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Hundred and


Coloured Plates



Mo. Bot. Garder



Riuht. lUseri



DKRA^>lAUYUAT>E£-(ro7iti7iued) "


Tuberose. FvxnmT'rf Stak Lilies








CordvUi Ihaccem




CalocJwrtun Hemerocallis

El-ttkkvly Tll: Day Lilies

Ornithogalum Chionodoxa









icnup Ai)ono(ieton









A. tives. uativ.lyv//. but Arooa. witii stiti'.i. The sexes are in separate into a number oi* cells.the A small genus of noble eNern-reen leaves. females in cones.Tt. of XenSouth Wales. About 1S2<. With Conifers ''''''^- we have little concern in tlii^ work. others bearing a single seed. n. There are about seven as frce.(. A. in the year 179'5. some barren. AuAi-CARiA (tVom . <<'..on.As-. small persistent scale-like which are liattened. to whom He put few of them into his pocket and brought them to Kew. In 1810 A.^ species.M/. nuhric<if<i in Chili). Allan Cuiujing- . the large and globular. The latter when ripe are covered with overlapping woody scales.^. InV-nlLnm ^^as imroduced from mountain . natives of South America and Australasia.. 179-2 by a Menzies.J.r.. pointed. spreading branches are arranged in flowers the males in terminal cylindrical spikes.s'. The whorls. A.1. than any other genus of the group lend themselves to pcjt or tub eultixalion in gnH-uhouses and and introduction.. was sent to Keu' l)v Governor riiillip-^. each anther divided : and usually overlapping.' Gonus Arauairui imnic oi' . was introduced from Chili in the nuts were ottered as d.FAVOURITE FLOWERS GARDEA^ AND GREENHOUSE NORFOLK ISLAND PINE Natural OitIoi- Coxtfehj:. linhriad".hstricts of South<'ru Hrnzil. (he Norfolk Island Pine.

Another Queensland . Leaves needle-shaped. rigid. glauca. .498 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE discovered the Moreton ham to Bay Pine in Queensland. Leaves curved. feet high. horizontal or drooping. stiff. needle-shaped. Branches frond-like. Cooldi was introduced from New Caledonia. • i the greenhouse. Trunk 50 to 100 feet high. A. Small specimens make beautiful pot-plants for . Trunk about 200 feet high. This is the most desirable of the genus in a young state. in whorls. somewhat square. of shedding its lower branches This species has the habit attained to a fair size. shaped. A. and overlapping ovaltriangular. where one in of the batch may be seen honour of the discoverer. Monkey Puzzle. concave. These are greenhouse plants. with silvery glaucous leaves. densely overlapping the branches. . IMBEICATA (overlapping). and named A. CuNNiNGHAMii (Cunningham's). shining . There are several A. wliich will also allow of their occasional . Also known as A. Trunk A. leathery. Ar AUG ARIA B ALANS J3 (Balansa's). and from the same island came A. Branches spreading with downward tendency. more bushy growth. In 1851 A. but the type is hardy near the south-west coasts of England. . -. somewhat keeled. A. curved leaves. of which the best are goJdieana and sanderiana. Trunk 130 to 160 Principal Species. Trunk 150 feet high and 20 feet in circumference. Greenhouse plant of very symmetrical habit. Bunya Bunya. densely packed. with plumy branches. Leaves awl Trunk 150 two nearly feet high. Bidwill of the Sydney Botanic Gardens. . or Chili Pine. about 100 feet high. was brought to England in 1846 by Mr. sharp-pointed. sharp-pointed. Norfolk Island Pine. but the tips ascending. Cone aa large as a man's head. Cannmghamii Aiton named it A. EXCELSA (lofty). Moreton Bay Pine. upper ones taking an upward direction. . oval-lance-shaped. Bidwillii (Bid will's). species. Plate 235. closely overlapping. . horizontal Leaves leathery. Greenhouse. still and sent specimens Kew. are among it the most graceful of best to keep those greenhouse plants that are cultivated for beauty of form apart from For this purpose is up a null plants in pots. curved. Lower branches spreading horizontally. Balansm in 1875. There is a var. Bidwillii by Hooker. . good varieties. . the Bunya Bunya. in rows. Hardy. Green- house or conservatory. columnar is. T. „ . CooKii (Cook's). when they have and replacing them by a smaller. Cultivation Young Araucarias floM^ers. Leaves oval-lance-shaped.



Araiicaria exceha. 499 Tliey should be potted in a compost of fibrous loam. which agree Avith Conifers in possessing no ovary. and in having large frond-like leaves. the lower leaflets {jyinnai) being replaced by ovules as large as a moderate-sized plum. and the pots must be efficiently drained. In the male the inflorescence is . and large.FERN PALMS use for table decoration. as parts so affected rapidly perish. FERN PALMS Natural Order Cycadace^. now often imported in large quantities. The others are not much grown in this country. The leaves of Cycas are of two kinds small. leathery. exceha are care. A. When grown in rooms the plants are apt to get covered wath dust this can be removed by syringing them vigorously with soapy water. greatly reduced. This species is growai by tens of thousands by the Ghent nurserymen. who supply nearly the whole of Europe with healthy young plants at a cheap rate. so that cuttings are rarely resorted to. browni. leaf-mould. stalked. development. Cycas (the classical Greek name for some species A genus of about fifteen species of stove herbaceous perennials. . These are inserted firmly in pots of sandy soil. seeds. Description of Plate 235. Propagation soil is eiFected by cuttings and to slight heat. the Norfolk Island Pine. the ovules being naked and receiving the pollen directly without the pollen-tube having to penetrate stigma and from Conifers chiefly in the fact that branching of is a very rare occurrence with them. Cuttings made from the horizontal branches never make symmetrical plants. These grow to full size whether fertilised or not. Cuttings are made from lateral shoots. stalkless scales. more especially the leader. the production of which is induced by stopping the main shoot. pinnate foliage-leaves. Care must be taken not to bruise any of the shoots. Seeds should be sown in sandy is and subjected Patience required for this method of propagation. coloured orange-red when matvire. and sand. dry. Cycads the stem differ : The tw-o kinds alternate periodically. hairy. imhricata is also raised from seeds. style. Genus Cycas of Palm). and placed in a close frame kept at a temperature of about 60°. They must be watered with Seeds of A. An individual produces at its summit either male or female flowers not both. except in very old plants. The female flow^er is a rosette of foliage-leaves which have undergone slight modification in . as the seeds may be very tardy in germinating. The stem is thick and succulent.

leaflets very slender and numerous. Trunk stout. with an abrupt spiny \nnnt. leaflets sickle-shaped. C. "high. . The name of Sago Palm. C. REVOLUTA (rolled back). etc. dark green leaflets numerous. Many of these are Bowrnlc is remarkable for excellent subjects for large conservatories. C. normanhyana. and Slangeria for its close resemblance to a fern. base of leaf-stalks C. Leaves large. 3 to 6 feet long very slender. such as C. touching each other. sometimes branched. 6 to 12 inches long. . and may occasionally be seen in our stoves. Leaves 2 to 6 feet long. media from Northern Australia. Leaves 2 to 4 feet Ion-.s There is a line collection of these plants are very large and handsome. Metroxylon. revoluta in Japan. sometimes applied to these plants.>^. C. the lower ones passing into spines. should be planted in pots or tubs of rich loam river sand has been added in sufficient quantity to . undivided and furnished with a number of densely-crowded pollen-sacs. The name arises from the fact that from the seeds of C. Ceylon. pinnate. but other good fomis have been introduced. Trunk 6 to 20 feet Principal Species. CIRCINALIS (curved-leaved). Leaves 2 to 4 feet long. The cones of Jlacrozamia and Encephalario. Trunk slender. in old specimens C. cone-like. Other genera of Cycads grown in stoves are Moxrozo. circinalis in the Moluccas. siamensis from Cochin China.iulii and Bowfula from Australia. old. 1878. are the species principally cultivated in this country. the margins rolled back. viz. is somewhat misleading. in the large Palm-House ids at Kew. . 6 to 9 feet high. which is obtained from species of true Palms. the staminal leaves are on the under-side species are natives of Tropical Asia Cycads are of comparatively recent introduction. revoluta was introduced from China in the year 1737. a starchy substance is derived which is used as food sago or sagit being the Papuan word for These bread. sometimes branched at top. MEDIA (medium-sized). Eocej^ihahi rti>-'^ and Sfangfric from Africa. paler beneath. SIAMENSLS (Siamese). and the stem of C. 1874. covered with scvirfy down. as they do not produce real Sago of commerce. about 6 inches long. NORJiAXUVAXA (Normanby's). Cyccis circinalis having been introduced from the East Indies in tl\e year 1700. becoming tall when very leaflets very numerous and Closely resembling C. narrow. Zuui'm and iJioon ivom South and Central America. and G. leaflets narrow-lanccd-sliapod. chrinai. from New South Wales in 1875. its tuberous stem and Ijipiimato leaves. pinnate. The and Australia. Trunk very stout. Trunk stout. G to 9 feet long.500 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE much smaller. Leaves smooth.



and to the conservatory when removed thither in summer.^pccie^ of herb. or p. and the pot or tub sunk in the border in a sheltered.i(hi). so that plants that have grown too tall may be lowered by cutting off their heads at the desired height. Tlie flow<'rs are : or clustered and structure. below and in front of the anther or between its cells. and about five thousand . racemes.jh v. They are raised from seeds germinated in the stove tlie . thr -t\k' often ending in a thickened process called the ru^hUn. and inserting them in sandy soil in a stove. au<l onc-cijl-d. and the stigma is a sticky surface below the rosfellum. is There Xatural Order OrchidE/E bundles from the base or tuberous. but occasionally suckers are thrown up round the base of old plants. and these may be removed and potted separately. Many of the trt)pieal -pt-cics grow upon the ti-unks of TJu-y have trur stems V(i. affording vigorous young plants.^vhi). .. The perianth C(msists of six irregular. The stamens and the style are welded into an unsynunetrical mass. The stems of all Cycads will strike root readily. or thi^ leaves are sessile on a tuft of fleshy roots or eithei.. and are hence calhnl cji'i i. as also are tin. nearly alike. no very great difference in the habit and appearance of the species. the flower is turned upside down. The upper part of this colunm supports the single anther (in the genus Cijprlpediiirn there ar. witli roots in ( modified stems {Dfnulrohlii m).ORCHIDS render the soil fairl}- 5or open. or trees. which is two-celled. By the twisting of the ovary. sunny position. asually larger.]. and this large central petal.-. becomes a lower lip (lahellirm). as the plants are impatient of stagnant moisture. coloured s(^gmcnts. uy l)rak. of which the three outer are sepals. and either of them will be found a distinct addition to the stove. the column. or panicles and of singular shapes . The pollengrains are each attached by an elastic thread to a stalk {rauAlde) which ends in a basal gland.solitary C>/j>ripf'(liii m.two lat<ral members of the inner series (petals). and often ends in a spur. but the central one of tliis scries is dissimilar. or eight pear-^liaped in spikes. revoliita is sufficiently hardy to be turned out about May. Orch is). or rhizomes tubers ( P/i< li ax). four. In this way two. C.seudo-bulbs ( {Odoiifogh^s. wliich should be at the upper side of the flower.' two aiuhris). The ovary is usually long. It is necessary that these receptacles should be efficiently drained.

birds. With very few exceptions the essential organs are so placed as to prevent fertilisation unless assisted by some agency such as bees. When . each its special species of tree for successful growth. : . Orchid . and that J. cannot be dealt with in a work like the present in any but the most superficial manner. humid atmosphere. . Collectors sent home plants without taking care to describe the conditions under which they found them growing naturally eminent traders and others abroad gave information based on insufficient data or a lack of data. xi. Mr. To facilitate . enumerates 1800 species. Peter Collinson in 1731. with its hundreds of genera and thousands of species.valved the seeds exceedingly numerous. but minute. 115). p. The first exotic species was probably Bletia verecunda. during which period great numbers of plants were imported.502 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE masses (jjollinia) of pollen are formed. and so fixed the wrong kind of treatment for half a century. foreign orchids were natives of tropical jungles requiring a hot. reference to so large a number : of genera. all. Between these dates. II. We can only hope to take representative species from a few of the principal genera.L. issued in 1896. Cypripediese and these are each divided into sub-tribes.. introduced to Kew from the Bahamas by Mr. It will be understood that so vast an Order. S. a few years ago contributed to the proceedings of the Royal Horticultural Society a most interesting paper on "Orchid Culture. and in Britain grown reintroduced earh* in Alton published the first edition of the Hortus Keivensis in 1789 he could only enumerate fifteen foreign species of Orchids as in cultivation at Kew the Hand-list of Orchids cultivated at Kew. and with the aid of the plates give a slight notion of their beauty of form and colour. Vd. etc. H..S. succeeded at a distance of forty-seven years by Dr. lost. Vandeje. of which it is reckoned one-half have been brought under the care of the gardener. Neottiese. or most. however. Past and Present" {Journal R. III. in which he describes the struggle with error the Orchid-grower has had to fight until recently. The fruit is three.nillaj^lonlfofia was introduced (some years prior to 1739). H. F. belonging to 190 genera. Fothergill's importation of Pha iiLs (irandifolius from China. they are I. V. and as Mr. Ophrydoa3. with absence of ventilation. Veitch. vol. A century ago the prevailing notion concerning the epiphytal species was that they were parasites requiring tlie nineteenth century. and the wide variation of structure based upon the general characters enumerated above. . grouped into five tribes according to their affinities Epidendrese. spindle-shaped. IV.culture must be reckoned among the most lern developments of the horticultural art. Veitch says " The usual regularly killed with the best intentions.



Early in the nineteenth century Messrs. and one of the first was Mr. and it was only here and there that a specimen was induced to flower. For the stream of imports still continued. However. imitated by probably all cultivators. the epiphytal Orcliid. he was considered to have relationship with . as Sir Joseph Hooker has remarked. with a small quantity of sand. Veitch's account of the Messrs. this was practically the system prescribed by Dr. who in 1813 flowered Aerides odorcdum by placing it in a basket of spent tan and moss. it was occasionally remarked. with the result that." and the scientific appellation of Epidendrums but they were regarded merely as curiosities. as the known species became more numerous. in the year 1812. Their method was. suspended epiphytes in cylindrical wicker-baskets with a little vegetable mould and moss. and from which a steamy evaporation was rising at all times without any ventilation from without. got the general title of " air plants. The gardeners who accomplished this were clever men. Their orchid-stove was heated by brick flues to as high a temperature as could be obtained by that means. and thus may be said to have invented the idea of the modern Orchid -basket. hung in the Pinery. Loddige's method at that date ' will be of interest to Orchid-amateurs of to-day: Loddiges at this time made their compost of rotten wood and moss. About fifteen years later Sir Joseph Banks . and by a tanbed in the middle kept constantly moist by watering. Munchausen and Mandeville. Fairbairn at Claremont. and keep them constantly plmiged in the tan-bed of the stove. To these hot steamy places Orchids were consigned as soon as and into which. . Lindley. they had brought to them a specimen of Oncidium hifolium by the gentleman who had brought it from Monte Video but when he told them it had been hung up in his cabin without earth and had flowered during the greater part of the voyage. England was for half a century the grave of tropical Orchids. and wealthy priest of horticulture. Mr.ORCHIDS 503 treatment of Orchids at this period was to pot them in a mixture of loam and peat.s. and dipped in a bucket of water half a dozen times a day. it was as dangerous to health and comfort to enter as it was into the damp. close jungle in which nil tropical Orchids were then supposed to have their received. and soon after. of course. or the altitudes at which they grew in nature. who was for many years the high and whose precepts and practice dominated almost every garden throughout the country. Except that ho stipulated for good drainage. Loddiges of Hackney began to grow Orchids in earnest." No particular allowance seems to have been made for differences in the genera or species.

joined to an increasing know- ledge and intelligence in the gardeners. Cattleyas and Bendrobiums have already been raised. Low. Veitch & Sons. but exigencies of space forbid. and which gradually. with the result that most epiphytes can now be flowered with perfect success. Dominy 's name are Ccdanthe Veitchii. Hundreds of hybrid Cypripediiims. Diacrium bicornutum. gradually led to the abandonment flues. but did not flower until 1858. after many years of clinging more or less fully to the " orthodox " teaching of Lindley. Much more might be said relating to the history of Orchids as establishments cultivated plants. fresh air Chatsworth. but also remonstrances against growing (or attempt- ing to grow) them under conditions so different from those under which they were found. has carried out similar work with success hybrids " made in Britain " are in Messrs. The bulk of the plants. iLlbans. We must content ourselves with a glance at a few typical genera. however. Veitch's Chelsea nurseries. of the old system. . a pupil of Dominy's. and ^-11. This was the treatment adopted by Paxton at a lower temperature was maintained. Seden. and Lcelia Bominii. the firms that followed the lead of the Loddiges in gi-owing Among . masuca and C. Among other good things associated with Mr. such as Cattleya Some still puzzle the most succitrina. found its way into the Orchid-houses of the land. and there are in now numerous which the breeding of Orchids artificially is an important industry-. and was raised in the following year. are imported direct from their native habitats. cessful growers. Orchids for sale were: Rollison. As early as the year LSo2 Mr. and Mexican establishments one or other of these is certain flowered successfully. These remonstrances. and numerous other genera have been operated upon by the hybridiser with success. His first hyhnclGdanthe Bominii had C. Mr. more perfect drainage ensured. Williams. Veitch. and a moist atmosphere obtained by sprinkling the paths and staging. Cattleya exoniensis. — the last-named with three acres of greenhouses fact that devoted exclusively to Orchids. Thus Diacrium bicornutum gives httle difiiculty at Kew. and Sander of St. in London Maule of Bristol. Perhaps the most striking testimony to the knowledge brought to bear upon Orchid-culture in the last fifty years is to be found in the becoming plentiful. Catasetitms. and Sir Charles Strickland has grown Cattleya citrina successfully for fifteen or sixteen } ears in an ordinary greenhouse. some Oncidiums. Backhouse of York. veratrifolia for parents. Hot-M'ater pipes were substituted for the brick was admitted. J. Jolm Dominy entered upon a course of experiments in In-bridising in the Exeter nurseries of Messrs.504 sent FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE home Orchids. yet in Bendrobiums.



so that the bidk of It a consi^maent woid...d and fifty speei in inoss oil tliu UKniiituii 1 forestss of . sepals . [ intoslen..-. Tl.> in hoiunn.jonrnev d<..^w.]\../ so sensitive tliat upon a fly or other insect. 1S42: -mA M.n'-t attractive lue.nbers ol' the the genus.'ii and f»or )0 U'v\. (lenus Mi isdi'. lunoe. m ".aped leatl li^iV.l pn.'eached tl.MASDEVALLIAS MASDEV ALLIA.. Among tbese were: fi'. p.paeatio.o^ and the iirineii^al J/.LIA (11lanie.l lii.- .a Spa.'ih. an.n}„Avnm came fr-.m it . beca.em ^ivat an altitude.was dur to the difficulty of transportinfj rlrstioxinu the coast -.Hhice.m Veuezuela.l 1-:.'ta 1 F' Jahrlhm.s/.l l>e worthies. Thi. Masde \al a moderate ten. ^- 1 elcvui ions 1k' twe. . '\ h stocks w itli spo. aerie a.. liowe\er ^niall. '1 .Uth.o v hii:li<r country. n..r<>u.h.< : .•it mel Tropi cal A.m Bra/il.l to the hal of yesterday . .siz. and those demand was even smaller tha. belo. JJut.":^v ou a tall slender sJap. ^^itl. ////. a. (.-< o. bsc:. . bSSo.. j Ion.'. /o.'et tl.inl.-at. Mexico. M. l. mJ/V'" /"..uv al subj..-efore necessary that some amotnit of cuhiNatio. ^l.8 Xat ural Orde r Ohchidk. in l-STI cultivated liave been inti'odueed since that iSiiT . u-as tln'-.V. i/ni^niuhirls.-. - A oenus of abo^lit one hu ndr..V...n-shapM il. r. : from PertLin species is now from ("olun.v Oilumbia.l iV-.wn Avould tnan incn.i tin' supply.iM" introduced were by no means the n. M.l.-hlu.elnVHyi ()()( )(> a Mie.-ii of oivat l.. ilale. ^lionld be practised here before many plants cduld b.' incdium. ali-hting .T Hotanists were acquainted with ^picies lonj^ before a living plant herbarium specimens of a nunibei- was then.btaineil.)'S of til.s- .of Dr.!' lu. bron<ilit to (irowino..dy (|uite iir.] e their upi . 184:^: J/. tli.xl n-nlar fori .irr unite.laa.n. t.

streaked ^vith brown. BELLA (charming). 1878. I\I. Free-flowering. with reddish nerves. Introduced from long tails dark purplish brown. Flowers yellowish. Leaves narrow-lance-shaped. tapering gradually to a long tail. (Mil li-. 1874. The var. Flowers long-tailed. MiscosA (mossy). Introduced from Columbia. CAUDATA (tailed). sometimes shaded with crimson or violet-rose upper sepal narrow. orange-scarlet. Slnifflfivnrflul. 1874. a handsome plant with blackish purple sepals. its M.. Introduced from Columbia. believed to have been the first raised from seed in Europe. Columbia. Leaves oblong on long foot-stalks. (lovely). Introduced from Columbia. . Sepals yellow without. Plate Seveial good varieties are grown. and . 6 to 9 inches long. ti. with larger flowers of brighter tints. Introduced 1869. of a dazzling fiery red. and light mauve petals and . Height 6 inches. xanthocorys has the upper st'pal almost yell(n\-. Leaves obscurely three-toothed at apex. bright scarlet within upper 28(Ja. 1883. . Introduced from Peru. Winter-flowering. lower sepals purple w4th ochreous base and orange tails. Several good varieties are in cultivation. 10 or 12 inches. purple-brown. marshalllaaa has yellow flowers. Chlalera (Chimasra-like). Introduced from Columbia. Upper sepal ochreous. raised 1880 from M. outer half and upper sepal spotted with dark base ochre-yellow inner half of lower sepals yellow. Roezlii (1880). M. lip : . gejimata (adorned). the fiddle-shaped labellum marked with brown and mauve. amabilis. Flowers exceedingly brilliant. in which the sepals vary from brilliant violet to and magenta. bent close over remainder of flower. triangular. I. M. green. melanopus (black-stalked). f ( )i ( ixEA (scarlet). The height refers Masdevallia amabilis inches high. ignea (fiery). purple. 6 Introduced from Columbia. Flowers white. streaked with purple. total length of sepal. :\r. Plate 236b. and yellow 4 inelies high. 31. Native of Columbia. veitehiana and J/. M. M. with a tail of equal length. j\[. lip. 1874. Lip heart-shaped. 1871.irrow. A garden hybrid. CHELsoxi (Chelsea). FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE evailing in the genus. inclnding Lindeni (also known rose as Ifa rrj/cnn). Plate 236c. Flowers large . among them hackhouseana (1879). Also known as ^f. Flowers white with purple dots and yellow tails 6 inches high. each tapering to a very slender and very longtail. and clothed with hairs triangular. The var. Sepals yellow with close mottling of dark red.



An extensive genus (three hundred species) of stove and greenhouse plants. grandiflora has much larger (Schlim's). M. M. VEITCHIAXA (Veitch's). spotted with dark crimson. avoiding cold draughts. stalks bristly. inner surface rich orange-scarlet. life in allusion to their epiphytal habit). aliout one-third less than the natural six-flowered. and a good depth of drainage. and slugs eat the young leaves and flower-stems . During the summer they must be kept shaded from the . il/. 1874. Fig. M. and irritable. Genus Dendrohium : Den-drobium (Greek dendron. 3Ias<Iev(dlias are among the most easily accommodated of Orchids. M. . ROSEA (rosy). moist atmosphere in small pots. Introduced from Peru. Introduced from Venezuela. and as cool as possible 50°. ScHLiMii flowers. M. . some with small conical tree. Masdevallias. 1880. 1865. mottled with brownish red scape three. gemmata. . Leaves 6 to 12 inches long. Introduced Flowers yellow. TOVAREXSis (native of Tovar. 1884. from Peru. and they must have plenty of water during the growing period when at rest. They should be repotted in February. 6 inches high. A.. some having wiry creeping rhizomes. There is considerable difference among the species. The var. deep violet. scapes as long again. Description of Plate 236. coccinea. 2 inches long. half the natural size.e. much reduced. Thrips and red spider often disfigure the leaves. Owing to their natural habitat being at so high an elevation they require to be grown in a cool. shows the flower of the natural size 2 is the column and 3 the poUinia. 1867. Flowers white. . Columbia).to eight-flowered. in winter they require a temperature not all lower than less Air should be admitted at times. 1885. . M. M. Introduced from Northern Peru. POLYSTICTA (many-dotted). a and bios. bearded. Flowers rosy-purple. Chimcera. Flowers pure white. j they must be kept under. with a compost of peat and sphagnum. sun. The DENDROBES Natural Order Ohchide. scapes six. Introduced from Columbia. Flowers outside tawny-yellow. studded with purple-tipped woolly glands. . B. usually in pairs scape 6 inches high. C. Introduced from Columbia.

Wnr<r. John Smith. The to the more or less contracted at the base.i„ n. but in some they are two-edged. as also D. in the year 1822. Flowers deep yellow in arching racemes. bearing a single : A . he found these plants of Roxburgh's " on a shelf above a flue against the backthe plants tried their best to explain how they what was then called the propagating-house. which had recently been brought home from Calcutta by Mr. Roxburgh having sent several species to Kew from India. largest of the Orchids. cncidlatum. . leafy only at the suininit. like those of Iris. together). will be found marked against D. Principal Species Dexdrobium aggregatum : (assembled leaf. and to which we have already referred And yet at some length. Fannrri. and in others they arc round and tapering. others club-shaped. the Denrobe was introduced then. Pierard. i8(js. 6 inches long March to May. but the majority pi-oduce lono. The cultivation of Dendrohiums dates from the beginning of the century first — or rather. introduced 1847.leafy branches. . The var. They are natives chiefly of India and the Malay Peninsula. Culceohiria in 1820. iJii'ma. have ordinary flat leaves. in his Rpcovfh of Kew. thick. we should . devonianmn from India in 1837. Some of the species are minute.36. others are among the . tells how.. Greenliouse best grown on block. flowering freely. . with the date. D. Among the early introductions were the two species named. The majority. say. these species below. rxcrpt tliat the Likr stems are swollen at the nodes spi-ing.bruifam in 1828. and the country of their origin. 1837. There were also plants of Dendvohiam Pierardi and D. rosy. jiu. Stoxf. Many fine species have been brought into cultivation quite recently. and lies upon or gi-ows foot of the column. Introduced From North India. whence also came D. should be treated. raajas has larger flowers.5o8 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE pseudo-bulbs. for Mr.' . again. or yellow lip is solitary or in clusters or racemes. green. we also owe to India. nobde M-as introduced from China in LS.. these cannot be said to have been cultivated. liorny steins. and D. CRASsixoDE (tl)ick-noded). The flowers arc purple. Pseudo-bulb. but a few are found in Australasia and the Pacific Islands. with four pollinia of pretty uniform breadth at either end. I).cramerdatvm and The beautiful D. The antlier is two-celled. Tlie roots of some of these liad attached tliemselves to the wall. followed by Pierard and Wallich but owing to the mistaken notions then prevailing. which came about 1815 from India." wall in .



spring. and iriUcd at the e<1ge :\ravc]i and April. Stems 2 to 4 long. Assam. Stems 4 to 5 feet long. sepals and petals white. DENDROBES D. wardianum (Ward's). aureoflavum. creamy. One of the . each two inches across. Introduced from India. . 6 to 12 inches long. D. 1836. Phalcenopsis (moth orchid - like). 1847. pale yellow. tinged with pink petals long. crimson blotches on the labellum spring. Birma. Stems Flowers in drooping racemes the largest in the genus. the lip blotched with purple spring. Leafy stems club-shaped. NOBILE (noble). the lip deep maroon. Stove. considerable range of tint . Greenhouse evergreen.white. One of the most beautiful . most easily - other species have been raised. The variety oculatum has a maroon-red blotch on the lip. : : Falconeri (Falconer's). metrically arranged. lip deep maroon Introduced from China. 1 foot high. tipped witli magenta lips margined with purple. DEVONIAXU3I (Duke of Devonshire's). (Dalhousie's). Stems 1 to 3 feet long. 1 inch thick. purplish January to April. lip. Stove. white tinged with rosymauve. albijiorum has white flowers with downy. THYRSIFLORUM (thyrse-flowcred). . . baskets grown Orchids. Stov^e. Stems 2 to 3 feet high. Greenhouse species of pendulous habit. D. feet D. D. Should be grown in basket or on block. Flowers in loose pendent raceme. best grown on a block or in a basket. Stems 2 to 4 feet long. rose. FARiiERi (Farmer's). 3 indies wide. Birma. The pendulous racemes var. DALHOUSIEANUM . the lip primrose streaked with purple in long racemes . Flowers in elegant racemes 2 to 3 inches across. the lip deeply fringed and blotched with orange. showing . with two large . D. It is nearly always in flower. Pseudo-bulbs 1 to 3 feet Flowers 2 inches across. The var. 1864. white tinged with rose. Stove. Small specimens do well in Numerous hybrids between this and larger ones require pots. Floweis solitary from the nodes. 1828. FIMBRIATUM (fringed). lip fringed. has yellow flowers with a golden Introduced from Moulmein. spotted with orange. Birma. 509 2 to 5 feet. Eaceme composed of many large flowers symStove. D. D.. D. orange yellow. Stove. 1856. Stems 1 to 2 feet long. Flowers white or pale pink. the plant figured in Plate 237 is one of these. . Stove. A recently popularised species from New Guinea. Flowers large. orange lip. There are a number of varieties. Flowers pale straw-colour tinged with pink lip golden-yellow in long May. D. shown in our Plate 238. knotted. stout. spring. Stems slender. 1864. Pierardii (Pierard's). winter. . pendulous. bright yellow. . 1820.

upper part white. in fact. have stood in the house for a few hours before using it. lower part white. thirtj^or forty in a raceme sepals and petals broad. rapid. Species of pendulous habit should If planted in the ordinary Orchid- basket the latter should be lined with sphagnum-moss and roughly - broken peat. these must be dipped into a pail of Care must be taken to use only clean water that is also as warm as the temperature of the house it should. This is a point of considerable importance. among the most beautiful and therefore well worthy the attention of the of of amateur. and so ripen their stems or If they now show any tendency towards withering. splendidissimum (aureum x nobile). water must be given abundantly. upper part magenta lip large. When growth has almost ceased. as the blocks are hung nearer the glass. 1879. The syringe must be used two or three times a day to Dendrobes in baskets In the former case the spray should be confined to the roots and the sphagnum in the case of blocks it is not of such great importance. Introduced from Assam. thick. or on block. During the period of growth they require a very hot house and plenty of sunshine. (Falconeri . but it is advisable not to syringe the plants. as mischief sometimes results from water remaining stagnant in the axils and leaf -sheaths. 1863. upon which the compost should be raised in a cone above the rim and pressed firmly around the base of the plant. May. as any looseness will result in injury to the plant. and where . Two or three times a week . 1874 leechianum (nobile X aureum). \\-ater. where drying is more . they can receive all tlie available sunshine. a lower temperature and drier atmosphere obtained for the plants. the water-supply must be cut oflT. secured in position by fine copper wire. be grown in baskets or on blocks. 1890. . 1882. 5IO pendulous. Blocks must be covered with the sphagnum. lower rich orange with two magenta spots. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE . There are numerous beautiful hybrid Dendrobiums of garden origin the best are Ainsivorthii (aureum x nobile). but the pot should be first filled to two-thirds of its height with drainage material.. Dench'ohiuvis as a genus are of Orchids. and the plants fixed firmly by some more of the same material. with the addition charcoal. a few turns of which should be so made around the plant as to fix it firmly. give pseudo-bulbs. The erect-growing species may be potted in a mixture equal parts fibrous peat and sphagnum-moss. Flowers 3^ inches across. Venus : . or on blocks. Fresh growth usually commences with or after development of flowers the plants must be re-potted at . Must be grown in basket Stov^e plant. x nobile).



var. portions Piates237and238. nohile. . the four parallely-compressed pollen-masses two of the pollen-masses separated from the cell. and the leaves are broad and many-ribbed. are distinguished by the production of the lip into a kind of spur. showy spikes.Malayan Region. Sieholdii) from Japan in 1837. of two stems with leaves and Fig. The first Calanthes introduced appear to have been Principal Species. . VeUchii is the result of a cross between C. but very sparing-ly. violet-purple lip spikes 2 feet Flowers deep violet with a more intense The var. 5tr Tlie period of neeesscary rest has arrived. of the flower . A which connects them afterwards hardening into a disk-like gland adjoining the beak. furcata came from the Luzon Isles in 1836. . Flowers creamy-white. C. . usually evergi-een.rpikes 3 ieet long. JDominii is a hybrid produced by crossing C. and all that would stimulate the plant to growth must be avoided. The species are chiefly from the Indo. C. from India in 1819. natural size. rosea. CALANTHES water. The flowers.^. if may bo flowered in introduced to the stove in the autumn. plant greatly reduced 4. Description Of Dendrohium nohile. veratrifolia. winter. C. and C. beautiful. The stems are reduced to pseudo-bulbs. striata (better known as C. 3. though naturally flowering in spring. veratrifolia . Upper . JmIos. 2. 2. C. the coluuni enlarged the pollen-masses. natural CALANTHES Natural Order Orchide. Plate 237. Calanthe furcata (forked). ni erect C. and contains eight distinct pollen-masses tapering into points. sylvestris from Madagascar in 1823. Masuca and G. Genus Calanthe genus of about forty species of handsome stove Orchids of terrestrial habit. but extend also to the South Pacific Islands and to Tropical and South East Africa. flower). D. and its attachment to the column. (jrandilong. . -i o i- ^ i Masuca (native name). . the sticky secretion Calanthe (Greek. The anther is two-celled. Masuca from India in 1838. flowers. which are produced in long. 1. aureojlavum. ^. . raceme of flowers. anthos.. " °'^' . var. C. Farmeri. C. R Fig. size . vest If a and C. Plate 238. . fiora produces much larger flowers in spikes 3 or 5 feet higli. 1 is a section 3. abundant. whilst a few species occur in Central America and the West Indies. June to August.

which has tlie lip and the base of column blotched with fiery red (Borneo. Flowers lilac with deep G. DoMixii (Dominy's). a little silver-sand. Veitchii (\^eitch's). var. They should then be shaken out of the old soil. Evergreen. When these have passed. Genus Caelogyne CcELOGYXE (Greek koilos. in a nodding Introduced from India. Flowers bright rose with white throat. 1876). When supplied with plenty of water. Flowers pure white. the evergreen species must still be heat and water in plenty. roughly-broken peat. flowers 2 inches across with a blotch of rich crimson. They are propais gated by division. C. leaf-mould. Flowers pure white. var. Twrneri has larger flowers with rose-coloured eye. C CE L GYNE S Natural Order Orchide.e. and then potted singly in 3-inch pots. . Leaves with many margins. igneo-oculatd. or in threes in 5-inch pots. the deeply hollowed-out stigma. the sepals green-tipped. var.512 C. yellow. warm house. They should then be placed near the glass in a very little water. There are many varieties among them . flowers 3 inches across with fiery-red blotch on the base of the lip var. oculata-gigantea (Borneo. Flowers large. hollow. purple C. a female: in allusion to A genus of about fifty handsome stove . 1886). VESTITA (clothed). in erect spikes 2 to 3 feet high: May to July. and by separating specially the suckers. This genus worthy of attention from the amateur. numerous. and some dried cow manure. and gyne. of labellum studded with golden papilla?. . and allowed to grow. C. Calanthes are most beautiful Orchids when properly After the flowers have faded the pseudo-bulbs should be kept dry on a shelf until new growth pushes at the base. in erect spikes 1 foot high. where the flowers will last for a long period. . FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE STEIATA (streaked). spike. luteo-oculata has a blotch of yellow in the middle of the lip var. in a compost of loam. VERATKIFOLIA (Veratrum-leaved). ruhroocidata. the roots cut to a length of about 2 inches. erect spikes 3 feet high winter. lip. and the disk 2 feet long. numerously produced in anaged. Until they are well rooted they require but when they are well started they require both the flowers appear they should be removed to a cooler situation.



but petals racemes and flowers as in C. 6 inches long . Pseudo-bulbs pear-shaped. Introduced from Malaya. 1884. long: leaves plicate. Introduced from Southern India. 1878. C. marked with dark red. twin. leaves long and narrow. thin. and the hood-shaped lip has fringed veins. wider and cohnnn bordered witli orange in erect racemes March and April. SPECIOSA (showy). Introduced from Northern India. . shining.5 . leaves Flowers on long pendulous scapes.— . smooth. lanceolate. . hairs . Stove. DAYANA (Day's). its edges fringed with sepia in erect spikes. 1837. Pseudo-bulbs somewhat oblong leaves oblonglobe . There are several named varieties. Pseudo-bulbs cylindric. leathery. does not require a high temperature. Pseudo-bulbs oblong. lip bright yellow with white down the centre. lip fringe<l or crested. slightly drooping This racemes December March. each 2 inches across. . 1840. Flowers 3 to 4 inches across. lip veined with orange and with a yellow plate in front in erect racemes. fragrant. yellow. Flowers white. streaked and spotted with \-elIow and brown at tlie base. ^^^^^^^^^ ^AREATA (bearded). Malaya. 1822. C. even grown and is to the conservatory or drawing-room returning it to a warm house before growth recommences. a golden fringe to . crests and margins fringed blooming almost continuously. Principaispecies. much wrinkled. The hollowed stigma is prominent and two-lipped. C. Suited for block culture. CORRUGATA (wrinkled). and there are four waxy pollen-masses which cohere by means of a granular substance. Borneo. dark brown. lip streaked with white and fringed with brown June. . Psendo-ljulbs C. the lip with a central blotch of rich yellow. 2 feet long. Introduced from Singapore. pure white. when growing whilst when best removed when flowering . The column broad and membranous. 1845. sepals in usually across. Introduced from Himalaya. one extending to South China. . and the veins crested with . The petals are narrow than the sepals. the lip cut into three. CCELOGYNES epiijhytes ^^•itll 513 pseudo-bulbs and large flowers. C. In some species leaves are not produced until after flowering. 186C. OCELLATA (eyed). autumn. pairs. Flo^^-ers pure white. lip yellow. C. Flowers large. Pseudo-bulbs oval. C. pure white. Introduced from Northern India. . and with two yellow spots on each side lip longer. 4 inches . . The species are natives of India and is the ]\ralay Archipelago. inches over 3 Flowers and petals brownish or olive-green. Cool house. 1837. solitary. MASSAXGEANA (Massange's). 18 inches by 6 inches (h'y(n}n. . and pure white. 2 feet or more. CUMIXGII (Cuming's). in many-flowered. Leaves narrow. IV. Flowers pure white. CRISTATA (crested). it must be kept quite cool. lance-shaped.

with light streaks Borneo. Stove. With the exception pans.4 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE C. . however. fill up in a conical mound above the rim with a mixture of fibrous peat and living sphagnum in equal portions. and during the rest they need only sufficient to prevent shrivelling. pleioii. During growth these do not require so much moisture as most Orchids. and flowers coloured pale orange-red. then placed in a INDIAN CROCUSES Natural Order ORCHiDEiE. long. Upon this cone the Coelogynes should be planted and pressed dry temperature ranging from 75° to 85° in summer. w4th long spreading petals and sepals. to which a little silver sand has been added. 1854. and from 6 to 9 inches before the flowers develop. LAGENARIA (bottle-sliaped). . more The leaves. pseudo-bulbs. They have the pseudo-bulbs). etc. Water should at all times be given to Coelogynes with a fine-rosed can. and flowers 3 inches across. white. they will be much better off in a cool house. With depressed irregular pseudo- bulbs. Like C. Pleioxe humilis (dwarf). but pseudo-bulbs and ives smaller. Introduced from Nepaul. dayana. the lip and flowers 3 inches across. margin white. and an oblong many-keeled fringed lip.000 feet on the Himalaya. During the flowering and resting periods. 1856. With bottle-green ribbed Principal Species. in allusion to For garden purposes it separate from Qelogynes. and care taken that it does not lodge in the axils. Pleiones are alpine plants growing on moss-covered tree-trunks or rocks at an elevation of from 3000 to 10. The flowers spring singly or in pairs from the base of the pseudo-bulb they are large. although botanists liave united them. the lip summer. Genus Codogyne Sub-genus Pleicrne Pleione (Greek. P. January. Ccelogynes should be grown in pots or After attending very particularly to the drainage of these. . in firmly. and from 65° to 70° in winter. which are lance-shaped. lilac. rosy striped and blotched with purple. a year. TOiiENTOSA (hairy). of the species indicated as suitable for block-culture. 1866. November. . with lines and blotches of amethyst purple on the lip. dull green mottled with brown. Introduced from Kliasia. the annual duration of is better to keep these annual fleshy pseudo-bulbs. fall off" or less flask-shaped and plaited. mottled.



