can be an e*am&le for the rest of the nat on+ and tra n students n a "ar et' of d sc &l nes+ nclud n! human t es+ soc al sc ences+ bas c The benef ts of de"elo&ment of educat on s not reachable to the common &eo&les. (a. nearly1=11 uni&ersities nationwide or some clusters of affiliated colleges could also become uni&ersities to attain a gross enrolment ratio of at least 1= per cent by 211=J &. Establish 50 National Universities of the h !hest standard.ut t s "er' necessar' the teacher and educated &erson should be more res&ons ble and l able to s&read the r educat onal 1no#led!e to the &oor students and masses. Increase public spending and diversify sources of financing which can necessarily come from both public and pri&ate sourcesJ 0. Change the system of regulation for higher education by establishing an Independent (egulatory +uthority for 5igher . The Forking !roup members meet se&eral times to submit a report to the 4G-. The' should tr' the r best to educate the &oor students+ ch ldren and adults. . +fter submitting the recommendations. 4G. $or E1$ansion $% Create many more universities i. Man' of the recommendat ons of the 8C/ are alread' n the m&lementat on sta!e b' d fferent m n str es of the -o"ernment. The 4G.

workers. and correspondingly. )haracteristics of <lobali!ation In economic terms. new pressures on the roles of worker and consumer in society.nthon' . Technolo! cal ad"ancements ha"e ntroduced technolo!' n the classrooms #h ch ha"e chan!ed the #a' educat on s be n! del "ered to the students. :o#e"er the s&eed of commun cat on and e*chan!e+ the com&le* t' and s 4e of the net#or1s n"ol"ed+ and the sheer "olume of trade+ nteract on and r s1 can be labeled as =!lobal 4at on=. 8e# deas+ chan!e n "alues and 1no#led!e+ ha"e chan!ed the roles of students and teachers too.)+ the %orld . The 48 . correspondingly. In political terms. a weakening of the notion of the Ociti7enO. between the global and the local is termed Othe glocal. a certain loss of nation. D-lobal 4at on= s also referred to the efforts of the (nternat onal Monetar' . . . a rise in internationali7ed ad&ertising and consumption patterns. There s rel ance on electron c sources such as the emer!ence of " deo conferenc n! and commun cat on and nformat on based technolo!'+ the (nternet+ # th mass "e net#or1 of com&uters located throu!hout the #orld+ to del "er the mater al. and. -lobal 4at on n the sense of connect " t' n econom c and cultural l fe across the #orld has been !ro# n! for centur es. and in&estments across national borders. The de"elo&ments n technolo!' and commun cat on s'stems ha"e brou!ht about chan!es n the teach n! and learn n! s'stems across the #orld.O Glo!ali1ation and Education -lobal 4at on has affected man' areas of human l fe+ nclud n! educat on. )ducat on s no# e*&ected to sha&e ch ldren+ the future c t 4ens of the #orld nto D!lobal c t 4ensE+ # th a broad ran!e of s1 lls and 1no#led!e. while also bringing more fragmentation through the rise of locally oriented mo&ements due to the desire of preser&ing one s identity. Th s n"ol"es a chan!e n the #a' !eo!ra&h' s understood and localness s e*&er enced.und ((M. a tension between the ways in which globali7ation brings forth more standardi7ation and cultural homogeneity.state so&ereignty. .s such t s the need of the hour to nclude sub9ects #h ch reflect th s !lobal outloo1 and &ro" de nd " duals # th a better chance of em&lo'ment+ #h ch n turn leads to a better l fest'le+ &o#er and status. (t s someth n! more than nternat onal 4at on and un "ersal 4at on.an1 and others to create a !lobal free mar1et for !oods and ser" ces. or at least the erosion of national autonomy. In cultural terms.lthou!h t offers o&&ortun t'+ t br n!s cons derable r s1s+ for e*am&le those l n1ed to technolo! cal chan!e. -lobal 4at on has created an nformat on based soc et'. %ometimes this merger.=-lobal 4at on= s commonl' used as a #a' of descr b n! the s&read and connectedness of &roduct on+ commun cat on and technolo! es across the #orld. -lobal 4at on n"ol"es the d ffus on of deas+ &ract ces and technolo! es.ddens (19902 64) has descr bed !lobal 4at on as =the ntens f cat on of #orld# de soc al relat ons #h ch l n1 d stant local t es n such a #a' that local ha&&en n!s are sha&ed b' e"ents occurr n! man' m les a#a' and " ce "ersa=. (t certa nl' sn=t 9ust the l beral 4at on of mar1ets. (t sn=t s m&l' modern 4at on or #estern 4at on. a reduction in barriers to the free flow of goods. )ducat onal scenar o s ra& dl' chan! n! because of !lobal 4at on.

