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Solution Set 4

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Solution 1

Consider the following diagram: 2a sin 2a cos 2a O 2a 2a mg

2a sin 4mg

The perpendicular distance of the weight 4mg from the pivot O is 2a sin , and so total anticlockwise moment about O is 4mg 2a sin . The perpendicular distance of the weight mg from the pivot O is 2a sin + 2a cos , and so the total clockwise moment about O is mg (2a sin + 2a cos ). When the system is in static equilibrium, these two moments are equal, and we get 4mg 2a sin = mg (2a sin + 2a cos ) = 4 sin = sin + cos = 3 sin = cos 1 = tan = 3 1 = = tan1 3 (dividing across by 2mga)

= 18.4 .

That is, the system balances when the rod makes an angle 18.4 with the horizontal.

Solution 2

(i) The force constant k of the spring is k= 1.5 N = 50 N m1 . 0.03 m

The attached mass has a weight of 0.2 kg 9.81 m s1 = 1.962 N, and so the extension at which the upward force of the spring balances the weight is 1.962 N = 0.03924 m. 50 N m1 (ii) Since the mass has dropped by h = 0.03924 m, it has lost mg h = 0.2 kg 9.81 m s1 0.03924 m of gravitational potential energy. (iii) The elastic potential energy stored in the spring at this extension will be 1 2 1 kx = (50 N m1 )(0.03924 m)2 2 2 0.0385 J. 0.077 J

(iv) The discrepancy (0.077 0.0385) J = 0.0385 J is accounted for by the kinetic energy of the mass, which will be moving at the equilibrium position of the mass-spring system. Even though the force on, and hence acceleration of, the mass is zero at this position, it still has a velocity.

Solution 3

(i) We rst rearrange the expression for the Young modulus E to give an expression for the extension x: E= F/A F l F l = = x = . x/l xA E A

Since the tension F is the same throughout the compound wire, the ratio between the extension x1 of the copper wire and the extension x2 of the iron wire is x1 F l1 F l2 = x2 E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 l1 A2 = E1 l2 A1 2.1 1011 Pa 0.9 m 1.3 106 m2 = 1.3 1011 Pa 1.4 m 0.9 106 m2 2.1 3 = = . 1.4 2 Hence the extensions for copper vs. iron are in the ratio 3:2. 2

(ii) Since the entire wire extends by 1 cm, and the extensions are in the ratio 3:2, the copper wire extends by 6 mm while the iron wire extends by 4 mm. (iii) The tension F in a material can be calculated from the identity F = xEA . l

Applying this to, for example, the copper wire, we get F = 0.006 m (1.3 1011 Pa) (0.9 106 m2 ) 0.9 m = 780 N.

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