The leaves are strapshaped and leathery. Epidendrum ciliare (fringed).— . sepals lance-shaped. 3 to 5 inches high FloAvers 3 inches across. white. lip with a bright yellow disk and a few red spots fragrant. Stove. Pseudo-bulbs as in the last flowers 3 inches across. wallichiana has flowers of a darker shade of purple November. and petals Should be grown in . mauve or rosy-lilac. 1790. flowers 2 . comparatively few are cultivated. Genus Epidendrum tree). . P. in others reduced to pseudo-bulbs. however. Pseudo-bulbs oblong base of the lip is traversed . . Introduced from Khasia. except the three-lobed winter. Pseudo-bulbs as in the last. greenish yellow. or panicles. though many of them grow in the ground. several lip. . . delicate Pseudo-bulbs oval. EPIDENDEUMS Natural Order Orchidej5. epi. The genera. . They are natives of Tropical America. Introduced from Mexico. as tlie name suggests. upon. Introduced from West Indies. 1840. In some the stems are long and leafy. Pleiones require treatment somewhat similar to that advised for Calanthes. KPIDENDRUMS P. by a passage closed at one end. leaves m . inches across. in large drooping panicles. lip striped with violet. . leaves in pairs. planting them about 2 inches apart. and demlron. 1837. . a Epidendrum A Most of the species are epiphytes. 1837. Introduced from Khasia. pairs. usually solitary. of which. genus of about four hundred species of stove and greenhouse plants. and sand they should be repotted about a week after the flowers fade and they are best grown in 9-inch pans. Flowers fragrant. They should be grown . PE/ECOX (early). sphagnum. and the flowers are solitary or in spikes. wliicli is t^. Principal Species.dit rose-purple. There are four equal pollen-masses. XEMORALE (woodland). E. on account of the smallness and dinginess of their flowers when contrasted with those of some other (Greek. i- . with the following modifications : sunny greenhouse they require a compost of fibrous peat. leaf -mould. m • a raceme. The characteristic feature is found in the partial union of the fleshy base of the lip with the edges of the elongated column. wliite and fringed Native of Tropical America. in a . 515 MACULATA (spotted). the lip striped and blotched with purple November. Var. racemes. . li<.

except that the former do not require so high a temperature as the latter.shaped. It grows on rocks near Trinidad. lioUowed in the centre so close to the sea that it is frequently bathed in sea-spray.5i6 E. As want of space precludes one traversing the ground. . Pseudo-bulbs and leaves glaucous. . . a summit : in allusion to the species. Genus Diacrium DiACRiUM (Greek. and it has generally lieen found very diflicult to grow. flask . Steins tall. dark green. For cultural purposes Epidendrurns may be treated as though they were Gattleyas. Leaves lance-shaped. a foot or more in length. Requires a warm moist atmosphere. . The flowers are flfteen-flowered summer. in two rows. leaves evergreen. Flowers orange-scarlet. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE PAXICULATUM (pauicled). but often difficult to flower several years in succession.bulbs. f(>(»t ioot to 1! Ingh. Stove plant.ut' tlie ten. 2 inches across. VITELLIXUM (yolk-of -egg-like). and akris. Diacrium I'leonuifum (two-horned) is the principal species horticulturally. The var. 1868. Introduced from panicle. with full exposure to the sun and after flow-ering. the pseudobulbs should be well ripened by full sunlight in lower temperature with . E. the column tipped with yellow very numerous. Introduced from Guatemala. with bright yellow lip in erect spike. 1840. A genus of about four two from h))idf'ndrum in the <louble prolongation of the column. the lip spotted with crimson. Introduced from Central America. 2 to 4 feet high. ten. lip lilac-purple with white border raceme erect. Flowers fragrant. di. It should be grown on a block suspended in a moist atmosphere of high temperature. we ask readers to kindly turn to the Cultural Directions on page 519. as uls<» . in a long drooping branched Greenhouse species. broader petals.or twelve-flowered June. Tropical America. two. .or twelve-flowered spikes. 1862. Flowers purple or lilac-purple. Pseudo. produced at summit of pst'Uilu-bulbs. yellowgreen spotted with black or dark purple. PRISM A'HK'ARPUM (prisui-fruited). DIACEIUMS Natural Order ORCHiDEiE. majus from Mexico has larger flowers with . ten. stonr. E. Ltavi-s sliort and leathery. diflering extremities of the column). Greenliouse species. reed-like. 1 Its pseudo-bulbs are and inhabited by a siiiull sprcits <it am. a foot high.



solitary leathery leaf from the apex of the pseudo-bulb. and are borne in a raceme from tlu^ 7 or 8 inches across. The flowers an. of which one of the best is figured in our Plate 239. Forhef^ii was introduced. They are of America. Catti. natives They have a single of the warmer parts '''^^*' series of four pollen-masses. Thus the first five members of this magnificent genus all came from Brazil. a • pati-on of and colloctov rare plants). the prototype of many was followed three years later by beautiful varieties. Three years later Brazil showed that her good things had not been exhausted.'. ArJandicc. and the grow at an altitude between 4000 year 181. and two years later still C fimonhsn. (1824). Mo^aku of C. came from This Oihuitn. and ('. by sending C. ^klnveri from Guatenuila. introduction of living (Jatfl^njas History ^" began Brazil.KVA Ijotany'' (imiiied in lionour of of William Cattlry.5. in when (J. A o'oniis of ahwut t\\viiTy-ti\e evergreen pseudo-bulbous Orchids. All these are fine plants.'. lahiatn. from an«l Brazil to Mexico. and in the same year came C. followed by r.'j . Loddi(jCHll (.)b'.nrdh. often rich colours. iiuftotu (1827). COOO feet. with usually a . [. Vet another three years an<l ('. in sumc species there species of are of two or even three leaves. that hoM fa\oured positions in pui)lic esteem to-day in spite of many more recent ilers' catalogues for half a guin.C ATTLEYAS (U'lius ('attlnj'i Natural Order ORCfirDE.i:. of the pseudo- toj) bulb. In 188G La Guayra \-ielded the var.

twoFlowers three to fi\e on erect racemes. twin. BOWiiiNGiANA (Bo wring's). . 2 inches wide. CITRINA (citron). . GUTTATA (spotted). varying from rose to pui^le July. . pale than . ( . stained with purple raceme five. The var.5i8 ])airs. waxy-looking. wrinkled when old. crowded.or three-leaved. Hybrid. bright nankeen-coloured flowers. 12 inches long. with large. deep rose-coloured. DOMINIANA (Dominy's). Should be grown in basket. C. whiteC. Leaves leathery. iutfinhMliatt. latea has blush-coloured flowers. EXONiENSis (Exeter). and Lalia purpuraia. with very large. SJdnneri. l)lotched with deep \iolet-purple May to July. obtained by crossing C. ten-flowered October and November. of a deep chocolate colour spotted with dark red the lip rich red-purple. and with more heat 1866. Flowers in erect racemes. 6 to 10 inches long. near the glass. streaked and barred with yellow.'). . and rich purple From Costa Rica. this species lip. with delicate rosy flowers and broad purple C. . C. the petals broad and waved lip large and somewhat hooded. . C. compressed. Flowers solitary. Flowers soft rosy-lilac. (h)iv'unni. . margined. Among the varieties of . lip leaved. EAHIATA (lipped). Leopohlii has more numerous and fragrant flowers. lip large. Flowers inches across. leathery. (na('t]nistn(jh>ss. paling almost to white in front. with rose-streaked yellow lip. other re. lip shaded with violet-rose and streaked with yellow. of a bright lemon tint May Introduced from Mexico. with pink Hybrid. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE chocolate-brown. INTER. two. . purple lip. rosy or rosy-purple. Eblonnb>. stems 5 to 10 inches long. except (J . 1838. alba. the front portion deep velvety-crimson late autumn. Flowers green. lish with puri O'tfh'nox pink Var. like those of C. in which the lip also is white. underside of a block. Pseudo-bulbs oval. white shaded C. and orange at base. but flowers smaller and coloured rose-purple lip deep purple and white British Honduras. October. spotted with purple. and hung in greenhouse till end of suunner. at summit of pseudoC. Stems club-shaped. The var. 1884. two-leaved.iuirc. three or four in a raceme. then removed to the vinery. supcrba. The varieties are numerous and very beautiful . Flowers G or 7 inches across.i lias taller stems and larger flowers. among them are : Var. lip rosy-purple edged with white. jointed. fragrant. tinted with yellow and spotted with crimson lip white. . is var. one-leaved leaf oblong. Should be grown on the to August. The var. labiata Mossicb. bulbs.MKDIA Stems 1 foot high. for a lilac blotch in centre. club-shaped. . There is a var.



the lip folded almost to the apex. Mendelii. A^enezuela. into the surface. Rio de Janeiro. bright rose-purple. Var. There are numerous sub. similar to var. flat. white . deep purple with a yellow disk and and two eye-like blotches of white. Triamt'. 4 inches across. a LAWRENCIAXA (Lawrence's). Var. 2 to 5 inches long. 1848. streaked with white. with numerous sub-varieties. intermedm C. A good deptli of open drainage material is essential. radiating lines.CATTLE VAS crimson and orange sepals lip. spring. flowers in spring. Yar. i. flowers to 9 inches. with purple-fronted lip and yellow throat. C. Var. Mosske but smaller. HarrisonuB has an orange-yellow disk. 4 inches long. to which some sharp silver sand should be added. flowers 6 inches or more varying from blush to deep rose. British Guiana. flowers 4 inches across. Pseudo-bulbs 12 to 18 inches high leaves Flowers rosy-purple with deeper shadings. Columbia. Stems and leaves as in C. Warsceiviczii (gigas). leaves oblong. blusli. and . 1840. . WALKERIANA (Walker's). 1860. where it is purple. scape.varieties of this last hardy ana is supposed to be a natural hybrid between this and doivmna. but tinged with purple. . pink . lip amethyst-purple with a white disk. There are several named Small specimens of Cattleyas may be grown on blocks th sphagnum-moss. Upon soil and the mound the plant sliould be pres. 519 cj(islY-Ui<ina_^ Brazil. and more intensely coloured. to pale and petals large and broad. Venezuela (Plate 239). Stems and leaves as in C. upon which a cone of soil should be built up above the rim of the pot. . but paler. Var. each 4 inches across. Flowers five to seven on an erect scape. . . Skinneri fleshy.sed made very firm around the roots. IHG'-X Var. lip beautifully fringed or crisped at the edges. Columbia. 3Iosskc. varying from white Columbia. This should consist of a compost of peat (free from grit) and sphagnum chopped up whilst living. . Ex- ceedingly variable. rosy-lilac lip amethyst-purple and white August. The this . Brazil. similar to var. Stems spindle-shaped. 1884. April and May. lahiaia. 1822. LoDDiGESii (Loddiges'). Warner . Mossue. shaded with dark maroon and lined with white spring. lip rich magenta. base of lip (Skinner's). rosy-mauve. rosy-lilac. 7 Brazil. flowers 7 inches across. rose-purple lip veined with dark purple disk yellow. 2'>crcivalkrna. flowers 6 to 8 inches across. twin. Flowers one or two on a short C. but larger individuals will blossom better and give less trouble if potted. across. lip Var. Var.

1 conntrv. from }>razil to A Mexico. Block-culture as prescribed for Dendrohiums applies equally to Cattleyas grown in that fashion. They are natises of the warmer parts of America. thr antifi il May-llou-er cai] le vav also !.<i 1). however. they are separated chiefly on account of the pollen-masses being eight in a double series instead of a single group of four. Genus Ln-lii genus of about thirty species of Orchids. L alhnl.k.n. and water given only when necessary to keep the pseudo-bulbs fairly plump. to prevent moisture lodging about the base of the leaves.520 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE he taken in watering Cattleyas. A long season of rest must be allow^ed Abundant water good display next season.).„. about one-third less than the natural size. but this distinction has broken down with the knowledge of a larger number of species. ^''^'^^"^ ^'^^'*^* ^. from which. and as beautiful additions to the genus. During the resting period this may be reduced to from 65° to 70^". yet too expensive for most collectors. to ensure a Cattlcya lahiatn. and with few exceptions they are all They are. etc. after flowering.l>n. very rare. and at this period the plants should be in a temperature ranging from 75° to 85°. closely allied to Cdttleyu. ^ . It was thought when the genus was established that there were other difterenccs.^^_ notion t lan History..KLiA (named after a Vesta Virgin).. ' The magniticeii \ rispur." " il<>^ '/Vr! mw !! liiolf 'i uTLZ\ \ic. var. Many hybrid Cattleyas have been raised... in fact. is essential when growing.tuthc present oIuuk . . L. Natural Order Orchide. Mossku. :M/il until 1V-! ll-ol < L.1.



three to five on stem nearly 2 feet long March. bearing a flower 5 inches across. and variously tinted and blotched labellum. three. FLAVA one-leaved. three. the small lip white. . somewhat quadrangular. L^LIAS . to 6 inches across. the lip three-lobed.. six-flowered. atrorubens has flowers of a rich magenta or crimson shade. being best. solitary. Pseudo-bulbs slender. leaves 9 inches long. leathery. stem-like. 6 inches long stem a foot or more long. Pseudo-bulbs ovate. L. GRANDis (grand).to six-flowered December and January. . L. somewhat flask-shaped. many twenty racemes Flowers fragrant. thin. 5 inches long. bearing about six flowers. singly or in pairs. PUMILA . Hybrid. a foot or more long leaves leathery. with black-purple lip. Introduced from Brazil. 1865. cinnabar-red. with plum-coloured segments. . and large plants producing . . 1878. stem. which have pure white sepals and petals. stout . DOMINI ANA (Dominy's). Stems tufted. 6 to 9 inches long. Stems slender. varying from white or rose to carmine . L. There are numerous good varieties. but all the forms are that called tenebrosa. Stem short. bearing three to five . A perhaps the L. (small). good varieties. oblong. 1839. Pseudo-bulbs 5 to 10 inches long. Pseudo-bulbs club-shaped. nankeen-yellow the lip white. L. 1849. leaves solitary. including alba and its forms. Flowers three to five on a stout slender. 1865. with a pale margin summer. leaves as as . rosy white.. Flowers 3 or 4 inches across. There are a number of Pseudo-bulb 6 inches high. December and January. Brazil. . leaves 6 inches. AUTUMNALIS (autumnal). HARPOPHYLLA (sickle-leaved). (yellow). autumn. fragrant rosy lilac lip deep purple racemes 1 to 2 feet long. Brazil. L.bulbs spindle-shaped. about 2 inches across. Brazil. . leaves broad-lance-shaped. beautiful very variable species. each 5 inches across. lip deep purple. ribbed. soft rose colour. several distinct varieties. with yellow centre. 1838. swollen at the base leaves narrow. Pseudo. veined with purple. . PURPURATA (purplish). Brazil. L. orange-yellow autumn. racemes 2 to 3 feet long. 521 L^LiA ANCEPS (double). which are 4 . . Flowers light purple. ELEGANS (elegant). 2 inches long leaves same length. leaves oblong-strap-shaped. There are L. rose-purple lip maroon-purple. Var. six flowers 2 inches across. . bearing about April. Flowers orange-scarlet. Pseudo-bulbs oval. in pairs. Stems erect. flowers. CINNABAEINA (cinnabar). Pseudo-bulbs large. 6 to 12 inches long. Pseudo-bulbs oval.

About half a dozen hybrids have been artificially raised. Mexico. and Barrinotonuv. as in Cattle y Leaves plaited lengtliwise. whence also came L. and cristata . Warm house. 1826. dates from 1837. purpiiruta Gattleya apply equally to the present genus. . The anther is two-celled. rich purplish crimson. a Peruvian species. which\vas brouglit from tlie West Indies in 1790. Fig. the eight pollen-masses in a double LYCASTES Natural Order Orchide^. . much as 3 inches long. lip free-flowering winter and spring.a . when L. Lycaste aromatica (aromatic). L. entire plant greatly reduced Description of Frontispiece. 1830. aromatica came from Mexico. member of the genus. 4. 1. They are natives of Tropical America. macropkylla. L. grandis (1884) are Brazilian plants and L. and L. There are numerous garden hybrid Lcelias. Flowers yellow. 2. tetragona was introduced from from British Guiana in 1834. broad. : 3. natural size series. and the West Indies. Genus Lycaste Lycaste (named after Lycaste. There are many beautiful varieties of the finest. others. Deppei in 1828.{Faphmia) cristata (crested). jugosa (1867) and L. lip as iv. distinguislied by having the lip furnished with a transverse fleshy appendage. warmth but what is a single flower. . said of the hybrid Gattleyas applies also to these. lanipes came from Columbia and Ecuador respectively in 1848. Then there was a long break till 1824. L. extending from Peru to Mexico. requires a tropical temperature. the colunm . L. the daughter of Priam). leathery. 522 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Flowers 5 or 6 inclies across. L. Skinneri a year later. grandis likes extra when growing. Leaves oblong . which do not lie parallel to each other. . The instructions given under this head in relation to L.shaped. Loilia purpurata. and from the same country came the splendid L. "hairy Brazil in L. in some species notched. gigantea and L. in others entire. L. rose . varying from white to Frontispiece this. A genus of about thirty species of stove or gi-eenhouse Orchids. rugosa was introduced from Columbia in 1876. to vol. crueuta (Guatemala) from 1841.lance . producing four pollen-masses.

var.MARANTA BIGOLOR. Kerchoviam .


L.A. They like a sunny. L. . Warm house. flowered pendulous racemes. waxy-looking. I through the same 3... . Pseudo-bulbs oval. lip CRUENTA (bloody). . cylindrical. and sand others prefer to use a mixture of peat and sphagnum. creamy white. . with crimson blotches like splashes of blood April. blotched with white.. A genus of o\er . sepals cream colour. . lip white. Sepals fulvous green. interruptedly banded with purple petals purple with whitish base. As a rule. March and Deppei (Deppe's). All the Plate 240. a tooth. greenof species hundred a like processes on the lip). They may be propagated by division. size. ODONTOGLOTS Natural Order Orciiide. a of Lycaste Skinneri. airy position and plenty of moisture when growing less when at rest. irregularly striped and veined with purple scape two. a flower of the natural . three broad plaited leaves..i-:. (Colax) JUGOSA (ridged). . Stove. they are imported in in a . 2 inches broad. s. erect April and May. leaves in Flowers 2 inches across.. brown spring. may . There are numerous beauti- ful varieties. pale pink. covered with red spots. Plant about one-third of the natural size. sepals lip blotched with crimson November Intermediate house.or three-flowered. ODONTOGLOTS . lilac. . irregularly barred with rich dark purple. petals rosy to March. except ^ ^ ^ ^ grown m a warm greenhouse. Cultivation. them sufficient quantity to keep them cheap. Genu^ o. the column removed. 523 Sepals white. furrowed leaves thin and slender. Scapes pendulous. Fig. Pseudo-bulbs large solitary.s. (Paphinia) RUGOSA (wrinkled). petals white. . smooth . Stove. . deep orange. . L. petals deep yellow. 1. Ly castes. some of which run together in twopairs. Greenhouse or Vinery. mixture of fibrous loam. „/<«//. L. including one with pure white flowers. Skinneri (Skinner's).„ toothtongue: a ylo^so. Greenhouse. few-flowered June to August. lip Flowers pale greenish yellow. spotted with crimson crest golden-yellow winter and . peat. be those of the section Paphinia. . Pseudo-bulbs very small. each l)caring two or . Flowers large. wZoy^fo. British Guiana. Flowers rosy 4 to G inches across . and OdontoglossUM (Greek. howevei-. or a little less. L. Some growers plant -^ .

from Mexico in 1846. 0. flowered. hlandum from Columbia in 1870. They are natives of the Andes of Tropical America. Racemes manyIntroduced from Ecuador. spotted with dark purplish violet. CITROSMUM (Lemon -scented). crispum. many hybrids. Alexandrce out of compliment to the Princess of Wales. The group to which this and the following genus belong are characterised by a usually short. and the next year came 0. and from four to six leaves about the base. from Mexico a couple of years later.shaped. cristatum from Ecuador in 1869. grande. The flowers have the sepals separate and spreading. and 0. pulchelluni from Guatemala. . and 0. maculatum in 1838. Pescatorei from Columbia in 1851. Livdeni from Columbia in 1852. Pseudo(curled or CIRRHOSUJE O. Flowers numerous on drooping O. which appeared in 1839. and in the same year came 0. hictoniense. as in some earlier genera. Insleayi were introduced from Mexico in 1840. Pollen-masses two. crowned by one or two leaves. 0. narrow at the base and with wings or ears at the summit. The date of 0. leave and 0. and is still to be seen in most collections. citrosmum and 0. white. though the name of Alexandrce and trade lists. Two other good species 0. at an altitude of 5000 to 10. which came from Guatemala in the year 1835 it was long a favourite among growers. from Bolivia to Mexico. and are not plaited lengthways. and 0. 0. (fair). the lip crested and its base parallel with the column. leathery. citrosmum in 1840. maxillare. Hitherto the genus still lingers in Orchid-houses — — — — . Flowers white. The first living Odontoglot to be introduced was 0. An Odontoglot was introduced from Columbia in the sixties and named 0. Hallii from Peru in 1865. whence also came 0. furnishing many of the most beautiful of what are popularly known as " cool " Orchids. the petals nearly equal. Other well-known sorts we may mention are 0. strap bulbs fringed).524 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE house Orchids. with radiating lines and a few spots of purplish violet. . These leaves are sword- shaped or lance-shaped. crispum as of some others is not recorded. Flowers yellowish lip crisped. 0. cordatu7)i arrived . bearing more or less crowded pseudo-bulbs. has not yielded breeders. Insleayi and 0.000 feet. 1876. with narrow sepals and petals . with a slender caudicle attached an oval gland. stout rhizome. and others are known to be Odontoglossum BLANDUM Principal Species. lip wedge-shaped. crispum it is to-day. and known by that name until quite recently but it proved to be the species which Lindley had previously described as 0. 0. 0. which to is usually long. notwithstanding the persistency of Three have been recorded. Rossii from Mexico. was from Guatemala.



Raceme many-flowered. summer. HASTILABIUM (halbert-lipped). spreading lip fiddle-shaped. raceme tall. lip narrow. of Habit (Pescatore's). Flowers 3 to 4 inches wide. of Orchids. GRANDE (magnificent). Plate 241. white. MACULATUM yellow. about six-flowered spring. white or rose. Flowers 4 to 7 inches across. sepals and petals chestnut-brown and yellow. . ODONTOGLOTS racemes. numerous on arched scapes. yellowish green. 525 lip crescent- CORONARIUM (crowned). . fringed. HARRYANUM (Harry Veitch's). Many of the most distinct of these variations are named. or forty flowers. 0. toothed or fringed. bearing thirty O. spotted with reddish brown. edged with yellow. blotched with brown and purple. lip spear-shaped. Autumn. with dark rosy base raceme many-flowered. Raceme erect. One of the nine-flowered autumn and winter. There are erect or arched. soft deep spotted or barred with brownish crimson. Flowers 2 to 4 inches across. There are numerous named O. Flowers crispum. O. A most variable (spotted). 1^ inch across. delicately scented as with lemon shaped. 1 foot high. marked with chestnut-brown lip creamy white. O. with transverse bands of dull reddish brown bright yellow. Flowers 3 to 4 inches across. white. . freckled with brown racemes erect. sometimes spotted sepals and petals broad.. striped with purple . . yellow or . . purple May. with purplish and yellow blotches at the base panicles 1 to 2 feet long. variable. lip large. . pale yellow. with brown racemes drooping. species. with a large brown-red spot in front. O. lip golden-yellow. as it is perhaps the most . . bearing from ten to one hundred flowers. five- to ten-flowered LUTEO-PURPUREUM (yellow-purple). . lip heart-shaped. four. Flowers reddish brown. creamy white. stained with yellow. . Insleayi (Insleay's). crest yellow. Hallii (Hall's). O. Flowers numerous on erect scapes 3 or 4 inches across. Flowers 4 inches across. CRISPUM (crumpled). . Flowers fragrant. deep red-brown banded and margined with yellow petals whitish at the base with purple lines lip white. Pescatorei . . 1868. . 2 or 3 feet high . dotted with cinnamon 0. Flowers white or blotched with red-brown. the edges of petals and sepals waved and toothed to an extent that diflers in almost every individual lip more or less yellow. with transverse streaks of whitish brown. O. One of the finest. •O. with irregular patches of chocolate -brown. orangeyellow. Introduced from Columbia. white or yellow. lip white. spotted O.

The range of temperature for th<^ whoh.T is sphagnum in them. clfr<)-.ienib.n..„. ONCIDS Natural Order Okcimdk. In sinnmer they should be ^-ringed in the evening after a hot day and . V : La atly plant grea jvduud... wh(n-e tluy will enjoy good light whilst l)eing protected from the direct rays of th(> snn.. allowed to liave plenty of air w h(. almost wat. side view pollen-masses. As a ride they continue to gi-ow more or less all the year round. blotcli in ^ in groNvn a known may be Odontoglossums ^..^^ " Cultivation. Sprino.|uiies slightly it. cool greenliousc./. : L> ih.^e'. l)arred Flowrrs with . the form. lip). five-flowered.'in'many re^! . Rossii (Ross').. \\\nU\ spotted : and with brown . b./m^. blotches: lip white or yellow.. natur d size and enlarged. O. iMMx be ^i^.^r being the maximum to be aimed at in the hottest weather.NNers 5. •.pnrtiou^. In the winter tliey should be placed in a liouse having a southern a^pret. . they should pass the sunnner in a house having a northern aspect. or even be hung up under trees outside. .u. although in preceding genera a dry resting period is necessary. used for them. except to prevent the temperature from falling below 45'.„ OncidiUM (Greek..hvd and Win or/h. TiUFMi'HAXS (triumpliant).526 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE numerous named varieties. a : ^y .. rri^jx'm. o'/.i \\ illinut waitT.... and some of them are among the most valuaWe Orcliids known.. and should be wintered until the new shoots and flower spikes appear.|.1. year most suitable for these plants is from 70' to 45°. the eolunni.. rat^-lv nmi^t at O. e./.. lip Innon-vt'llow crest two. They Description of Plate24i.k. wliere the temperature is never lower than 45^ Falu-.t „„. 5. so that they must not be allowed to get dry.. Fii-e-heat should never Ik.//. U. natural ^i/e :). when They should be grown in pots two-thirds filled Sri. Habit of U. Scape tall. tn k. Where possible.» 1 to ± Iik-Ir'n across. <letach the same.l given all the simshine possible.ual lik^' i.>ut re.. 1. Genus tl ( )nci<l'ur. warmer treatment. the best time to repot the roots at all\ rr the t<'mperature admits of O. with a large chestnut-bi-own All the . A tumour reiVrring tu genus of about two hun.. ^ ..




agreeing with Odontixjlos'^u in, but witli tlie t\so lateral sejjals soiuotimes united beneath the lip, and thelip itselfcontinuouswith the coluinn,andwith
tubercles 01 a crest at
at the base, as in

The eolunin is shorter and not narrowed (hJoalo;jln.^>i m They au- natives oi" Tiopical America
its ba^e.

and the West [ndiestheii \citical distribution ranoing iVom the hot moist valleys to the tops oi" mountains 12,000 or 14,000 i'eet abo\e sea-level. Oncii-liums were discovered sufficiently early to suffer ^^^^ from that general stewing process of cultivation (') to which we ha\ e already referred. The first sj)ecies inti-oduccd as living plants Mviv 0. <<nih<>(jui<'ns(, from the West Indies, in 1791, and llouered foi ih^ tiist time in a garden in Vauxhall in 1804. 0. altiss,inti,ii and O. friq<ufri',H wi^rc brought from the West Indies in 170;J by Admiral Bligli, and presented to t]w lloyd Gardens, Kcw. In 1818 0. harbatitm and O.jkxuo^om caiur horn Ijra/il hn-tdiLiii (J ( ,,< I'roiu the West Indies in J822 (^ liom Jha/d in 1823 0. Viipdto, perhaps the most remaik.iM ..1 Oidnd- m.i-. iiitnxluced <ill
. .

garden in Hamburg, where it n.mud ni compliment to the gardener, Kramer. It may be said that amatt m Oichid^loNving, as a fashionable cult, owes its origin to 0. Vupdi^K iur at a horticultural show in the year 1830 the Duke of Dc\oushiie ^aw a specimen in flower, and was so struck by it that he desired to grow such


was flowered

in a

magnificent plants himself.

He built

special houses for their

and sent out





accommodaexample was followed by a

other ANe.dtlu




,i]unlnin, n






-.,/,/„ //r,w iu il„ -n,,.


liMmilu W.^t Indies








inul and blotched wdth brown.

(-ONCOLOR (one-coloured),

eudo-bulbs and drooping cro\N dee
inches acioss.


of the uio^t



O. CKisruM (curled).

Flowers 2 to 3 iuclie« across, wavy, bright in manycopper colour centre of lip blotched with golden yellow flowered erect raceme. Intermediate house. Winter. Brazil. Pseudo-bulbs flat. Flowers rather small, O. FLEXUOSUM (waved). yellow, spotted with brown, in a branched panicle, 3 or 4 feet high. Of

easy culture in the Intermediate house.
O. FoiiBEsii (Forbes').


old favourite in gardens.

Flowers large, reddish brown, the sepals and November. petals broad, and margined with golden yellow disk pale Intermediate house. Plate 242. O. KRAMERIANUM (Kramer's). Similar to 0. Papilio, but with more
; ;

yellow in the flowers







Leaves thick and leathery, spotted with

reddish brown.

Flowers large and fleshy, with a delicate vanilla-like fragrance, greenish yellow, barred and blotched with brown that more or less approaches to crimson in different individuals; lip violet and rose in many-flowered erect racemes. Stove. O. MACRANTHUM (large-flowered). Flowers 3 to 4 inches across, tough and leathery, golden-yellow, tinged with purple and sometimes streaked with crimson the lip yellow, with purplish brown side-lobes and a white crest; panicle long, many-flowered; a superb Orchid; April to June. Intermediate house. Ecuador. O. MARSHALLIANUM (Marshall's). Similar to 0. crispum, which is often sold for it, but the flowers are yellow, with bars of red-brown on the sepals and petals a magnificent species May. Intermediate










Pseudo-bulbs 1 or 2

Flowers small, fragrant, rose-purple, in many-flowered drooping panicles October to February. Cool house. O. Papilio (butterfly). Butterfly Orchid. Pseudo-bulbs oval, flat leaves spotted and streaked with reddish brown. Scapes 2 feet or more dorsal sepal and petals erect, 4 long, bearing each one flower at a time inches long, red-brown petals wing-Hke lip heart-shaped, chestnut-red and yellow. The flower resembles a large butterfly. Should be grown

on a block, with a sunny position in the stove. Pseudo-bulbs and leaves succulent, O. SPLENDID UM (splendid). purple-brown when old. Flowers 2 inches across, green, heavily barred Intermediate long. fe.-t raceme 2 golden-yellow lip large, brown with




TIGRINUM (tiger-marked).
Scapes 2 to 3

Pseudo-bulbs roundish, leaves a foot

long, l)ranche«l,

and bearing many fragrant



llowers 3 inches across


the sepals and petals wavy, yellow and brown

the lip large, heart-shaped, bright yellow


Intermediate house.
{Flor de Muertos).

Mexico, where

it is

known as the " Flower of the Dead"

have already referred to the very great vertical range of Oncidiums in their natural habitat, and it will


have been inferred by the reader that a corresponding difference in the treatment of species must be adopted in cultivation. Against some of the species described above we have written "stove "; these must be grown in a hot, moist atmosphere, with a summer-day temperature between 75° and 90°. These conditions, however, must only be maintained during the growing period. In winter such plants require less moisture, and the temperature should be much lowered may indeed fall on a winter day to 60°. Large specimens should be grown in pots or baskets in a mixture of fibrous peat, sphagnum, and charcoal smaller ones may be fastened to blocks. Those marked " Intermediate house " require the same treat-



as that prescribed for Gattleyas, whilst those



Cool house



be grown successfully in a greenhouse along with Odontoglossums.
this section succeed best as pot-plants, using

Most of

the compost of

and sphagnum with a little charcoal, and not allowing them to get dry at the roots even in winter. Propagation is effected by division. Oncidiuni Forbesii. Plant greatly reduced flowers Description of Plate 242. natural size. Fig. 1 is a front view of the colunui 2, side view of the same 3, the pollen-masses.
; ; ;

Natural Order ORCHiDEJi.

Genus Phalaiiiopsis

PHALJ5NOPSIS (Greek, phalaina, a moth, and opsis, resemblance). A genus of about twenty-one species of stove epiphytes, with very short
stems, and fleshy leaves in place of the pseudo-bulbs of foregoing genera.


flowers are usually showy, with

borne in a loose raceme or panicle.

spreading sepals and petals, In one section of the genus the petals

much broader than

the sepals, whilst in the other section the petals

are only of equal width with the sepals, or even narrower.


lip is

and in some species the middle lobe is more or less distinctly divided into two horns or slender lobes, which help materially to give that moth-like appearance upon which the names of the genus are founded it is spurless, and is connected by a short neck with the base of the almost pollentwo cylindrical column. containing anther one-celled There is a



by a strap-shaped
caudicle to a heart-shaped

masses, which are attached

some species P. Loivii for instance are shed in the dry season when growing naturally. Under certain conditions the flower spikes and roots of some species are proliferous. The plants are natives of the Indo-Malayan Region, where they grow upon rocks and tree-trunks.
as a rule two-ranked,

The thick leathery leaves are





as that to

was P. Aphrodite from the Philippines in 1836. It was long P. amnhilis, Dr. Lindley believing it to be the same species which Blume had attached that name, and which was for years





tliought to be the only species.

Eleven years later the true P. amahilis of Blume was introduced from Java, and the first species was re-named Aphrodite by Reichenbach. The two species appear to be closely allied, but the real amahilis has flowers often two-thirds larger than those of
P. rosea came from the Philippines in 1848


locality, in 1860, P. schilleriana,

the finest

and from the yet known, was intro;


In addition to


lovely flowers, this species possesses the
All the others are of more recent

attraction of richly-marbled leaves.

which the dates are indicated below. garden hybrids have been raised.
introduction, of
Principal Species.




light green.






Flowers variable, as much as 5 inches across, pure white, the lip streaked with yellow autumn. Also known as P. grandijiora. The var. aurea has the yellow of the lip more pronounced. P. Aphrodite (Venus'). Leaves shorter and darker than those of P. amabilis. Flowers 3 inches across, pure white lip streaked with crimson, orange, and yellow flowering almost conin long racemes tinuously. There are several named varieties. P. Esmeralda (Esmcral.Ia's). Leaves broad, two-ranked, somewhat
; ;



Flowers 1 inch across, rose-coloured raceme erect, fewflowered. Introduced from Cochiu-China, 1877. P. luddemaxxiaxa (Luddeuiann's). Leaves oval, 6 to 9 inches long pe<luncles as long as the leaves, and bearing about six yellow and brown /cbru-niarked liowers, 2 inches across; lip purple. Philippines. March. P. saxdeimaxa (Sander's). Leaves dark gi-een, sometimes mottled.


Flowers laigc, rosy


lip wdiite,

marked with brown,


and yellow.

Philippines, 1882.

Leaves dull green, richly mottled with grey 1 foot to 20 inches long, and 3 to 5 inches broad. Flowers lip intensity; threevarying pink, of rosy delicate or 3 inches across, 1 2 lobed, white and rose, with a couple of yellow protuberances at the base





in panicles


sometimes 3 feet long, containing as many as forty, sixty, or nearly a hundred blossoms, and lasting nearly two months April to June.

Flowers amethyst-purple, with pale margin lip club-shaped, rosy purple, with yellow spots on the side lobes. Introduced from the Andamans, 1883.

SPECIOSA (showy).

STUARTIANA (Stuart Low's). Habit and leaves like P. sckilleriana. Flowers white or pale sulphur, with cinnamon blotches: in a manyflowered panicle. Introduced from Philippines, 1881. P. VIOL ACE A (violet). Leaves obovate, 6 to 10 inches long, of a light green colour, without mottling. Scapes short, bearing from two to five flowers 2 inches across white, faintly tinted with rose the lower half of the dorsal sepals and the lip coloured intense violet-purple. Introduced from Malaya, 1861. The var. schrcederiana has larger purple flowers. The best hybrids are P. intermedia (Aphrodite x rosea), F. L. Ames (amahilis x intermedia), Harriettoi (amahilis X violacea), John Seden (amabilis x luddemanniana), Rothschildiana (amahilis x

Schiller iana).

Phalwnojysids require a hot, moist atmosphere in the
period, a

and from March


October, which


the growing

day temperature not lower than

During the summer the addition of sun-heat in will probably bring this up to 80° or more, and in the night
to 70°.

must be maintained. the middle of the day



below 65° at any time. They should be grown either in teak-baskets or on blocks, according to
In winter

should not be allowed to


size of specimens, the smaller ones

being more suitable for block-culture.

Living sphagnum, clean crocks, and charcoal must be used, and the moss should form only a thin layer at the top. The roots cling to the basket and crocks, so that great care must be taken when overhauling them and giving fresh sphagnum, which should be done in March. When in active growth the plants should be kept moist at the root, but they must
never be wetted overhead. In winter only sufficient water should be given to keep the moss from perishing. A shaded position in the liottest and moistest part of the stove is essential. These plants tax the skill of
the most expert cultivators, and



with them entirely.



grown plant
Description of Plate 243.



ffniahdls, P.

schilleriana, or P. stuart iaiia,


magnificent picture wlion in

and a source of pride

to the grower.

Plndif aopsis schdleriona.

entire plant, greatly

and 4, size; 3 average about flower, detached 2, side and front views of the column (enlarged), showing the extended base 5, the pollen-masses and heart-shaped gland.



Natural Order Orchide^.

Genus Aerides

AfiEiDEs (Greek, aer, air: in allusion to their


of growth).


genus of about forty species of epiphytal Orchids, mostly with handsome showy flowers. They have erect stems, and long strap-shaped, leathery

two opposite rows mostly ending abruptly, and deeply channeled down the centre, though some are nearly cylindrical. Most of them throw out large fleshy roots from various heights up the stem, and by means of these moisture is absorbed from the atmosphere. The flowers, which are frequently fragrant, are distinguished by having a tail or foot to the column, and the lip spurred. They are produced in long, many-flowered racemes. The species are confined to the Tropics of the Old World.
leaves, regularly disposed in

This genus has long been popular with cultivators on account of the beauty and fragrance of its flowers and its

good behaviour under cultural treatment. It was founded in 1790 by a Portuguese botanist on A. odoratwrn, which was introduced from CochinChina to Kew in 1800. Many of the so-called species are of recent introduction, and some of them are very much alike. ^ERIDES CRASSIFOLIUM (thick-leaved). Leaves broad Principal species and thick, obliquely two-lobed, purple-dotted. Flowers white, segments tipped with rich purple lip three-lobed, spur bent under



in long drooping racemes.

Plant dwarf.

Introduced from Burma, 1877.

Leaves 8 inches by 2 inches, flat, two-lobed. Flowers very fragrant, white, tinged with purplish rose, nearly 2 inches across lip three-lobed, middle lobe large-toothed and fringed horn-like

A. CRISPUM (curled).


somewhat incurved
white, except the



ascending racemes nearly a foot long.

Introduced from South India, 1840.