It is impossible to ignore the local uni&ersities need to reflect on the impact of globali7ation. Proble#s and =$$ort nities d e to <lobali!ation !lobali7ation of higher education creates both challenges and opportunities.ducation will be the answer to many problems raised by globali7ation. which ha&e resulted in need for more knowledge and skilled workers. . reali7ing that global education is not only learning about the Fest. There s no need to be &h's call' &resent n an educat onal nst tut on n order to learn. focusing their energy more on creating funds rather than pro&iding sufficient education for students.cultural in content. ways of teaching and different media. . for creating better society. The pri&ate sector 49 . . Cni&ersities pro&iding a high /uality education for the globalised world must focus on internationalism and cross.ducation should not become a means of westerni7ing the world but it should treat each uni/ue culture and society with respect. The state is gradually withdrawing from higher education and many state run institutions ha&e been pri&ati7ed and are being run as businesses. has affected cultures worldwide. cultures and business methods from all o&er the world. It is here that uni&ersities play a crucially important role. and cater to students entering higher education outside of their own country. ?ue to globali7ation there ha&e been changes in the labour market.ducational institutions are becoming more market oriented. Cni&ersity courses must now be cross. Cni&ersities and colleges around the world are forced to compete in the global capitalist market and engage in entrepreneurial acti&ity to sustain themsel&es. but also studying different cultures of the world. The capitalist society is gradually becoming global with a strong emphasis on free trade. and workers with deeper understandings of languages. using different approaches. . ?ue to this free trade there is inclination to end protection to education so that there is more competition and pri&ati7ation in the education sector. there has been commodification and the corporati7ation of institutions of higher learning. . "#$act of <lobali!ation The spread of education internationally. as a result of globali7ation.cultural communication. ?ue to globali7ation.ducational goals are seen to be an area of great concern in the era of globali7ation. This has changed institutional approaches to the de&elopment of o&erseas education.s a result+ the barr ers of d stance are be n! bro1en do#n at a ra& d rate+ due to th s 1e' as&ect of !lobal 4at on.ra& d !ro#th of tele" s on ser" ces+ and nfluence of th s med a of mass commun cat on+ has also contr buted to &re&ar n! a 1no#led!eable &eo&le.

these approaches would possibly negate its basic fabric and purpose. This can be done by raising awareness of en&ironment. research and disinterested learning will be its biggest &ictims. cultural. is to reform. It is desirable that the state offer public ser&ices such as education than the pri&ate sector management. cultural and social di&ersity. and the other for the rich and the affluent. (nd an )ducat on s'stem has reduced the number of ll terates n (nd a (t &ro" des hol st c educat on (nd an )ducat on s'stem has hel&ed to chan!e the (nd an soc et' to a !reat e*tent. scholarship. In other words. -orporati7ation of education would make it elitist . social science and en&ironmental science. )erits: (nd an educat on s'stem offers #orld3class educat on and &ro" des students # th 1no#led!e of e"er' sub9ect. These re/uire introducing standardi7ation and the packaging of product in compact. and interconnected systems on ecological. In the present borderless information society. political and technological. . 50 .ducation prepares the indi&idual to connect . !lobali7ation has changed the si7e. the one pro&ided by corporations for the masses and the poor who cannot afford going to the traditional institutions of learning. with the en&ironment around him. in/uiry. our educational institutions need to produce global citi7ens. and measurable terms. +pplied to education. %uch education is the re/uirement of the knowledge or information society. then there is the risk of diminishing it to the status of a packaged product by profits can be made. "#$ortance of <lobal Ed cation + global education should teach about issues that cross national boundaries. The challenge for higher education. and the concept of a global &illage. di&ersity. %uch a program can draw upon expertise in many areas such as humanities. economical. and li&e in harmony . -orporations operate on the principles of cost reduction and profit maximi7ation. nature and /uality of that en&ironment. . If the state gi&es up its control o&er education and education policy.model of education deli&ery pre&ents the de&elopment of a meaningful approach to achie&e the distincti&e purposes. <penness. therefore.ducation has always encouraged and represents openness. education needs to respond to the demands of a rapidly globali7ing world. (t does not &ro" de em&lo'ment o&&ortun t es The 6ual t' of educat on s not "er' !ood as (nd a s a "ast countr'. and ob*ecti&es of education. peace. di&ersity. increased competiti&eness. research and limitless learning. create and de&elop systems that prepare the indi&idual to work in a borderless economy and li&e in a global society. 'emerits: (nd a educat on s'stem does not &ro" de &ract cal 1no#led!e.

