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CHAPTER 3 CELLULAR CONTROL

1. The diagram below shows the rate of an enzyme controled reaction. The solid line indicates the normal relationship between rate and substrate concentration and the dotted line indicates the relationship when a competitive inhibitor is added.

a. i) Explain how a competitive inhibitor acts (2) ii) Explain why in the graph above the inhibitor is a competitive inhibitor?

(2)

2. The graph below shows the relationship between rate of reaction and temperature of most enzyme reaction.

a.

Explain why the relationship is that shown on the graph.

(5)

3. Enzymes are globular proteins which act as biological catalysts. They are able to temporarily bind with substrate molecules due to an region know as the_____________________. Because enzymes are proteins their activity can be affected by pH and ___________________. The catalytic ability of enzymes depends on their three dimensional shape, this is more commonly refered to as the enzymes __________ structure. During an enzyme catalysed reaction a transition occurs during which the reactants are referred to as the ______________________. 4. (a) Enzymes are catalysts which catalyse specific reactions by lowering their activation energy. The lock and key and induced fit models have been used to explain the way in which enzymes work. (i) Explain what is meant by activation energy.

In 1961 biologists made synthetic mRNA. When mRNA was produced with alternating uracil and guanine nucleotides. valine and cysteine. 6. (b) Explain how the specific shape of the tRNA molecule shown in the diagram is determined by the pattern of bonding (c) (i) Give the base sequence of the anticodon of this tRNA molecule. When they produced mRNA containing only uracil nucleotides. phenylalanine. two types of amino acid were coded for. valine and cysteine (a) Give two ways in which the structure of a tRNA molecule differs from that of a DNA molecule. it coded for one type of amino acid. This is summarised in the table.(ii) Describe how the lock and key model can be used to explain how an enzyme breaks down a substrate molecule 5. (ii) Which mRNA codon would correspond to this anticodon? . The diagram shows the structure of a tRNA molecule. Nucleotide sequence in mRNA Amino acids coded for UUUUUUUUUUUUUUU phenylalanine UGUGUGUGUGUGUGU (a) For the amino acid phenylalanine what is (i) the corresponding DNA base sequence (ii) the tRNA anticodon? (b) Explain how the information in the table supports the idea of a triplet code.