Warneri has the





the leaves are smaller

and more






Flowers white, dotted with crimson, and rosy-tipped lip with Introracemes. in many-flowered drooping short spur centre rosy Lecniice. houlletianum, Larpentce, known as A. Also India. duced from Orchid. Brush" "Fox popular The (Fielding's). FiELDiNGil A.

clothed densely long, feet 1 to 2 spike inch; by inches 1^ 9 Leaves bright with and dotted suflfused white, across, inch with flowers 1^





Introduced from Himalaya in 1850.


godefroyanum. Introduced from the Philippines. dense. . and A. portion of raceme. 2. Fig. 1800. water must be given freely. changing to yellowish. and slender. A. thrive best in pots. A. — — . . wax-like. The column is short. A. drooping racemes.VANDAS A. ODORATUM (fragrant). with a whitish central bar in long. affine. reduced. incurved in many-flowered pendulous racemes. so that they may absorb moisture from it to supplement that obtained from the air by the upper roots. A. broken crocks and charcoal. Flowers very fragrant. Leaves a foot long. Lawrence's). and the remainder with living sphagnum pressed firmly about the roots. but large plants These must be three-fourths filled with large pieces of clean. SUAVISSIMUM (very sweet). Veitchii. (the Vanda Hindoo name for one of the A . 1868. greatly Description of Plate 246. . but differing in the structure of the flowers. and a fairly dry air in winter. 3. Flowers white. the pollinia. fresh air and a liberal allowance of sunlight. QUINQUEVTJLNERA (five wounds). A. about thirty-flowered. VANDAS Natural Order Orchide^. Small individuals may be grown in baskets. entire plant. viRENS (green). Lohhii. Flowers . and rose-tinted towards edges lip deep violet. Syn. . upper part of column. genus of about thirty species of epiphytal Orchids of similar habit to Aerides. A. 1. and the winter temperature from 60° to 65°. white. the flowers one-third less than natural size 4. They require plenty of atmospheric moisture from March to October. the summer temperature in which ranges from 70° to 75°. with plenty of large. green racemes 2 feet long. Aerides Lawrencece. . From spring till autumn that is. odoratum. Leaves oblique. white and creamy. 533 Lawrences (Lady . during the period of growth. A. May be called a glorified A. odoratwm. Also known as A. Introduced from India. are other popular garden Orchids of easy culture. with a hard point at the apex. 1882. tipped with rosy purple lip rosy purple in centre spur conical. Genus Vanda species). sanderianum. spotted with violet. thick. tipped with pink lip hood-shaped spur conical. Aerides require tropical conditions such as are afibrded a stove. These three. which are very similar to ^1. Plate 245. MULTIFLORUM (many-flowered). . Introduced from Moulmein. A.

appears to have been the first introduced.. 1846. and brilliant in colours. .to five-flowered racemes twelve-flowered. creamy white. one of the handsomest when in flower. the petals spotted with magenta the broad lip with magenta-purple spots and lines in two. Flowers fragrant. . the tip two-lobed in erect racemes. purple-brown . in 1836. Introduced from Burma. Plant d \\ arf. dotted with reddish brown lip magenta. tall. : V. the other of recent introduction. rosy tinged. Considerable variety in leaf -characters V. leathery. Flowers thin-textured. and they remain fresh for two or three months. white and rose in seven-flowered racemes May and June. Native of Malaya. 1870. erect June and July. leaves short. Parish II olive-brown lines : lip violet-purple racemes erect. six. raceme several-flowered. with a network of dull crimson aljuut lines : 4 inches across. V. . pale blue lip deep blue. V. V. but somewhat refractory under cultivation. having been brought by Dr. (blue). teres. . saxderiaxa (Sander's). pink lip small. than on any V. sanderiana. INSIGNIS (remarkable). Wallich from Sylhet in 1829. Vanda amesiana Flowers as much as 5 inches across. queen of blue Orchids. . witli white border. Y. Flowers and yellow. strongly scented. varied. . the and the base swollen or spurred. 1850. They are natives of Tropical Asia. continuous with the column. and now reckoned among the most magnificent of all Orchids. . Principal Species 'es nearly rounded. 1887. (Ames'). checkered with (Parish's). and white. Stems slender. light brown. rounded. Introduced from Timor. 1849. spotted with chocolate five. V. is also a peculiarity in this genus. ROXBURGHII (Roxburgh's). . introduced in 1882 from Mindanao. and the lip side lobes reduced to ears. ten. Their flowers are generally large. tinged with somewhat fiddle-shaped. . Brentford.or moreflowered autumn. Flowers large. Plant dwarfish. one species extending its range to Tropical Australia. Stems a few inches high. Introduced from Khasia. lip . c^RULEA . 2J inches across. white. HOOKERIANA (Hooker's). more intense on the lip spur conical raceme Introduced from Bengal. . with short pinkish spur twelve-flowered June and July. and flowered at Syon House. ccerulea. greenish yellow. . was first introduced and flowered by Veitch in 1850. This genus includes some of the handsomest Orchids known. 534 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE is wingless. Flow^ers 2| inches across. and footless. Flowers pale green. Probably more money has been spent on V. Introduced from Burma.



In the event of specimens growing too tall. which takes the form of a dilated lobe. the Greek name slipper). we here get two anthers. Instead of the solitary anther of the previously dcscrilx-d genera. as well as pots. without cither tubers or pseudo-bulbs. in dense. marked with crimson. each with two cells. is shading necessary. entire plant. racemes about twoflowered June to August. pale yellow. LADY'S SLIPPERS Natural Order Orchide. 1. LADY'S SLIPPERS at tip. Plant straggling or climbing leaves terete. natural size . basal lobes and short spur Introduced from Java. 1846. the upper part of the stem may be cut off in February below one or . Genus Cypvqmllwiii for Venus.same materials in similar fashion. Vanda tricolor. in many-flowered racemes Flowers fragrant. 1881. short racemes. Introduced from the Philippines. September and October. tinged with rose petals and lip rosy magenta. the pollen-masses. like plenty of light. 535 three-keeled .e. tricolor. These plants hookeriana and Fig. spotted and barred with purple -red. one-sixth of the natural size . using the . pale purplish red at base . 4. Probably only a variety of V. fragrant. Q. .. lip Flowers large. and a column tliar curv. white. suAvis (sweet). TRICOLOR (three-coloured). a Cypripedium (from Kypris. . Requires bright sunshine all the year round. and has upon each side an anther-bearing process and the stalked stigma below. .'s lip large over. V. 3 and front and side views of the column 5. V. The directions more little roots. 1847. V. Introduced from Java. inflated lip The characteristics of the flowir are a with turned-down edges.. etc. reduced to about 2. The species are natives of . the sepals white. We may add that they may be grown in baskets. given for the cultivation of A^'rules. . TERES (tapering). 244. The flowers are either solitary or two or three in a raceme. rose-magenta. throat orange. nearly closing the orifice of the and bearing at its extrcinitx' a deformed stamen. apply equally to V(iiHh(. and potted separately. A genus of about forty species of terrestrial Orchids with un- branched leafy stems arising from a creeping rootstock. flower. V. V. Flowers large. large. with temperatures. Description of Plate 244. spotted with brownish red . lip rosy purple. and sanderiana require great heat and moisture.\nipodion. Plate white.

fuss at much making so were folks which his visit to a close and set about his real work. parvijiorum (1759). sent his collector. C. insigne. followed by 0. Spicer. spicerianum grew. But Mr. villosum came from Moulmein in 1833. The story Spicer's tea-gardens. and feeling that there was the possibility of its being a mitted carried it to an expert. ascertaining that it came from somewhere in Assam. pointed brought Forstermann home. and three years later C. acaule (1786). C. Forstermann. arietinum (1808). having been oflfered the hospitality which is a characteristic of who Spicer.536 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Europe. unfortunately. In the year 1878 Mr. including Mexico. Sander. a tea-planter of Cachar. that differed from the others. Spicer subwho at once oflered her £70 for her treasure. whilst G. Mr. growers have succeeded in raising a large number of hybrid forms. with expedition on shooting a went he planters. other among out. which considerations of space prevent our inclusion here. to find it if possible and this gentleman. and North America. and began with C. venustum from Himalaya. as near as they are known. So nmch left tail and turned helpers native his and possession. . All these have the insigne. Mr. Eeichenbach. for away with liiiu. found the spot where G. insigne from Khasia. sent home to his mother in England a box of Orchids. thought it good policy to make for Messrs. About twelve years ago as much as £170 was paid for a small specimen. of St. without explaining his real business. because there is a little story attached to it which explains how a rapid change may occur in the market value of a new Orchid. C. and late great authority it Orchids. Albans. Epiphytes. goes that. and some time tlie progeuy of this plant produced large sums of money. Many others have since been introduced. The Gypripediums were among the to be brought into cultivation. When these flowered there was which was judged by the similarity of habit and foliage to be G. From the natural species. puhescens (1790). Temperate and Tropical Asia. first of the Orchids and this was accomplished to the lot of early growers with a far greater measure of success than of fell The first species introduced were from North-Eastern America. new variety of that species. F. a tiger was him. C. candidum recommendation of being hardy in this country. the named tlic new s[)ecies (as it proved to on be) G. represented in our Plate 246. among them some specimens of C (1826). guided by the name. whose dates will be found below. spectabile in 1731. in . One of the more recent introductions we must mention. spicerianmn. the concerning Orchids those where grew things. Mrs. In the year 1816 came the first of the Indian species. and more recently £100 and £60 have been ordinary prices. C. one. though at that moment.



Stove. CONCOLOR (one colour). but the flowers are coloured pale yellow. Burma. white. bellatulum (somewhat pretty) belong to the same group as C. . marked with white. BoxALLii (Boxall's). Introduced from Malay Peninsula. Height 1 foot. CHAMBERLAINIANUM (Chamberlain's). white. 1877. Sander's drawingroom. Rare hardy native. . Charlesworthii (Charles worth's). Introduced from the Philippines. at Stevens' auction rooms on the Thursday following all the world could buy fine plants at a guinea. large Like C. 1892. Leaves 'yellowish grey. BARB ATUM (bearded). 1892. striped with green and purple. Calceolus (little shoe). tinged with purple. March and April. . Resembles C. Flowers one or two on a scape. C. for sixty guineas. Flowers 5 or 6 inches across. . Introduced from Burma. and flat. but have numerous large spots. Flowers solitary. Forstermann not only returned with a large number of specimens of C. niveum. C. greenish C. as usual. Sumatra. like a corkscrew. Height 1 foot. yellow. Height 1 foot. Scapes tall with hood-like C. C. Should be grown in boggy peat. Common Lady's Slipper. the petals also studded with purple eye-like spots pouch (or lip) broad. C. giving rise to tufts of black hairs pouch blackish purple. but the flowers are of a soft rosy mauve colour. 18 inches. variegated with dark green. . spicerianum. HiRSUTissiMUM (most hairy). and the upper sepal is C. Stcrve. reddish brown or maroon pouch pale yellow May. Hardy. Moulmein. concoloi^. purple-brown. Height 1 foot. large spring and summer. but with a verynice tiger-skin also. Flowers solitary or in pairs often 6 inches across green. C. spicerianum. " Thus it happened that on a certain Thursday a small pot of C. one-quarter that sum. with channeled upright horns. Flowers usually solitary. .. Height 12 to C. spicerianum was sold. and dotted . Stove. 1873. Cypripedium Argus . flushed with brown and yellow the petals are spirally twisted. . CANDIDUM (white). LADY'S SLIPPERS 537 the worse for the tiger. . GoDEFROY^ (Mrs. and spotted with purple-brown pouch conical. Godefroy's) and C. (Argus'). bracts and numerous flowers of a dull rose colour. Flowers greenish brown pouch white June. Leaves irregularly blotched with darker green. flecked with purple the petals with a series of shining warts along the upper edge. Stove. however. . which became an ornament of Mrs. of brown-purple on the white or yellow flowers. . for Mr. 1840." To-day the amateur can possess a specimen at one-half or . Should be grown in compost of loam and peat.

iMiii (sb wn) Mnec iMH How. 1857 b.y in t Floweis laio( \ ellowish biovvn.lhn\ suinmn Stovi Intiodueed iiom Uoinco..chid^ oro^^mg^^dl in a cool Plate 246 Ilcioht 1 loot Leaves nK)ttk<l oi tessekited witli daik <rieen <iiid \ello\\ Floweis usualh soht. maikcd \\]i]\ puiple veins and spots pouch \civ kii<. M m SioM (ininUill) Iniun\ St .n S38 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE pouch <. \ei> daik oucn. mtiliilU blotdud with wlutc Floweis solitaiy on loiic. HooKii. L u(s eovLiul with .^ scapos.ibbuibh.m1^ cnltiMttd of O. maiked with daikei Ihks pouch pale Should be grow Haid\ jellow flattened iioin sides AIa\ and Junt ( iMiMiNs .iun oi niubl(d k i\fs md <uct seaiKs to () niches lon.r b( inn. dotted \\itli 1 ^\1thbl^)^\n now n A])ul and Ma} . (dovvnv) Hui.s mdblotelus loothiob New rJmnei 1 S8S C sn.< puiphsh blown and }(.^ellow- hm I IS about 4 inches aci OSS I) ( ml 1 iiil luu xhictd horn Khasw l^d One ot tb( (hcUM^ nul . liiUoduced tiom 1 Boimo 18G2 . ) \ 15 siuill plant witli shoit duk i. lutioducLd tioin Khasia. Sto\ 1^ to 2 111 light \[ loam 01 leaf-mould Scape about thm floweud C RoniseiiiLUiWLvi (Kotbschild's) riowiisvdlowisb vMlh dnk puipl* stiip. C^ A\ith_.iMii ( MiinuHi i\M. 1878 OK* nboust oi (h\ tlhng looin w indoAN C I\^\IlL^CIV^UM (La^Monco's) C M\MM (snow two St<.iu <^ieenish Avhite.i (Lid^ Hookus) Leaves bioad.



. Hundreds at the roots. The tropical species.. The small C. 2. The hardy species. but the coarse-growing sorts thrive in loam and peat.. . Cypripediiim insigne A. In potting the soil.. The species arc nat I\ c> ui e widely cultivated in th. These grow well when potted in a mixture of turfy loam and peat. 1 foot Flowers solitary. Figs. in Ccuu. t^ which a hood-like Tropical Amci and alnail U-u species of tul). to ensure perfect open drainage.s. broken crocks.-. insigne.i-. ARROW HOOTS Natural Order Scitamink. and tliat there is no danger of stagnant water These plants are all propagated by division. C. no genus having proved so plastic in the hands of the breeder as The plants grow to flowering size from seeds in about three years. pouch large.. of these are Some plants the lower fourth of the pot's depth should be filled with clean.r ll-w. or at anyrate moist. AiiANTA (uauuMl ly^i(ian. 1. They like plenty of water and a shaded position in a hot. 2 and 3 are front and side views of the column.-rousl. etc. light brown. varied with light green and dark purple. and they prefer peat soil. 539 YiLLOSUM (shaggy). The greenhouse species. a corolla cf ^c-inrntx in tw. b-idy. The roots of the plant should be spread out as widely as possible on the soil. as Cypripediiims are divided into three groups for purposes of cultivation. this.rping-ro(. somewhat shaded position. a V. Thriv i^ -ingle stamen. with large slieatliing Tl. Stove. .ii vie is attached. and more pressed down upon them. May. M AlVi<-. orange-red.East and Wc-L Indl.-lir^.ne .ARROW ROOTS C.i:.rh. viz. and a similar but l. Introduced from Burma.Ma'tian botani.Mumnhi lionour of R Maranti.i of the ner series being much larger than tlp' . moist house. Care sliould be taken that water does not lodge in the bases of the leaves. of named garden hybrids have been raised within the last twenty years.. niveum and its allies do best when some nodules of limestone are mixed with the They also prefer a position near the roof-glass. who died in ]5o4).tcd herbs. flowers of the average natural size. 3. but they - W. upper portion of plant. high glossy. often 5 inches across. These require a boggy. happy only when planted in peat and sphagnum. on hairy scapes though varnished. A genus of sis: (•r<.-r^ liave calyx of three sepals. (.in-.-avr. etc. hicli is petal-like. and kept moist except for a few weeks in October and November. 1833. with Description of Plate 245. tliough they occur larger..

M. M. Erect-growing. Maranta bicolor November. M.w/7?(7(!?ar2t( (Massange's) from Biazil (' 'prtaccps (magnificent) lu lioiii r.n . n. PORTE S. species appears to • have been introduced from Tropical America at some iV. 1. . <lai 01 ocmi. Vcdchii (Veitch's) from Western Tropical America. s])ecies may be mentione<l * I'. Ill <" ^ii6i6.l 11. concinna from South America in 1874.. with irregular dark shiny marks between the midrib and the margin. .u -ul iMMin^it.iMiildlH sl. . Plate 247.Miui. pure form of starch. 1 ne> . Milt uhil.iHMl allou. Leaves oblique-oval.n. 3 feet higli. under-side purple.1 nt pot-ioom.MU. (7. CONCINNA (neat). Plant 1 foot high. macerating them with C.ule<liromthednect _in\Miiw 'I'he . especially M. 1862.i\-. hicolor from Brazil in 1823. L(<i\ il)li '.«f/^«(tube-spathed) from Tropical America. Leaves roundish Principal Species.ltli. striped witii white ]\I . The This name is said to be derived from the fact that the Indians used the roots as a curative application to the wounds caused by poisoned arrows.>lth. ""oval. Dwarf and tufted. Leaves oblong.. Leaves blight gieen. C. then again washing it and allowing it to dry. They are grown chiefly as foliage plants.1 ni . obtained by taking the tubers when they are about ten months old. Mdi'diifd hicolo). SAGORIANA (Saoorian) ^Mthd.MMMU»rb. \erv pale Nvitl. alli. a section of the same.l) Dwarf.Mu.DiNV i. This is a very produce the Arrow-root of commerce. M. \ar. .-11 I I > (Io^. smaragdina from Ecuador in 1870.m .us M sMvuv.NA (Porte's).. porteana from late anterior to 1732 Bahia in 1859. lald-wiMii k Mi and nijUins siiml u (' tH atiiu nt Among the most (irmta (erect) from Ecuador. with oblong blotches of darker green at base of the principal veins.. glaucous green. M..< (Kerchove's) from Biazil. arundinacea. .v d.540 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Certain species of Maranta. hcrcJioi tava Fig I. and M.d. . G Lindeai (Linden's) from /^/>. Vandea Ifakii (Van den Heck s) from Biazil. sagoriana from South America. I l. allowing the starchy matter to settle. . piint- genus CWa^/ita ib \. / and C zphrtna (zebra-striped) irom Biazil.M 1. a detached ower 2. pale green. War^a a tczii (Warscewicz's) from Tropical America. Flowers white and violet April to (two-coloured)..i til.



reddish. high. leaf -like organs whilst the showy parts of the flower. — — . edulis. a cane). for these plants their popular name. and upon only one of them is the one-celled anther. . they are consequently in greater demand as garden plants. C. C. broad. C. misnamed the which assume the appearance of petals. I idea from tlie West Indies in 1629. discolor. A genus of about thirty species of perennial herbs with large ornamental foliage. in which the calyx consists of three small green leaf -like growths that remain on the top of the capsule the corolla is represented by three similar but longer. They are principally the product of G. Tous les mois. Introduced from Trinidad. cultivation in English stoves for centuries. or Indian Reed. In 1778 G. Stems 3 to 6 feet In. Stems stout. light yellow and carmine-red. Warscewiczii came from Costa Rica in 1849. came from Peru. Warscewiczii. G. and are planted-out during of these plants are important Some the hottest part of the summer for sub-tropical gardening. speciosa from South America. setting free the hard. coccinea and G. C. with rough tubercles. Canna indica was introduced from India about 1570. C. Leaves . streaked with purple. They are natives of Tropical on account of the starch stored in their fleshy underground stems. indica (India). oval-lance-shaped. glaitca from South America in 1731 and 1732 respectively. and C. lower tinged blood-red. Canna (said to be Celtic. iridiflora.lian Shot. are really the stamens. black. Stems 6 to 8 feet high. Leaves large. upper Flowers red. which furnishes Carolina. and certain They have been in of these are in consequence used as vegetables. IRIDIFLORA (Iris-dowered). and C. which are liorticulturally much finer than the original species. 1829. The style is The fruit is covered also petal-like. green. Canna discolok (two-coloured). Principal Species. Genus Canna canna. fiaccida was introduced from South In 1820 G. Leaves large. ending in a slender stigma. patens from Rio. oval-oblong. From the best of these species a considerable number of hybrids have been produced. and G.INDIAN SHOT 541 INDIAN SHOT Natural Order SciTAMiNEJi. and panicles of in many cases brightly coloured flowers. round shot-like seeds which have earned petals. and when ripe splits into three divisions. feet high. Flowers large.

k |t moist If the The\ geiminitc li m about il month litei which <i intkts ^low lapidlj cncoui i^cd bj hbti is ticatmcnt md stove lUurc )( wtdthtL i w urn at the kgimiinir ot plaited out u j^e pots m shelteu d bed oi Tmio tlu> boKlei wheie the sod his b(en Oi the> nia.FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE il 11 Wiis in dioopin*^ pimclts lii^e i()s\ ^\lth i }l11o\v Intioducedtiom I'ciu ISK) Stem ^ Itit ln„li cliictpmplt \ VRscFWic/ii (W usct\Mc/s) H(m(TS innoi sc^nncnts V il tlliptic tiiiotd %Mth diik puipk utu piiiplish As die 1(1} indicated the h^biids ot A\hicli ^ny good 111 A nuisujintn will fnuiish i lon„r list will be iound lu t_ u cm \ 1 pet il lulliiiil s in IN t 111 I 1 ml It \ uitd I foi tht flowci j^aukn se oi seeds oi the fiuei mu Th( should be sown m i Maicli in light soil.y bo multiplu d hy dnision Ihe ^u wu in tlK open should be lifted Octobci and pi iced m i )i undei i gieenhouse stage out of the i each oi host in t ict IS if tht} wcie Dahlias 11^ th m In the iollowin„r spiing pio i^ th - m 1 I 1 11 111 i\ b( is effected b} lit cutting the thick rootstock into as pcitMiis I ]) )ts (jI MIS buds md pi mting tlu so sepii itely in 11) best pottni^ compost tor Canvas consists of equal wlU lotted maiiUK loim indsmd to which i little p( it is then il ioims one lull .y msl} luuk \ei} iich ioi then lectption ^ Ix ti ms- to 1 — S to 1 2 inelK s — of i leh soil md used lor cons( i \ itoi y elhng loom decoi ition tikiiy cm thit ihty hi\e ficqucnt doses luuK w itei Seeds iie i ud} us( d except botanic il colkc m impio\cd \ nifties (in onl.



strap-shaped. the layers of broken crock should be covered with moss before the compost is put in. dense head. Leaves slender lance-shaped. . Introduced from West Indies.KARATAS three-celled 543 are natives of and many-seeded. a foot long. It will therefore be found conducive to success if they are potted in a mixture of leaf-mould. Innocentii (St. green. All the strong -growing Bromeliads are best treated in this way. awlshaped. afterwards developing one or two basal suckers. Leaves a foot long. Flowers bright orange-red. Innocent's). The species Tropical America and the West Leaves about twenty^ Princi ais ecies strap-shaped. Flowers with white tube and violet-blue segments. Indies. . Each growth flowers but once. strap-shaped. K. They may be grown from seeds. K. Introduced from Mexico about 1850. peat. surrounded by (glowing). Leaves about twenty. strongly toothed. and they will maintain their flowers in good condition for a longer period. When in flower they may be removed to a warm greenhouse. K. The old growth may be thrown away. Karatas require stove treatment and plenty of moisture th sunshine. finely toothed. Introduced from Southern Brazil. The flower-cluster is surrounded by a few short leaves of a bright red colour. Flowers and bract-leaves crimson. Introduced from Brazil in 1849. Flowers in a large head. In their native habitats they chiefly grow in the decayed vegetable matter that accumulates in the forks of the trees. HUMiLis (lowly). Plumieri (Pluraier's). and loam. Flowers pink. A popular garden plant. green. Plate 249. spiny-edged. 1854. bract-leaves of a brilliant scarlet colour. strap-shaped. 1858. or into a dwelling-room. Introduced fz-om Brazil. a Flowers in a foot or more long. with safety. bright green the lower ones mealy. ScHEREMETiEWi (Scheremetiew's). which should be removed and grown on separately. recurved. violet and red. 1739. . and potting them singly into small pots as soon as they can be handled. Leaves 4 to 8 feet long. tinged and banded with red-brown. drainage must be perfect . with the addition of a little sharp sand. Brazil in 1872. Karatas fulgens The commonest and most showy species. slender. Leaves about 1 foot long. purple and red. SPECTABILIS (remarkable). Introduced from K. The and in order to prevent its clogging with the finer particles of soil. mottled with darker green. treated as if they were Gloxinias. spreading. with toothed margins under-side reddish purple. in equal parts. K.

. with toothed edges and purple under-side. 1826. Some of the species are epiphytal on the trunks of trees in tlie dense forests of South America. FULGENS (glowing). FASCIATA (banded). and spikes or panicles These flowers consist of a six-parted perianth. of which the outer three are sepaloid. and ending in a sharp point. in pyramidal panicles 1^ foot long. M. Leaves glaucous. ing the calyx . The general disposition of leaves is like that of Karatas. each with a similarly coloured spiny-edged bract in . JE. 1842. Introduced from Brazil. . becoming a someof flowers supported on tall scapes. ^chmea calyculata (having calyx). with bright red bracts sepals rose. what globular berry. JE.544 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE size. 1842. c^LESTis (sky-blue). JE. . the same with bracts removed. Introduced from Brazil. Flowers bright yellow. spinyedged. Introduced from South Brazil. marginal prickles minute. . DISTICHAXTHA (flowers two-ranked). or strap-shaped. 2 feet long. a dense head. Flowers sky-blue. Leaves broad. 2 feet long. Flowers scarlet. leaves. Flowers in panicles. Fig. . natural the of one-third 8cheremetiewi. Stamens six ovary three-celled. with a false calyx of red bracts in roundish heads on a tall scape. . the sepals tipped wdth purple-blue panicle branching scape deep red. Introduced from Cayenne. the the calyx). Leaves strap' shaped. with a few large membranous bracts. showing the overlapping bracts 2. Leaves broad. DISCOLOR (two-coloured). rich red Introduced from Rio Janeiro. M. petals purple. winter. banded with white recurved. rosette-like. Introduced from Brazil. . Flowers : and pink. 1852. point of a spear in allusion to the lobes of A genus of about one hundred and thirty species of stove per- ennials with sword-shaped. a section of the same. Karatas Description of Plate 249. 1 is an enlarged flower removed from the cluster. Flowers rosy pink. in branching panicle June. Plate 250. show. much shorter than the inner petaloid three. August and September. 3. 1870. to which region the genus is confined. 1862. Genus jEchmea : yEchmea (Greek aichme. Leaves somewhat sword-shaped. Leaves strap-shaped. the flower-scape rising from the centre. armed with reddish brown spines. pale green. Natural Order Bromeliace^.



changing to salmon-pink scape with many Introduced from large. borne in racemes or panicles. Veitchii (Veitch's). They are natives of Tropical America. natural . There are many other beautiful jEchmeas . the peduncle being usually clothed with conspicuous brightly coloured bract-leaves. Some of the species are They are not popular with Principal Species. exceedingly handsome both in leaf and flower. NUTANS (nodding). 1 is upper portion of plant. 1877. bracts large.)|)ino- Leaves narrow. (Iris-leaved). Flower-spike arched and bearing a loose raceme of Sepals !v<l«lish.rgia iridifolia Leaves sword- Flowers red and yellow. size. marmorata (marbled). 1825. and flowers with three-parted calyx and corolla. March. a section of the same. spiny. and barred with reddish brown. 2J feet long. BILLBERGIAS Natural Order Bromeliace^. large. apply to for growing Karatas The instructions given J fe fe ff ^ . more space need not be devoted to them here. tipped with blue B. 1863. Flowers rosy crimson. Leaves strap-shaped. 2 to 3 feet long. crimson. 1867. Mari^-regin^ (Queen Mary's). Leaves broad . rigid leaves. SPECTABILIS (showy). concave. ^chmea fulgens. "shaped. M. Cultivation. finely toothed. but as the genus is not well represented in gardens. . Introduced from Rio Janeiro. bright scarlet. Introduced from Guatemala. Flowers scarlet. 1875. . . rose-pink. Calyx green. green-blotched. Description of Plate 250. Leaves strap-shaped. tufted. G. Genus Billbergia BiLLBERGiA (named in honour of J. bracts large. strap-shaped. . channeled. a Swedish botanist). „ mchmecbs. Leaves tufted. Introduced from Columbia. British cultivators. the petals not showing. 545 Leaves 3 or 4 feet long. scape and bracts crimson. a separated flower 2. with distant spines. broad. edged with l^hie petals yellowish . almost grass-like. boat-shaped bracts June and July. Lalindei (Lalinde's). M. M. Fig. leathery. Flowers tipped with blue. leafy. calyx green. edges toothed. A genus of thirty-six species of stove perennials with strap-shaped. div). dark green. grey beneath. Costa Rica. Flowers deep blue. tipped with blue. tlowcis. Billberg.BILLBERGIAS M. B. closely invested by bracts with scarlet teeth. Introduced from Columbia. with pink tips.

and bearing numerous greenish flowers. Plate 251. the petals rolled into a tube below. zoned and spotted with grey. strap" shaped. The fruit is a three-valved capsule. and the seeds are surrounded by flne liairs. spreading and curved back. a few only extending into Nortli . Flowers green. which assist in their dispersal. 1885. SANDERIANA (Sander's). They are natives of Tropical iVmerica. A stout plant. Leaves broad. folding. 1866. . Leaves slender. Fig. tipped with blue bracts rosy. often a yard high. Introduced stout spines. recurved : forming a rosette. Introduced from Brazil. Bromeliads are much more popular than they are here. with broad. a Swedish botanist). The sepals are spirallj' twisted. mostly growing upon trees or rocks. B. The flowers are borne on single or branched spikes they are white. scarlet November. TILLANDSIAS Natural Order Bromeliace^. The reader is again referred back to Karatas for B. Genus Tillandsia TiLLANDsiA (named in honour of Elias Tillands. . from Brazil. scarlet below scape stout. Tillandsia carinata (keeled). Lindeni (Linden's). 1849. America. usually large. T. yellow. Leaves brownish green. undivided. one-fourth less than the natural dimensions. nodding. They have narrow. BUlhergia mttans. by the way. winter. and three deciduous petals. Introduced from South . . Brazil. and arching spikes of large red bracts and green flowers.546 oreeii. 1826. clothed with large boat-shaped. spineless leaves. Leaves broad. and consist of three erect. brown-green leaves. 1 is a section through a detached flower. armed with B. Brazil. with sheathing base. rose-pink bracts. March and April. PORTEANA (Porte's). About a dozen hybrids have been raised in Continental gardens. ZEBRINA (zebra-striped). FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE with blue margin . where. the sepals keeled. or purple. a few only terrestrial. 1868. Flowers pale yellow. Description of Plate 251. leathery. Introduced from South America. rticulars as to the cultivation of these plants. forming an urn-shaped cluster 2 to 3 feet high. One of the most showy. A genus of over three hundred species of stove perennials. sepals. Flower-spike stout. bracts green above.



in<hh. T. and recurved at the points." or " Old Man's Beard. green above. rotted manure.. good drainage.e. like T. T. peat. Plenty of heat and sunlight. Other genera of Bromeliace/K sometimes represented in gardens are: Anava^.<. Leaves thin. are main points In botanical collections—at in the successful growing of these plants. j^^^^. with syringing twice a day. strap-shaped. Plate 252. below and deep yellow above July. i.ugli tlie stronger-growing species. Introduced from French Guiana. keeled." sf. and Fuya. reghia and T. splem/cn^t. for instance— the genus is largely represented. Introduced from the Peruvian Andes. and hluish purple petals bracts carmine. to Avhich belongs the Pine-apple. paler beneath. IRISES Flowei's 547 with reddish-tipped green sepals. 1867. reijuire a riclier soil tlian tlierc For these substitute a compost of fibrous loam. Pitmirnfa. Kew. Cri/ptanfhu^. tlK. scape about 7 feet high. bracts bright red. yellowish. feet long. in a branching panicle. 1828. inT. vsnroide^.u>h>. Caragvata. SPLENDENS (splendid). broadly sheathing at T.^^^^^^ ^^^^^^|y ^^ 2'///^/ . abundant water in the growing period. 2 T. and a little peat.>'/'. Cultivation. T'lU'ipiJs'ni ]V(1iic(m1 Description of to ont-riglitli of tlii' . psiftocina do better in loam. zoned with dark fu. is a TiU. Flowers green-tipped. and T. Leaves about 4 feet long. . slender.. bracts bright red flated and recurved. . Flowers white. 1867. The small species are groAvn in bask«'ts along witli tropical Orcliids. Introduced from Rio Janeiro. Introduced from South Brazil. T. Flowers yellow ./r . and leaf -mould. Bromdia. Leaves strap-shaped. PSITTACINA (parrot-like).scous irregular bands. with the addition of a few crushed bones. "Spanish Moss. Dj/r/. LrmJenl.. concave at base. REGINA (queen).nlsnis. and some of the species are widely different from those here described. the whole i)lant prescribed. perfumed like Jasmine base..-io. cari. bracts rose-coloured.

The fruit is a . Xlphion. gardens of nearly all civilised nations along the Temperate Zone it adorns the cottage of the English hibourer and the walls of the Persian town. but the French or Italian peasant has often transferred it from the mountain rock to his houseIn addition. which divides into three broad petal-Hke stigmas. borne on a scape and at first enclosed in a sheath (spathe). large flat or globular it is In horticultural literature. I. customary to speak of the petals as Standards. I." . who makes a specialty of growing all the finest Irises the world produces. containing seeds. also stalked. interesting to note that the exotic species first introduced to Britain. so plentiful in marshy ground. with these. and supported on a shoi-t channeled footperennials." of the sepals as " Falls.548 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE with creeping or tuberous rootstocks. gramiaea. the " Limb. more erect. the edges of the in. and in recent years we have seen the introduction of many new species and the rising up of the Iris amateur. pamila. . or grass-like. the petals smaller. the commonly cultivated /. footstalk turned The stamens are attached to the sepals. The ovary is three-angled and supports a stout style. Both . The native species of Iris are the Yellow Water-flag pseiidacorm. require a volume to themselves we cannot pretend here to give a full list of even the most desirable species. by riverand the Gladdon or Roast-beef plant. I. against which the anther lies the stigmatic surface is a point just below this surface. The flower is a six-parted perianth with a short tube. The sepals are large. Of these. leaves chiefly radical and sword-shaped." and the of the expansion of the stigma Temperate Regions of ^' sides.. /. we have for centuries been growing several exotic species. trade " is etc." centuries ago the following species that will be found in any good collection to-day : — /. many lists.. You will find it in the . there were growing in English gardens three side. . germanica was introduced from the Continent at some date prior to 1573. and bear a plate along the centre of the inner surface. turned back. jlorenUna. The species are natives the Northern Hemisphere two British. The consequence is this Irises. foetidissima. stalk . is . just as his brother amateur makes a specialty of Orchid-growing. like Orchids. leathery three-celled capsule. more since. These arch over the sepals. cariegata.asiana. etc. pallida. I. though of course in a minor degree. are still held in high favour by growers. The genus I. I. not content : . It is these are used as garden plants but. It has been brouglit to the English garden from abroad. Professor Michael Foster says truly of it " The plant is one that appears to be— and to ha\c : three hundred years and long been— a favourite of man. I.ihirica. and flowers of peculiar structure and splendid colours. I. I. hijiora.



I. Flowers violet-purple: sepals eggshaped. FCETiDissiMA (most foetid). pale. divided into two sections Irises. . sword-shaped. NEGLECT A . KcBmpferi. slightly sword-shaped. Spanish or Xiphions. dull yellow. Leaves few. Native of Lebanon. Also known as I. sword-shaped. Scape 3 to 6 inches high. glaucous. tinged with lavender. very beautiful May. brown-veined. Flowers fragrant. Leaves few. Flowers solitary sepals lilac-purple. . claw white. much longer than the scapes. Native of Central and South Europe. The scented rhizome is known in pharmacy as Orris-root = Iris-root. IBERICA (Iberian). I. glaucous. 12 to 15 inches long.. Stinking Gladdon or Gladwyn.. tufted. Section I. with yellow beard twice flowering. They will be so separated below. Leaves few. Leaves thin. tufted. with many I. with blue-purple sepals and yellow petals and stigmas May to July. GRAMINEA (grass-like). closely veined with purplebrown petals satiny white or lilac summer. very large. Leaves very slender. May. L^viGATA (smooth). sickle-shaped. I. . 1596. spring and autumn. Native of the Caucasus. petals white. Native of South and Central Europe. Leaves few. claw white. Scape leafy. Japanese Iris. purple at the base. : 1st. 1| to 2 feet high. narrow. sword . . glaucous. glaucous. beard bright yellow petals deep lilac four or five flowers in a cluster. Flowers fragrant. swordshaped. with rhizomes . 2nd. sepals creamy yellow. Native of Britain. Common Iris (of gardens). beard bright yellow. Scape 2 or 3 feet high. FLORENTINA (native of Florence). sepals white. Irises proper : Princi ai s ecies ^^^^ BIFLORA (twice-flowering).shaped. Flowers solitary. . Flowers in single clusters. Native of Siberia and Japan. heavily spotted with crimson: petals pale rose. opening one at a time. Introduced from Portugal. Irises proper. Leaves sword-shaped. . the claw veined with green and brown. about four or five Flowers slightly fragrant. high. glaucous. 1 or 2 feet. tufted. solid. Scape about 9 inches . Native of South and Central Europe. May. purple Stem firm and sepals with bright yellow blotch at the throat June. LoRTETii (Lortet's). I. but normally 3 inches across. 2 to 3 feet high. Leaves (neglected). slender. purple-veined. with bulbous roots. . . I. Leaves firm. /. GERMANICA (German). I. Sepals pure white. . swordshaped. delicately veined with violet. sepals bright purple. petals purple two or three flowers in a cluster May. Flowers variable in colour and form. sepals in a tuft. 'somewhat glaucous. stigmas lilac-purple.

above paling to yellow in the middle. stigma lilac-blue: and June.size May with lilac . pale blue. Flowers solitary. grey. glaucous.solitary. Leaves la Flowers fragrant. Native of the Levant. hoard ycllo v: petals la ^tard eel hioh.FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE lac stripes.l(.ata (\ariegated). Aeon l. petals of similar : Section I. l)ri-ht .M.. Leaves sword-shaped. vahiE(. or M'hite. adiate V 3 feet I. II. Native of Siberia. veined with brown and bearde<l with yellow. l)eceml. 12 to 18 inches long.Minor.v-y( throat. both spotted and veined with purple-brown April. 1 foot to 2 feet ]on<^-. STIURICA (Siberia) Fl(nv(^rs in Leaves threes : tufted. JMany varieties. Flowers in clusters.ur and eei FhAvers . from bet . al 1 ry. nd Asia . but petals of somewhat brighter tint. sepal Litnxluced from the Me( ween the p ami streaks of deeper c.e white ]>oard Leaves Ai)ril. petals lemon-yellow. tufted. Flowers sol it. purple-based. lie Flow*. May. Sc sit led. delicately tinge<l . ITMILA (dwarf). sepals and and shape. daucous. Native count PSELDACOKUS {h from which Native. twos : oi- sepals extensively veined with viok^t on a paler o-round petals shorter than sepals. Tlate 2 54.ATA (winge<l). . Native of Eastern Europe. vith a^\ hapcd. sepals deep claretbrown. Xii'urox. I. hi^di. I. rs orani.s.



or Xiphions. The bulbous section. xiPHioiDES (Xiphiuni-like). They will be found to do best on a welldrained rockery. Leaves half-round. slender. or Netted Iris. Flowers deep lilac-purple. and the roots only spread out and buried in light rich (not too ricli) loam. and the air allowed free play. . Flowers Spanish solitary. English Iris. Intro- duced from Portugal prior to 1596. /. I. so that the rain is thrown off. as soon as ripe. vulgare. and the ground may be made boggy for them. Plate 253. etc. twin purple June. Leaves . but protected from cold winds. and germinating in a cold frame. foetidissima is an exceptional species in that it thrives in shade. Irises proper must be planted with their rhizomes merely pressed into the soil. The plant. may be beyond what is usual in the treatment of hardy perennials. or hy separating ihc offsets I'runi the Inilbs of the other section.. The situation must be a sunny one. Icevigata is cultivated by the Japanese as a sub-aquatic. Description of Plates 253 and 254. fully exposed to as much sun as shines in Britain. Iris reticulata. when they have got large enough. susiana is a bit sensitive. /. lasiianicum has yellow flowers suffused with brown. Cuitiv Also known f anglica and Xipkion latifolium. XiPHlUM (Spurge. Some of them lend themselves well to pot culture. The var. Pseudaconis and /. i)v they may be reared by sowing the seed in pans of sandy soil. frame with well-drained light immediate contact with the rhizome. July.I.wort). The soil should be a light sandy loam. /. and here it is frequently grown with success in pans which are stood in an inch or two of water. Propagation is usually ctfccttd Iiy dividing the ro(jts in the rhizomatous section. and the tuberous roots should be inserted with the crown about three inches below the surface. deeply channeled. reduce<l about one-half. Most species of Iris in general cultivation as /. deeply channeled. it should be wintered and with sharp river sand in /. Also known as /. and where in winter they may be protected from the too abundant rains by frame. and in colder special care grown without parts of the country will in a demand winter protection soil. should be planted in a shrubbery border. sihlrica need moister conditions. 2 is the " limb " with accompany- . half round.lights being propped on four stakes up over them. the separate flower the i about two-thirds of the natural size . Native of Pyrenees. or Iris. .