(f the soc et' s not or!an 4ed &ro&erl'+ 9obs become d ff cult to ac6u re+ de!rees lose the r mean n! and educat on becomes a nat onal #aste as t s ha&&en n! n man' countr es n the #orld toda'.) and the soc al sc ences (h stor'+ &ol t cal sc ence+ etc. Thus+ n educat on #e comb ne the stud' of natural la#s # th the la#s !o"ern n! the de"elo&ment of soc et'3 Cno#led!e and understand n! come to us throu!h the stud' of natural sc ences (chem str'+ &h's cs+ b olo!'+ etc. The n"ent on of tools+ domest cat on of an mals and !ro#th of a!r culture led to or!an 4at on of soc et' and alon! # th th s+ de"elo&ed soc al sc ences.r t sh Ba9. Th s s'stem has s nce lost ts rele"ance to the chan!ed soc o3econom c scenar o n the countr'.r t sh colon al -o"ernment of (nd a. The dar1 forces of nature #ere be'ond the com&rehens on of man and to console h mself he had to de&end u&on the e* stence of su&ernatural &o#ers and th s led to the !ro#th of rel ! on and su&erst t on. • • • • • • • • • • 51 . The ac6u s t on+ nterl n1 n! and the transm ss on of th s 1no#led!e and understand n! s the &r mar' funct on of educat on. )ducat on should enable the 'outh to m&ro"e the #or1 n! of the soc et'. Therefore+ t #as natural for h m to de" se an educat onal s'stem for (nd a #h ch #ould not foster real a#areness and educat on.s s #ell 1no#n+ @ord Macaula' #as an ardent cham& on of the . (deall' s&ea1 n!+ t s throu!h educat on that members of soc et'+ &art cularl' the 'outh+ come to understand the #or1 n! of soc et'. )"er s nce (nd a atta ned (nde&endence n 1947+ #e ha"e been follo# n!+ for ne*&l cable reasons+ @ord Macaula'As s'stem of educat on. .).Morals of the Pro ect !eport on Education : • )ducat on s an m&ortant act " t' n soc et'+ t ! "es an o&&ortun t' to man to understand the #orld around h m and h s &lace n t (n anc ent t mes man #as com&letel' at the merc' of nature #h ch #as a com&lete m'ster' to h m. (t a med at &roduc n! lo'al+ comm tted EbabesA to eater to the cler cal needs of the . $een n th s l !ht+ the &ur&ose of educat on s not 9ust to hel& students ac6u re de!ree and obta n 9obs. )ducat on+ &ro&erl' s&ea1 n!+ should de"elo& a s& r t of n6u r' and rat onal th n1 n! n the 'outh so as to enable them to understand the soc et' and chan!e t #here"er t s found lac1 n!.

