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Handout November 25th 2013 Due December 2nd 2013

Solution 1

Consider the following diagram: 2a sin θ 2a cos θ θ 2a θ O 2a θ 2a mg

2a sin θ 4mg

The perpendicular distance of the weight 4mg from the pivot O is 2a sin θ, and so total anticlockwise moment about O is 4mg × 2a sin θ. The perpendicular distance of the weight mg from the pivot O is 2a sin θ + 2a cos θ, and so the total clockwise moment about O is mg × (2a sin θ + 2a cos θ). When the system is in static equilibrium, these two moments are equal, and we get 4mg × 2a sin θ = mg × (2a sin θ + 2a cos θ) =⇒ 4 sin θ = sin θ + cos θ =⇒ 3 sin θ = cos θ 1 =⇒ tan θ = 3 1 =⇒ θ = tan−1 3 (dividing across by 2mga)

= 18.4◦ .

1

x/l xA E A Since the tension F is the same throughout the compound wire. 2 . 0.4 2 Hence the extensions for copper vs.03 m The attached mass has a weight of 0.That is. it has lost mg ∆h = 0.3 × 10−6 m2 = × × 1.03924 m of gravitational potential energy.9 × 10−6 m2 2.1 3 = = . and so the extension at which the upward force of the spring balances the weight is 1. and hence acceleration of.0385 J is accounted for by the kinetic energy of the mass. (iii) The elastic potential energy stored in the spring at this extension will be 1 2 1 kx = (50 N m−1 )(0.077 J (iv) The discrepancy (0. 0.1 × 1011 Pa 0. iron are in the ratio 3:2. the mass is zero at this position.81 m s−1 = 1. Even though the force on.962 N = 0.962 N.03924 m.03924 m)2 2 2 0. the system balances when the rod makes an angle 18. 1.0385 J.81 m s−1 × 0. the ratio between the extension x1 of the copper wire and the extension x2 of the iron wire is x1 F l1 F l2 = · ÷ · x2 E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 l1 A2 = · · E1 l2 A1 2. Solution 3 (i) We ﬁrst rearrange the expression for the Young modulus E to give an expression for the extension x: E= F/A F l F l = =⇒ x = · .5 N = 50 N m−1 .4◦ with the horizontal.0385) J = 0.2 kg × 9.03924 m.3 × 1011 Pa 1. which will be moving at the equilibrium position of the mass-spring system.4 m 0.2 kg × 9. it still has a velocity.077 − 0. Solution 2 (i) The force constant k of the spring is k= 1. 50 N m−1 (ii) Since the mass has dropped by ∆h = 0.9 m 1.

9 m = 780 N.006 m × (1. and the extensions are in the ratio 3:2. the copper wire. for example. we get F = 0.(ii) Since the entire wire extends by 1 cm. (iii) The tension F in a material can be calculated from the identity F = xEA . 3 .3 × 1011 Pa) × (0. the copper wire extends by 6 mm while the iron wire extends by 4 mm.9 × 10−6 m2 ) 0. l Applying this to.

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