Van Houttei (Van . at high altitudes. plaited. during greenhouse a soil. three-celled. The species are natives of Mexico. Pavonia (peacock). and T. In inches about 3 and deep :> inches are set which thev . few. i foot higli. and Peru. sheathing at base. T. liright }'ellow. and plaited sword-shaped leaves. Van Hoattei was introduced from South Mexico in 1875. gnindirlurn is bright crimson: grand rrforo alba is creamy white. in 1796. and herbs perennial half-hardy flowers). and develops into a thin-textured capsule. TiGRiDiA (Greek. carvata from Real del Monte. and T. spotted witli scarlet speciom. in 1838. spotted with rieli lake: ru ua. dark scarlet. T. Chili. a tiger. lasts a very sliort time. lutea from Peru. rec^uire l(> be lifted and kept in a frost-proof shed or under the stage in follows as Kew at grown are They winter. through which passes the style . The ovary is Each flower — '^'^^^^'^ Principaispecies. the anthers are free at the summit of the tube. ^'^^-^'^'^ C^l^^^k). The flower is at first enclosed in a spathe as in Iris.— : 552 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE TIGER FLOWERS Natural Order Iride^. leaves Flower dark purple. var. sepals . or Flower of Tigris. The three outer segments are much larger than the inner three. 2 feet high. ui ricli light of borders sunny in planted corms are the In March very apart. Pringh'l from Peru in 1888. of petals lilac spring. The filaments of the three stamens are united throughout their length to form a tube. There are . The names of these plants have been suggested by ^ °^' the plentiful spots and streaks on the flowers.rii'ns''. T. Stem branched. . spotted with yellow. T. blotched and veined with purple ground-colour of sepals yellow. Tigridias being half-hardy perennials. Stem 1 to 2 feet high. Peacock Tiger Flower. 2 inches across. Lea\es plaited. . A genus of about eight species of with Crocus-like rootstalk. which was the first species to be introduced from Mexico. scarlet spotted with orange June to September. Stem with green-spotted claw and dark brown blade April. Genus Tigridia spotted the from likeness: eidos. violacea came next. Central America. T. Flowers three to a spathe. Flowers. and five years later three new species arrived T. Leaves plaited. . tigi-is. with scarlet. from Southern Mexico. atrata from South Mexico. especially those of Tigridia Pavonia. Houtte's). 12 to 18 inches long.



but the inner ones are invariably somewhat shorter than the outer r-oblong. enclosed in a spathe perianth large. These are 0. and is egg-shaped the style threadlike. sativus. The plant depicted is the var. CROCUSES 553 dry weather they receive water. slender. and now found naturalised locally in England. The partially open flower shows the early conchifiora. The species are natives of Europe. In October they are lifted and slowly dried in baskets in the sun. and North and West Crocus (the ancient Latin . . to be gradually increased with the growth of roots and development of the plant. North Africa. Seedlings are easily raised from spring-sown seeds in a little warmth'. translucent. and the pots placed in a cold frame. . CROCUSES Natural Order Iride^. which are again variously divided according to species. susianus. and 2 a transverse. long. . Flowers solitary or in bundles. aareus. Genus Crocus and Greek name for Saff"ron). the six segments equal in form and almost in size. niulifiorm. and the lower portion of the leaf-bundle surrounded by sheaths of thin. grass-like. and pricked out in a sunny frame. Capsule spindle-shaped. was introduced from tlie Crimea in 1605.. Three species of Crocus have been cultivated in gardens for so many centuries that we have lost all record of their introduction. C. C. branching into the three stigmas. 1 is a vertical. They flower when two years old. tube very long. whitish tissue. the — . section the staminal tube. The ovary is hidden between the bases of the leaves. A genus of about seventy species of perennial herbs with rootstalks in the form of a corm no stem leaves radical. and C. venius all occurring naturally in Europe. condition of the stamens. the edges turned back. . For pot culture the bulbs should be planted early in the year. the stigmas not having yet pushed through Fig. seeds roundish. The stamens are attached to the bases of the the filaments free. and afterwards buried in boxes of sand. channeled above. Tigridia Pavonia. through the ovary 3 is the bulbous root. the very early and brilliant Cloth of Gold Crocus. Description of Plate 255. white beneath. when it may be given in small quantities. C. which are then placed under a stage in a cool-house. giving no water until the leaves begin to appear. underground.

outer segments marked with three Leaves rather rich brcjad. from wide basal sheaths. C. with orange throat base outside streaked with purple autumn. G. from the Ionian Isles. come true year after principal by the The year. which consists of the pressed autumn-flowering species are G. ones Outer segments of flower. NUDIFLORUS (naked-flowered). C. Boryi. with distinct white line. IMPKIIATL (Iinperato's). hiflorus. so extensively used for spring decoration of G. Leaves thick. luteus. Native of Eastern Europe. was cultivated here as long ago as 1629. C. Leaves very slender. — florists' varieties of Crocus. Fl<jwcrs fragrant. natural process of corm-multiplication. and G. speciosus. Crocus aureus florus. the latter from Asia Minor. The species that have chiefly produced the fine parent of the " — G. Flowers variable. February and Several good varieties. Boryi (Bory's).. pale lilac . 'minimus from Corsica. Flowers bright orange. February and March. G. from white to pale lavender. outer segments feathered with purple outside. . G. sativus produces the Saflron of commerce. G. BIFLORUS (two-flowered). Leaves narrow. are versicolor. purple . G. C. which. 554 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Dutch Yellow " garden Crocus and several well-known varieties. susianus. C. ]\Iarch. lilac-pnr])le. and C. nudiflorus. appearing in spring. } marked with lighter or d . leaves appearing a little earlier. Conn sends out thick lateral slioots. lagence(golden). G. G. and G. About the same period C. Leaves slender. serotinus whose native country is unknown from Europe. hiflorus was introduced from the Crimea. Also known as G. stigmas purple September and October. yellow within. with whitish line. Also . beds and borders. from Eastern Europe. which ultimately develop into new corms. . about which time it was introduced from South-Eastern Europe. Plate 256a. and Many of varieties are hybrids. inner much smaller. Flowers appearing in autumn pale purple or violet. smooth. With few exceptions the G. vernus. Flowers creamy late white. aureus. versicolor from Southern Europe. Leaves appearing in spring. short. so-called species of the dealers' catalogues are mere garden varieties. sativus. iridiflorus. mesiacus. witli distinct 'white tlio line. these G.



they should be planted in a well-drained I warm. Leaves fringed along margins and keel. throat always hairy spring. Leaves | inch broad. as G.violet. Leaves broad. Flowers large. self-coloured or purple-veined . the distance apart depending on taste. rich deep purple. . such as the Yellow Dutch. small clumps or large masses. Cloth of Gold Crocus. C. (spring). Where it is desired to utilise the corms ni suceessixe years. Some amateurs. making the liole 6 inches deep . appearing about same time as flowers. King of the Blues. Also known Named as C. cut them off". sunny aspect. They should be planted irregularly by means of a pointed iron crow-bar. fine form. where they have a charming eflect when in flower. Golden Yellow. larg( King of the Blues blue. several parallel rows. John Bright. sufiicient material for a season's stored within them. thereby causing the corms to deteriorate. SPECIOSUS (showy). spring. ah Prince Albert. appearing with flowers. Flowers varying C. Purptirea Grandiflora. the following very brief ea. Crocus corms having vering . Leaves smooth. may be planted on lawn slopes or banksides. will flower successfully flowering. The corms should be planted between September and November at a depth of 3 inches. g^jg^i. annoyed by their unsightly appearance in summer. Also known C. large. striped within with deep purple. fragrans. Plate 256b. VERNUS from purple to white . Flowers deep orange. The unsightliness of the long yellowing leaves may be minimised by lightly twisting them into a loose knot. . white striped La Majestueuse. revolutus. VERSICOLOR (various colours). Sir Walter Scott. axie These are very numerous. keel prominent. Some of the strong- gro^viug kinds. the leaves should be allowed to ripen and wither before taking them up. They may be in single lines. 555 Conns nearly round. and Mont Blanc. susiANus (Susian). pure white. bright The finest of the lilac. Flowers ranging in colour from pure white to deep purple (never yellow).— CROCUSES C. large. dark blue.-^^ includes the best known and most popular : Cloth of Silver. autumn. light soil. outer segments usually feathered with deep brown February. y^ Mont Blanc. i 1 but to enable them to recuperate and increase after of dwindling. One of the earliest to appear. autumnal species.

^ orange with purple-violet centre. I. Crocus aureus. whence most of them were first introduced They have been crossed and in the latter half of the 18th century. Introduced 1757. the Spring Crocus. the ovary and stigmas of C. a large number of corms being placed closely together. with three slender recurved stigmas. back and front aspects . stamens. and flower regularly for years. They are exclusively South African plants. t Introduced 1757. Height. ochroleuca.pj^^^. Natural Order Iride^. saved. vernus. 1. They propagate themselves by . in many-flowered spike May and June. They . more head-like spiki-. they be flowered in pots or vases of moss. three stamens inserted in the throat. Crocus Description of Plate 256. Genus Ixia (Greek ixios. April and May. not until they may — have obviously of become crowded. bird-lime in allusion to the sticky juice). yellow. Plate 257. Flower stems 1 foot high. Fig. 556 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE dropping a corm in each. 1 foot. B. 2. will germinate until the season for the sprouting of the old corms and they should be left until they have completed two seasons' growth before being used as flowering corms. considerabl}' improved by the Dutch growers. ODORATA (fragrant). A. or cocoanut-fibre and for table decoration they may be grown in shallow saucers of water. vernus. the corms should be in contact to get the best effect. it will not be necessary to take them up for several years in fact. plate. PriBcipaispeaes. If grown in pots. : . the Yellow Crocus.^^. There is a long slender perianth-tube and six-parted limb. with whom they are IxiA : still a speciality.. The var.denser. Flowers strongly scented. they take care of themselves. Ixia maculata (spotted). A genus of about twenty-five species of greenhouse bulbous perennials with sword-shaped leaves. Thus treated. the production of several corms in place of the one that flowered but not many them produce abundant seed in in this country. and the Where the corms are not required to be soil should be light and rich. a three-celled ovary terminating in a thread-like style. shown to the left oi' h. and filling up with fine soil. and salver-shaped flowers in simple or branched spikes. which should be sown thinly beds or pans of light sandy loam. has cream-coloured flowers in a shorter. If planted in beds or borders at a distance of a couple of inches apart.



For pot-culture the soil should them. but they will not flower until three or four years old. Introduced 1779. if during the winter they are protected from frost by piling fern or cocoanut-fibre thickly above The bulbs should be planted in October. Given a well-drained. and ripen them by exposure to air and sunshine. I. Introduced 1778. with the crowns an inch below the surface. Introduced 1780. 1 foot. the segments spreading. Height. I. a dagger or sedge : in allusion to shape of leaves). The flowers are borne in a two-rowed spike on a tall scape. Propagation is efiected large enough. and remove the plants to a cool greenhouse or conservatory where they will get abundant light and air. and merely keep the soil from drying until the flowerspikes appear. in many other parts they may be grown successfully. Flowers green. A genus of about one hundred and thirty species of perennial herbs with corms. somewhat April. Height. Except in warm sheltered gardens. and linear or sword -shaped leaves. GLADIOLUS OR CORN FLAG Natm-al Order Iride^. suitable size. The short spike figured the var. at a depth of 4 or 6 inches. with blue centre. ripen gradually by placing them outside and watering moderately till the leaves have died away then keep soil dry and store . vaRiDiFLORA (green-flowered). Then give more water. and the soil should be light and sandy. Genus (Jladiolas Gladiolus (Latin. germinating them in a cool frame. warm/sunny border in a sheltered position. Stand on or plunge in ashes in a cool frame. After flowering. ochroleuca. SPECIOSA (showy). bell-shaped. 6 inches. I. Height. be a mixture of leaf-mould and sandy loam. and in sheltered spots. In the most southern portions of England. or by sowing seeds about September. The seedlings are not of rapid growth. and they will not be fit for removal for a year. and may be grown outside. 557 Flowers pink. 1 foot. natural at the left of the plate is size. somewhat . by separating the sandy soil when they should be bulbous offsets when repotted. A 5-inch pot is the most and in this from eight to twelve bulbs may be placed.GLADIOLUS OR CORN FLAG PATENS (spreading). when they may be potted singly. it is best to lift the bulbs after they have flowered. May and June. Flowers dark red. and consist of a six-parted. May and June. away in till October. Ixias are hardy. bellshaped. Ixia maculata.

Lemoinei. cuspidatus. segetum. 1872. G. and a purplish brown blotch on the lower segments. 1868.— 55« FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE . 1794. grandis. and its introduction to tlto larger world of gardeners was due to the well-known house of Van Houtte. More recently M. these produce flowers of great size. gandavensis and G. another hybrid. G. cardinaUs and has also produced many of G. or produced about sixty years ago by crossing it is with G. Lemoine of Nancy produced a hybrid between G. with three stigmas. of Gladiolus were known here. byzantinus was introduced from Turkey. G. But these species. GolviUei is . grown compared with the favour accorded to their hybrid progeny. as witness this list of South African species. Dutch. The principal grower and breeder of tlie large-flowered Gandavensis section is Mr. G. three-celled. for which we were indebted in the first instance to the Belgian. (Breiicliley's). 1745. 1788. well known as The Bride. list of variations constantly being produced from is the G. are little flower-spikes. the result of the union cardinaUs and G. G. G. G. cardinalis. Three hundred years ago only the European species jg. G G piirpurea-auratus. inirpurea-auratus. vittatus. G. Flowers feet. Height. gardener to the Duke of Arenberg. nancieanus by crossing G. 1866. 4 or 5 . Bedinghaus. 1758. recurvus. but most of the others came from the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope. Fifteen species are natives of Europe and Western Asia. surpassing all eai'lier sorts in this respect. the style thread-like. in 1879. tristis. with short. . communis (of which our Hampshire G. brenchleyensis is of similar origin. The credit of this production is given to M. flori^undus. 1774. blandus. Suundersii with Principal S ecies GLADIOLUS BEENCHLEYENSLS bright scarlet July and August. In 1629 G. including G. The most important of these in size and brilliance of its hrackyandrus came from Tropical Africa though beautiful in themselves. G. gandavensis. varieties. curved tube aud oval unequal segments. the others being natives of the Cape and Tropical Africa. cruentus. The tlu-ee stamens are inserted on the perianth tube the ovary is eggshaped. which is known as G. G. as well as in the endless it. alba. with the dates of introduction: 1760. James Kelwa}^ of LangG. is very popular for pot-culture and cut flowers. Lemoinei. papilio. containing many seeds. 1795. — Ghent Gladiolus. illyricus is regarded by Hooker as a variety) and G. 1789. hybridiser has produced the race called Yet more recently the same G. two-lippL'd periantli. The capsule is leathery. tristis its var. G. and French growers. psittacinus. said G. G. and from which a race has arisen with moi*e brilliantly coloured flowers.



G. PURPUREA. CARDiNALis (cardinal colour). pink. deep green. airy place until the stems and leaves die ofi". care should be taken that no fresh manure comes in contact with the corm. at intervals soil. yellowish. Garden July. that it would serve no useful purpose to give a list of them. and batches may be put in until May. Hybrid. In so doing. Flowers G. light. Leaves slender. strongly nerved down G.AURATUS (purple and gold). from the deepest tones to pure white. Bride. So good has — the general quality of these become. somewhat bell-shaped. Height. with pale purple markings. nodding. Height. leafy. Flowers of many shades of scarlet and crimson. hybrid. The corms put at least 3 inches below the surface and a f<x>t apart. Leaves many-nerved. . autumn. loamy addition of are planted. and is known as The . if tliere is no desire to save seed. and ]>efore tlie approach of frosts the entire plants of the South Africans and the tender hyljrida should be taken up and laid in a dry. 2 or 3 ' feet. Flower stem 3 feet high. IJ foot high. in many-flowered spikes. G. These are now so numerous— hundreds of them being Garden Varl f s catalogued by nurserymen and so generally excellent. . The var. Flowers rich scarlet. and probably secure better results than purchasing named varieties from very brief descriptions. a mulching of well-rotted manure will be of great assistance. centre of each side. Saundersii (Saunders'). After flowering. . or decay will probably result. made rich by the manure four or five months before the corms Planting commences in March. PSITTACINUS (parrot-like). Flowers crimson. It is a good plan to place Ijc should the corms on a layer of mixed sand and wood ashes. Then these should be cut ofi" about an inch above the . alba has white flowers. streaked and spotted with yellow August to October. to secure a succession of flowers. G. seedlings unnamed Gladioli like a deep. Plate 258. Leaves slender. with a large purple blotch on the two lower segments 2 or 3 feet. 2 feet high June. marked and streaked with Flower stem 4 feet high. Flowers red. . GANDAVENSIS (Ghent). Flowers bright red. lilac. fine scarlet. with large white spots flower stems 3 to 4 feet high July and August. and other tints July. CoLViLLEi (Colville's). . Flowers golden yellow.GLADIOLUS OR CORN FLAG G. 559 BYZANTINUS (Byzaiitiiic). dry weather in summer. August. G. During hot. 1824. the stem should hr cut ort"just below the lowest floAver. spotted with white. Stem somewhat zigzag and angular. that many amateurs prefer to buy from reliable houses.

Genus Narcis^ a membranous spat ^^ below.56o FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE if corm. but the same size pot will take half a dozen corms of Ilie Bride. Ghent Cornflag. Numerous little corms are produced around the old one. with tall spikes of elegant tubular flowers Tritmiia. and the following year they should be grown in pans. Natural Order Amaryllidej*:. Other genera of iRiDEiE which are represented among garden plants are Babiana. Use a 6-inch pot. The stock ma}^ also be increased by means of seed. and will probably flower. and slender spikes of tubular fragrant flowers Morcea. . an autumn-flowering Ixia-like plant with bright crimson flowers Sparaxis. bel three-sided. a near ally of Gladiolus. halfhardy plants Watsonia. at tirst incliiflt'd in r tub(\ in the inserted stamens six are There circular crown. : . the mouth of the tube surmountr solitary or in umbels. Freesia. Ripen and dry off in autumn. but with hairy leaves and short flower-spikes. something like Ixia. and these should be separated when the old ones are put away. . easily-grown. of which T. in a dry shed. flowers. or white always spreading segments above. Gladiolus gandavensis. stored away in paper bags. These genera are all natives of South Africa. and place corms in according to the usual size of the species when grown. is ovary The crown. and . plant out the following March. the beyond protruding . Description of Plate 268. and the latter. quite dry. the seedlings gradually given more air and less heat until they can be turned outside for the summer. or boxes of dry sand. Pottsii. nancieanus will be sufficient. crossed with the allied Crocosma aurea. started in heat. tube forms a perianth The yellow. has I)roduced a most useful race of summer-flowering. The soil for potting should have been made rich well in advance. . about onethird less than the actual size showing corms.(nius. sown in pans in March. . with the habit of Ixia. Thus a single corm of G. and Gladioli may also be grown in pots. another Ixia-like i. In their second year they may be planted-out. Lemnoinei or G. leaves. very similar to Iris Schizostylis.



In the hybrid forms the stamens are attached more or less lialf-way down the tube. Jonquilla. who has devoted great attention to the study and the date is not recorded. Burbidge. poeticus. Hort. . in his Paradisus. who lived B. and speaks of its seed being gathered by some persons " for sowing. iV. was introduced from Spain some time previous to 1596. has always been a favourite garden flower. di\isions of perianth very narrow niaigin of crown slightly crisped scape one-flowered. N. W. triandrus. JSf. Jonquilla and N.L. poeticus. N. and the thread-like style ends in a blunt stigma. or Our native Theophrastus of Eresus. Soc. two or three to each scape. Bulbocodium. Several . Narcissus Pseudonarcissus.. In the true species the stamens are attached either at the base of the tube (If. works are natural hybrids. xi. species are natives of Europe and Northern and Western Asia. gradually enlarging iVom base of perianth to mouth of crown. or near its mouth in two series (iV. . but so long ago that The Jonquil. Flowers bright yellow." The Poet's Narcissus. funnelshaped. cultivation of the genus. The seed The vessel is a leathery capsule. both from Portugal. triandrus). containing numerous globose seeds. and they hybridise so freely with each other. Daffodil. for Parkinson refers to them as growing here. Tazetta. published at that date. round. describes the NarJcissos. one perianth. Bulb "about two-thirds of an inch thick. 371-286. 4 to 8 inches higli April and May. Bulb somewhat less iLuii 1 incli tliick. ^ Lent Lily. these six are the only real species that are known to science. came from Spain in 1759. All come true from seed if fertilised with pollen of another individual of the same species. and the N. The Polyanthus Narcissus. Narcissus Bulbocodium (Bulbocodium-like).. i\r. N. from South Europe. and from them the hybridist and cultivator could stock our gardens with every garden variety of Narcissus now known and worth growing " {Journal Roy. Leaves slender. half-round. The Hoop-petticoat Narcissus. : (Jonquil). Many others have been introduced but we pause here to remark that. in the opinion of Mr. Tazetta. appears to have been the first of the foreign species to be introduced. and that the other forms that rank as species in most varieties of them. F. Bidhocodium). F. had both been introduced before 1629. 79). or natural these are all He says : " All known to exist as plants undubitably wild in Europe.C.S. and tlioy vary more or less widely as collected from different localities. . that given these six wild species alone in sufficient quantity and variety. Psevdo-narcissus and N.

very slender. podica^. then drooping perianth pale yellow segments lance-shaped crown as long as perianth-segments. two-) flowered. 12 or two-edged. Tazetta (Tazetta). segments spreading. cylindrical. Plate 259b. Flowers at first erect. . three or four to a scape. . scape 1 foot high. saucer-shaped. (Poet's). a Flowers inches across. Varieties very . an inch across. Several one. numerous. crown conical . one-flowered February or March. oflspring of six-flowered Queen Anne's Jonquil is a double variety of this. I'ARYK MFtoNATi. Jonquilla. very fragrant. according to the character of the crown.— . . Flowers four to eight from each scape. . or four to . Flowers white. the edge faintly round-toothed scape April. N.shaped scape . tube very slender. powerfully fragrant. 1 foot high. bluntly 2 somewhat glaucous. four or six to a scape. 6 to 12 inches long. scape margin crisped and coloured a bright red. one or two to each scape. agreeably scented the perianth white crown saucer-shaped. Tazetta. I} inch thick. flat. N. 562 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Leaves channeled. April. A'. the margin slightly crisped and boldly toothed scape two-edged. divisions of periantli spreading and slightly overlapping crown very shallow. thus Magnicoronati. perianth segments turned back over it. Leaves rush-like. Oronp TT. the edge sligl^tly N. March. TRIANDRUS (threc-stamened). Flowers bright yellow. Plate 260. resembling triandms. Group K Group and A^. and these are classified in three divisions. April. bluntly keeled. one. 8 to 12 inches high. Several Plate 259a. . Bulb 1 J to 2 inches thick. . almost round. with crowns not half as long as the perianth III. Bulb about three . Leaves scape. POETICUS keeled. five or six to a scape. slender. Pseitdo-narcissiis or N. but deeper yellow.bell . PsEUDO-NAiicissus (False or Bastard Narcissus). ArrnTOPORoxATi. Leaves somewhat flat and glaucous. with crowns as long as the perianth divisions.or two-flowered. lobed or toothed. nearly flat. horizontal or drooping. crow^n bright yellow.(rarely 14 inches high. Varieties Bulb not more than | inch thick. N. 1 inch thick. very slender. a little over an inch across perianth white. Bulb about Leaves glaucous. descendants of A^. Bulhocodium. . two. with interI. Several Garden Varieties Somewhere about a thousand named varieties arc gTown in gardens.



Mediocoronati I ispictius . perianth white crown Staten General yellow. indeed.NARCISSI Ard Righ. using about 11 ounce to the square yard of land. . and failure. Grand Soleil d'Or perianth rich yellow crown deep orange. perianth golden • I Waikin. or a small quantity of bone-dust may be mixed wath the soil before planting. the "Gardenia-flowered very double and fragrant. early. deeper yellow than perianth. II. Paevicoeonati (b) Polj'anthus . . perianth white crown orange. very fragrant. perianth segments Lecdsl. Where there is a bank. applies to all bulbous plants. Scilly White. . . as of an enclosing hedge. as they tend to disease shade. t. Gloriosus. III. . . . Those whose natural habitat is the wanner parts of Europe succeed best on poor gravelly soils with plenty of sunshine others do well in partial Ordinary manures should not be used. perianth nearly white. white. . habit graceful and . the AonlAn form oi the common yellow Daffodil. The only stimulants allow^ed should be wood-ashes. When the . Jaune Supreme perianth yellow crown . Backhouse . and not very rich. Grandis tru: Ilorsfiel ing Ohvalla. well-drained. Telamoniusplemis . where they have escaped from gardens and orcliards and gradually made tlieir way to the summit. crown creamy. road-scrapings. most suitable for Narcissus-culture are those that are light. fortnight later. They may also be j)lanted among grass in any jjosition where their leaves will not be in danger from the lawn-mower. This remark. white. J. pure white crown suffused with orange. Yellow King very large yello\v trumpet with deep yellow periantli early and robust. it should by utilised for Narcissi. . crown yellow. C. the retention of tlie foliage until it soils . The naturally withers being essential for the ripening of the bulb. and fresh meadow-loam mixed in equal proportions and applied as a top-dressing. Bazelman major perianth large. Cernuus. :rown red . " Great Welsh Daffodil " perianth primrose crown golden. . In some districts it is quite a common thing to see these plants growing in great clumps on the hedge-banks. distinct.

1. the Fig. where they need not be disturbed until they commence to flower. Plate 260. Imported bulbs should be planted as soon as purchased. light. Fig. the letter B and the figure 2. Narcissus Jonquilla. sandy soil. plunging the pots in ashes outside and covering thickly with cocoanut-fibre. Description of Piate8259and26o. a double form. treating them much after the manner adopted for pot Hyacinths. K. a couple of years longer to show of what tion is it is really capable. the style simple. accompanied with liberal . slightly reduced. When the latter begin to appear the pots should be removed to a cool pit or greenhouse. some in their fourth. and tlie bulbs separated and replanted before they emit new roots. duhius B. or. A genus containing only one species. a French botanist of the 17th century). the bulb. is Varieties of N. Genus Vallota honour of Pierre Valot. funuel-sliaped. waterings. Pseudo-Narcissus. Tazetfa. a beautiful bulbous plant. a section of the flower 3. a trench should be drawn of sufficient depth to allow Many of the ordinary at least 3 inches of soil above the top of the bulb. natural a section through the flower. . with an enlarged throat. 3 or 4 inches long.TDEii':. the type . and the membranous spathc splits in Vallota (named . and the flowers allowed to develop naturally. A the var. C. with six oblong-oval divisions. or Lent Lily. the tube short. The six erect stamens are equal. Some of the species bloom in their third year. produced at the summit of a tall scape. force them. B. and dibbling should not be resorted to instead. . the Dafibdil.564 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE clumps have become too crowded they should be taken up in July. No seedling should be destroyed because its first flowers do not come up to expectation it should be given Most of the kinds seed freely. Propaga- also eflected by separating the size. the Jonquil. and the seeds may be sown as soon as ripe. oflshoots. . Plate 259. The seed capsule is shown between 2. but as a rule the larger kinds do not flower until the fifth year. in special beds of well-drained. the Polyanthus Narcissus. by submitting them to brisk bottom-heat. SCARBOKOUGH LILY Natural Order AMARYU. Narcissi and all the Polyanthus sorts may be grown well in pots. perianth is erect. N. and umbels of large The brilliant scarlet flowers. the object being to induce plentiful root-growth without stimulating the production of leaves. with long strap-shaped leaves.



A native of Mexico and Guatemala introduced 1593. and has scarcely any tube. under of crowding. of the same colour as the type. Sprekelia foemosissima (most beautiful).- out to collect plants for There are several varieties. They should be well and regularly watered during the is danger In most gardens. in a loamy soil. 2 feet. The stamens are attached to the segments at the base. Natural Order AMARYLLiDEiE. mognifica Gardens. The flower is at first enclosed in a spathe. The scape is hollow. although in the extreme South it is hardy in situations not too exposed. H.JACOBEAN LILIES into 565 two or three high. The scape stout and hollo^A^ about 2 feet It is a native of Soutli It flowers during summer and autumn. Description of Plate 261. They should be clusters of six or eight. Here the bulbs should be planted deeply (6 or 8 inches). Flowers large. and was introduced in 1774 by Francis Masson. manure water may be given now and then. they are grown in pots. Genus Bprekelia Sprekelia (derived from the name of J. i. The bulbs may be grown either singly. Var. Fig 1. and should remain undisturbed until there . Whilst growing they should be placed near the glass in a sunny position and when growth is completed. in 10-inch pots. eximia is a trifle larger. It has a bulbous root. who wrote on Liliacese. . June. Plate 262. six or seven to a scape. A genus consisting of a single species. solitary or (rarely) twin. somewhat two-edged. or in glass. There arc several named varieties. a section of flower. about two-thirds less than nature. who was sent divisions. showy. afterwards bent downwards (declinate). of Hamburg. Africa. a condition conducive to floriferousness. in 4-inch pots. . Kew appears to difier from the last only in the point of size. Height. and recurved like the stylo. but with a white throat which is feathered with crimson. the almost unequal segments free to the base. Sprekelsen. however. Vallota must be grown as a greenhouse plant. Generally speaking. and died 1764). the Scarborough Lily. : crimson. only partially buried. and surrounded with sand before covering with ordinary soil. If pot-bound. about one-third less than the natural size bulb and leaves period of growth. The var. Flowers Vallota "puvptirea. with narrow strap-shaped leaves. where they are broader than above. and appears with the leaves. rest may be induced by witholding water.

most frequently a delicate rose colour streaked with red September. GREENHOUSE side. solid. dry position against a wall. introduced 1712. Flowers three to fragrant. the Jacobean Lily. but a house temperature. not merely in beds and borders. A genus of one species with a bulbous rootstock. the Belladonna Lily soon becomes thoroughly established and nniltiplios. soil and close to the wall. The name Amaryllis is still universally given in gardens to the species and hybrids of Hippeastrum. Description of Plate 262. Fig. It is may. ranging from almost white to a reddish purple. We know cottage gardens in the South^of England where it comes up freely. twelve in an umbel. but entirely difierent capsules and seeds. In tlie noigh1. Three of the stamens are attached to the base of the segments. Native of South Africa.rown in o. but pushing through hard gravi-lled patlis also. about onehalf the actual . in i'. variable in size and colour. The bulbs should be planted in Jnly. G inches deep in a loamy Vallota. which has a flower like that of the present plant. Planted in a warm. handsome flowers.ict. the six segments broad Amaryllis name and ribbed. It may be grown in pots along with . it requires the same trcatnieut as UipimiMmm. 2 feet. Sprckelia fovmosissima. pots. Genus Amaryllis a country-woman mentioned in Virgil's Eclogues).sto\-e. be tvoalo<l as iv^oumwinVA ojeiius i'oi- Vallota.recu- reader therefore referred buck to that for details. Bulb large. stalked. Height.. the tips somewhat spreading. The numerous strap-shaped leaves do not appear until spring. Culture as big as a swan's egg. 1 is a section through the BELLADONNA LILY Natural Order Amaryllide^.. The flowers are funnel-shaped with a short (the of tube.)ourhood of London it does not flower unless planted against the south wall of a heated building. and three to the mouth of the tube. The scape is tall. |)l. au-1 the If ^i. and an autumnal flower scape supporting a many-flowered umbel of large. A:\rARYLLis Species BELLADONNA (beautiful lady).2. such as a.uit-. and somewhat flattened. There are several named varieties.



to fourteen-flowercd . three of the finest being grandifiora. with strap-shaped leaves in two rows. Olivias are better . The in (named honour of a perianth is funnel-shaped and six-parted. called it Clivea. and Sir W. The history nob His was introduced from Hooker founded the genus Clivia cyrtanthiflorum (Cyrtanthus . C. Hybrid. a member of the Clive family). cluded among Olivias. umbels manyflowered winter and spring. nobilis. splendens has brighter. JiixiATA (red). Recently many seedling forms of this species have been raised and named in gardens. iminiata and 0. Sprengel corrected this into Himantophyllum. Plate 263. is now inlie called Imantophylktm miniatum. signifying plants with leaves like leather thongs. inches long . with white centre and greenish tips. A genus of three species of evergreen bulbous plants. cyrtanthijlorum is a garden hybrid between 0. scape from 1 to 2 feet high . There are many garden varieties. . since corrected to Clivia. and 0. and splendens. The var. Flowers reddish orange or yellow.IMANTOPHYLLUMS 567 IMANTOPHYLLUMS Natural Order Amaryllide^. and protrude slightly The species are South African. s ecies Flowers large. . . but many of them are scarcely distinguishable from the type. however. Genus Clivia Clivia Duchess of Northumberland. deeper-coloured flowers. 2 to 3 . the style bears a three- known G. from amid which arises the flattened scape. in gardens as Imanto- Ijhyllums. cup-shaped.flowered). 0. salmon-pink or pale flame-coloured. J. This species was introduced from Natal in 1854. drooping. Gardeni came from the same locality in 1862. but finally this got further corrected by dropping the H. Gardeni (Garden's). the divisions nearly equal. Lindley. Flowers bright orange. ImaAophyllum. and Sir William Hooker proposed to restrict his genus to the species depicted in our Plate 263. and the specific name has been corrected by Regel to miniata. however. sometimes spelled without an n. winter. Lindeni. yellowish at base ten to twenty in an umbel scape 1 to 2 feet high spring and summer. . umbel ten. bearing an umbel of drooping flowers. which This. South Africa in 1828. of the genus is chiefly philological. C. The six stamens are equal lobed stigma.

funnel-shaped. the plant must be kept cool. the outer divisions shorter than the Height. 256). They are natives of Asia Minor and Xorthern Asia. A genus of two species of bulbous plants with erect unbranched stems bearing leafy and near the top small clusters of flowers. season. and the thread-like style ends in tliree slender channeled stigmas. Fig. NOBiLis (noble). it will be found more advantageous to the plant to give it a top-dressing of rich soil in spring. and there should be a good thickness of drainage material. tipped with green.568 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE C. IXIOLIRIONS Natural Order AMARYLLiDEiE. syringing must be stopped. to induce rest. Clivias cultivation. glaucous. . The flowers are erect. ^^ ^^^^^^^^ be grown either in pots or in borders in greenhouse. attachment of the stamens. . which will prolong the blooming period. The best soil for them is a compost ' may loam and rotten cow-dung. on long stalks: the divisions narrow lance-shaped. . sheathing at the base. At this of fibrous . They grow during spring and summer. The six erect stamens are attached near the base of the tube. inner forty to fift}^ in an umbel May. add a little of the former to one of the latter. bracts. for the plants require a great deal of water A few bones crushed small and mixed during the growing period. perianth curved. Instead of repotting. violet or blue. When in bloom the plants should be removed to a cool. when they must have a temperature between 50° and 60°. and leirimi. CHvia miniata. Flowers orange - scarlet. funnel-shaped. in the proportion of three Whilst mixing up. They will scarcely require anything larger than 10 inches across. but in autumn. too. a lily). and during winter only sufficient water should be given to prevent the soil getting quite dry. 1 to 2 feet. airy conservatory. 1 is a section of the flower showing etc. in will also be an advantage. The leaves are long. with plenty of air. channeled. Description of Plate 263. six -parted. Genus Ixioliriun IxiOLiRiON (from Ixia (see p. Water may be applied freely both to the root and by syringing the leaves. reduced about one-fourth below the natural size. They are not plants that require frequent repotting fair-sized plants may therefore be put in large pots at once. charcoal to keep it sweet. very slender.