d fferent s'stem more su ted to the re6u rements of an nde&endent &ro!ress "e (nd a has to be e"ol"ed.ct onA to m&lement the ne# &ol c' #as ado&ted b' the -o"ernment n . $'llab cont nued to be theoret cal n nature+ and rrele"ant to the soc o3cultural and econom c conte*ts. . The 8at onal )ducat on 7ol c'+ 1968 a med to &romote nat onal &ro!ress+ a sense of common c t 4ensh & and culture+ and to stren!then nat onal nte!rat on. The E7ro!ramme of . The f rst &ol c' document on educat on #as ado&ted n 1968+ b' the -o"ernment after (nde&endence. . :o#e"er+ e"en the -o"ernment adm ts that the !eneral formulat ons ncor&orated n the 1968 &ol c' d d not !et translated nto a deta led strate!' of m&lementat on.• . (t called for rad cal reconstruct on of the educat onal s'stem and for !reater attent on to sc ence and technolo!'+ the cult "at on of moral "alues and closer relat on bet#een educat on and the l fe of the &eo&le. challen!e of educat on a &ers&ect "eH la d b' the then )ducat on M n ster n 7arl ament on 20 . 0ur students became rres&ons ble and d rect onless mob+ out to destro' the "er' fabr c of soc et'. The result #as that our educat onal nst tut ons and un "ers t es+ (nstead of be n! c tadels of learn n! and enl !htenment+ became dens of unrest and frustrat on. . (nstead of contr but n! to the &ro!ress of the nat on+ the' became+ to a lar!e e*tent+ a burden on the nat onAs econom' and soc et'.u!ust 1986. The ne# educat on &ol c' s broadl' based on a document called G. :o#e"er+ noth n! much could be ach e"ed n th s behalf.rom t me to t me+ sem nars or s'm&os a #ere held to d scuss the 6uest on of educat onal reforms and su!!est an deal educat onal s'stem. • • • • • • • • • • • 52 .u!ust 1985. ne# draft 8at onal 7ol c' on )ducat on #as a&&ro"ed b' 7arl ament (n Ma' 1986. Teach n! methods and s'stem of e*am nat on cont nued to be obsolete.ut t #as essent al for the (nd an adm n strators to chan!e th s educat onal s'stem. $ome ach e"ements s nce 1968 l sted b' the -o"ernment are2 (a) acce&tance of a common structure of educat on throu!hout the countr' and the ntroduct on of the 10 &lus 2 &lus 3 s'stem b' most $tatesF (b) la' n! do#n of common s'stem of stud es for bo's and ! rlsF (c) ncor&orat on of sc ence and mathemat cs as com&ulsor' sub9ects2 (d) restructur n! of the courses at under3!raduate le"elF (e) sett n! u& of centres of ad"anced stud es for &ost3!raduate educat on and research.

+ rad o+ tele" s on and f lmsF d stance learn n! &ro!rammesF need and nterest based "ocat onal tra n n! &ro!rammes+ etc. The &ol c' ! "es m&ortance to remo"al of #omenAs ll terac' and obstacles nh b t n! the r access to+ and retent on n+ elementar' educat on. (n h !her educat on+ techn cal educat on n &art cular+ ste&s # ll be ta1en to fac l tate nter re! onal mob l t' b' &ro" d n! e6ual access to e"er' (nd an of re6u s te mer t+ re!ardless of h s or ! ns. The &ol c' outl nes a "ast &ro!ramme of adult and cont nu n! educat on throu!h establ sh n! centers of cont nu n! educat on n rural and urban areasF &ost3secondar' educat on nst tut onF # der &romot on of boo1s+ etc. The central focus of the &ol c' n the educat onal de"elo&ment of $cheduled /astes and Tr bes n the r e6ual 4at on # th the non3$/ and $T &o&ulat on at all sta!es and le"els of educat on+ n all areas and n all the four d mens ons rural male+ rural female+ urban male and urban female. • • • • • • • • • • 53 . 8e ther normal e*&ans on nor the e* st n! &ace and nature of m&ro"ement can meet the needs of the s tuat on. The s'stem # ll be based on a nat onal curr cular frame#or1 #h ch conta ns a common core alon! # th other com&onents that are fle* ble. The catal't c act on of educat on n the com&le* and d'nam c &rocess of our countr' needs to be &lanned met culousl'and e*ecuted # th !reat sens t " t' l fe n the com n! decades+ t &o nts out+ s l 1el' to br n! ne# tens ons to!ether # th un&recedented o&&ortun t es.• )ducat on n (nd a+ sa's the ne# educat on &ol c' document+ stands at cross3roads toda'.ll these call for better educat on+ stresses the document. The com n! !enerat ons should ha"e the ab l t' to nternal 4e ne# deas constantl' and creat "el'. The ne# )ducat on 7ol c'+ 1936 calls for a 8at onal $'stem of )ducat on n #h ch all students+ rres&ect "e of caste+ creed+ locat on or se*+ should ha"e access to educat on of a com&arable 6ual t'. The &ol c' also a ms to nte!rate the &h's call' and mentall' hand ca&&ed # th the !eneral commun t' as e6ual &artners+ to &re&are them for normal !ro#th and to enable them to face l fe # th coura!e and conf dence. GTo enable the &eo&le to benef t n the ne# en" ronment # ll re6u re ne# des !ns of human resource de"elo&ment. . The' ha"e to be mbued # th a stron! comm tment to human "alues and soc al 9ust ce. Ma9or em&has s # ll be la d on #omenAs &art c &at on n "ocat onal+ techn cal and &rofess onal educat on at d fferent le"els.