Nat. Plant */-. .GASTERIA VERRUCOSA Flowers Nat size .


from which arises a tall. borne in pairs from the axils . Height. wellPlate 264. 1878. Genus Polianthes and anthos. . irregularly. but has been widely cultivated in the East for centuries. Description of Plate 264. 12 to 20 inches.TUBEROSE IxiOLiRioN 569 KoLFAKOWSKiAXUM (Kolpakowski's). Flowers violet-blue. ^* ^'^ ^^'^ prevailing custom to grow Tuberoses only from newly imported bulbs. — I g ." " Italian. IxioUrion montambTn. light. Ixiolirions should be grown in good. cultivation. and to give them the protection of a handlight after planting them in spring. it was introduced to English gardens about the year 1629. The six stamens are inserted in the tube. poUos. The upper part of the stem is rather zigzag. with a long. somewhat trumpet-shaped Height. 1. PoLiANTHES (Greek. or the wind. slenderness of the flowering-stems. pecies. curved tube. differing but slightly from the type. sunny border." which is of dwarf habit. It is advisable in this climate to take up the bulbs in autumn and store them in dry sand in a cool. The Tuberose is a native of Mexico. 1 foot. MONTANUM (mountain). There are several varieties: "African. but frost-proof. natural size. consisting of the well-known Tuberose. slender.of membranous bracts." " American. The best is " The Pearl. Fig. and flowers. Introduced from Syria. Fio-vvers blue or white. section of a flower. These flowers have a very short footstalk. place. on a w^arm. nearly equal. with pure white flowers. June. divisions. stem. Owing to the weakness and drained soil. sparsely provided tvith long. There are two or three varieties in cultivation. white or bright. A single-species genus. will bring them to the ground. or the weight of the flowers. TUBEROSE Natural Order AMARYLLIDE. segments spreading I. these should be tied up to a stick as they grow. PoZicm^/ies tuherosa. leaves. 3 or 4 feet high. 1844. and six incurved. these are so greatly impoverished by the abundant flowers that they have little chance of recuperating in this country sufficiently to make them worth growing a IV. roundish stem. a flower). the perianth funnel-shaped. and bears numerous very fragrant creamy white flowers. slender. summer. which has an erect tuberous rootstock.E. lance-shaped leaves. Introduced from Lake Sairan." etc.

or may even be placed out in a sunny border. is three-lobed.inch pots. and the lower one of the inner series narrower. others can be kept for months in a perfectly dry place. and astron. the Tuberose. Polianthes tuberosa. a star). we frequently hear it pronounced Tubesecond year. two parts. hippeus. The stamens are unequally inserted in the tube. and borne in a small umbel at the top of a hollow scape. flowers for decorative purposes nearly all the year round. Readers will pardon us for reminding them that Tuberose is a word of three syllables Tu-ber-ose. if in summer. Most of those in culti\'ation are hybrids. . and placed If space is limited.inch pot. one part. under the stage until they come into growth. . everything possible should be done to keep them dwarf. funnel-shaped. As soon as the shoots appear the pots should be placed near the glass and kept there. which are produced The flower-scapes are usually produced a little freely in this genus. Some should be potted as soon as they can be obtained from the dealers and if a succession is desired. and the style South America. They should be potted singly in 4 . and leaf -mould. if the tubers are planted in sandy soil in May. showing bulb. Good flowers may be grown in a sheltered border in the open air in warm localities. or five in an 8 . where the temperature will not fall below 50°. in December. Bulbs of the Ai'iicau varieties arrive here in September or October the American and Pearl. When they commence to flower they may be removed to a conservatory or other cool house. for. KNIGHT'S STAE LILIES Natural Order Amaryllideje. A genus of about forty species (including Hahranthus and Phycella) of bulbous plants with showy flowers. Fig. These are of striking colours. The perianth is six-parted. they may be put in a warm greenhouse or frame. the divisions irregular. Genus Hippeastrumi HiPPEASTRUM (Greek. and flowers. being naturally inclined to grow tall. a knight. The species are natives of the hotter portions of earlier than the leaves. — Description of Plate 265. and a few potted By this means it is possible to have Tuberose at intervals up to June. large. 1 is a section through a detached flower. in a compost of rich loam.570 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE . for the upper one of the outer series is broader than the others. stem. usually cultivated under the name of Amaryllis.



with a yellowish green star. It is also cultivated or naturalised in the Tropics of the Old World. Greenhouse. KNIGHT'S STAR LILIES 571 HiPPEASTUUM AULICUM (courtly). EQUESTRE (knightly). Flowers regular. on scapes a foot high. H. Introduced from Brazil in leaves with a white central band. year. with crimson streaks and a conspicuous greenish star. fine leafy plants will result. on stout stalks. Flowers 4 inches across. in 5. Var. in strong loamy soil. and placed in a sunny position in a warm. mauve-red. on a layer of good drainage. prefer to repot the bulbs annually. The species is a native of Tropical America and the West Indies. closelj^ striated. established plants will not require repotting. Flowers whit^.. Stove. PSITTACINUM (parrot-like). When large numbers are grown they are best accommodated in a bed of spent tan. strap- Flowers large. to allow a a top-dressing be given when growth begins each and occasional manure-water during the growing period. H. red. and with it the flower scapes. Whilst in flower they should be shaded from bright sunshine. From September to The bulbs should mixed with charcoal February they should be kept cool and given period of rest. moist house. Brazil. each division with two red stripes. H. striatifolia has Stove. H. Greenhouse. Introduced from South America. be potted about February. Flowers 5 inches across. and crushed bones. 7 inches across. VITTATA (striped). One of the largest and most vigorous. and also one of the principal. and above the green a dark red-purple blotch. Flowers bright red. rich crimson. and they give a show of striking llow^ers. Stove. thickly spotted with crimson. progenitors of the garden race of Hippeastrums. Introduced 1710. barred with crimson. If little water. green at base. 1777. Greenhouse. 'slmped. Introduced from Rio de Janeiro. H. RETICULATUM (netted). creamIntroduced from across. Introduced from Peru in 1869. Leopoldi (Leopold's). Greenhouse. in which the pots are buried . 1814. and if plenty of air and light are given during the 7-inch pots. Principaispecles Leaves broad. Some growers. 1866. Scape about 1 i foot high. The Barbados Lily. HippeastruTnis are not difficult plants to grow splendid return in a grand if they get the special conditions they require. 1819. with broad segments coloured red and white. Growth will begin almost immediately. (leopard-like). H. in order to preserve the blossoms. on scapes 3 feet high. however. 1810. PARDINUM Peru. Flowers 6 inches coloured.

1875. They are propagated from seed for ne varieties and hybrids. hanging from the spathe at summit of the scape. The three inner segments of the perianth are much shorter than the outer three. About the year 1680 a vessel was wrecked in the Channel. which they make between October and May (they grow all through the winter). Many of them rooted and grew. and are marked with green. which was introduced in a singular manner. which appear in autumn. with the perianth divided into slender segments. There are many garden hybrids and seedlings. : The it is third species is G. when they should be watered.. the Guernsey Lily. which appear in autumn. the bulbs should be kept perfectly dry and cool until the flower-spikes appear. well known as : Galanthus Snowdrops. 1818 of larger growtli thun G. though of a mild character. introduced from the Crimea. N. of which our native Galanthus nivalis is the type. has larger flowers. The best-known species is Nerine samiense. and when the leaves have died. nivalis. They require bottom-heat. . and by means of offsets from the bulbs. A genus of about ten South African bulbous plants. milk. SOME OTHER AMARYLLIDS Natural Order Amaryllide^ There are a number of genera of this order. too important hortiexigencies are the culturally to be ignored. and among the wreckage washed ashore were a large number of bulbs of this plant. There are no many named seedling varieties and hybrids which are cultivated preference to the species. with plenty of moisture after growth has well started after completing their growth. with the addition of charcoal and sand. introduced from Asia Mhiov. naturalising themselves though no longer to be found there. flower milk-white flowers). plicatus. The potting mixture should be good loam and leaf-mould. G. curvifolia (introduced 1788) has bright scarlet flowers. Mwesii. so that the roots can grow into the tan. 572 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE below the rim. they should be allowed to rest. and the flowers are solitary. but of space will not allow us which the plan of the work and to treat at length. It has pale salmon-coloured flowers. anthos. Among these Nerine species (the name of a water-nymph). gala. but is otherwise similar. genus of three species of hardy bulbous plants. There are only two leaves. with strap-shaped leaves and umbels of flowers. of — A (Greek.



There are several good hybrids of garden origin. appearing in February and March. white. Panckatium (Greek. There are several leaves. powerful supposed to be ft — . and when the flower-buds appear. fragrant. a violet). and a six. with six broad. two parts. to one part of mixed leafmould and manure. The bulbs of all should be planted permanently where they can remain undisturbed. . the flowers 3 inches across. slender. which contains nine species.are propagated by means of the oflsets produced around the bulbs. in three. five or six species and charts. LeucoiuTYh cestivum. spreading segments. the Summer Snowflake. to which a little charcoal should be added. and within these a cup-shaped corona bearing the six stamens on its edges. each segment tipped with green from four to eight to a scape May and June. with solitary or twin flowers. EucHARis (Greek.SOME OTHER AMARYLLIDS 573 but the flowers often smaller and of a more greenish hue. wdiite flowers. So long as they are growing thej^ require plenty of water. The compost should be rich loam. and tall scapes bearing clusters of nodding. is much smaller. the flowers from one to six to a scape. Leucoium (Greek. fragrant. This genus. Height. the Spring Snowflake. sanderiana (introduced 1882) is similar to the last. increased to about 80° in summer. E. all. vernum. and the perianth divisions all but equal in length. L. of South American stove bulbous plants. They succeed best under the treatment suggested for Gakmthus to be planted and leukos. about 18 inches. and deeply. — left alone. 'I'liej. Eucharis Candida (introduced 1851) has a bulb as large as a hen's egg. Removal to cooler house at this period ensures a longer duration for the flowers. liquid-manure as well. not more than 6 inches high. the corona tinged with ten-flowered umbel on 2-feet scape. and the surface may In summer they may have a topbe sown with annuals without interfering with the bulbs. putting half a dozen bulbs into a 10-inch pot. two of which are native. genus of in six-flowered umbels. and ion. dressing. Any garden soil will suit them. bearing a solitary leaf. well. The bulbs should be planted in large pots. The best-known species are the two that are found locally in Britain.i : . with white flowers. but smaller—about 3 inches across and the corona is suppressed the inside of the tube and the filaments of the stamens are yellow. They require a minimum temperature of about 65°. E. which are tubular. grandifiora {amazonica) (introduced 1854) has flowers 4 to 5 inches across. is distinguished from the last by the leaves being more numerous. . . vxMi. eit. and kratyff. grace: very graceful). A all and producing broad oval or elliptic evergreen leaves on long stalks.

574 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE bulLous plants. surmounted by a short. maritimum somewhat short tube.veined. Both flower in June. terminated by a large umbrellalike rayed stigma. Leaves large. ELATIOR Icatlicry.I iMhA (lurid). lance-shaped. which is sometimes produced into two teeth or lobes. There is a small cylindrical ovary. two parts. they should be grown in a compost consisting of turfy loam. bears the dust and dry heat of dwelling-rooms better than most a pot-|)laiit for conservatory. Pancrathun illyricum (introduced from South Europe. Introduced from Japan. with strap-shaped leaves. The principal species are those named below. (introduced from South Europe. and very fragrant flowers. thick style. oblong. inserted in the broad perianth-tube. A small genus of smooth evergreen herbs. with a funnel-shaped perianth of six narrow lobes and a cup or false corona. stalkless. Outdoor specimens should be planted deeply. LURIDA very nearly hardy. aspidision. (taller).Lfa\(. Plate 2(it]. The are natives of China and Japan. The perianth is bell-shaped. which almost entirely s{)('cics fills the mouth of the perianth. . and in the West of England both may be grown out of doors. ASPIDISTRA Principal species. but best used as It window. and leaf-mould. or eight. 1 to 1| foot lii-h. and the surface covered with protective material in winter. cleft into six or eight lobes the stamens are six . strongly. a little shield the form of the flower). dull purple flowers. but in other districts P. and a little even when at rest. 1615) has broad. one part. with P. Aspidistra (Greek. They require plenty of water when gro\Ying. oblong. Genus Aspidistra . maritvmum For pot-culture requires the protection of a frame or cool greenhouse. scapes about 1^ foot high. Flowers purple and yellow! Introduced from China. to 2 h'et high. with narrower persistent leaves. 1835. and umbellate white flowers oil tall scapes. and table decoration. I. strap-like leaves. one part. with the addition of a little silver sand. A. lance-shaped leaves. 1?. grown is as a pot foliage-plant. 1822. . peat. The \ar. in large umbels.s leathery. with exceedingly long tubes. oblong. 1759) is taller (2 feet). ASPIDISTRAS Natural Order LiLiACEiE. varuj/ata has leaves with alternating stripes of It is inueli white aiid green. and solitary. with creeping stems. The flowers are tubular. and fragrant flowers. it is A.



Captain Cook. less with leaves and flowers. The this country. of course. Care should be taken not to damage the rootstock and it is well to keep the plant for a short time under a Propagation is effected closed frame. and the fruit is a three-sided. fishingnets. one-fourth size.NEW ZEALAND FLAX The best soil for 575 potting is ecjual portions. mats. a basket or plaited mat. They are natives of New Zealand. When repotting is necessary. From the centre of the tuft rises a tall. . or it soon becomes green. Genus Phormium Phormium to (Greek. as would be necessary for commerce. slightly zigzag flower-stem. 1 is than the natural a section through the singular flower. but without success. the three inner with spreading tips. but this. with rigid sword-shaped leaves in opposite rows. to enable it to get well established. it should be carried out early in the year. with a pcriantli of six erect divisions. baskets. including clothing. with a little bo potted in poor soil. jj. most of our winters being too severe for it. The flowers are tubular. The six stamens project beyond the mouth of the flower. Fig. from the use A genus of two species of which the loaves and fibres are put). as they require a good deal of moisture during tlie sunmier. is a very different matter from growing it in open fields. on his first visit to the New Zoalanders. The drainage should be efficient. showing the parts. etc. . clasping each other at the base. NEW ZEALAND FLAX Natural Order Liliace/E. with alternate short flower-spikes from the axils of large bracts.^ found the fibres of Fkarmium tenax in general use for the manufacture of many useful articles. phormos. Great quantities of the leaves and fibres are imported annually for the purpose of manufacturing ropes and twine. three. In many places in the Soutli of England it is quite hardy in gardens. It was not until 1789 that living specimens reached and from that date many attempts have been made to grow it here for commercial purposes. a compost of rich loam and leaf-mould in sand added. with two rows of flattened black seeds in each cell. Asjndistra Uirida. The variegated form should by division. Description of Plate 266. before the new growtli begins. fleshy -rooted perennials.gj. Tliere is a three-celled ovary.valved capsule. a three-sided style ending in a simple stigma.

The var. J . Flowers variable. NT A IN LILIES Funck. . and kept in the greenhouse until established.r. the The roots are used as a coohianum was introduced in 1868. red and yellow. August. or. wliich can be kept in the cool greenhouse or conservatory in winter.' in bracts. In the extreme South of England they are quite hardy in an ordinary garden. iron. tl. Phormium cookianuj[ ^^° ^^" . Leaves very tough. with leafless. TENAX (tough). nigro-pictum is smaller. the year. (Cook's). becoming broader towards base similar to the corresponding var. to macerate the softer tissues and separate P. when the clumps are large enough.576 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE when they have attained their full growth. Leaves 2 to 3 feet long. coohianum. . Plate 267. and soaked leaves are cut in water for several days.s. of P.-nnan botanist. variegatum has the leaves decorated with one or two marginal stripes of creamy .n X«"W Zealand Flax. flowers are not shown. sometimes with outer segments greenish. There are several varieties Var.' Ave A genus of about usually stem. : . roois. 1771-1839). usually split at the tip dark green with reddish brown margin. purple margin. FUNKIA (named in honour ot H. They may be grown from seeds. . the roots may be divided early in . Entire plant larger and hardier than the foregoing species. tlir (\). and placed outside in summer. Plnwnntiu. but furnished These raceme. a conslitutincluster whole the produced solitarily. atro-purpureiim has reddish purple leaves var. Flower-scapes 3 to 6 feet high flowers yellow. rarely split at tip. a U. Small Flax Lily.nnK. substitute for sarsaparilla. fibres. little more than an inch long summer. In other places it is well to grow them in tubs. before growth commences. tuberous ^vith hirbs of species Jai)an. variegatum is These plants succeed best in a rich loamy soil. with very dark P. heart-shaped broad oval or are flowers of which the axils tK. var.>u»ring tall atnl a leaves. 2 inches long flower-scapes as high as 16 feet. 3 to 6 feet or more long.



Also known as F. (Fortune's). 1876. pure white. ten. seeds is produced into a wing at the U Leaves narrow. in some varieties marked with white. Flower-stem Introduced from foot high. F. July. fragrant. li Native of Japan and Northern China. Flower-stem 12 to 18 inches long (twice length of leaves). Flowerstem 8 or 9 inches high. 1| inch long. raceme six. marginata has slightly larger flowers and leaves. Leaves oval. and a good lookout should be kept for snails and slugs. leaf-mould. scarcely above the leaves. LANCIFOLIA (lance-shaped leaves). PLANTAIN LILIES style bent at their fifteen-flowered. one part. two parts. 2 to 2| inches long June. the Plantain Lily. 1 inch or Ih inch long Introduced from fifteen-flowered. heartshaped. 1829. Flower-stem 1^ to 2 feet high. and therefore very destructive.. Flowerstem no taller than leaves. Flowers white or tinged lilac. Propagation is eflfected by dividing the crowns iu spring. Japan. 1830. Flowers about but plant greatly reduced. with white. There are several varieties: August. which are very partial to the leaves. with a little sand added. flowers pale lilac. heart-shaped. SU]5C0RDATA (somewhat heart-shaped). Flowers white. Introduced from Japan. grandifiora. 577 coat of the The black membranoiiH top. siEBOLDiANA (Siobold's). OVATA (oval). var. introduced to 2 inches long Maj^ Plate 268. marginata has the leaves broadly bordered 1790. glaucous. ovata. The separate section of the flower. F. and for this purpose they should be potted in a compost of rich loam. of Funkia natural size. undulata has the leaves irregularly crisped and frilled. glaucous. . as well as marked with patches and alho - streaks of white . over 4 inches lif teen-flowered raceme. violet-blue. nine. The situation should be rather shady than otherwise. Flowers pale. the latter marked with white near the edge. Leaves oval. The var. Introduced from delicately tinged with lilac. rich soil. six or eiglit to each stem. variegata also has the leaves variegated with F. They make admiral)lo subjects to grow in pots for the greenhouse and conservatory. Leaves heart-shaped. . FUNKIA FoRTUNEi JajDan. or ten-flowered. 1836. Leaves lance-shaped. the var. Flowers bluish lilac. with a ten. the result of deeply digging in thoroughly rotted manure. Funkias succeed best in a deep. August. . F.

edges and keel finely toothed. 1* foot high. Leichtlinii (Leichtlin's). 1704A genus of about eighteen species of tufted hardy perennial 1763). Leaves almost erect.E. nearly awl-shaped. better known in gardens under the synonym of Tritoma.FLOWERS OF F Natural < I. Madagascar. August. They are all natives of Africa and long. August and September. coral-red. strongly . pallidiflora from the Ankaratra Mountains of Madagascar. was intro^''*°'^" duced from the Cape of Good Hope in 1707. and from its mouth protrude the six stamens and the thread-like style. August and September. Leichtlinii. K. It is often called in gardens by the name of Red-hot Poker. The threecelled capsule opens by three valves. f of an inch thick 4 feet long. Principal Species Lea\-es long and slender. RoorEiii (Rooper's). and keeled. Flowers l)right orange. J. . and from the same country. IvNiPHOFiA (nauiLMl in honour of Prof. the best known species. herbs. prcecox and K.pwinila was introduced in 1774. Burchelli (Burchell's). several varieties. The perianth is six-parted. Kirhii was introduced from South-Eastern Tropical Africa. Leaves threc-si<led. K. Flowers dull pale vermilion K. of Erfurt. In the year 1887 K. Macowani (M'^Owan's). Flowers scarlet and yellow. H. spreading in and yellow. channeled. K. K. Rooperi in 1854. many of which are superior to the -ff". slender. Macowani in 1874 all from South Africa. Kniphof. There are Leaves light green. scapes 1 to \l foot long: Leaves broad. as well as Flame Flower. K. sword-shaped. K. Plate 2G9. paling as they fade. comosa came from Abyssinia. KxinioFiA ALOIDES (Aloe-like). Scape spotted with black. tipped with green. keeled and channeled. an*] all directions. A ^1 E F L WERS Genus Kniphofia )nler LiLTACE. Kniphofia aloides. carnosa and K. grass-like radical leaves in a tuft. a year later. caulescens in 1862. Flame Flower. K. August. Flowers on tall scapes 3 to 4 feet high. During the last twenty years gardeners have raised numerous hybrids and seedling varieties. They have from the centre of which a tall scape arises bearing an oval spike of drooping tubular or bell-shaped flowers. Burchelli in 1816. In 1879 both K. K. and K.



carinata (keeled). curved. Flowers red. tubular form. Height. a detached flower . Fig. and G. suggested by the A genus of about to fifty succulent-leaved greenhouse perennials. and the capsule is somewhat ribbed. supported on a slender bracted scape. gaster. and must have plenty of water whilst growing. glabra. turning yellow scape high November. and G. They are all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Upper portions of leaves and scape of the natural size. 1. hrevifolia or warts. but farther north they require some protection in winter. carinafa. These were followed in 1759 by two other species. Description of Plate 269. G. usually in two rows or rosette-like. G. in 1860. The first living Gasterias introduced to Britain date ^ from 1731. 1 foot 579 . Genus Gasteria swollen base Gasteria (Greek. G. 2. covered with spots The flowers are red tipped with green. and in 1796 by G. edges finely toothed. . dirty green plentifully spotted with white. with swollen base and six-parted mouth. G. disticha in 1820. angusti folia. in a raceme 1 to 3 feet long. Gasteria brevifolta (short-leaved). crowded. the belly. G. appeared about 1809. Many others have been introduced. verrucosa came hither. . The thick fleshy leaves are tongue -shaped. 2 feet. which may be given in the shape of dry fern or dead leaves. or Flame Flower. Seed may be sown in pans during April and May. germinated in a frame. lance'twelve. maculata and G. Leaves fifteen to twenty. G. They are also much benefited by top-dressings of well-rotted manure. Flowers orange-red. about a foot long. and clasping each other at the base. of the flowers). The six stamens are attached to the base of the tube. variolosa. Kniphofia aloides. They succeed best in a light sandy soil. closely allied the Aloes. Leaves ten or 4 inches long. acinacifolia in 1819. pulchra. when G. a section of the same. but the most important species have been mentioned above. of long. GASTERIAS Natural Order Liliace^.GASTERIAS keeled. They may be propagated by separating (in autumn) the offsets that form round the old root. and kept under glass ^^^ ^^^® for the first year. 3 to . South of England Kniphojias are quite hardy Cultivation in well-drained soils. an inch long July.

. They should be given a position in the greenhouse. . dimensions. where they will get plenty of light blisters the leaves. Flowers red. . n. Flowers scarlet. point sharp. . and fig. attention. Leaves concave. loosely disposed in two rows.58o FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Flowers red. and germinated in heat. spreading. ten to twelve. water — should only be given in sufficient quantity to prevent the leaves withering. DiSTiCHA (two-rowed). which Otherwise. . in two rows. back swollen covered with raised whitish spots. they will be found to require very little . Description of Plate 270. Height. PULCHRA (fair). of the (rarely) . outer ones spreading. somewhat spreading. Oasterias require greenhouse treatment. G. pro- pagated by ofTshots from the old plants. concave. and should be firmly potted in a compost of sandy loam and peat. crowded. Fig. 1 inch shaped. 2 feet. The figure of entire plant is reduced to one-half the 2 natural size. Gasteria verrucosa. and a profusion of white spots. VERRUCOSA (warty). f inch long July and August. but th(' a detached It is much enlarged. . 1 is separate flower-scape represents the natural flower. There should be good drainage. MACULATA (spotted). covered with indistinct green spots. Leaves ten to twelve. Height. bright shining green or purple with rosy base. in two rows. but all with an upward direction concave spotted with bright green or purple. is a section of the same. G. more loosely disposed. in two rows. June and July. and by seeds sown in light sandy soil about February or March. with distinct keel at back. 2 feet. Height. but they cannot endure bright sunshine. G. nearly 1 inch long July and August. 1 inch long March to November. Flowers scarlet. 1 foot. Height. Leaves sixteen to twenty. to which has been added some old brick and mortar rubbish and sand. to ensure the rapid passage of all superfluous water which should always be given with care. In winter. Leaves sixteen to twenty. long . 2 feet. face flat. G.

var.(W) GRAPE HYACINTH [Muscari comos {B) M. COMOSUM..< {C) .. monstrosuv . . phtmosa .


and tie the stump securely in a piece of tarred canvas. the six segments long and in a raceme supported on a tall scape furnished with bracts. three-celled. Leaves 10 or 12 . Flowers brilliant red. soccotrina. and since that date many others have been brought from the same country. channeled above. . Stem 3 to 4 feet high. and by 1814 the collection had been increased to twenty-nine species. in the Journal of the Linnean Society. of Kew. which is said to supply the finest quality of the druggists' Aloes (which is the dried juice). hundred years the present time ninety species are represented there. came from the Cape in 1731. Flowers red. glaucous. 1^ inch long in loose racemes 6 inches long. somewhat glaucous. but its home is in South Africa. Leaves 3 or 4 inches long. J. Many an Aloe that is to be seen growing in cottage windows and other humble places has been brought home by sailors returning from the West Indies. Aloe and allied genera were introduced out to the Cape in 1818 to collect for Kew Gardens. The material sent home was dealt with by Haworth. who has described the species. and chiefly from the Cape of Good Hope. variegaia. in dense racemes a foot long. Plate 271. The perianth -tube is straight or slightly curved back. arborescens and A. Aloe vera has been in cultivation here for at least three hundred years. saponaria both from the Cape. HUJiiLis (lowly). Among the earliest species of Aloe to be introduced was A. xoBiLis (noble). A came A. 3 or 4 feet across. A. It is said to have been introduced from the Levant under the name of A. who have discovered that it is easily transported if the juices of the plant are prevented from evaporating. Many species of by James Bowie. The group has been more recently dealt with by Mr. Baker. and remained there five years. So they tar the cut end. stamens about same length as perianth. The fruit is membranous. vulgaris. though it is widely grown throughout the Mediterranean Region and in the East and West Indies. In 1768 there were nine species growing at Kew. Stemless. thirty or forty in a dense rosette slightly concave. with horny prickles along the margins. The species are mostly natives of Africa. with a few tubercles and faint lines marginal prickles of paler colour. A. A. whose creamy-margined leaves are familiar as a window plant. In the same year A. glauca were introduced from the Cape. 10 Leaves forming a dense rosette. and in 1727 A. humilis. . . nearly 2 feet long. (tree-like). and contains many seeds. who was sent Aloe arborescens 12 feet high. At later . from the Cape of Good Hope in 1620. Stem unbranched. then hang the plant in the air. In this condition it will live for several years. G.

with narrow lance-shaped leaves clustered at the summit of the trunk. in dense raceme 6 inches long. 3 to 5 feet higl\. TRICOLOR (three-coloured). 1^ inch long. Introduced from the Leaves slender. about inches long. Leaves.sixteen in a close rosette. Flowers reddish. Leaves lance-shaped. ending in . 4 or 5 inches long. marginal prickles broadly triangular. soccoTRiNA (Socotrine). in a loose raceme scape purple. back keeled. margins and underside prickly. A. in order to give as large a figure of the leaves as itself possible. slightly channeled. Stem Leaves and spreading. 1800. flowers are The raceme and shown of the natural dimensions. 1875. sometimes spotted. somewhat swollen on upper side. marginal prickles crowded short. The cultural directions given under the head of Gasteria apply equally to Aloes and other succulents of . dense. Stem 8 A. in dense raceme 1 foot long. Rprea<ling. feet high. usually thick and rigid. A. 1^ inch long. .s red. the Tree Aloe. with small teeth. Introduced from the Capo. Cape. Flowers yellow. allied genera. VERA (true). spots numerous. somewhat glaucous. 1 to 1-|. face concave. and the stem has been omitted altogether.582 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREEXtlOUSE Flowfi. sometimes tall. Genus Yucca Yucca (the native l'eru\ inn name).inch long. 1821. thirty to forty in a dense rosette slightly channeled. horny. Fig. Stem often forked. IJ to 2 feet long. Flowers reddish. STiUATULA (striped). branched and tree-like. A. twelve to . 1 is a section through a somewhat enlarged flower. concave. Flowers fleshy. marginal prickles triangular. in rather dense raceme 3 to 6 inches long. Leaves sword-shaped. twiggy. but the plant has been reduced to one-quarter of the real size. Introduced from South Africa. which is sometimes dwarf. Description of Plate 271. Flowers yelloAv. VARIEGATA (variegated). A. marginal prickles pale and small. lance-shaped. coral-red. Aloe arhorescens. 6 to 12 inches long.i-:. YUCCAS Natural Order LiLiACE. A genus of about twenty species of woody-stemmed plants. lower surface rounded. spotted with grey on both sides. in loose raceme 3 or 4 inches long. margin creamy white. 1^ inch long. in a dense raceme 6 to 12 inches long. Those leaves are long. Stem about 2 feet high. channeled above.



Yucca filamentosa. shape. Plate 272. Flowera greenish. Hardy. Leaves very slender. long and distant. unbranched. short. angustifolia came from Missouri in 1811. so. and about I inch broad. Yuccas are variously known as Adam's Needle. FLEXiLis (flexible). slightly glaucous. sharp-pointed. May and is June. U Y. greenhouse protection. slightly glaucous. which is popularly the Silk Grass. Spanish ^^^^ Bayonet. Reed-like. in a terminal panicle 3 or 4 feet long July. 1^ to 2 feet long. or nearly I Silk Grass. fleshy. Flowers white. Y. 15 to 20 feet high. FILAMENTOSA (thready). treculeana from Mexico. the margins devoid of distinct teeth. 1814 Y. the Mound Lily. Requires plant. Hardy. more or less oval in There are six stamens with thick filaments. whose home extends from West Indies. ending in a reddish horny tip. Leaves sword-sliaped. Y. aloifolia. in a panicle with zigzag branches 6 inches long. ranged round the fleshy ovary. Leaves sword-shaped. Adam's Needle-and-Thread. slightly plaited. Y. or dry three-valved fruit. 2i feet long. Stem short. in a dense panicle 1 to 2 feet long. over an inch broad. 2 inches broad. Yucca aloifolia (Aloe-leaved). 12 to 18 inches long. ANGUSTIFOLIA (slender-leavcd).YUCCAS 583 a gloriosa. having been brought from North America. was in cultivation here earlier than the year 1596. A number of North Carolina to the . The slenderleaved Y. Stem usually un'branched in this country. The flowers are rather large and pendulous. Flowers of those generally grown. the margins rough and whitish. with a greenish tinge. The six perianth-segments are distinct. was introduced in 1696. clothed with long silky tdaments. Stendess. filamentosa was introduced from Virginia in 1675. 1858 and F. in large many-flowered panicles. rigid. margins pale reddish brown. others have been introduced. but frequently furnished with fine filaments. glauca from North America. channeled. spongy. and Y. gigantea from tlie same neighbourhood in the following year. and some of the species have their own distinctive popular names. margins wliitish. . but the above selection comprises the best There are a number of varieties of each. The variegated form stout. or slightly connected at their base. Mexico. 2 to 2h inches long. . They are natives of the Southern United States. Yvx. with sharp point and brown hurny . 1| to 2 inches long. June. Stem Y. and rather thick in substance. h to 2 feet long. white. which develops into the large. a handsome Leaves very slender. furnished with many filaments. as the one we have figured (Plate 272). to 2 inches long. The variegated form is usually grown in greenhouses. Bear's Grass. and Central America.

ntli' heat. about 2 inches long. sharp-pointed. YuccA only a fig. and a from the panicle. 2 to 3 inches broad. Greenhouse. 1| inch long. Mound Lily. . sometimes sparingly furnished with filaments. clothed sheaf-like with yellowish white flowers. . feet long . a hardy species. erect when young. Y. gracefully recurved when old. RECURVi FOLIA (rccurved-leaved). 3 inches long. Flowers white. t The Plate shows siiigl. 3 to 4 feet high. . 2 to 3 inches wide. deeply concave 2 to 4^ feet long. inserted in In some cases the stemless the tuft. GLORIOSA (glorious). cuttings in. Y. pendula. yit^ccas are in no sense difficult subjects. or in are propagated by means of suckers that sometimes shoot up from the roots.iy bo summer and sunk in the ground. provided they diameter. 1| to 2^ inches long. in dense panicle. Juno and Stemless. may planted.SA. without seriously marring the effectiveness of and these. Where such if a description filled garden soil. Cultivation are planted in rich light will not apply to the natural soil. July.1 l. ho Silk Grass. in dense panicles 4 to 6 feet long July. branched. Y. 2 to 3| inches broad. TRECULEANA (Trecul's). If a greenhouse species. branched. Yuccas require show them off properly. dark green. Half-hardy. June and July. somewhat concave margins red brown. June and July. 2 to 4 feet long. with very narrow^ brown margins. much . leathery. and planting outside. I. bracts white.s. flo\vp:rs of garden and greenhouse Flowers white. Stems ultimately 6 feet leaves 2 to 3 feet long. Flowers white.> natural size. I 1 1. Leaves rigid and erect. panicles 2 to 3 Y. rough. They look well at the a shrubbery border with a sunny position.584 mar<4iii. saudy soil species in g. 2 to 3 feet long. in wdiich the Yucca. Stem 4 to 6 feet high in old specimens. in dense panicles. both detached tiower cut through to show the Iraf. about 18 inches long. Also known as Y.inch . Description of Plate 272. Flowers tinged with red. .r. The best and commonest of all the hardy species. a pit must be dug and up be witli suitable material. in stem 20 to 25 feet high. Leaves sword-shaped. They made of the side shoots. and these require merely separating after they have thrown out inilrpcnaeni fibrous roots. will may be divid('(} soon root. Where these do not apprar. a foot or tw-o Leaves sword-shaped. it should be planted in a tub. Scape erect. Hardy. AMEXT. which can be turned outside in a considerable space to far end of a lawn. GLAUCA (glaucous). . Southern United States.



marked with numerous fine parallel lines. 40 feet high. bell-shaped. and within a year or two of that date C. Greenhouse. ^ inch across. in dense panicles. Madagascar. also in 1820. G.COLOURED DRACAENAS 5^5 COLOURED DRAC^^NAS Natural Ouder LiLiACE^. but is cultivated almost everywhere in tropical countries. lance-shaped. Ovary. indivisa came from the same islands. however important and in truth the diflerences the botanist may consider them. In Dracmna the cells of the fruit contain only one seed each. with a thread-like style. The six stamens are inserted in the mouth of the tube. It is a native of the South Sea Islands. and branched panicles of small white flowers. ending The fruit is three-celled. 2 to 3 feet long. three-celled. G. the Malay Archipelago. These are the principal of the cultivated species most of the others grown being mere garden varieties. with six slender segments in two series. Principal Species CoRDYLiNE AUSTR ALIS (Soutliern). and in our own land has given origin to nearly all the plants which we grow in our stove under the name of Draccenas. terininalis was introduced from the East Indies in 1820. branch- Leaves oblong. a club in allusion to the large fleshy roots A genus of about twenty species of stove or greenof some species). white. Flowers fragrant. from eight to fourteen seeds. : Genus Gordyline CoRDYLiNE (Greek. 10 to Stem stout. each cell containing in a three-lobed stigma. ing as colour sports. The species of this genus are much confused with those of Dracaena. kordyle. more or less drooping leaves. originatQueensland. cannmfolia came from was introduced from New Zealand in 1823. and such as are not likely to make a deep impression upon horticulturists. etc. . witli bhint tip. Australia. They are natives of Tropical Africa. Hardy in South. bearing heads of long. The perianth is tubular. house plants. 2 feet long. C. usually with erect and unbranched stems. slender.i which is fivqucntly split. in gardens they are Drac<xiias. all known as between the genera are not nearly so striking as the general resemblance. . Asia. aitstralis .West England and similar parts of Ireland. ing.

and the are the ovary They widely distributed in dp. yellow.5cS6 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE lance-shaped. A an ordinary greenhouse. Flowers small. and silvery grey. a species female A genus of about allied of ornamental ovule. Introduced from Canary Islands. 1640. GOLDIEANA (Goldic's). and in them may be grown out of doors. and banded with dark green. plants closely cells of to CordyUne. terminaUs are easily accommodated of For the decoration of tlie drawing-room and The most suitable soil for the dinner-table. in nuch branched. and frequent syringings. a crowded head.k. when lance-shaped. the top being struck afresh. fijliage plants are so easily grown as Some all except during winter. greatly reduced. greenish white. terminaUs and all the many forms of it known all Draccenas require a tropical temperature at efteeted gardens as stove Propagation is times. from Wt^st D. foliage larger. and subjected to bottom-heat in a propagating house or frame. dralMvaa. Leaves variegated with crimson and bronze. Plate 273. but with flowers generally containing usually but one Tropical Regions. Recently introduc<Ml oval. Stem tree-like. branching freely and bearing clusters of oval leaves 4 inehoH long. green. suffice. Leaves slender. small plants are very suitable. A shrubby species with a bamboolike stem. green. and the stem cut up into pieces an inch or two long. marbled Flowers . Cordyline terminaUs. Few ornamental C' (Dragon). the latter not broken very small the addition of a little charcoal is desirable. a few of the terminal leaves. Drac^na thirty-five (Greek. rather small pot in proportion to the size of the plant will C. in by cutting up the old plants. They require plenty of water (less in winter). . yellowish green. Genus Draccena dragon). )i:a<\i:xa Principal Species. GOJJSEFFiANA (Godscff's). them is a compost of equal parts good loam and peat. mottled with Tropical Africa. when almost every eye will yield a new plant. G. DRAGON TREE Natural Order Liliace. These are placed in a mixture of cocoanut-fibre and sand. except C. 40 to 60 feet high. Leaves heart-shaped. Description of Plate 273.



aureus. in a dense globular head. They are natives of South Africa. AFRICAN LILY white. in a many -flowered umbel. with smaller white flowers. The flowers are large and showy. banded with green. the limb divided into six segments. AFRICAN LILY Natural Order Liliaceje. . more narrow leaves. they have funnel-shaped perianths. If planted i . Of the varieties we may mention alhidus. . and shade of colouring. and there is good reason for believing that it is the only species. Recently introduced from West Tropical Africa. coloured grey-green. July to September. AGAPANTHUS UMBELLATUS (umbelled). The Dracosnas here described are all stove plants which require a rich soil. An erect slender-stemmed with lance-shaped leaves a foot long. love. 587 Introduced from West species. with many ovules in each cell. Flowers bright blue. of dwarfer habit. 2 or 3 feet high. with double flowers maximus. and plenty of moisture and lieat at all y are propagated from stem-cuttings or divisions. arranged in two series. other parts it rfquires winter p id. Agapanthus umhellatus was introduced from the ^ °^' Cape of Good Hope about the year 1692. and small darker blue flowers variegatus. D. SANDERIANA (Sander's). Tropical Africa. Agapanthus (Greek. Individually considered. Flower-scape. Leaves somes ecies what fleshy. a flower).. The only differences are such as are found in variations of size. slender. the tube short. with yellow streaks down the leaves flore-pleno. an iuch long. bi-eadtli of leaf. with whitish leaves. and A small genus of tuberous-rooted perennial plants. Genus Agajpanthus antkos. strapshaped evergreen leaves. In tlie extreme South and Suuth-Wrst of Eiioland . There are six stamens inserted in the throat of the tube. . the others being mere varieties of it. The ovary is three-celled. with slender leaves and smaller flowers mooreanus. 1872. with creamy yellow stripes. agape. with larger blue or white flowers in immense umbels minor. springing from the root and arching. borne in an umbel on a tall scape. with long.

Plate 274. During the growing ptniod. Common Solomon's Seal. somewhat stemFlowers greenish white. mostly in pairs on one stalk May. veins ). and gomi. A genus of about tw^enty-three species of perennial herbs. the African Lily. They are natives of Europe. Introduced from North America.x>anthvs umheUaiu^. The quantity of w-ater given nmst be greatly reduced in autumn. they must be very liberally watered.shaped. creeping rootstocks and leafy stems. Where there is a lake or stream in the grounds. 1 a section of the flower. minutely downy. There is a double variety (/fo7v plena).. The flowers are produced from the axils of the leaves. or the increase of size will r(>sult in the bursting of the pot. it is a good plan to turn out these plants into the soft soil on its margins. Northern Asia. loamy soil. to the polys. This division is best effected in and will serve for propagating purposes. umbel of flowers and upper portion of leaves natural size. and North America. is Fig. and all through the hot. Description of Ago. its o-rowth must be watclied. (two . Native of Britain. P. Leaves oblong. f inch long. and are pendulous. or coach-house. Stem arched. and another with variegated leaves (striatum). with fleshy. give occasional dozes of clear manure-wafcer. the mouth cleft into six lobes. and if planted in a shrubbery or plantation. naked below. dry weather. Genus Folygonatum : PoLYGONATUM (Greek. 1 to 3 feet high. . become quite They are propagated by simply dividing the flesh}in Polygonatums succeed well . or to plunge the pots there. any good. two to five in a raceme clasping. a knee in allusion nodes or joints). May and June. 588 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE convenience of taking inside in tlie antninn. Flowers greenish. and the roots divided from time to time. SOLOMON'S SEAL Natural Order LiLiACE^. 2 to 3 feet high. many Tlie perianth is funnel-shaped. and continue them until the flowers are all out. paler beneath. When the flowerscapes appear.flowered Stem Leaves lance . many. Pri ci alS POLYGONATUil ecies BIFLORUM ^^"*^' slender. They may be wintered in a dry shed spring. and given sparingly in winter. | inch long. and the stamens attached to the middle of the tube. MULTIFLORUM (many-flowered). Himalaya. Fruit a pulpy berry.



They may be grown from seeds. where they will get shade and the ba: . CoNVALLARiA a valley). drooping. (Latin. and rapidly increase. these may be potted for forcing. . bell-shaped. Northern Asia. Those that are to flow^er the following year may be readily identified by their greater thickness. it will be found that the plants will take care of themselves. .LILY OF roofcstocks. with their tips exposed then cover lightly with moss. keep moist.i. If the rootstocks are planted in the front row of a shrubbery. they may be used for forein^^ at the end of the year. honour of J. TRIPLET LILIES N"atural Order LiLiACK. oval. and subject them to a bottom-heat of about 85° in a propagating frame. J. When they come into flower they arc pioporly potted with care. with double flowers rosea. and their leaves be not too much in evidence in summer-time.. THE VALLEY after tlie 5? If these are potted stems have died down . but the simplest plan of propagation is to take up the rootstocks and separate the crowns. from which light is excluded by mats or boards. with rose-coloured flowers and variegata. . and the United States. and sheathing one another. Genus Convallaria genus of one species. but no stem. There are several varieties. of about thirty species of hardy in Brodi^A (named slender leaves. This favourite native plant is also distributed throughout the greater part of Europe. convallis. and be all the care necessary. in a raceme borne on a slender scape April to June. sheatJiino. lance-shaped. with six-lobed mouth. and the crowns pressed in. Convallaria majalis. A . fragrant. autmrin. LILY OF THE VALLEY Natural Order LiLiACE^. Oeaus /)/. The pots or boxes are filled with cocoanut-fibre. with a creeping rootstock. stalked. and if it is desired to have flowers in December or January. An annual top-dressing will greatly help them. Leaves tw^o or three. with the leaves variegated with yellow. including fiwe pleno. Flowers white.

or salver-shaped. B. Brodioea congesta and B. saucer-shaped. B. . but in some species one series consists only of aborted scales. Flowers resembles a somewhat B. . coecinea (1870). in many -flowered umbels. ^am from California in 1832. . Scape 1 to 2 feet high. Flowers 1| inch long. Scape 6 or 8 inches f inch long. GRACILIS (slender). The flowers are funnel. (Triteleia) uxiflora (one flowered). multifiora (1872). so that globular head May. B. Flowers purplish blue. ' Brodi^a CAPITATA . Rather tender. From B. came B. Flowers J an inch long. June and July. Scape 1 to 2 feet high. an umbel June. Also known as Milla porrifolia. July. uniflora from Buenos Ayres in 1836. to twenty-flowered B. segments yellowish green . B. and B. to IJ foot high. Scape 1 blue-purple flowera crowded in umbel. 1 to 1^ foot high. . gracilis (1876). umbels fourSpring Starflower. whitish . B. U . a few in an umbel July. across. . -J inch across. Scape 3 to 4 inches high. somewhat bell-shaped. Scape 1 foot high. also from California and B. Flowers funnel-shaped. CONGESTA (crowded). Flowers blue. it multiflora (many-flowered). B. Ho WELLii (Howell's). Leaf solitary. Scape 1^ to 2 feet high. July. six to eight in a close umbel. B. blue. They are natives of America. All these plants are modern in relation to gardening. porrifolia was received from Chili in 1868. (Triteleia) porrifolia (Leek-leaved). to six-llowered July. The aborted stamens form a kind of fleshy crown in the mouth of the perianth. inch long umbels eightblood-red. with sixparted limb. high. B. - B. deep yellow with fine brown lines. again. Rowellii (1880). violet. capitata (1871). Scapes fragile. B. There is a white var. Flowers funnel-shaped. California. There are six stamens in two series. GRANDIFLORA (large-flowered). Ithuriel's Spear. . . cocciNE A (scarlet). by which name they are still known in gardens. five to fifteen in .to seven-flowered July. tube (headed). Certain of the species were formerly separated under the name Triteleia. B. . inch f July and August. in many-flowered umbels. Princi ais ecies Flowers deep violet-blue in a many-flowered umbel spathe deep violet May. (Triteleia) laxa (loose). alba. with green veins. B. grandifiora were introduced from North America in the year 1806. . B. Scape 18 inches high. Scape 1^ foot high. Flowers blue-purple umbels two. Flowers white. LACTEA (milky).590 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE clusters or umbels. lactea in 1833.




Flowers pale lilac, Scapes 6 inches high, one-flowered (rarely two). Also known inch long; May. as Milla unijiora. Plate 275. to 1^ f

Brodicms require


more care than most bulbous

They succeed

best in a light, but rich, well-drained

with a sunny aspect. Here they may be left undisturbed for several years, during which they will increase by ofisets from the bulbs. They may also be propagated by sowing the seeds in sandy soil as soon as ripe. Brodiceas make very pretty pot-plants for spring decoration. Broditm (Triteleia) unijiora, the Triplet Lily or Spring Description of
Plate 275.


Bulb, leaves, and flowers of the natural


Fig. 1 is a section

through the flower.

Natural Order LiLiACE/E.

Genus Muscari
the odour of the flowers).


(Latin, moschos,

musk suggested by


genus of about forty species of hardy bulbous plants with slender radical leaves, and globose flowers in racemes. The mouth of the
is cleft into six lobes,

the stamens are attached to the middle of

the tube, and the ovary

egg-shaped, three-lobed, with a short style

and simple stigma. The species are natives of Europe (1 British), North Africa, and Western Asia. Grape Hyacinths have been in our gardens for over three hundred years—that is, leaving out of account our own native Muscari racemosiim, which was probably not overlooked by our early gardeners. In the year 1596 there were growing in English gardens four species from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Region: if. hotryoides, M. comosum, M. macrocarpum, and M. mosckatum. Not only so, but the curious monstrous form of M. comosum had also been introduced. M. pallens, a white-flowered species, was introduced from the Caucasus in 1822, M. commutatum from Armenia in 1836, and M. Heldreichii from Greece in 1869. A number of others have been introduced, but in some cases the record of their native
country has been

in others the date of their introduction.

to 12 inches high.

a bunch of grapes).

Leaves glaucous.

Scapes Flowers deep

sky-blue, the n\outh-lobes white

in a short, dense, globose cluster


and May.



album has white

the var. pallens pale

blue flowers.


tivo plant


in tliis the flowers arc all Larivn,


eacli is

converted into a

of violet-blue slender filaments.



little later


See Plate


^Fhcn there

the var.

than the type plwmosa, the

Feather Hyacinth, Plate 27Gc, in wliich the filaments are mucli longer, fantastically curled into intricate clusters, and of a more purplish tint.

Both these monstrous forms are well worth M. CONICUM (conical). Scapes (n-(!ct, () inches higli. Flowers bright Introduced lilac-blue, fragrant, in an oblong-conical raceme; March. from Italy, but native home uncertain. M. Heldreichii (Heldreich's). Scape 8 inches high. Flowers blue, similar in shape to those of M. hotryoides, but almost twice the size raceme longer April. Introduced from Greece, 1869. M. MACROCARPUM (large - fruited). Flowers fragrant, yellowish,

mouth-lobes purple, in loose racemes April. M. MoscHATUM (uiusky). Musk Hyacinth. Scapes 8 or 10 inches high. Flowers small, purplish, changing to a greenish yellow later, very



raceme dense, globose



M. NEGLECTUM (neglected). Starch Hyacinth. Scape 6 to 9 inches high. Flowers very dark blue, fragrant, in a dense raceme, thirty- to forty-flowered March. Native of the Mediterranean Region. M. PARADOXUM (paradoxical). Leaves three, round, erect. Scape

Flowers blue-black, green within, faintly fragrant, in a dense conical raceme April. Introduced from the Caucasus. M. RACEMOSUM (racemed). Scape 4 to 8 inches high. Flowers
5 or 6 inches high.

dark blue changing to purple, with white mouth-lobes, in dense racemes; odour of Plums April,

garden soil Muscaris will do well but if of a ^^^ cultivation. fairly rich and open character, they will rapidly increase without any care being bestowed upon them. They succeed in almost any situation planted among grass, among rock-work, or as lines or


masvses in the flower-border, they will be e(jual]\' at home. It is best to place tliem where they need not be disturlx-d ami if tliey are given

a top-dressing of fresh
greatly benefited.


before they appear in spring, they will be

They may be increased by means of their abundant seeds, or by taking up the bulbs in autumn, at interv^als of two or three years, and separating the numerous offsets. They may be grown in pots, plunged outside in the summer and placed in a little heat in early
spring, for the decoration of the conservatory.



Muscari comosum, the Grape Hjacinth. The bulb and normal form of the flowers are shown at A. B is
with a portion of a filament enlarged in Fig.



the var. phimosa, of

Fig. 2


Fig. 1 is

which an enlarged fragment is seen in an enlarged section of a normal flower. A, B,



represent the natural

Natural Order LiLiACE^.

Genus Ryacinthus

Hyacinthus (a classical name applied to a plant, by some thought A genus of about thirty species of bulbous to be Lilium Martagon). perennials with radical strap-shaped or more slender leaves, and flowers The flowers are funnelin a raceme borne upon a juicy, leafless scape.
shaped, or bell-shaped, the perianth with six almost equal segments,

There are six equal stamens, a nearly globose ovary, and a short style with a three-cornered stigma. The species are natives of the Mediterranean Eegion, the Orient, and

which are

erect, spreading, or recurved.

Tropical and Southern Africa.

The history

of the

genus as garden flowers



the history of one species, Hyacinthus orientalis, the
plant that in the present day

an item in gardening that nearly six hundred English acres of land in Holland are given up to the preparation of bulbs, for export to Britain and other European countries. These six hundred acres fully employ five thousand persons in Hyacinth culture. In a wild state this familiar species extends its range from Cilicia to Mesopotamia; and without doubt it was introduced from the Levant at a very early date. Matthias de Lobel, in 1576, mentions II. brumalis as "the best Hyacinth known in Holland." This was the variety known later as H. orientalis albus; but his manner of speaking of it implies that Hyacinth-culture was already an established fact, and that at least several varieties were in existence. It is clear that prior to 1596 several forms had found their way to England, for at that date Gerard had both single and double varieties with blue, purple, and white flowers. Some other colours have arisen as sports, and some from seedlings. The story is extant of the origin of the first lilac variety as a sport from a red-flowered bulb in the He was so possession of a Dutch " fancier," the Rev. Mi*. Boekenhoven. fearful that any untoward event such as the attack of a mouse or rat

so important



prevent his perpetuation of the colour, that he imprisoned it in a bird-cage, and hung this from the ceiling of his room. He successfully propagated it, and called it L' Unique, a name its

upon the bulb


There has been no exact counterpart to the Tulip mania of last century among adndrers of Hyacinths yet some large prices have been paid for new varieties of In most cases these have been investments for trade Hyacinths. purposes, in order that, by skill in propagation, a new sort might be put upon the market. It is on record that one large and eight small bulbs




among Dutch



of the

Non 'plus

ultra double blue realised the


of £133, 8s. 6d. at

public auction in the year 1734; and at the beginning of the present

century a single bulb of the double red Rouge ebluissante was sold for

on the authority of Philip Miller, whose Gardeners Dictionary is well known, that about 1725 the Dutch growers of Haarlem cultivated about two thousand varieties of Hyacinths. Although the ordinary garden Hyacinths are the progeny of //. orientalis, there are several others in cultivation. H. amethystinus, the Spanish Hyacinth, was introduced from the Pyrenees in 1759, H. corymhosm from South Africa 1793, and H. spicatus from the neighbourhood of Greece in 1826. H. romanus, which was introduced somewhere about 1596 from the Mediterranean Kegion, must not be confounded with the Roman Hyacinth of the Dutch growers, which is the var. alhulus of H. orientalis. Attempts have been made to grow Hyacinth bulbs in England for the market, but the Dutch appear to
It is stated

produce a better article at the price, natural conditions being more in their favour, and the experience of two centuries no doubt counting for a good deal.

Hyacintiius AMETHYSTINUS (amethyst blue). Spanish Principal Species "Hyacinths. Leaves slender, as long as, or longer than, the flower-scape (4 to 12 inches). Flowers bright blue, drooping; racemes
four- to twelve-flowered,

more or

less one-sided


April and May.

H. coRYMBOsus (corymbose). Leaves five or six, fleshy, half-round, pale. Flowers lilac-rose, | inch long; racemes four- to nine-flowered, forming a corymb scape 2 to 3 inches long autumn.

H. ORIENTALIS (Eastern). The Hyacinth. Leaves narrow, lanceshaped, grooved, erect. Flowers frequent, variable, probably blue in
the wild state, varying to

mauve and white; scape 8

to 12 inches high;

The var. alhulus, a native of Southern France, is the so-called Roman Hyacinth of the growers; it has white flowers, with more slender segments, and the tube scarcely swollen at the base, as in the type. The var. provinci(dis, of Southern France, Italy, and Switzcr-



and more slender Loaves fleshy. The Dutch bulb-farmers enrich their ground with cow-manure. But when we look forward to the increase of Hort. four Flowers scentless. 61). or lines or should never be used . tliis should be such that the crowns of large and small bulbs alike are just three inches below the surface. Hyacinths should be planted out of doors in October. enriched with thoroughly rotted cow-manure. Fresh manure with bulbous plants. Kersten. that we do not propose to give a list. These are so numerous.HYACINTHS land. but not in glasses. . this bulbs. by the additional names of be added that for pot. It is a good plan to put a little fine sand immediately below the bulb. refer our readers to the autumnal catalogue of a reliable house. He says " There Heer J. . that such varieties have not even a common descent from the original Ch^and Vainqueur. the question of suitable soil is of great moment. we ling. and the names so often misGarden Varieties Instead. Imported bulbs contain sufficient food for a season's flowering. taking care that all are placed at an equal depth. it does not follow that you Further. and their preparation for flowering next year. p. white or pale blue. this will get a plant similar in all respects except colour. as we all know. and in several colours. A few doubles may be used in pots. Overveen. : blue Queen of the Blues. and yet which is the true Queen amongst all these Queens no Dutchman will undertake to decide " (Journal Boy. A well-dug sandy is soil of great depth. which they will find extensive selections of the best kinds. which are kept distinct in Holland [but not in English catalogues] are. and take a crop of potatoes from it before planting their bulbs. Thus we have the pleasure of noting three distinct varieties which are named alike. three different varieties of single Haarlem. ROMANUS (Koman). 595 has smaller flowers in looser racemes. is a fact that should be borne in mind if when ordering year you have grown Grand Vainqueur white.or glass-culture single varieties should be selected. xi. as giving the more satisfactory results. and are so pleased with it that you determine next season you will try the red or the blue form of the same. and a little more above it. Soc. of Haarlem. It may — the bulbs. twenty to thirty or five only. in a raceme scape 6 to 12 inches high May. or Hillegom Queen of the Blues. in H. somewhat spreading. the best. Varieties with a particular name may be obtained single or double. for instance. If a bed is to be filled with hvacinths. therefore the soil is a matter not of the greatest importance they may be flowered well. We are told by H. with their roots in pure water.

for they look unnatural and ungainly. The base of the bulb must . Prepare a hole or pit outside.or 6. and put into a cool greenhouse. It will be found that the leaves have also started. one part. each spike should be supported by tying lightly to a neat stick. and should consist of fibrous loam.inch pots should be used and perfect drainage ensured. should not reach to the top of the spike. In this plunge your potted Hyacinths. If the main stock is kept in a cool house. and cover that with a little more sand. away — — To our mind the growth desired to of Hyacinths in water is not a thing to it is recommend. and so the supply of flowers indoors kept up until those outside are coming on. or removed to a warmer but not hot house for forcing. The bulbs should not be disturbed until flowers clean. grow them in this fashion. . Fill in suflicient of the compost to bring the crown of the bulb within half an inch of the rim of thp ^ot. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE worked with them. with a bottom of coal a dies. They may now be placed near the glass and allowed to come on gradually. and fill with cocoanut-fibre refuse. one part. Clean 5. and with it a few nibs of charcoal. The temperature must not be raised suddenly. the tall. Bulbs that have been flowered in pots require careful and very gradual ripening. one part. and the bulbs placed in paper bags and stored dry place. specially-made vases should Only the best single bulbs should be selected for this purpose. and river sand. the leaves have turned yellow and begun to shrivel. two parts. until only the crown just shows. Under these c editions the bulbs will send out roots freely and in about six weeks fi ^m their interment the pots may be taken up. but are too tender to bear sudden exposure therefore. there should be equality in the size otherwise the results will not be so neat and regular of the A covering of cocoanut-fibre refuse will you keep the leaves and as Before the flowers actually open. leaf-mould. but where be used. however. and leave them covered for a few days. For pot-culture a special compost should be prepared two or three months before using. then fill in the con post firmly round it. thoroughly rotted cow-manure. these should be cut off" at the base. cover each by inverting a smallersized flower-pot over the plant. About the middle of October the glasses should be quite filled with clean water. covering their tops with about four inches of fibre. a few pots may be brought under higher temperatures in succession. and when the leaves have quite withered. or they will be of no use for succeeding in a . dried slowly in the shade. but graduated according to the date at Avhich plants in full blossom are required. Let tlic bulb rest on a little clean sand.596 patterns bulbs. Then they should be dug up. desire. which.



There are six stamens. The perianth consists of six segments. cool. borne in racemes on simple. the Star Hyacinth. As soon as the bulbs are placed in position. with a thread-like style and minute stigma. heavy flower-spikes. Hyacinthus orientalis. was introduced. peruviana. only one. near the glass. and airy place bulbs will probably mildew and the leaves grow long and white. Natural Order LiLiACE^. 8. free or slightly connected at the base. The glasses selected for this form of culture should be fitted with wire supports for the long. Bction of the ovary. except to pour in sufficient water to make up for what the Examine them from time to time to see that all is roots have absorbed. however. cwuena. came from the same neighbourhood. and in about a month's time the glasses will be found fairly filled with roots. Greek name for these A The distribution of the species is chiefly European (three British). vSciLLA (the old Genus Scilla genus of about eighty species of bulbous perennials with slender. with flattened filaments and oblong anthers. leafless scapes. right. Gradually let in light. . containing many black plants). damp cupboard the all to some dark. S. The ovary is egg-shaped. leaves. Unless the water smells offensively it should not be changed neither should the bulb be lifted. but after the roots have 597 grown an an inch below the bulb. section of a single flower 2.5. the familiar Wild Hyacinth or Bluebell. its introduction from South Europe having taken place about 158. a inch long the water should be reduced so that it is half : . seeds.SQUILLS at first be in contact with the water. and Extra-tropical African. . the ovary and style 3. until the glasses can be placed in their permanent positions in the window. Between that date and 1596 S. via Spain. hyacinthoides has been longest in our gardens. radical leaves. and two forms of the flowers are shown. Of the exotic species. The fruit is a triangular. remove glasses and in a close. the Garden Hyacinth. Scilla nutans. Western Asian.valved capsule. Of this extensive genus of bright little flowers we have the good fortune to possess three native species. italica in 1605. of which. The bulb. which is really a native in 1607. and usually blue flowers. three. and neighbouring countries. is at all widely distributed. The strangely named Cuban of Algeria Lily. dry. . as also S. nearly equal.

Many others have been introduced and may occasionally be seen in gardens. I inch across racemes few-flowered scapes several. Native. three to eight in a raceme scape solitary. grooved on upper surface. Flowers small. Spanish Bluebell Large Squill. 6 to 9 inches long. April to June. half-round. tall. narrowing to each end. chinensis came from China in and pratensis from Dalmatia in the following year. . about an inch broad in the middle. HISPANICA (Spanish). arc catalogued S. CDiicave.. xiTAN-s (u. SciLLA AMCENA (pleasing). rose-purple. Flowers very small. numerous flowers (ten to broader leaves. Princi ais i 'shiny. . Loaws sulltai-y. changing to rosy purple or whitish six to twelve in a loose raceme scape 6 to 9 inches high May. to 1| foot long. There are several white a fo(_. HYACINTHOIDES (Hyacintli-Hke).to six-flowered scape weak.t long. bell. S. Half-hardy. half an inch across. : . Leaves fi\e or six. Flowers reddish purple. 1 Bluebell (in Englau. firm. >S^.Hl<Uug). S. is The exceedingly popular Siberian Squill. al. but these The undermentioned are all are those of chief horticultural interest. edges delicately fringed. with larger and more BIFOLIA (two-leaved). Several colour varieties sliaperl. . the luargins densely fringed with small white bristles. st-ur. twenty to sixty in a raceme scape slender. prcecox is a more robust form. . was introduced in 1796. and thicker.ont six. half an inch . . Flowers somewhat globular. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE lirst hispanica. blue. One form S. which appear earlier. convex at back. bluish lilac. occasionally reddish or whitish. sibirica. 598 S. fifteen). CHINENSIS (Chinese). 1 foot high June. Native.l) . lilac. soft. smooth. : . Leaves two or three. Leaves ten to twelve. by the dealers. AUTUMXALis (autumn). . upper surface channeled. S. from Spain and Portugal. of this variety has reddish flowers. Flowers blue (rarely whitish). nearly | inch long raceme three. 3 to 6 inches high S. came to us in 1683. The var.S'. . Flowers blue or purple. Leaves produced in autumn after the flowers. concave. Leaves four or five. spreading. 4 to 8 inches long. S. unless otherwise described. 3 to 6 inches high March. . which a native of Asia Minor. . Wild Hyacinth. July to September. hardy. . 4 to C inches high March. 1826. Flowers reddish or wliitish the segments green-striped. fifty to one hundred and fifty in a raceme scapi:> 1 to 2 feet high August. Leaves usually two only. Flowers blue.



erect. . scape stout. Fig. concave. and only require planting. 2. the stigma blunt. Natural Order LiLiACE^. especially if the in quantity. the style rounded. when the bulbs are ripe and dormant. They should be placed in situations where they may be allowed to remain for several years without interference. . seeds are allowed to 278. dense raceme 6 to 12 inches high May. . if these are stood in a cold house. and the cells containing many ovules. sibirica and several others will do w^ell in pots. The leaves all originate from the stem. SIBIRICA (Siberian). segments spreading. There is a var. so that they swing lightly poised on the tip of the filaments. . This should be done about October. fragrant. Scilla sibirica. a section of the bulb . peruviana is a greenhouse plant. 3 to 6 inches high February. the herbaceous border. the unexpanded flower-bud section through the flower. The ovary is six-grooved. in a raceme scapes one or two. Scillas are among the convenient class of plants that inches long. I sow themselves. of variable shape. VERNA (spring). and plants of similar dwarf habit may be planted over them or in the wnld garden amongst grass. Plate 278. deep blue. the anthers large and attached above the base. h inch long. recurved. which will soon spread. S. Where bulbs can be obtained woodland walks in little they should be planted along clumps. well in most garden soils. of six entirely unconnected perianth-segments. Flowers bright pale blue. A . . LiLiUM (the old Latin name). fifty to . . Sea Onion. J inch across. The . the Siberian Squill 1 is natural size. and arc cither alternate or in whorls. scapes one to six to a bulb. Arabis. The flowers are large and showy. and sometimes with little bulbils in the axils. where dwarf Saxifrages. Leaves 3 to 10 inches long. alba. S. six to twelve Native. There are six stamens attached round the ovary or to the base of the segments the filaments long and hundred flowers in a broad. w^hosc bulbs are composed of many overlapping fleshy scales. which drop ofl' when fertilisation has been effected. They do well in the rock-garden. nearly S. honeyed. shorter than leaves April. . Leaves two to four. Genus Lilium genus of about forty-five species of perennial bulbous herbs. 4 to 6 Flowers one to three on a scape. long . 8.

. L. . in few-flowered corymbs June to August. and L. roseum and L. elegans. CANADENSE (Canadian). The Golden-rayed Lily.. cordifolium. The species are natives of the Temperate Regions of the Northern Hemisphere. usually in distinct whorls. and L. L. which short. 2 to 5 feet high. L. downy. Leaves near base. 1804. Hansoni. L. much spotted with purplish red drooping. Stem round. All these are European species. St. 1867. ^peciosum. 1875. The racemes are This is the most varieties L. 6oo fruit is FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE an erect. Flowers 10 to 12 inches across. Many species have been introduced during the present century. 1853. 1862. 1867. From China came L. Leichtlini. with a band of bright yellow down the centre of each purplish. longiflorum. 6 to 9 inches long. Leaves slender. fragrant. BULBiFERu:sr (bulb-bearing). and the base thickly : studded with fleshy excrescences July and August. nncipa and from California. philadelphicum from North America in 1757. 1852 . We have no species of Lilium indigenous to Britain. 1804. CANDIDUM (white). pomponium from Northern Italy. white. and L. 2 to 3 feet high. L. hidhiferum. L. giganteum. 1832. Stem furrowed. Martagon has long been naturalised in a restricted area of cighteen-flowered June and July. There are several named of it. pyrenaicum (a sub-species of L. L. Plate 279. In 1745 L. 2 to 3 feet high. chalcedonicum. canadense from North America. though L. magnificent of the genus. . 1879. croceum. lance-shaped. japonicuni. pomponiiim) as far back as 1596. varying from bright yellow to pale red. and consist of from three to twenty flowers. 1820. for we find that it was growing in English gardens with L. L. L. thick inch f crowded on the lower half of stem. many-seeded capsule. short and scattered above. Flowers 2 to 2 J inches long. Catesbcei from the same region in 1787. This was one of the first species to have been introduced to this country. pardalinum. and pseudo-tigrinum. davuricum came from Siberia. . L. is also spotted with carmine. tigrinum. Among the most notable of these are several from Japan. . Lilium auratum (golden). auratum. erect. L. the segments suddenly narrowing below to form a distinct claw raceme twelve. higli. Leaves bulbils their axils. L. 1820. P^'^^^^-g^. Madonna Lily. Stem A to much stiff'.g^^^g segment. Parry i. beginning with L. the upper ones with purple-brown Flowers reddish yellow. round. 1865. Joseph's Lily . Flowers . and L. 1872. and L. and they were joined about 1629 by L. . From Himalaya we received L. washingtonianum. highly lance-shaped. candidum. slender. 2 to 4 feet Leaves slender. L. numerous in . L.



. L. Flowers of a brilliant orange. three nerved. L. Stem ten-flowered racemes. or purple. DAVURICUM (Dahurian). Flowers bright Leaves in an umbel-like raceme top. smooth. It dies after once flowering. Henryi (Henry's). scattered. Saffron Lily. Stem round. to 4 inches thick at base. 5 or 6 inches across L. and the absence of bulbils in 2 to 3 feet . and bearing a Stems 6 to 10 feet. twenty-flowered June. Leaves shorter. Plate 281. L. 2 to 3 feet high. round. stiff. drooping. cobwebby July. 4 feet high. . with small crimson or purple Similar to L. with long. Stem slender. four to ten in a raceme. slender. Plate 280.. Except in sheltered parts of the South of England this species must be grown in the cool greenhouse. like those of L. Leaves slender. Leaves lance-shaped. A recent introduction from Central China. variously disposed. purplespotted. . but easily distinguished by spots August. smooth.. stout. Catesb^i (Catesby's). the throat tinged with purple. . . channeled leaf -stalks. white. scattered. CORDIFOLIUM (heart-leaved). mostly in whorls. erect. Leaves slender. 3 to 4 inches long. Leaves heart-shaped. occasionally yellowish. yellow. Flowers reddishorange. speciosum. 3 to 4 feet Leaves lance-shaped. Stem cobwebby. the cottony hairs on the flower-stalks. GiGANTEUM (gigantic). about 1^ inch long. 3 to 6 feet high. bright orange-red. whose bases clasp the stem. Flowers funnel-shaped. 2 or 3 inches long. L. CHALCEDONICUM high. Leaves heart-shaped on long stalks lowest ones reddish. clothed with lance-shaped raceme of from twenty to fifty flow^ers. upper ones narrower and Flowers solitary. June and July. an inch broad. Flowers funnel-shaped.or salFron-colour. Hardy. Stem 2 to 3 feet high. 4 to 10 feet high. July and August. higli. L. but coloured lemon-yellow. white. Stem sometimes forking near July. in four. LILIES 6oi pure white. 3 to foot-stalks sometimes slightly L. and 2 Hansoni (Hanson's). . upper ones erect. lower ones lance-shaped. spotted with purple July and August. Flow^ers pale scarlet. scarlet. . narrow. the axils. L. L. Stem 3 to 4 feet high. August. all except the uppermost. (Clialcedonian). slightly spotted. six to twelve in a raceme. broad. lower ones somewhat spreading. Stem finely channeled. loose leaves. spotted with purple. 5 or 6 inches long. one to six in a corymb July and August. Flowers bright scarlet. upper more erect racemes five. lower ones drooping. ELEGANS (elegant). CROCEUM (saffron colour).

Harrisii. Stem rounded. L. Flowers nodding. purple-tinged outside. Flowers solitary or in umbels. stiff. the segments curved back around the tube. Leaves lance-shaped. . not opening widely bright orangc-nMl. usually spotted wuth purple in the feet high. Stem slender. bright orange-red. rigid. lighter in the centre. . sometimes in a whorl. spotted with reddish brow^n horizontal PHILADELPHICUM (Philadelphian). Leaves lance-shaped. not distinctly stalked twelve to twenty. A rather delicate species. which is spotted with . Flowers bright n-d. lance-shaped. 2 to 6 feet high. down}-. centre L. known in great in gardens as L. yellow. to 3 feet numerous Leaves slender. 1 to 2 feet high. thickly spotted with purplish red. lance-shaped. Stem slender. stifl". fringed. the Bermuda or Easter Lily. July and August. Stem 3 to 7 feet high. Leaves narrow. 6o2 L. 1 to 2 feet high. demand for early forcing. Leaves very slender. stiff. s. mostly in whorls of from nine to fifteen. Stem slender. . white. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE JAPONICUM (Japanese). 2 to 3 feet high. very scattered. scattered. edges nulled inwards.nnetimcs orange-tinged'. fragrant Flowers 5 to 7 inches long. low^er July. usually in whorls of six to nine. ones Leaves slender. broader below the middle. 2| to 3 inches long July and August. Stem rounded. thickly dotted with dark purple. an<l Stem finely furrowed. L. Flowers dull purplish red.. Flowers solitary or twin. . and the flower hanging downwards. 2 to 3 feet high. . LONGIFLORUM Leaves slender is is (long-flowered). stout. Parryi (Parry's). exlmium Lily. 1^. Martagon Cap Stem rounded. Flowers fragrant. Martagon (the old popular name). 1 to 3 Leaves narrow. lower ones crowded. L. Flowers funnel-shaped. . pure white. Leichtlinii (Leichtlin's). July and August. hince-shaped. scattered. 2 to 3 inches long. POMPONiUM (PompoTuO. . . high. usually scattered. or Turk's and L. funnel-shaped. 5 or 6 inches long. . Jul}- and August. in a long raceme July. Lily. pale yellow. in regular whorls of from six to eight leaves. . L. PARDALINUM (leopard-like). purple L. The var. solitary or twin June. in twos or threes (solitary in the wild plant).



additions of peat. A rather tender species. numerous. Leaves slender. L. Commonly known in gardens as L. L. 6 to 12 inches L. irregularly scattered. as. TIGRINUM (Tiger). L. Nearly all Lilies appreciate peat.. As in the case of some of the foregoing species. pardulinum. 4 or 5 inches long. L. L. It is. needle-like. where they are crowded. lilac. Where there are beds feet high. tinged with purple or lilac. with numerous purple-black spots racemes twenty-flowered July and August. rigid.irtly filled with specially suitable soil. L. purplish black. : . tenuifolium require for their successful culture a proportion of peat. 1^ inch long. given good drainage. 1 to 3 feet high. Fortunci. whorled. rarely twin. Stem rounded. singular in having a dense bulb invested in a dry membranous coat like that of the Tulip. or the remains of an old hot-bed. lancifolium. in large racemes July and August. L. etc. LILIES which it is 603 probably a sub-species. alternate. . with larger pyramidal racemes splendens. except at base. instead of red about twelve in a raceme. Leaves small. and L. glossy. Tiger Lily. June and July. a hole of greater depth having been dug previously and ]^. 3 to 5 Leaves lance-shaped. Plate 282. white. Leaves grass-like. and from 3 to 5 inches long from three to ten in a raceme July and August. L.with double flowers. Lc. M<{rfiiii"i). Stem rounded. drooping. dark. even those to which it is not a necessity. there are several varieties among them /ore _2^7(gno. Stem rounded. taller. candiduTn. TENUIFOLIUM (slendcr-leaved). deep orange-red. Stem slender. smooth. Cateshcei. Flowers large. 2 to 4 feet high. in a raceme April. with fewer and larger spots on . . Flowers variable in size and colour. somewhat drooping. '^^ open. . Leafmould and well-rotted cow-manure. and more than a foot long.L. worked up with good loam. and L. well-drained soil is the most suitable for Cuitiv f n growing Lilies. bright scarlet. and the flowers are bright yellow. Introduced from Siberia. about twelve in each whorl. phUaddphicum. Flowers fragi-ant. will make it fit for any species. SPECIOSUM (showy).chlluui. usually with round black bulbils in the axils.. . . 18 inches high. covered with white down. whilst L. . but typically white. of greater stature. 2i to 3 inches long. will be found helpful. loam. lower ones more oval. auratiim. ROSEUM (rose-coloured). Stem stout. Flowers solitary. ivashingtonianum should have a good admixture of li»'a\v l<»:im with the ordinary soil. The bulbs should be planted at a deptli of al)out 6 inches. Leaves lance-shaped. L. WASHINGTONIANUM (Washington's). stiff". Flowers 3 to 4 inches long. high. the flowers. however. spotted and tinged with carmine or rose. 1820.

. and adding to it a little charcoal and some sharp sand. The bulbils produced in the axils of some species should also be utilised and often a vast number of minute bulbs will be formed among the scales of the old bulb. Strong manures should not be allowed to come near the bulbs. The bulb should be inserted deeply. therefore the soil. the amateur will probably prefer the more expeditious mode already mentioned. may be separated from time to time. whilst the flowers will show up well against the The bulk of the Lilies at Kcw are grown in this way. The pots must be adapted to the size of the bulbs. as soon as the flower-buds begin to form. During the winter they should have a cool corner of the greenhouse where they will be free from frost and not entirely dry. If the flowers are allowed to ripen tlieir seeds. when the stems have died down but they . should be at once replanted. but a 6-inch pot will be found small enough for any of them. is of great value. and the fleshy scales will rearrange themselves around these stems so that the original bulb becomes two or three. though not very damp. If their removal is necessary. The bulb that sent up one stem last year will send up two or three this season. the pots should be stood outside. but well-rotted manure. Most of the species of Lilium are well adapted for pot-culture. . but as soon as the stem is formed a circlet of roots emerges from the thick portion of the stem. During this period their roots will be not inactive. When the stems have died in autumn the bulbs may be shaken out. it should be done in autumn. which they soon break up. and less water given. for exposure to the air soon renders them flabby. A plentiful supply of water at the same period is very important. Healthy Lilies propagate themselves. A snigle . Lilies may bo planted with advantage in between. . and an admirable compost for them may be contrived by mixing loam and peat in equal portions. applied as a mulching bold foliage of the shrubs. and these take possession of the top layer of soil. of course. but with a good layer of soil beneath it. and at once repotted in fresh soil. which should not be allowed to get dry. and the tender shoots from strong winds in spring. When the buds are formed— but not till then— clear liquid-manure may be given and after flowering. These. these may be sown in pans of sandy soil but as flowering bulbs cannot be produced from these seeds in less than about five year^^. Lily-bulbs should remain undisturbed for several years. . and are a great success. In such a position the bulbs will be perfectly secure from frosts in winter. must be permeable.6o4 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE devoted to Rhododendrons or other shrubs of low stature. Lilies root not merely from the base of the bulb.



imperialis. of these tiny offsets though. the Safiron 1. It is quite certain that garden enthusiasts at an early date began to introduce Fritillarias. natural size. one-third less than natural size. Lily. is numbered ^' in the British Flora as a plant of local occurrence in moist meadows. the Crown Imperial. Bulb natural size. The stamens are attached at the very base of the segments. of course. from the Pyrenees. Plate 279. the Showy Lily. Meleagris were in cultivation here. a dice-box or chess-board. Lilium croceum. Description of Plates 279 to 282. Lilium auratuni. Among other early introductions were the var. Joseph's Lily. . Fritillaria Meleagris. pyrenaica. These are bell-shaped. CROWN IMPERIAL AND SNAKE'S-HEAD LILIES Natural Order Liliacea:. style three-grooved. They should be placed in planted out of doors in a specially prepared bed containing a good proportion of thoroughly rotted cow-manure. Fig 1 is a section through the ovary. Plate 281. The stem-roots referred to on page 604 are well shown here. these small bulbs will take several years to attain flowering strength. Ovary three-sided. and F. of which the type was not brought hither until 1812. from the checkered pattern of the flower in some species). the Gold-rayed Lily less of Japan. Lilium speciosum. about one-third than the natural size- Plate 280. Lilium candidum. stigma three-lobed. both from Persia. Plate 282. in conjunction with peat and good loam. each bearing a hollowed honey-gland at its base. section of ovary. A flower.CROWN IMPERIAL AND SNAKE'S-HEAD scale of a bulb that LILIES 605 may if get separated in handling will produce several soil. with stamens. for in the year 1596 two species other than F. St. 1. the Snake's-head. flowers reduced one-third. lutea. latifolia of F. . The species are distributed throughout the Temperate Regions of the Northern Hemisphere one British. although there are not wanting those who suspect that its presence here is due to man's agency in a forgotten past. Fig. species of bulbous perennials. F. persica. Fig. A genus of about fifty The bulb consists of a few thick scales. where they will make rapid progress. flower after removing the perianth-segments. and the stem bears stalkless leaves and drooping flowers. from the Caucasus in 1604. These were F. Genus Fritillaria Fritillaria (Latin. fritillus. with the six perianth-segments free to the base.

usually solitary. Flowers faintly scented. with yellow-bordered leaves and . . alternate. Stem Leaves alternate. variegata. Lower leaves reduced to sheaths upper ones elliptic. with purplish flowers var. yellow. plum-coloured. RECURVA . alha) and double1 foot high. F. Leaves lance-shaped. 1878 . pale and dark purple in a small checkered pattern.flowered). . Stem purple F. Flowers solitary. flore plena var. . bright in the axils Leaves lance-shaped. Flowers solitary. netted wnth brown June. 1880. purpurea. F. The Crown Imperial. There are white (var. . tulipifolia. occasionally twin May. Hookeri (Hooker's). F. flm^e pleno) varieties. July. from the Caucasus. drooping. Meleagris (Guinea-fowl). 1870. Stem 9 inches high. several florists' varieties. whorls. Native of North-West America. rarely twin. TULIPIFOLIA (Tulip-leaved). in a raceme. 1812. lutea. pudica (chaste). in racemes April and May. Hookeri. F. alternate. 8 inches long. F. persica (Persian). Stem 2 stem one. Flow^ers solitary. F. Stem 6 to 9 inches high. Principal Species ''Leaves lance-shaped. scarlet. Stem slender. yellow. F. 1872. (yellow).606 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE in 1605. flowered (var. long and slender. recurva. Snake's Head. . Flowers large. Leaves lance-shaped in a series of which is also terminated by a tuft of leaves above the flowers. from the all have Caucasus. tenella. 1867. 1^ inch long. pallidiflora (pale . April and May. from the Maritime Alps. pale lilac. tinged with 6 to 12 inches high. Flowers solitary. . ixiUidiflora. glaucous. from Sikkim. Leaves very slender. April. F. about midway up the stem. small. from Siberia. large. . . lance-shaped. 1878. Introduced from Asia Minor. There is a double var. Fritillaria armena (Armenian). F. PYRENAICA (Pyrenean). F. Stem 6 inches high. deep violet-blue or dull purple. Leaves glaucous. Leaves slender. concave. IMPERIALIS (imperial). lance-shaped. Flowers drooping. Stem 3 feet high. Common nine-flowered May. Stem 1^ foot high. Flowers large. . in cultivation introduced within the nineteenth century been including F. varying from yellow to crimson. (recurved). Stem 6 inches high. Plate 283. F. and F. Leaves slender. yellow within. from California. Stem 3 feet high. was introduced The others now . . . the perianth-segments curved back solitary feet high. Flowers about an inch long. Flowers dark yellow. the interior checkered May. F. Flowers pale yellow. in a wdiorl beneath the terminal leaves April. F. LUTEA .



and many-seeded. and they is will succeed in any well-drained border where the soil fairly rich character. or tiilipan. and from it has originated. of a even than Lilies. a turban. but for a period of three hundred and twenty years we have had Tulipa gesnericma. Gesner fell a victim to the Plague in 1565. . rusty purple within. The leaves are narrow. Tulip occurs naturally in parts of England. or Gesner's Tulip. It was a characteristically happy thought of Linnaeus to attach Gesner's name to the species. still live. Meleagris is an excellent plant for grassy slopes or the wild Although less exacting in the matter of soil garden. from Asia Minor. the perianth of six segments. North and West Asia. The seed capsule is erect. natural size. such a . the bulbs composed of thick scales rolled one in another. Flowers usually solitary. originating from the bulb and from the stem. flourishing in our gardens. in 1559. The species are natives of Europe (one British). F. Fritillaria Meleagris. All the species described are hardy. the directions given for the treatment of the latter may be followed closely in the case of Fritillarias. containing much that is curious and interesting to the naturalist. Description of Plate 283. Fig 1 is a vertical section of the flower. and are attached at its base. but his works. a transverse section of the ovary. This plant had been grown at Augsburg from seeds introduced from the Levant. Talipa sylvestris. Genus Tulipa TULIPA and the Turkish A genus of about sixty species of hardy tulbend. outer segments streaked with purple outside March. it was seen by Conrad Gesner. Latinised). glaucous blue without. the lower ones sheathing. so that it is still Tulipa gesneriana. and there.TULIPS 607 nodding. leathery. The six stamens are shorter than the perianth. TULIPS Natural Order Liliace^. lance-shaped or slender. the Snake's Head 2. erect or (very rarely) nodding bell-shaped. bulbous herbs. the bright yellow-flowered wild (said to be the Persian thoulylmn. . who forthwith made a drawing and description of it. A similar remark may be applied to the propagation of the two genera by means of seeds and offsets. It was in cultivation here in 1577. . surrounding the threeangled ovary and its three-lobed stigma. by sports and seed-bed variation and hybridising. North Africa. with the tips curved back. free to the base.

and striking form among flowering seedlings. a native of the Crimea. but very few have found their place in horticulture. in turn. just as an engineer an improved piece of machinery. have come such favourite varieties The showy T. even if they actually existed. also from South Europe. Greigi was as Pottebakker and the Bride of Haarlem. prmox in 1825. but many hybrids and varieties of these have been produced in our gardens. puhescens appeared about of the Continent came T. In 1636 we received T. T. Of those that have received the florist's care. Eichleri. though not so many as might be inferred on perusal of the lists of dealers. high prices in the present day are fixed. Grifiins and Unicorns of the heraldic types might just as well have been the subjects of the "speculation. . clusiana. . from Georgia. and in the following year came T. gestieriana and T. introduced only in 1873. a year earlier but no one knows whence it came. Many have been Clusius'. for it is well known that some of these are catalogued under several different . in Asia Minor. as the result of a cross between T. so far as that variety is will concerned. and from the same part T. as a deterrent. but. from Turkestan. whilst the very early Van Thol's and others are similarly descended from T. oculus-solis was introduced in 1816 from the South of Europe. or as a publisher may invest in a copyright. : pay the Official Receiver as a consequence.6o8 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE progeny that no man can accurately number." The amateur of limited means may grow a pretty extensive collection of good Tulips without running any risk of having to place his aflfairs in the hands of for the patent of . Most of the late-flowering sorts found in our gardens are in some close fashion related to T. by those who do not wish to sell. which reached us from Southern Europe about 1603. To-day it concerns itself chiefly with the purchase and sale of stocks and shares that often have no real existence. gcsneriana. introduced since then. It is not many years since £100 was oflered and refused for a single bulb of Louis XVI. and it is suspected of originating in a garden. Like Orchids and Hyacinths. or the Lady Tulip. as a rule. The so-called Tulipomania of the first half of the seventeenth century had really but a slight connection with the cultivation and love of Tulips it was one of the numerous forms in which the gambling vice breaks out at different times. suaveolens. and in the 1630's men made and lost fortunes in the purchase and sale of bulbs that never changed hands. suaveolens from it. Tulips have at times been remarkable On the appearance of a new for tlie high prices paid for new varieties. growers have not hesitated to invest large sums of money in order to get the control of the market for a time.