>.t least t#o teachers+ one of them a #oman+ should be there n e"er' school+ the number ncreas n! to one teacher &er class as earl' as &oss ble. /ourses and &ro!rammes # ll be redes !ned and the &resent aff l at on s'stem # ll be re&laced b' a freer and more creat "e assoc at on of un "ers t es and colle!es. The 8at onal &ol c' on )ducat on (87))+ 1986 accorded h !h &r or t' to "ocat onal sa on of educat on at the secondar' sta!e. There are at &resent 359 sanct oned 5 d'ala'as n the countr' o&erat n! n 30 $tateJ KTs. The &ol c' also ntroduces a non3formal form of educat on for school dro&outs+ for ch ldren from hab tat ons # thout schools+ #or1 n! ch ldren and ! rls #ho cannot attend #hole da' school. The &ol c' &led!es to &ro" de essent al fac l t es n &r mar' schools+ nclud n! at least t#o reasonable lar!e rooms usable n all #eathers+ and necessar' to's+ blac1boards+ ma&s+ charts and other learn n! mater al.• The ne# thrust n elementar' educat on em&has 4es t#o as&ectsF (1) un "ersal enrolment and un "ersal retent on of ch ldren u& to 14 'ears of a!eF and (2) a substant al m&ro"ement n the 6ual t' of educat on.&r l 1990 for &ol c' formulat on and coord nat on at the nat onal le"el. The 0&en Kn "ers t' s'stem has been n t ated to au!ment o&&ortun t es for h !her educat on. . (n the f eld of h !her educat on+ &ro" s on # ll be made for m n mum fac l t es and adm ss on nto colle!es and un "ers t es and # ll be re!ulated accord n! to ca&ac t'. The (nd ra -andh 8at onal 0&en Kn "ers t' establ shed n 1985 # ll be stren!thened. Besearch # ll !et more su&&ort. The &ol c' &ro" des for decl n n! de!rees from 9ots for #h ch un "ers t' de!ree need not be a necessar' 6ual f cat on. The 87) as re" sed n 1992 set the tar!et of ach e" n! d "ers on of 10 &ercent of the students at the I2 le"el to the "ocat onal stream b' 1995 and 25 &ercent b' 2000 . To th s end+ the E0&erat on . 54 • • • • • • • • • • • .lac1boardA has been launched all o"er the countr' to m&ro"e &r mar' schools.$). (n order to &ro" de !ood 6ual t' modern educat on to the talented ch ldren &redom nantl' from the rural areas+ the !o"ernment launched n 1985386 a scheme to establ sh 8a"oda'a 5 d'a a'a on an a"era!e one n each d str ct. These " d'ala'as are full' res dent al and coeducat onal and &ro" de educat on n the streams of :uman t es+ /ommerce+ $c ence and 5ocat onal u& to I2 le"els and are aff l ated to /. . Lo nt /ounc l for 5ocat onal )ducat on (L/5)) #as set u& n .