April or May. lance-shaped. segments with pointed tips. . with a yellow-bordered black basal blotch April and May. yellow. channeled. hairy. Plate surface. . Stem slender. the outside flushed with red. oblong. and the edges of the segments deeply toothed and 284. but vary gi-eatly in colour. Leaves slender. the outer coats with a few Leaves broad. Stem about 9 inches high. parts. and purplish black at base stamens black June. bright red. Stem 12 to 18 inches high. The flowers are faintly fragrant. . the segments having at the base a yellow-bordered. Leaves four or five. black patch April. . yellow. acuminata and T. Flowers 2| to 3 inches long. flower-stalk veiy downy March and April. patch. T. and free from down May and June. suaveolens. tinged outside with bronzy red. flower-stalk of T. Flowers more funnel-shaped. gesneriana (see below). Flowers white. T. of large size.TULIPS Principal Species 609 to our native all its and Hybrids. The Parrot or slashed. SUAVEOLENS (sweet-smelling). dracontia. but of more robust flowering. red. PUBESCENS (downy). fragi-ant. Van Thol's Tulip. CLUSIANA (Clusius'). long and slender. coloured. EiCHLERi (Eichler's). blotched with brown. and with more oval segments. Leaves broad- Flowers flame-coloured. Similar to T. var. gesneriana. Bulb small. or some combination . (Gesner's). Bulb large. . Flowers T. glaucous. April. gesneriana and the downy T. ELEGANS (elegant). or red apex of segments broadly rounded flower-stalk tall. more overlapping. Leaves broad. PRECOX habit. black oblong. densely T. Native of South-Western Europe also known as T. distinguished by the downy flower-stalk. but smaller in . T. (early). It has the large stigma and blunt-tipped segments of T. The Lady Tulip. . 2". TuLiPA AUSTRALis (southern). It is believed to be a hybrid of garden origin. Similar sijlvestris (which see). . more or less striped with white. and with the basal blotch less clearly defined. but Flowers bright crimson. 1 to 1| foot. lower ones a foot long. the segments with acute Plate 286. Of garden origin . ocuLUS-soLis (sun's-eye). . Dragon Tulips are considered to be descended from The flowers of these are brilliantly T. believed to be a hybrid between T. T. celsiana. T. yellow. inches high. violet. Plate 285. of these colours . 6 Stem tips . Flowers large. bright red. suaveolens. Flowers variable. GESNEEIANA hairs on the inner T. each segment marked with a yellow-bordered. Sweet Tulip. earlier Veiy similar to the last. Flower-stalk slightly downy. Greigi (Greig's). nearly 3 inches long.

The Early -flowering are divided into Singles and Doubles but the classiflcation of the Late-flowering is not nearly so simple. Parrots. 2 inches long. soft rose. then. If the base is stained all its with a tinge of green. At some future flowering period how many seasons later is quite uncertain— it may "break" into central markings of another colour. and heliotrope. But where Tulips are raised from seed. and is placed in the Flamed or the Feathered section of — its class according to the character of this variegation. . black. Bybloemens. they are divided into Feathered Bizarres. Feathered Roses. the variegations are similarly laid in violet. or the deepest Darwins are really late-flowering English " Breeders. Primarily.flowering Tulips. but they are known only to botanists and a few specialists. Roses. black and either In Bizarres the ground colour brown. Flamed Bybloemens. and these may be either flame-like or feather-like. ranging from the lightest to the darkest. of species of glaucous. but are of one uniform (or self-) colour. . and the base of the flower is of clear yellow. long. is lemon or golden yellow. these are separated under the heads of Bizarres. bright yellow. Leaves few and slender. First. and its colour may be white. and even these classes are increasing in number. or red it is now termed a Breeder. lance-shaped Tulipa have been introduced within the last ten years from Asia Minor. scarlet-cerise. there is an early stage in which the flowers are neither feathered nor flamed. purple. Flamed Roses. carmine-rose. SYLVESTRis (growing in woods). purple. It is now Rectified. ground and white above which lilac. rose-pink. April and May. somewhat zigzag. brown. we may distinguish a division into Early and Late .6io FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE T. glowing scarlet. Flamed Bizarres. on which are laid flames or feathers of delicate pink. yellow. Flowers fragrant." which differ from the Dutch Breeders in their numerous and striking shades of colour. with brown scales. Feathered Bybloemens. segments . 1 Stem to 2 feet Bulb small. pale Roses also have a clear white base. . Above this clear base is laid the flame or feather marks of orange. This flrst large . and a white or rose ground above it. broad. A number flowering takes place when the seedling plant is four or five years old. the rules. and in their long flowerstalks. according to is value as an exhibition plant clear white gone. scarlet-crimson. and Darwins second. Bybl(EMEX8 have a lavender. The number of these is so great that they have had to be organised into classes. base.



they may be safely left in the ground. When the leaves have withered. it is advisable to put a little sand above and below each bulb as inserted. the builds should be about 6 inches apart. If large quantities have to be dealt with. already referred to under T. the reader will be able to make the best use now classify their of the dealers' catalogues. and storing Where in a thoroughly dry. with as little disturbance of the roots as possible. . Where Tulips are planted in masses. if there is no danger of their being injured in digging. there is a danger of the bulbs being removed long before they are ripe. Where they have been used for filling beds with a view to a brilliant display. The best way is to dig holes with the trowel. manure should be allowed to come near them but if the ground is poor it may be improved by adding thoroughly rotted cow-manure. Five-inch pots should be used. Tulips succeed best in a well-drained sandy with No strong -mould has been incorporated. the bulbs may be cleaned and laid on shelves or in shallow boxes in a dry shed. that has to be continued hy means of Geraniums and other summer bedders. If the soil is not naturally of a sandy nature. Tulips make admirable pot-plants. and these will take . and to guard against this it is best to remove them soon after flowering. deep to allow 4 inches of soil above the tip of the bulb. rather than attempt a selection of the varieties themselves. they should be lifted and laid in coal-ashes in a sunny place. . . or the remains of an old hot-bed but even this should be added months before Tulip-bulbs are planted. with the addition of sand and decaj^ed hot-bed manure. cool place until the following autumn. where they may remain till planting. They should be potted in a compost consisting chiefly of loam. With this information. customary to dig up the bulbs and dry them in a shady place afterwards placing the varieties separately in named paper bags. this plan is absolutely necessary but where they are irregularly grouped in borders. and transplant them to a spare border where they can mature properly. Tulips have been grown in lines or definite patterns. These should be put in the ground in October or the first half of November. it is When the leaves and stems have become quite withered.Parrots or Dragons we have gesneriana. not bore them wdth a dibber and these should be sufficiently dch leaf . We classes have thought of florists' it preferable to give the foregoing clue to these varieties. for varieties most of the good houses soil under these heads. otherwise they will have a crowded and less pleasing appearance when in flower.

lance-shaped. and offsets from the old These also should be treated as suggested for the propagation of the Hyacinth. suaveolens. Erythronium Yellow (American). and E. or nearly white segments acute-tipped. on a short scape.. 1 is Several forms. which are either erect or turned back over the flower-stalk these segments are free to the base and equal in size. One species F. Bescription of Plates 284 to 286. bright yellow. and solitary. Fig. Flowers 2 inches across. scape 6 inches high. March and E. Van Thol's. — . DEXS-CANis (dog's-tooth). natural DOG'S-TOOTH VIOLETS Natural Order LiLiACE^. T. Plate 285. AMERICANUM Princi ais ecies Adder's-tongue. T. turned back March and April. or the Sweet is Tulip. E. a section of the flower. Plate 284. turned back. Tidijoa gesneriava. Tulips are increased by means of seeds. purplish red.r. There are six stamens. the Parrot or Dragon flower after shedding the perianth. with more or less oval. The perianth consists of six segments. 1 the bulb. the size of the variety potted. throf. marked with violet and white. Their aftrr-treatuK'Ht should be the same as that recommended for Hyacinths bulbs. Fig. to show variation in colour. in pots. . americanum was introduced in 1C65. 1. Flower scape 3 to six inches high. colours. Common and white. rather large flowers. and the fruit is a three-celled capsule. April. nodding. Leaves elliptic. 1 inch across. var. Seedling Tulips do not begin to flower until their fourth or fiftii year. . The other species are all North American. Fig. the Garden Tulip. Genus Erythronium EiiYTHROXHJM (Greek. four. of dwarf habit. red: the colour of flowers in original species). or acc. gesneriana. erythros. rosy. and is found throughout Asia from Russia to Japan. A genus of eight hardy bulbous perennials. the segments blunt-tipped. dens-canis is a native of Europe (whence it was introduced to England prior to 1596). radical leaves.— 6i2 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Hxv Ijulbs.Hn-. in several and showing the double form. Plate 286. Flower Leaves broad-oval. Flowers . . but the inner three are each provided with two blunt teeth near the base. lilac. Tulip. albidum in 1824 the others are of recent introduction. blotched with purple-brown Dog's-tooth Violet.



and showy flowers on scapes. C. The outer segments of the perianth are sepal-like and much smaller and narrower than the inner three. rich yellow. but keeping the lights closed during wet weather. the perianth-segments turned back. They are grown in pots by many cultivators. the base spotted with dark purple April. spotted with purplish brown. beautiful. July. yellow. purple without. July. w4th yellow base. white. which are bearded on the inner surface and delicately and brightly tinted. July. They should be potted in autumn and placed in a sunny frame. They are propagated by offsets. or light loam. venustm. purplelilac. with sword-shaped leaves. purpureus. and sand in equal proportions. outside. hemero.SOME MINOR GENERA E. lilacinus. splendens. Flowers slightly fragrant. and chortos. with the bulb about 3 inches below the surface. A genus of about thirtytw^o species of bulbous plants (natives of North. Leaves oblong. Hemerocallis (Greek. June. with dark blue lines and dots. Propagated by seeds and offsets. pure white. September. lilac. 2 inches across. yellow within. crimson-blotched. G. Erythroniums succeed best in a mixture of loara and : peat. a day. G. flowering July and August G. in the rock-garden or the SOME MINOR GENERA Natural Order Liliace^ (Greek kalos. pale pink. 613 Hendersoni (Henderson's). beauty: brief positions. or Mariposa Lilies. August. G. giving plenty of air in dry weather at all temperatures. and hallos. who do not care for the trouble entailed in growing them outside. is The most suitable situation for them shrubbery borders. leaf-mould. July. provided they are given an annual top-dressing of fresh soil. fringed with purple hairs.Western America). with purple spot at base. Avell-drained. as excessive moisture is the chief cause of failure. Introduced from Oregon. They should only be : . luteus. in sheltered. G. pale lilac. G. grass: grass-like leaves). grown where they can be protected from wet from October to March. bright yellow. Butterfly Tulips. cceriileus. The most suitable soil is a compost of fibrous loam. All these are from California. NattaUii. i^ulcltellus. If planted in clumps. and the colours named have reference to the ample inner segments only. The principal species are Calochortus Benthami. August. G. sunny . they may be left for several years. Flower-scape 6 to 8 inches high.

Middendorfi golden yellow. The leaves are slender (flat or rounded) or lance-shaped. about a foot long. bright yellow. the flowers produced abundantly and in succession. at first they are enclosed in a membranous spathe. May. 1840). very slender (North America. Moly. yellow tinged with green. . sativum. brownish yellow. H. cceruleum. No special directions are needed for their cultivation. July. All flower through the summer. and blue or white flowers The perianth-segments are slightly connected at the in a loose raceme. A. genus of five hardy perennial herbs. and should be planted in a border where they need not be disturbed they do well in the front of shrubberies. broad-leaved. sword-shaped. a recent introducthe flowers being 6 inches across and the largest flowei^ed of all. H. Camassia (from Quamash. narrow-leaved H. white. The principal species are others. base. natives of Europe. slightly . with grooved slender leaves. A minor genus only in the horticultural sense. soils. the name used by tlie North American Indians. . The flowers are in heads or umbels at the top of fifty species of a slender scape. The flowers are fragrant. Hemerocallis flava. lance-shaped (South Europe. by whom the bulbs are eaten). : 6i4 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Day Lilies. neapolifanum. A. minor. rosy purple. bell-shaped. intense blue with dark line down each segment. July. radical. and form a splendour). and of a rich orange colour. minor was introduced about 1759. 1830). and H. not fragrant. small. The perianth-segments spread widely or assume a bell-shape. 1604). and North America. produced in corymbs on leafless scapes. fulva. deep rose. and when expanded the loM^est one stands rather apart from the They are natives of North America. May. . but Allil^M (the old Latin name for A. aurantiaca. for it includes about two hundred and hardy bulbous perennials. leaves strap-shaped (South Europe. A. fragrant. They succeed in any garden soil. orange-yellow. radical leaves. and increase rapidly by means of offsets. H. A. the Garlic). leaves lanceshaped (South. 1817).West Europe. giving forth a characteristic pungent odour when bruised. Among the principal species are Allium acuminatum. The six segments of the perianth are united at the base. narcissiflorum. A narrow tube in which is the free ovary. 1823) A. flava and H.. with bulbous rhizomes. fragi-ant. The principal species are: . neapolitanum is a good plant for the conservatory when grown in pots in a frame. They grow freely in most garden .. Africa. natives of Temperate Europe and Asia. A genus of four or five species. leaves broad. and showy flowers. leaves triangular (Siberia. Jul}^ leaves : . lasting but a short time. Extra-tropical Asia. broad-leaved H. leaves very slender tion. fidra were in cultivation here prior to 1596.



1879). thyrsoides. 2 inches across. ornithos. but differing in the more open flowers. United States) . umhellatam. Asia Minor. In the rock-garden they may be planted in any kind of light soil in sunny positions. a bird. esculenta. the attachment of the stamens to the throat of the tube. 0. Among the chief species are: Omithogalum nnontanum. where they can be left alone to increase. May. 1824). and doxa. and they spread widely. 0. G. leaves Star of Bethlehem. with an annual top-dressing of rich soil. April (South Europe). where each has a honey-gland. and gala. deep to pale blue. not. 1752). leaf -mould. arahicmn and 0. snow. an inch across. Chioxodoxa (Greek. in allusion to time of flowering). larger than G. white. sardensis. The six segments are free to the base. 615 June (Nortli-West America. G. 1853). dark blue with a wdiite eye (Asia Minor. if planted in a sheltered position and in partial shade. w^hite inside. white striped with green outside. drooping. nutans and 0. and sand. The leaves are slender. narhonense. a smaller species with white or lilac flowers. natives of Crete AsPHODELUS (Greek. May. green outside. or awl-shaped. similar to Scilla sihirica. May and June. strap-shaped. Like Alliums. 1885). nana. and sphallo. 1877). three to fifteen in a raceme. to supplant: not to be Asphodel. These plants are very suitable for planting in the wild garden or the rock-garden. six to twenty in raceme. doubtful). leaves slender (Mediterranean Region. these will do well in any ordinary garden soil. are good green- house plants. milk . glory . greenish Avhite. Glory of the Snow. significance genus of about seventy species of hardy and greenhouse bulbous perennials. beaten).SOME MINOR GENERA Camassia esculenta. G. unihcllatuni have long been 0. and in gardens only need planting. A genus of five species of hardy perennials with . smaller than the last (Eastern Leichtlini. Fraseri. natives for the most part of Europe. A inch across (Crete. cream}' white. naturalised in Britain. with intense blue. slender witli silvery centnil stripe (Europe). in one-sided raceme. They do well on sloping banks. pale blue. (California. A genus of several species and Asia Minor. 1837). A Will grow readily in the border or wild garden. 0. but they prefer a compost of loam. twenty to fifty in raceme. March (Asia Minor. with green stripe at back of each segment. : of hardy bulbous perennials. and the forking of the anthers at their base. and the somewhat small white or yellow flowers are grouped in racemes. leaves slender (South Europe. a. The species chiefly grown are Ghionodoxa Lucilice. leaves broader. and Africa. white-centred flowers. Propagated by seeds and offsets. its ckion. C. May Ornithogalum (Greek. nutans. 0. both large and handsome in flower.

one extending to Himalaya. increased They are by dividing the roots in spring. the St. yellow or white. and blue or violet flowers in a raceme. Anthericum Liliago. The perianth-segments are free. than the others. and America. natives of Europe. They chiefly inhabit the Mediterranean Region. afterwards sparingly. and long. in dense racemes on tall scapes. Planted in sandy loam o£ good depth. constituting a St. They are natives of South called America and Tropical Africa. more correctly Paradisia Liliaatnim. channeled (South Europe. yellow. and grass-like leaves (South Europe. F. Anthericum allusion to height). ramosum has smaller flowers with narrower segments. borne in racemes or panicles on tall scapes. Liliastrum. Eichhorn. Bernard's Lily. and A. creticus. has a spreading perianth nearly Ih inch across. The principal species are Asphodelus albiis. Its flowers are more bell-shaped. 1596). . narrow. a Prussian botanist). slender radical leaves. white. 1629). is Bruno's Lily. usually called A. the six unequal segments uniting at their The stamens also are unequal. three being longer base to form a tube. leaf-mould. They are all summer bloomers. A. The genus by itself. a hedge: in A genus of about fifty species of perennials. Propagation by seeds and division of the roots. The flowers are funnel-shaped. and white flowers. water must be given liberally. anthos. a flower. The pots must be large (a foot across). EICHHORNIAS Natural Order Poxtederiace^e. May (South Europe. and are most suitable for growing in borders. equal and spreading. leaves slender. 1821). July. They are sometimes Water Hyacinths. Some of the species are stove plants. Africa. sometimes three-sided. (Greek. 1596). they succeed well in the shrubbery or lierbaceous border. A small genus of stove aquatics. or as pot-plants. and sand. and herkos. stamens alternately long and short. Genus Eichkornia ElCHHORNiA (named in honour of J. and should be filled with a compost of fibrous loam. A. 1570). leavea The flowers are showy. 2 inches across.6i6 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE bunches of fleshy roots. roundish rhomboidal stalked leaves. with clustered fleshy roots. and with a green spot on the tip of each white segment (South Europe. From the commencement of growth until the withering of the flowers. with : thread-like leaves (Crete. The ovary is three-celled. fragrant. with creeping rhizomes.



Also known as Kentia forsteriana. These Palms require stove treatment throughout the cultivation be used outside for subThey should be planted in pots or tubs. Mchhornias should be grown in a stove tank. stalk much swollen near the base. and these sunk in the Where tank.. July. . Native of in a many-flowered raceme. size. crowded with the flowers. Also known as Pontederia crassipes. The flowers are individually small. the soil should be of a rich character. as they require to be in water that has a temperature of from 60° to 80°. Island. Leaves with the segments taking an upward direction. HowEA BELMOREANA (Belmore's). Plate 287. floating from round. over an inch Plate 288. using a compost of equal parts loam and peat. They must have plenty of water at the roots during the summer. but are gathered into branching The fruit is one-celled. the natural home of the A genus of feet long several species of stove or warm greenhouse Palms. They may be planted in large pots. E. Native of Brazil. H. with the addition of a little greater part of the year. Brazil. and large leaves —divided into numerous slender segments. as the stems float and root. Also known as Kentia belmoreana. leaves. or light loam simply. and Rhizome wavy. but may sand. \^ inch long. Leaves roundish. hairy outside in erect racemes July. Fruit oblong. CRASSIPES (thick-footed). to the size of specimens. the sexes separate. with a spathe below. They readily increase by means of stoloniferous growths. FORSTERIANA (Forster's). Flowerspikes nodding. long. fleshy. showing stems. Flowers violet. the stalks not swollen. Curly Palm. Description of Plate 287. . spathe. 3 to 8 inches across. rhomboid. Flowers bright pale blue. Thatch-leaf Palm. and flowers. feet. and frequent IV. Similar to the last in all respects.— 31 .but this is not necessary. Leaves variable. reduced about one -third less roots. with tree-like stems attaining a height of over 30 — 6 to 8 spikes. Natural Order Palm^. heart-shaped to potted. Mchhornia than the natural crassipes. Genus Howea HowEA (named from Lord Howe's species).KENTIAS EiCHHUKXiA AZUREA ' 617 (blue). rooting. except that the leaf -segments of hang downwards instead growing upwards. according tropical gardening. Rhizome thick.

The new leaves are produced in a head at the in all directions. was introduced from India in 17G3 P. P. The male contains from three to nine — History in cultivation here ever since 1597. afterwards potted and grown on in a gentle hot -bed. freshness to Description of Plate 288. without repotting them. Only one ovary matures. lance-shaped or swordshaped. In the South of France large numbers of Phcenix are raised out of doors from seed. Phoenix dactylifera. have lost them early. in 1792. rupicola.6i8 syringings filled FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE . . and sown outside in a sunny border but trusting too much to the hardiness of plants so raised. has been six — stamens. from India. in 1828. which are often of great height. we have often raised young plants from seeds so obtained. when it was introduced from the Levant. These two Palms are the most useful and the most popular of the many species grown for decoration. If used for table decoration. from Central India. sylvestris. ^pinom. they spread and are more or less curved. Genus Fhcenix Phcenix (the old Greek name for the Date Palm). DATE PALMS Natural Order Palm^. Great quantities of its edible fruit are imported annually. 1810. P. in . The trunks. to ensure in the dry air of dwelling-rooms. . They are natives of Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia and Africa. When the pots are well- be kept healthy. and the so-called "stones" contained therein are the seeds. they are pinnately divided into a very large number of slender segments. de\'eloping into a one-seeded. they should be given as much sunlight as possible. the Curly Palm greatly reduced from the natural size. the Common Date Palm. witli hooked stigmas. fleshy fruit the Date of commerce. As a boy. . one of the hardiest of the genus. A genus of about a dozen species of stove or greenhouse Palms. the plants may clean tepid water. young plant. and three petals. summit of the trunk . This is a precaution that must be taken. P. —usually and the female three distinct ovaries. redmaia. the drainage must be perfect. and consist of a three-toothed cup- shaped calj^x. flowers are of very similar form. any Palm used Hoivea helmoreana. acaulis. and P. untoothed. are covered with the bases of fallen leaves. from SouthEast Africa. Each plant bears flowers of one sex only but the . from Western Tropical Africa. and the leaves should be frequently sponged with with roots. by giving them liquid manure about once a week.



CHAM^ROPS PALMS 1873. Stem about 15 feet high. narrow. P. bush-like habit). panicled. Phcenix acaulis (stemless). greatly reduced in size. and rhops. leaf arching and spreading. male panicles fragrant. old specimens stout. P. the ground. chamai. The flowers are either unisexual or bisexual. spreading.. rough. The . Leaf -stalk (leaning). 6 inches to 30 feet high. and the pots plunged in a hot-bed high. They consist of similar parts as in those of Phoenix. East Indian Wine Palm. tenuis). DACTYLIFEEA (Date-bearing). to which a little sand has been added. Genus Chamcerops Cham^rops (Greek. bulbLeaves 1 to 3 feet long. pinnae opposite or alternate. RUPICOLA (rock-loving). Trunk from 6 Pinna? of leaves shorter. or loam and leaf -mould. Stem short. The directions given for the cultivation of the Curly Palm apply equally to this genus and some others. They are raised from seed sown in sandy soil. those near the base of the midrib are and more like spines. the pinnse slender. should be used. The seedlings are potted separately in small pots of sandy loam. Stem 40 feet Leaves grey-green. SPINOSA (spiny). and produced from the axils of the leaves. long. 1 to 2 feet long. Stem about 20 to 50 feet high. Leaves with somewhat triangular segments. some clustered. 12 feet or more long. canariensis (syn. the lower pinnae reduced to . sharp point. lance-shaped. P. -with fan-shaped leaves and prickly leaf-stalks. 6 to 18 inches long. finely tapering to a long. female spikes P. of : medium temperature. but in successive shifts turfy loam and peat. 619 P. RECLINATA dilated at base . flat spines. 6 to 9 inches long. on to their dwarf. Young plant CHAM^ROPS PALMS Natural Order Palm. lower ones spine-like. SYLVESTRis (of woods). 7 to 12 feet long. leaf -stalk brown.*. some scattered. Phoenix spinosa. P. is now abundantly planted in gardens and streets in South Europe and California. broad. introduced about twenty years ago from the Canary Islands. a bush: in allusion A genus of two species of gi-eenhouse Palms. Flowers white Trunk 50 feet or more high. thick. Leaves greyish. . but rarely exceeding 30 feet in this country. P. the Spiny Date Palm.

more hardy. . China. as the plants require abundant water throughout the summer. In addition to raising them from seeds. CHAM. being of still more recent date. and Japan. but more robust in all respects. The species are natives of North India. They have tall. mats. is equally essential. The only European representative of the Palmee. or dwarf and tufted ones. macrocarpa is confined to North Africa.EEOPS HUMILIS (dwarf). and T. Burmah. fruits are one-seeded berries the size of olives. Genus Trachycarpus and carpos. trachys. . blade slit Leaves glaucous. the longest known. they may be readil}^ propagated by means of the suckers which they produce. ropes. a native South Europe and North Africa. humilis is .620 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE G. The flowers are small and yellowish. These Palms are of recent introduction. These Palms like a rather stronger soil than Howea. with thick leathery spathes the fruit is small. A genus of three species of greenhouse Palms formerly included in Chamcerops. more round in general outline. Good drainage C. there is no midrib. from Himalaya. TRACHYCARPUS PALMS Natural Order Palm^e. erect segments. and the potting compost should consist chiefly of rich loam. the margins of the into a number of slender. on spiny-edged stalks. fruit). but in summer they may be planted out in protected situations. with the addition of a little leaf -mould or peat. Trachycarpus excelsa (Fortunei). On this often called the Hemp Palm. more or less globular oneseeded. excelsa is quite hardy in The coarse brown fibre obtained from the the South of England. . martiana. Similar to the last. yellowish. and sand. and with larger fruits. having been introduced from China and Japan only in 1844. decaying bases of the old leaves is turned to good account in China for a variety of purposes — such as making hats. and the leafstalks are free from spines. T. and the wet-weather dress (So-e) account it is of the agricultural labourer. solitary stems. They require to be grown in the greenhouse. Other species known as Chamcerojys arenow referred to Trachy carpus. rough. MACROCARPA (large-fruited). and was introduced in 1731 C. brushes. TRACHYCARPUS (Greek. but attaining a height of 20 feet in its native habitat. The leaves are terminal. Stem usually 4 to 6 feet of g in Britain.



T. Trunk 8 to 24 feet Principal Species. leaf -stalk 1^ Also known as foot long. 3^ feet wide and 2 feet long. 9 feet high.—32 ^^^ . general outline kidney-shaped. rich loam. leaf-mould and sand have been added. in older ones more orbicular. and is the hardiest known Palm. but more completely divided. to it should be protected little — if planted out —by means of mats. split up into a multitude of segments which are spread out like fingers (digitate). Trachycarpus a young plant. The flowers are three-parted. MARTIANA (Martius'). margins. with terminal fan-shaped leaves divided into numerous segments. Also known Trunk as Chamcerops excelsa and C. chiefly stove Palms. the The species are natives of Eastern Tropical Malay Archipelago. For young specimens iced in size. A genus of about fourteen species. and frequently having threads between them. Murray of Livingstone. finely toothed along the at the tips. Genus Livistona LivisTONA (named as a roundabout kind of honour to P. The bases of the leaf-stalks are buried in a mass of fibrous network. thatch. split at the apex. or straw. and Eastern Australia. Fortunei. and attached to branching spikes with several leathery spathes. near Edinburgh). about 5 inches thick. "high. hats. bound round the trunk. It soil The should otherwise be treated the same as directed for Ghainmrops. New Guinea. are best. fern.LIVISTONA PALMS 621 Trachycarpus excelsa (tall). which a should be a strong. the side segments shorter than the others. LIVISTONA PALMS Natural Order PALMJi. pot-culture. The leaves are commonly used in the manufacture of fans. Trachycarpus excelsa will resist as much as ten degrees of frost. In those Southern localities where low readings of the thermometer occasionally occur in winter. Asia. and usually with two teeth The leaf -stalks are 2 to 3 feet long. T. Leaves in young specimens oblong. containing both male and female organs (complete). umbrellas. 1| foot across. Livistona IV. etc. These Palms are very useful to the natives of the countries in which they grow. divided into many narrow segments. Plate 290. Leaves fan-shaped. considerably The footline is printed excelsus in error. the margins finely but irregularly toothed. excelsa. hhasyana.

giving them winter protection where Where the thermometer has too low a range to permit of necessary. from Eastern Australia. Leaves pale green. flat above. specimen in which the leaves have not yet attained the form usual in adults young specimens are most frequently grown for Description of : . humilis. their being permanently planted out. CHINENSIS (Chinese). shaped. they may at least be used for In potting sub-tropical effects during the hotter months of the year. The species named make hand- when young. from Tropical Australia. fan-shaped. wliich should be may sown in sandy soil. rounded beneath. is the most suitable post for these Palms. "high. Leaves fanTrunk 10 feet high. stout spines. L. and germinated on a hot -bed or in a Llvidona eJtinensis. the edges armed with L. . JENKINSIANA (Jenkins'). Bourbon Palm. mauritiana and Latania horbonica) was introduced from Southern China in 1818. Loam. chinensis (also Principal Species. The leaves of L. divided at the margin into numerous narrow. plaited. nearly circular. it is sufficiently hardy to endure the winter out of doors in South Cornwall. swollen at the base. Hoogendorpii was introduced from the Indian Archipelago in 1874. which must be given liberall}'. nearly round. them. and in favourable situations the older be planted out. armed with black spines throughout their length. plaited. where it attains a good height. plaited the margins deeply divided into slender. plaited segments. slightly keeled beneath. . dark brown. Trunk 80 feet ONA AUSTEALis (southem). L. the Bourbon Palm. A young Plate 291. flat above. introduced from Assam in 1845. . were both introduced in 1824. jenkinsiana. the edges armed with slightly recurved stout spines. wdiich hang down leaf -stalks 4 or 5 feet long. margins divided into numerous segments. Leaves dark green.622 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE known as L. have due regard for efficient drainage. HUMILIS (lowdy). Plate 291 (young specimen). australis. 5 feet across. leaf-stalks stout. and L. . Trunk 50 feet high. and in summer see that they never want for water. with metallic lustre. L. L. with a pot-plants little sand added. Leaves nearly round. 2 to 4 feet across margins divided into rather broad 6 to 30 feet high. plaited. furnish the material for the umbrella-like hats worn by the Assamese. leaf-stalks 2 to 10 feet long. They are propagated by means of imported seeds. Trunk segments. somewhat heart-shaped. drooping segments leaf-stalks with numerous spiny edges.



is of more recent inThe Cocoanut troduction. C. . was introduced to England in 1690 from the East Indies. about an inch broad and 1 to 2 feet long. waxy- ROMANZOFFIANA (Romanzoffs). Leaves spreading. glaucous beneath. pinnate. C. Stem stout and columnLeaves. consisting of a bony shell wrapped in a very thick The cocoanut is a familiar fibi'ous husk. a South American species. and is one of the most graceful of all Palms. C. u'cddeliana. . probably the most generally of useful of all plants.. plumosa. dark above. dates from 1846.. also from Brazil. gracefully curved. and containing a single seed. example. Trunk 8 feet high. The fruit is either eggshaped or elliptical. elegant and arching gracefully Plate 292. uses as there are days in the year. Cocos nucifera. G. glaucous beneath. schizophylla. monkey : in allusion to the nut of nucifera resembling a monkey's face). A genus of beautiful stove Palms. Cocos PLUMOSA . Leaves long. Leaves 1 to 4 feet long. of Central America. with plume-like leaves and trunks of considerable height. being found in Asia and Africa. 40 to 50 feet high. with long. Trunk slender. C nucifera. about forty years ago. (feathery). drooping pinnae. COCOS PALMS COCOS PALMS Natural Order Fau. Although growing freely along the coasts of most tropical countries. was introduced in 182. however.ije. It is said to have as many C. C. Genus Cocos end of the Cocos (Portuguese. . clothed with black. SCHIZOPHYLLA (cut-leaved). it Brentford. It does not succeed in this country so well as It is several other species of the genus. C. The flowers are similar to those of the genera already described. coco. and supplies the natives some of the countries where grows with almost all they require. . . but the sexes are separate and borne on different trees.5. was fruited in the gardens of the Duke of Northumberland at Syon. a Brazilian species. netted fibres. in large drooping clusters. Native of Brazil. WEDDELTAXA (Weddel's). arched. from 3 to 15 feet long. the pinnae clustered. the Cocoanut Palm. its native home is not known but it is believed to have spread originally from the West coast : . looking. 6 feet long pinnae 2 feet long with a broad terminal lobe leafstalk with red spines along the red margins. They are natives of the Tropical Kegions of America one. pinnae long and slender. like enormous ostrich Flowei-s plumes.

and the West Indies. a young specimen. the females on a simple one. The male and female flowers are on diflerent plants (dicecious): the males on a clustered. known as Leopoldinia pulchra and Glaziova These Palms are not so nearly hardy as previously scribed genera. or simple.. Weddel's The great Palm order comprises about one hundred and thirty genera and eleven hundred species. oblong. chiefly trees and shrubs. whilst a few species are scattered over Asia. Pandanus (derived from Pandang. Description of Plate 292. although the value of many of the Palms for decorative gardening has resulted in their increased popularity. Tropical Australia. elegantissima. forming dense tufts or crowns. leathery. In this country their place is more distinctly in the stove. and the Seychelles. Leaves long and slender. They are in great request for the decoration of dwelling-rooms and the dinner-table. These leaves are arranged in three spiral series towards the ends of the branches. The headquarters of the genus are in the islands of the Malay Archipelago. and therefore not so suited for placing outside in summer. . SCPvEW PINES Natural Order Pandane^e. Fruit globular. unbranched trunks. the Mascarenes. They are usually trees with erect. A mixture of loam and peat should be used for C. Africa. sheathing at the base the edges and midrib armed with innumerable sharp. 624 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Also young specimen. but where so employed they should be frequently changed. Many of them are in cultivation in European gardens. or cylindrical. bearing heads of leaves which are either palmate. fresh and healthy. The Screw Pines are so called not because they have either relationship or resemblance to the true Pines (Pinus. weddeliana the others thrive in loam and sand. chiefly tropical. Trunk unbranched. Oceania. branched spadix. the Malayan name A genus of about eighty species of stove plants. Good drainage. Palm . and a few herbs. Cocos tveddeliana. about four hundred species being represented at Kew. forking. to be gradually reduced as winter approaches. or with spreading branches. Only a few of the best known genera could be mentioned here. sword-shaped. Genus Pandanus of these plants). curved prickles. plumose. so that an early return to the stove will enable them to keep . is again the rule. and abundant water in summer.



greenish red above. and with spiny margins. variegatus is The striped with white . Leaves P. 1868 . somewhat glaucous beneath midrib beneath. P. dark green. 14 feet high. was introduced from the East Indies in 1771. Candelabrum. conoideus. 1875. Singapore. whose male flowers yield a fragrance which Dr. dense. and because of their large pine-apple-like fruits. 1878 . Leaves broad. about 3 feet long. edges armed with short white var. from Guinea in 1826 1865 . Leaves bright green. New New . from the Philippines. from P. 4 to 5 feet long and 3 inches wide. P.. long. coppery beneath. P. Most of the . Leaves inclined to become two-ranked. from India in . Trunk branching freely. 1^ to 2 feet long. P. Among them we may mention P. P. 1868 P. from Bengal. Caledonia. 20 feet high. Trunk feet high. 1866 . Java. '30 Pandanus Candelabrum. dark and shining above. Leaves two-ranked. Leaves dark . terminating in a long point. Pancheri (Pancher's). sending down numerous branch-like roots. 3 feet long and 2 inches wide edges armed with brown spines. glaucescens. glaucous. prostrate. 3 to 6 feet long. arching. in drooping tufts at the ends of the short branches. from . with spiny margin and keel. minor. Houlletii. P. from base to tip. which seek the earth and become stout and stem-like the trunk thus appears to have several props to keep it from falling. the richest and most powerful perfume that he knew. Plant herbaceous. with smooth keel and spiny margins and ridges.— 33 . from . Leaves tufted. Pandanus odoratissivius. heterocarpus. 1878 etc. Roxburgh declared was of the leaves on the stem. and ending in a very long. HETEROCAEPUS (differing fruit). Pancheri. P. 1872 Caledonia. .). spines P. GLAUCESCENS (somewhat glaucous). Stem slender. Leaves 3 to 5 feet long and 2 inches wide IV. 625 but because the spiny leaves somewhat resemble those of the Pine-Apple (Ananassa). Veitchii. This is more in request than the type. keeled. slender point. from Polynesia. green. and the spines are white.: SCREW PINES etc. P. Chandelier Tree. ODORATissiMA (most fragrant). species in cultivation in British stoves are of recent introduction. A . The prefix Screw has reference to the spiral arrangement very singular effect is caused by their production of adventitious roots from various parts of the trunk. MINOR (lesser). spreading. . about P. Stem slender. but more or less P. edges armed with white spines. and margins armed with short white spines. 3 to 5 feet long. which give the tree a certain resemblance to a chandelier. Houlletii (Houllet's). CONOIDEUS (somewhat conical).