The curr cula and &rocesses of educat on # ll be enr ched b' cultural content n as man' #a's as &oss ble. The &ol c' en" sa!es reor!an 4at on of the methods of recru t n! teachers to ensure mer t+ ob9ect " t' and conform t' # th s&at al and funct onal re6u rement. To ! "e the &ol c' a &ract cal sha&e+ lot of funds #ould be re6u red. . The ne# &ol c' also &rom ses to ma1e efforts to secure eas' access b l t' to boo1s for all se!ment of the &o&ulat on. The ne# &ro!rammes of teacher3educat on # ll em&has 4e cont nu n! educat on. $elected $econdar' Teacher Tra n n! /olle!es # ll be u&!raded to com&lement the #or1 of the $tate /ounc l of )ducat on Besearch and Tra n n!. > str ct (nst tutes of )ducat on and Tra n n! (>()T) # ll be set t to or!an 4e &re3 ser" ce and n ser" ce courses for elementar' school teachers and for the &ersonnel #or1 n! n non3formal and adult educat on. The /om&uter @ terac' and $tud esA n $chools has been made a centrall'3s&onsored scheme from 1993394.• (ts m&lementat on # ll lead to a refash on n! of 9ob3s&ec f c courses and afford !reater 9ust ce to those cand dates #ho+ des& te be n! e6u &&ed for a ! "en 9ob+ are unable to !et t because of an unnecessar' &reference for !raduates+ the document e*&la ns. • • • • • • • • • • 55 . $te& # ll be ta1en to ma1e techn cal and mana!ement educat on cost3effect "e. /h ldren # ll be enabled to de"elo& sens t " t' to beaut'+ harmon' and ref nement. @ n1a!es # ll be establ shed bet#een the un "ers t' s'stem and nst tut ons of h !her learn n! n art+ archaeolo!'+ or ental stud es+ etc. (n the area of Techn cal and Mana!ement )ducat on the &ol c' ma nta ns that reor!an 4at on should ta1e nto account the ant c &ated scenar o b' the turn of the centur'+ # th s&ec f c reference to the l 1e chan!es n the econom'+ soc al en" ronment+ &roduct on and mana!ement &rocesses+ the ra& d e*&ans on of 1no#led!e and the !reat ad"ances n sc ence and technolo!'. (nst tut ons n"ol"ed n research and de"elo&ment of techn cal and sc ent f c man&o#er should also mob l 4e funds b' lea" n! cuss or char!e on the user a!enc es+ nclud n! -o"ernment de&artments and entre&reneurs. The &ol c' sa's that resources # ll be ra sed b' mob l 4 n! donat ons+ as1 n! the benef c ar' commun t es to ma nta n school bu ld n!s and su&&l es of some consumables+ ra s n! fees at h !her le"els+ and b' effect n! sa" n! b' eff c ent use of fac l t es.s re!ards lan!ua!es+ the lan!ua!e &ol c' of the )ducat on &ol c' of 1968 # ll be m&lemented more Eener!et call' and &ur&osefull'A the document sa's.

3. ( ) 8a"oda'a $chools # ll create further d s&ar t es. • • • • • • 1. 2.rom these abo"e &o nts ( can sa' that educat on s the b ! &o#er of the man. . )ducat on hel&s the &erson to become a !ood c t 4en. 5. . 8on formal educat on+ educat on st &o nt out+ can ne"er be e6u "alent to re!ular school n!. 10. )ducat on s "er' m&ortant of (nd a. 4.• The -o"ernment and the commun t' n !eneral # ll f nd funds for &ro!rammes2 un "ersal sat on of elementar' educat on l 6u dat n! ll terac'+ etc. % thout educat on #e cannot &ro!ress n the f eld of sc ence M technolo!'. 56 . 6.s a result+ one #ho s able to &a' more # ll !et better educat on as com&ared to a common &erson. % thout educat on the r are no l fe n earth. % thout educat on the r are no #orld. )ducat on s "er' necessar' for all the ch ldren of #hole #orld because these ch ldren are the future of our #orld. ( ) The ne# &ol c' suffers from an el t st b as as t also &romotes &r "at 4at on of educat on. % thout educat on the man # ll beha"e l 1e as an mal. 7. ( ") )ducat on s sou!ht to be commerc al 4ed Beeducat on of subs d es # ll mean that students # ll ha"e to f nance the r o#n educat on. Th s # ll create a dual educat on s'stem. )ducat on remo"es ll terac' of our (nd a. 8. )ducat on s the future of (nd a. The -o"ernmentA sta!' to ma1e the ne# s'stem #or1 cons sts of (a) better le!al to+ and the !3eater accountab l t' of+ teacherF (b) &ro" s on of m&ro"ed studentsA ser" ces+ and ns stence on obser"ance of acce&table norms of beha" ourF (c) &ro" s on of threshold fac l t es to nst tut onsF and (d) creat on of a s'stem of &erformance a&&ra sals of nst tut ons accord n! to standards and norms set at the 8at onal or state le"els. 9. The ne# &ol c' has been cr t c 4ed on the !rounds that ( ) The ne# thrust n the f eld of un "ersal sat on of educat on s non3formal educat on.

>e&r "ed of 1no#led!e he falls n the dar1ness of !norance. Thus educat on s a "er' necessar' &art of our l fe.(n the last+ #e can sa' that an uneducated &erson can ne ther be a !ood c t 4en nor a !ood &arent. :e s !norant and su&erst t ons. 57 . )ducat on s r !ht for e"er' ch ld so educat on should be &ro" ded to all.