UTiLis (useful). and this has the effect of forcing the plant up out of They are propagated from seeds. Stem light-coloured. Stem branched. Leaves glaucous. Plate 293. The flowers are borne upon a stout spadix. but the pot if small sizes are used. allied to the Arum. A^EITCHI (Veitch's). one-half the CALADIUMS Natural Order Aroide^. erect. In 1 to 3 feet long. A and richly coloured. Leaves about 2 feet long. Veitchi. The upper part strikingly . 2 to 3 feet long. Description of Plate 293. arching and bending over when full grown longitudinally striped with pure white and deep bright green edges armed with soft spiny teeth. but wrongly. 20 feet P. Pandanus natural size. with prominent. 5 or G inches thick. : go straight down. armed with sharp red spines gardens this is often called P. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE margins spiny-toothed . but in winter they must be kept fairly dry. Leaves glaucous. and not watered overhead. Yeitch's Screw Pine. to which should be added a little charcoal. stiff. lower part of keel reddish and strongly feet high. for the plants require much water during the summer. more or less arrow-head-shaped. The leaves are borne upon long footstalks. spiny. P. their cultivation is simple »ve temperature enough. which is partly covered by a hood-like spathe. on which account several species are cultivated in the Tropics to be used as food. spiny margins. and chiefly remarkable for their ornamental foliage. They have tuberous rootstocks rich in starch. separately potted. Ventenat). and are somewhat oval. The pots must be well-drained. The pots used should be large. The chief requirement in growing Screw Pines is the given that. These young plants so obtained make the most ornamental subjects for decorative purposes. and thick. spiny-toothed.626 keeled . and often author. . red midrib. for the roots always P. . odoratissimus. should be detached with a sharp knife. These chiefly from the suckers and offsets that grow round the base. more or less erect. . Vaxdermeeschii (Vandermeesch's). red. 60 high. nearly 2 inches broad. and kept almost dry in a close propagating frame until well-rooted. They prefer a compost of about two parts sandy loam with one part leaf-mould. Genus Caladiiim its Caladium (the moaning of this word has not been explained by genus of stove perennials.



blotched with white and margined with dark green. Cultivation. . indeed. Chantini (Chantin's). RUBRO-VENIUM (red-veined). Kochii. greyish towards C. spotted with bright red. G. and 1862 G. Leaves with white midrib. Leaves bright crimson. G. and pink. Leopoldi. Very few species. Caladium akgyrites (silvery). G. and the intermediate They are natives portion is covered by blunt glands or sterile stamens. green. from " South America " in 1820 C. devosianum (Devosie's). One of the smallest . Caladiums were introduced during the eighteenth century. veins red. Leaves green. Versciiaffeltii (Verschaffelt Leaves bright green.CALADIUMS of the spadix . blotched s). Wallisii Leaves dark olive. maculatum. Chantini. the centre and margins white. MACULATUM centre. (spotted). These are principally the progeny of C. blotched with white C. of so many. Leaves green. Leaves green. C. marbled with red C. hicolor hicolor crossed with other was introduced from Brazil in 1773. blotched C. . 1864 G. devosianum. is entirely covered with stamens. and pink. and spotted and blotched with white. C. 1863 G. Also known as G. BICOLOR (two-coloured). G. C. with red. of the genus. spotted with white. 1864. with yellownsh white veins. Rongieri. C. Hardii. Wallisii. Leaves green. Several cultivation in this country. 627 whose anthers are shieldshaped the lower part bears the two-celled ovaries. C. with white. . and G. Leopoldi (Prince Leopold's). ' ground colour Leaves 4 inches long light green. blotched with greenish white. Principal Species. from Para in 1858. of Tropical America. the list receiving additions every year. SANGUiNOLENTUM (bloody). 0. C. — . Humholdtii. 1864. Gannartii. Leaves large. irregularly blotched with white. Leaves 1^ foot long. Kochii (Koch's). G. macrophylhim. Leav^es green. but they are not now to be found in now grown. rubro-venium were all introduced from Para in the same year —whence also came G. their which there are species. argy rites and C. spotted with white. MACROPHYLLUM (large-leavcd). In the exceedingly numerous hybrid varieties all the (Wallis'). of any sort are place being taken by the more beautiful hybrids. pale green. C.

and 3 a female enlarged. A genus of seven species of greenhouse or stove perennials with Ccdadium-like rhizomes. ^jth the spathe. together ARUM RiCHARDiA (named in LILIES Genus Richardia. showing the spadix 2 is a male flower. marbling. stout stalks. the upper part of which is covered with the yellow anthers the pitcher-shaped ovaries cluster round the lower end. must be kept in a hot. Caladium hicolor. In February. and every shade of red. the stove until the leaves are fully developed will not long endure the their foliage is of such a dry air of living rooms. The species are natives of South Africa . moist stove. several may be planted together in the same pot. not required. When they have developed one or two leaves. violet. and arrow-shaped or halbertshaped leaves on long. and any offsets removed for purposes of propagation. and plunged in a hot-bed with a temperature of about 80'. When the leaves fade. thick spadix. few-seeded berries. or. . Description of Plate 294. C. and leaf- mould in equal parts. who lived 1754-1821). if large specimens are drainage must be ensured. sand. their habitat. and yellow is produced in irregular be blotches. marshes and river-sides. with a little poAvdered charcoal added. one-celled. the pots should be placed under a stage in a stove. they should be potted into larger pots. They should be planted singly in small pots of light sandy soil.: 628 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE blotches will above-named marblings and with greater richness of colour and brilliance. as Caladiums are all swamp plants. which are sheathing at the base. pink. varieties of leaf coloration. Natural Order Aroide^. Fig. and each one is surrounded by barren stamens. In some the green has almost disappeared. found repeated with the veins. texture that it and sometimes in lines and stripes parallel Caladiwins must be kept in the humid atmosphere of . carefully cleaned. Richard. the best points of each species being intensified. small spots. and generally suffer if kept dry. The flowers are borne upon a long. honour of L. . The whole of this column of flowers is closed round by the pure white The fruits are spathe. 1 is a section through the spathe. They and shaded from bright sunshine. which is flattened and bent backwards above. They Good succeed best in a compost of loam. the tubers should be shaken out of the old soil. but water must be given now and then. watering them liberally. well-rotted manure. a French botanist.



and. R. Spathe white. .^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ajthiopica. Rehmanni the two first are the popular yellow Gallas. hastata are also coming into favour. They are very easy to manage. africana. Pentlandii. Leaves similar to those of R. shaped. with a rosy tinge spring. In Cornwall they are commonly grown outside throughout the year. summer. melanoleuca. less open above than in R. ' . albo-maculata and R. without spots. viz. . There is a large-flowered variety called grandifiora. Plate 295. A Requires stove treatment. hastata (halberd-shaped). pointed blade summer. . hastata were introduced Within the in 1859. require but slight protection where serious frosts are not the rule. about the base of the spadix R. Spathe greenish white. and R. spearR. Leaves arrow-shaped. Richardia africana (African). africana is the species most widely grown. with a somewhat bell-shaped tube and long. Richardias delight in a rich soil with plenty of moisture. africana. called Little Gem. small species with erect. (ifrimna: about 2 feet high. bright green. R. . ELLioriAXA (Elliot's). Greenhouse. leaves large. Spadix bright yellow. Leaves more elongate than in it. Spathes small. in Natal said to be in England they are white. R . the petioles tinged with pui-ple spathes like those of R. albo-maculata (white-spotted). . and a form much smaller than the type in all its parts. and coloured a rich canary yellow. . which run parallel with the veins. with a purple stain . Rehmanni (Rehmann's). — . R. and ten years later a fourth R. green with silvery blotches spathes nearly as large as those of it. albo-maculata and R. ARUM LILIES 629 Richardia africana was introduced from the Cape of History. lance- shaped rose-coloured with grey. Two other species R. spring. and with translucent white blotches. species last seven years three new R. Pentlandii (Pentland's). deep green. but urn-shaped. R. leaves. though R. . under which name it is still known in many gardens and in trade lists. and the third is the rose-coloured Calla. rolled round below. leaves large. but coloured a rich canary yellow. but fully expanded and curved back above. africana. spring. have been introduced. though it has long been removed from the genus Calla. Tuber potato-like. africana. entirely covered with flowers spring and summer 2 feet high. Requires stove treatment. elliotiana. except the two tropical species.— — . Spathe greenish yellow. ^^^^^ ^^^^ . on shorter stalks. Tuber potato-like. Lily of the Nile i Arum Lily Trumpet Lily. spearshaped. mottled .

( l. wheie they sliouJrl ha\c a position fully exposed to the licrht. and replacino them in the cool greenhouse. if it is desired to increase the stock. the ottVets n»ay be separated.p.r . lullusinu tnlhr ANTUrRirM((. ... and this <.u.... Give water freely durini^ the summer.bA.mts.i~> heen heavil}' manured.a. and thus allow the plants to feed and ripen: pottincj them aj^ain early in October./„/. .-nh.n\ u st-pai. and ^\ ill give earlier flowers. of a lake or^^hilst ho^\n sepaiately and enlarge«l in Fig the upper an is velloNN X-)ortion overed with anthers. One of thes. i .„. R ap'uatui succeeds when planted in shallow Axater by the side aie sometimes ^ery attenti\e to Ihchnrdid^. The XNhite \ ello^v col mm 1 the spadix... p. 2..vmnaK ^^UuU <\\\\W . the Ai urn Lily or the spathe the 1 Description of Ruhnrdxt trumpet is Trumpet Ldy 3nes.. into a specially prepared bed that li. Muus Fr„fhinchl and Jl elhofuHHi should be oro\\u dfriro >h'.. 7?. In repottino.uul -w^w tnil: form of the spadix).l be tlie soil lake 1 too rich lor these pl... A ^.K\ x\ND GRE not cas} to :N HOUSE 'rl-2° to lall Tar belo V is i tlu-y slioul...k .. {\u jilants should be turned outside. but ^\e thiid< a and nnist be hunted out.ri.Mlaiuin^ al.. they attack the tender.them.' ( nlaig.Ur._of. u ! lary course. and entirely spoil them.. After flowering'.1 pfh i' ry> . Imt Miual found to cause ma_\ be suit tlu'Ui a<liuirc little tlu'Ui to stait olo^^th sooner tlian loam will be warmth c irlyin the year ^^ ill in th the inFig one of the green ovaries from the base tiguud FLAMINGO FLOWERS Natural Order Aijoidtm:. loUed-up young h>a\(^s. d is sh.^ius .mr a hu id red ami sixty .^oo(l ea^ly maintained.

as far back as 1853. whence also came the splendid A. Andre into Europe. such as A. green. tlir nerves margined by a band of dark velvety green on each side. SPLENDIDUM (splendid). scherzerianum it does not flower so freely. AnthuriarnH are a . Other species have since been introduced. In one point this species does not excel A. a native of Columbia. • ... but in 1876 A. . with central band 3 inches long. acaide. Andre thought he was looking at a bird of the genus Loxia. or clinging to tlie trunks. most ol tlic species to he seen hi our planthouses . scherzerianum had kept the premier position in the genus for showiness. Bakeri. of white ." • n having heen introduced witliiu the last forty years. scHERZERL\xr. . came in 1869. regale from Peru. in 1872.M ( Sclier/. from Costa Rica. in 185:1 But these may now be regarded as old-fashioned representatives of the genus. LINDENIANUM (Linden's). and blistered. Spadix yellcnv. Jose Triana. popular name. orange-red. omatum. insigne. Leaves oblong-lance-shaped. spear-shaped. . was introduced by M. leathery. History. as usual. not curved back. In 18G6 were introduced A. andreanuni Anthurium axdreaxu. a great number of varieties and hybrids have been produced within the last dozen years. A. Spathe the tip thrown forward to slightly protect the white or pur])lis]i spadix fragrant. Leaves h«'art-sliapiTl. from the West Indies. and not a few of these are the partial offspring of A.n es roundish-heart-shaped. and A. . FLAMINGO FLOWERS epipliytes in the forks of trees.m. . scherzeHanum depicted in our plate. and A. Walujewi. A.m (Andre's). S})athe heart-shaped. Li . from Columbia in 1881 A. plants. So like are the turned-back spathe and the curved spadix to the back and neck of a brilliant-hued bird. lindenianum from Columbia. In addition. ^ .1.listinctlv modern class of cultivated . 12 to There are several \ ari. 631 They are all natives of Tropical America. discovered by Dr. and A. Up to this period A. corru- gated. andreanum. Plate 296. when he came across the first plant.. Leaves bright : . that M.tics iu eulti\ati. October. A. splendidum in 1882. suhsignatum was introduced in 1861 from Costa Rica. from Venezuela. Authurnon Hookeri was imported from Tro^ncal America as far ])ack as 1840. whilst the intervening spaces are of a pale yellowi. white. from Venezuela in 1880 A. ])ut : green. 3 to 9 inches long.i"s ).

the Flamingo Flower. . Propagation is most readily effected by pulling the crowns carefully apart in January. magnijicuin. To tliese the charcoal and crocks should be added in small quantity. a single stamen.632 A. raised from seed. 1 is a flower separated from the spadix 2. afterwards changing to a metallic olive-green. A and ^eitoii. Veitchii are magnificent foliage plants. There is a large collection of species of stove Anthurium at Kew. warocqueanum. . the most conspicuous part of the inflorescence being a double row of large white. allusion to the habitat). what would be medium stove heat between 60° and 70° will suit them. neighbour in about twenty species of stove. but it is a long and tedious process. A. A. Anthuriiim scherzerianum. : on a stout scape. charcoal. A. combined with a humid atmosphere. Fig. erect or floating leaves. with tuberous roots. the base of which are the true flowers. and A. Leaves broad. Anthurmms high called require are treatment. grande. pink. silver sand. At first tlie entire inflorescence is enclosed in a tapering spatlie. of course. heart-shaped.silver sand h. The best soil in which to pot them is a miscellaneous mixture of lumps of fibrous peat. as a kind of seasoning. The flowers are borne in spikes. at These are quite without calyx or corolla. : — — These should be associated in the following proportions peat 4. or hardy aquatic herbs. sphagnum 1. Hybrids are. and the plant should be so inserted of earth about 3 inches above the rim of the pot. Description of Plate 296. and separately potting them. . loam 2. and consist of from six to eighteen stamens surrounding from four to six distinct carpels. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Walujewi (Walujew's). solitary or twin. The drainage should be of the that its crown stands on a cone CAPE POND-WEED Natural Order NaiadacE/E. or violet bracts. . water. sphagnum moss. 12 or 14 inches long. each with its short curved style and simple stigma. best. though very temperatures unnecessary. Plant and leaves gi-eatly reduced flowers reduced onethird. Genus Ajwnogeton Aponogeton (said to be Celtic. oblong or very narrow. a section of the same 3. genus of greenliouse. and a few broken crocks. Give plenty of water at the roots. bright reddish crimson when young. and frequently syringe. turfy loam. . «^o??.



the roots may burst it open and allow them free exit to the surrounding soil. After the fertilisation of the tint. the Leaves. size. a vertical section of a fruit. Aponogeton distachyum (two-spiked). Leaves oblong.Weed. and rhizome. grown then repotted with the compost men- After this is effected the plant will rapidly increase. it should be potted in a compost of sandy loam and rotted cow-manure. Plate 297. and the whole carefully sunk. among w^hich the large. Each contains about four seeds. 1 is a separated bract. showing a seed within of the same. and look like tufts of leaves. 3 . and falling off of the stamens . has the two edges rolled inwards. jointless. forked bracts white. . Ls (the old Genus Cyperus Greek name for these plants). Leaves with bicsal sheaths . The species are natives of Tropical and Temperate Asia. the plant should first be tank until quite established. crack it. Aponogeton distachyum.CYPERUSES which is 633 forced off as the bracts develop. If desired to pond — that if it is to be grown in a pond. tioned. Africa. like Hawthorn. can get its roots well into the bed of the For a small tank or aquarium. long-stalked. the bracts assume a deep green grow large. a a CYPERUSES Natural Or<ler Cvperace^. roseum in which the bracts are rosy -tinted. There is a var. . naturalise in a it in a larger piece of water. Cultivation is a very simple affair with it it. Introduced from the Cape of Good Hope. spikes shapcd. showing two seeds cut through. Fig. so that the growth of of the pot. lanceFlowers fragrant. The Cape ' Pond. 1788. oval anthers purplish. the usual condition when immature. Agenus of about sever d species of Rush-like or Grass-like perennial (rarely annual ivuth three-sided. Hardy. well mixed. All that is necessary is to give it a good start until is. flowers. floating. flowers. is 4. and the ripe seeds fall to the bottom and germinate. natural Cape Pond. with a clear foot of water above the rim Before immersing the pot. The lower leaf . and sunk into the mud. beaked carpels will be found. In some parts of the country this beautiful pondweed has been naturalised in lakes and large ponds.Weed or Water Hawthorn. and Australia. solid stems. Description of Plate 297. I 5. with its stamens and carpels 2 is the same after fertilisation of the carpels single seed .

Few — — i i -.634 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE split. daik giccn. yield tubers which are roasted and eaten C. though rarely. Others. The species of which two occur. a one-celled ovary with two or three stigmas. the 1)1 uks 1 dhng b ick giacetull> fiom the summit oi the stem in of the species of . and the whole subjected to piessuie. which latter is the case in this genus. which are not which are as in the Grasses. ciossmg them. or panicles. The flowers are somewhat similar to those of the Grasses. which develops into a three-sided nut. was introduced from Egypt in 1803. . Cyperus have any interest for horticulturists. or may be There are one. is said to have tonic properties. though in various other ways the genus has value. two. This is the plant whose pith was used to make the earliest form of paper papyrus which was made in a very simple manner by cutting the pith in slices and laying a numbei of tliem \\ith then edges touching. i should be i)ott(. or Galingale. entirely absent. in Britain are distributed over all the warmer parts of — — the earth. is represented in this Order by a few minute scales or bristles. in turn They are arranged in compressed spikelets grouped in heads. tlien sluaths one in anothei lound the stem. which united it into <i compact sheet. alternifoliiLs was introduced from Madagascar in 1781. another lajei was laid upon these. The flowers proper are found in the axils of keeled. the Egyptian Paper Reed. one of the British species. or three stamens. 1 foot to 2' feet high leaves arc \ci\ loiii^ lud naiiow. umbels. £ m i ^ t The iiumtion^ elect. esculentus of Southern Europe. The succulent roots yield a mucilage which has been used medicinally. such as the C. concave bracts (glumes).' . C. Stems C\PLRL> VLTLKMiOLTUs (alternate -ka\ ed) Pnncipal Species rri ^ . Papyrus. and that of Cyperns longus. The perianth of which there are always two rows in the spikelet.



and tlie style is cleft itito two or tlncc ( >s'. Genus Scirpus SciRPUS (the old Latin name). branch of the inflorescence bearing five spikelets. This difference of form (seen by comparing the Figs. 2 is a flower separated from the spikelet. and consisting of the boat-shaped glume within which. Description of Plate 298. and jointed at the base. the pot should be plunged beneath the water. Papyrus should be grown in a large pot the pot then stood in a tub that is ever filled with filled with rich loam Wliere there is a conservatory tank for the growth of aquatics. //. . it should be removed indoors and kept free from frost. or absent altogether they are either very long. . and is very effective C. Fig. Cyperils alfernifolius. margin of lake or stream. so that it falls off when its work is done. They grow naturally in marshy places and on the margins C. but differ chielly in the plants. 1 is a CLUB RUSHES Natural Order Cyperace^. G. Or the Papyrus may be planted in a basket of heavy loam.CLUB RUSHES 635 been added. and attached to its broad end. There are three stamens. Papyrus is propagated by dividing the thick. water. but . size. are the pistil and three stamens. or by means of seeds sown in pans of sandy loam. according to the season. including it will be found in the shape of from tlnve to eiglit ]>rist]es below tlie ovary. instead of on two sidrs only thuuiih tliis nrraugenient Tli.iv is no representaticm will be found in one section of tlie genus). and raised in gentle heat. Sometime in September or early in October. of rivers they consequently require plenty of water in cultivation.«/ /•/ Init in most eases of the perianth in some species. The other species may be increased by dividing the crowns. or hardy annual or perennial acpiatics and marsh They are closely allied to Cyinrus. (litem i/oliiiji will do well as an indoor window plant. underground rhizomes. upper part of stems. longus would succeed better planted out on the for table decoration. the Alternate-leaved Cyperus. which are produced from the side of the stem. not dry. 1 on Plates 298 and 299) is due to the nttaclunent of the glumes all round the stalk. The plants have a creeping rootstock. natural Fig. and lobes . creeping. and the few lea\es are at the base of the stem.s-. gieenhouse. A genus of about three hundred species of stove. C. and about the end of May this can be immersed in any piece of ornamental water outside where it will get plenty of sunshine. spikelets being usually clustered into oval lieads. small. /•/'.

LACUSTRis (inhabiting lakes or pools). long and strap-shaped in streams. (bristly). It is known S. Native Also known as Isolepis setacea. a single glume detached. from its size. in tufts. rounded. . S. crowded There is a variety variegatus. for planting at the edge of water out of doors. in trade lists as Isolepis gracilis. into Spikelets minute. round. more suitable size. spongy. 1820. . bristly. The species are of world-wide distribution fourteen British. 2 to 3 feet high. ripariiis. perennial. 636 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE . erect. Plate 299. 2. Stems 1 to 8 S. nearly round. oval. flat. stale. S. and keeled if growing in still water. but this must not be allowed to become : >s'. Stems thread-like. l)ut when present. rigid. PrincipalSpecies. grass-like. FEATHER . or they will do well in peat. Bulrush. flower-stem. Stems numerous. channeled. rounded. tapering. 3. and the best substitute for it in cultivation is a mixture of loam aiul IfuL-iiuiuld. Scirpiis ripariiis. Native perennial. massed in one or two oval spikelets. Spikelets red-brown. Spikelets one to three. RiPARius (riverside). SETACEUS to 6 inches high. SciRPUS HOLOSCHCENUS (whole-cord). as is frequently the rijHiriu^i. Australia. hivaatris is. except sometimes an imperfect short leaf at the base. an inch thick. 8 inches long. flower-stem witli two spikelets . or reduced to mere sheaths closely investing the stem. Leaves usually absent feet high. Whole plant similar to S. Where there is a tank. with stamens and pistil . the pots may be stood in the water. drooping leafless. it is advisable to stand the flower-pot in a saucer easv with ill whieli water may be poured.. Stems stout. Description of Plate 299. short. The flowers are terminal. natural Fig. half"erect. with rough margins. They require plenty of ^\ atcr an<l when grown in hanging baskets or vases. channeled. 1. one-sided. with compact globular cymes. Leaves few. in a spreading terminal Lyme. wliitish zones around the stem this is the form chiefly cultivated. ending in single spikelet. These plants grow naturally in a boggy soil. 3 Leaves short and narrow. or a fountain-basin.



mostly erect. S. has been grown in English gardens for hundreds of years. Pennisetum (Latin. and Fig 2. keeled glumes. Flowers in a loose. It is a continental and therefore likely to have been introduced at a very early date. Stipa elegantissima (most elegant). with long plumose awns from the glumes. The cultivation of this genus scarcely needs any species. S. downy. S. gigantea from Spain. It was certainly grown here three hundred years ago. natural size. of which the two outer ones are empty. for Gerard tells us the ladies of his day employed the flowers in lieu of feathers. The flowers are arranged in terminal panicles. in spring. 3 feet high. but . bristly. and the others do well in the border outside in almost found to flourish most in those that are dry and sandy. spike. Principal Species. juncea was introduced from France in 1772. PENNISETUM GRASSES 637 one side rolled within the other (convolute). 1. They are natives of the Tropical and Temperate Regions. a spikelet with its awns. wide-spreading panicle. "'erect.S'. grooved. leaf a Stipa pennata. glumes awl-shaped. elegantissima makes a graceful pot-plant for will be the greenhouse. Pennisetum longistylum. and few of them have been introduced for horticultural purposes. GIGANTEA (gigantic). 2 or 3 feet high. Genus Pennisetum and seta. Stems. pennata either by dividing the flowers root. the Feather Grass. natural size. any garden soil . and 8. a bristle). Leaves slender. . Stipa pennata. each spikelet containing three narrow. the inner ones feathered genus of The flowers have a A . S. Plate 300a. Stems numerous. B. Fig. Feather Grass. PENNATA (winged or plumed). 1823. Feather only. PENNISETUM GRASSES Natural Order Gramine^. Grasses. five times longer than the glumes. and branching. single spikelet with its awn. Description of Plate 300. Leaves rigid. nment. Stems numerous. 6 or 8 inches long. double involucre consisting of many bristles. 2 feet high. Flowers in a loose panicle. penna. awns slightly zigzag. the middle one containing the flower. or by sowing seeds A. about forty species of (mostly) gi-eenhouse grasses. Panicle long and slender awns about a foot long. feathered to the point.. There is nothing attractive about this plant They may be propagated until the long feathered awns are developed. a feather.

Leaves long and P. Perennial.i.ui ^pcci. in 1817 P.sum. flo\M 1 p inn lis tlu spike lets oi u Inch iie Uvoflowcicd. PAMPAS GRASS Gwnu M ((. but planting them in rich. and take up the roots on the approach of winter. and twenty years ago P. 3 to 4 feet high. purplish.s o^ pticnnid Gliosis distinguished b^\ then sliOM}. smooth or hairy. with a whitish line along the centre. sdo. The chief reason for this consists in the destruction of the plants by our winters. P. SETOSUM (bristly). Pennlsetum latjfolium IS i (broad-leaved). Good Hope one hundred .u I iu> dc u\<]finn} A\ ool ui allusion to the g^nus oL thu l 01 l. from Monte Video. 6 inches Most of the species grown in annuals. in 1820. but in some favoured districts they survive outdoors protection.. Flowers in dense plumy spikes. August. is well-dug borders. in 1869.ik >/y. spreading. P. two They are natives of Tropical and Sub-tropical Regions. Flowers in bushy nodding spikes. cenchroides Fe%Y of them are in cultivation. though of was introduced from the Cape . P. storing them in a safe place. P. 10 feet high. It is also quite possible to if given a little grow them outside during the summer. 9 or slender. They are not particular as to soil. Flowers in oval. Leaves slender. P. latlfoUum. plumy spikes . chiefly African. Stems stout. longistylum generally treated as though it were a half-hardy annual. Perennial. Leaves broadlance-shaped. Plate 300b. LONGISTYLUM (long-styled). from Australia.638 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE to four in a spikelet. and the sexes on distinct pi mts ^Jluv aic nitucs oi Tiopicd and Sub-tiopicil Amtuci ^^ooll> stigiuis) A I tlu Hoy ilDotinicGi il nie of the plants disti . the seed being this country are treated sown in spring. Stems 2 feet liigh. comprcsswm. brings out the best that is in them. purple. lonrjistylum Prin is a native of Abyssinia. cane-like. Stems erect. from Brazil.

subtripinnatiitn .PRICKLY SHIELD-FERN ACULEATUM {B) var.


which will have the effect of setting off its general lightness of colour. Leaves very narrow. arching and curling. and in well-developed tufts. forty established.k. Where obtainable. panicles of a purplish or a yellowish tint. Flowers in dense silky. with sharp-toothed edges. The most congenial soil for it is light and sandy. where they will need protection during their first winter. glaucous. sown under glass in a moist atmosphere. Ordinarily the panicles are silveiy greyish white in colour. but there are varieties with the . Stems 8 to 12 feet or lifty springing from one well-grown plant. Genus Ph^aris . During the period of growth water must be given freely. 5 or 6 feet through. or for a deep border backed by a shrubbery or plantation. those vast dry plains of Argentina. constitutes a splendid addition abundance on the Pampas. as the seedlings.RIBBON GRASS AND CANARY GRASS now widely cultivated throughout Britain and Europe. 639 when grown crowned by the enormous its silvery plumes rising to 10 or 12 feet high. treatment. In order to preserve the plumes for indoor decoration. It is a good subject for the centre of a lawn. it should be given a roomy central position where it can develop its full proportions symmetrically. enriched with stable manure. AR(iENTELTM (silvcry). it is best to plant divisions from mature specimens. plumy panicles. they should be cut soon after they have fully expanded. In most parts of this country it has proved sufficiently hardy to withstand ordinary winters to any garden. It obtains its popular name from out of doors. if possible. erect stalks September. Seeds should be and the seedlings grown on in pots until large enough to plant outside. will not flower until about four years old. RIBBON GPwVSS AND CANARY GRASS Natural Order Guamixe. Principal Species when once well Gyxerium ligh. Pampas Grass should be planted with an eye fact that it to the foliage will become a large mass of graceful plumes and. about 6 feet long. even with liberal and silver . supported on stout.

FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE There are three stamens and a smooth ovary. Stems 1 to 3 feet high. whose fruit is the familiar Canary seed so popular as a food for the smaller cage-birds. July. arundinacea. and are useful for interspersing among cut flowers. Leaves flat. reed-like leaves becomes more or less reduced in the cultivated variety to longitudinal stripes of green upon a ground of pinkish white or creamy white. Spikelets round. upper part of stems. . the Ribbon Description of Plate 301. with in allusion to the many-flowered. separated. Of the two species of Phalaris cultivated. | inch broad. erect. Grass. to be drowsy: heads). The flowering glumes sheathe or overlap each other. drooping. somewhat rough. for which purpose the leafy stems of Ribbon Grass are much in request. oval or heart-shaped spikelets in loose panicles. Fig. Annual. A well-established clump will bear considerable cutting in this way. Plate 301. Its flower-panicles are very distinct among grasses. P. found on the margins of lakes and rivers. Either of these plants will do well in almost any garden soil. The natural green of the broad. They are natives of the Tropical and Temperate Regions. The other is a South European species. in a compact oval or nearly cylindrical panicle empty glumes with broad wings and green keel. QUAKING GRASS Natural Order Gramine^. ' lance-shaped. purplish. stout and erect. variegata. 1 is a spikelet removed. and are boat-shaped. canariensis is raised from seed sown in the border in spring. Genus Briza Briza (Greek. Stems 3 to 6 feet Leaves high. var. elongated panicle. July and August. Spikelets oval. arundinacea forms large masses by means of its creeping rootstocks. is a native. > flowers. from a creeping rootstock. hHzo. with leaves alternately striped green and white. is well known in gardens under the names of Ribbon Grass and Lady's Garters. glaucous. A genus of about ten species nodding of its of hardy ornamental grasses. Phalaris arundinacea (Reed-like). variegata. one. with flower panicle. 2 is the same. in a short-branched Perennial. P. CANARiENSis (Ganary). Phalaris arundinacea. upper sheaths inflated. The var. with the two empty glumes . P. P. flat. Propagation of this species is readily efiected by dividing the mass. Canary Grass. with long styles and feathery stigmas.



Bkiza maxima . Leaves slender. for the sake of its ever-trembling spikelets. and broader than long. to make into bouquets with Immortelles. Principal Species. There are three stamens. Asia. Annual. Perennial. The species are natives of the Temperate Regions of Europe. Annual. B.. Quake Grass. and the panicle itself nodding at its extremity June and July. and thoroughly dried in the shade. and the stigmas feathery. '* . ROTUNDATA (round). and has continued to be most in favour for horticultural purposes. erect. Therefore they were probably But in the year 1633 the large-flowered cultivated in gardens at times. MINOR (smallest). Ten years ago there was introduced from Brazil an annual species named B. is much more restricted in its range is. in fact. These have doubtless always been gathered to give lightness to the posy of wild flowers. they should be planted in a compost containing loam.— 37 . heart-shaped. but preferably in autumn. Stems tufted. first of the flowering glumes B. Where it is desired to make use of the panicles for winter decoration. these should be cut as soon as the spikelets are well formed and hanging gracefully. Plate 302a. Briza media. peat. Leaves at first creeping. well. five. shining green or purplish. ^ Spikets oblong. Hat. in narrow panicles. nutxima was introduced from South Europe. 6 to 18 inches high. the empty glumes longer than the July. and South America two British. but more numerous. rotundata and this about completes the list of those worthy to be admitted into our . They are propagated by means which may be sown either in spring or autumn. IV. grows in meadows and on heaths throughout the country. Spikelets erect. slender. and for their dried panicles to fill the flower vases in winter. a purely southern form South of England. media (middle-sized). Leaves long and slender. the ovary is smooth. Annual. B. — . then more erect. South of nine-flowered. Frequently dried and dyed. Stems solitary. Brizas will succeed in ordinary garden soils but to (largest). B. Africa. containing from thirteen to seventeen flowers. the unipty glumes shorter than the first flowering glume June. the only other British representative of the genus. Spikelets much smaller than those of B. minor. 4 to 10 inches high. Spikelets oval. w them of seed. . B. or Quake. and is eagerly sought by children of all ages. media. one of our native grasses. and leaf-mould. : QUAKING GRASS 641 There are two empty glumes. nodding. the styles short. Little Quake Grass. longer or shorter than the lowest of the series of flowering glumes.

ing tli. and our<i.n's in a hare. natural tliis size.642 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE A. A genus cotisisting of but one species.^\l'i^-l' '"^v 1>^' '^oun in spring or autumn.'iii into a cold -rendioiise or frame before winter sets in. Gl-uus L<nj(. composed of two empty glumes and one flowering glume.l tin- larucsl nmiibcr of llowering stems. and Fig.?02. llan'^-tall ({r. Large Quaking Grass. and has been naturalised in Essex. uith tuo sliort auns and a very long bent and twi^tul\es short. SteuKS numerous.-ring. silvery-white. I<n/<>^. Description of Plate 302. leafy below. Lagurus ovatus. Briza gi2C. stout. natural and C \vill be found described below. 2 a seedling. lounded.iss tlirixes best in a sandy soil. a tnil • aHusion to tlie appearance of It occurs in Species tlie inllorescence). and Western Asia. brin<. LvcriiU-. and end in long feathery points. 1 is separated spikelet of species. and is '•'i. they may bo kept in the pots for sowini. erect. size. Spikelets massed in a dense. G to 10 Indies high. n(^arly an inch across June. natural a B. the Hair Grass. (Sec Plate .'1 t'"i" ^'''"'. a hardy annual.m. An'ff i»nrhd!<i.) The empty glumes are much longer than the otlier. Each spikelet is The liy best pi. broad. shaggy : T. native of Europe. ()\an<l planting out in spiino. Fig.i:. Y> C. Hit- with --it. LA(iURUS OVATUS ((^gg-shaped). Fig 1. The Howrring glume is ^lender. HAIR GRASSES . maxima. IIARE'S-TAIL (. downy. are obtained sandy soil out of doors. North Africa. (Greek. head.UASS Natural Order Gu\Mixi:. the Haro's-tail Grass. Guernsey. tin -i'- vnoii as i'i])i' in pots of ll.

thread-like. .-rto been considerin .)(• nlM. agricultural than horticultural interest.TA Genus Sehnji »^'lh> the old (the diminutive of SrJf.n). with wavy. name of a spccirs < ->'. AiRA PULCHELLA '6 . Leaves very short.E. Introduced from Spain. They will be found to 8 inches high. Many work. Cloud Grass. SELAGINELLAS Natural Order Selauinellace. Stems tufted.ut Uiivo liundred species of Vnscubi M/^ Witfriiuu tVoni ihr vlanis wr Irivr hith. Deschampsia flexuosa (waved). Agrostis nebulosa (misty). Flowers in large. :^r. angled branches. . or in pots. Annual. we are as far as possible from making any pretence of dealing with the group in the manner they deserve. All these are of the simplest to grow. . Plate 302c. but these scarcely come within the scope of the present Those we have named are a mere acknowledgment that grasses are well worthy of the attention of the horticulturist. Readers will therefore understand that in giving up a few pages of our book to the description and illustration of a very small sample of these graceful and interesting plants. 643 Regions of the world . and over a thousand of these are in cultivation. other species of ornamental grasses might be described did space allow. but examination of the spikelets reveals only one flower instead of two. and two of The species inhabit the Temperate them are British. in spring. and a similar remark will apply to the Selaginellas and Ferns next to be noticed in the completion of our task. especially useful to cut for bouquets. A European annual whose panicles are very similar to those of Aira jyidchella. and the panicle loose and spreading. Any garden soil will suffice for them and the seeds should be sown in the border. About three thousand five hundred species of Ferns and their allies are known (to say nothing of their very numerous varieties). repeatedly forked June. is a native perennial woi'th growing. A gvnus . formerly included in the genus A ira. but these have more (pretty). and shining purplish or yellow-brown spikelets June to August. as desired. loose panicles branches exceedingly fine and hair-like. Its stems are about a foot high.SELAGINELLAS the stigmas are feathered to the base. 1820. ../n.

GRANDIS (great). but abound chiefly in the Tropics. 8. 6 to 12 inches long. . often in one plane only. the larger number of species. Another species.a apus (footless). in 1819 The handsome. serpens exhibits a remarkable change of colour in the living plant in the morning it is bright green. This is due to the contraction of the green colouring matter of the cells under the influence of sunlight. and in this condition it is sold When ill fancy warehouses under the name of Resurrection Plant. the variety aurea being introduced in 1878 and S. much branched in fan-shape above. .— FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE cellular body. in 1882. Stems half-erect. only one occurs in Britain. and repeatedly forking. Ih to 2 feet long. Tropical America. placed in water it uncurls and assumes it natural shape. In Selaginella the stem is always slender. Stove. ATROvmiDis (blackish green). Lower half and the wlu^le triangular. by which in turn produced an embryo capable of growth into a plant like that on which the spore originated. denticulata. with distant. >S^. These plants were formerly included among the Lycopodiacecc. upon which sexual organs are developed. S. Ein'THifOPUS (red-footed). Also known as S. apus. from Canada. introduced from Madeira in 1779. half . S. . grandis. Among the earliest to receive attention was Selaginella kraussiana. above this much branched. unbranchcd. Stems stiflt and erect. terminal spike (Plate 303. branched above only. half-erect. aj)oda and S. erect-growing tassellata came from Brazil in 1887. almost white. and as cultivated plants may be considered quite modern. Fig. are of recent discovery and introduction. Spikes ^ to 1 inch long. The leaves are small. overlapping. Stove. compact. its stems and branches contract and curl into a ball. Stems erect. erect. Stems crimson. 1). The species are distributed over the whole of the globe. square. in four rows. S. but as the day advances it gradually becomes very pale. Spikes i to ^ inch long. Selagineij. 6 to 12 inches high. called is . Stove or greenhouse. Tropical Asia. S. on the upper side near its base the leaf bears a process called a ligule. Stove. simple. about 9 inches long. much branched. or trailing. Stove. The spore -case (sporange) springs from the The fertile leaves form a upper side of the leaf beneath the ligule. Spikes | to ^ inch long. is hygrometric when dried. from Borneo. 2 to 4 inches long. densely matted. lepidophylla.spreading branches. S. Tropical Asia. u 11 branched so far as regards the lower third. commonly known as S. Stems trailing. CAULESCENS (stemmed). 644 which give rise to a scale-Uke a -prothallus. in truth. denxa. S. short.



in any light but do best in a mixture of and silver sand. leaf -mould. These fronds . leaf and the ligule . Shade and moisture are the only other requirements additional to the appropriate temperature. further enlarged 3 is the sporange separated. H^MATODES . 12 to 20 feet long S. Tropical Asia. bright crimson half unbranched. and even four times pinnate. They succeed fibrous peat. . 1 is a spike between the . branches and half-erect branchlets. Stove. Tropical America. shrubby or with creeping rootstocks. branches spreading. as indicated for the diiFerent species. The leafy expansions are called fronds. FERNS . Stems trailing. aurea is of a greenish yellow colour. and keeping them close until established. Plate 303. branches wavy. twice. Selaginella Martensii. Martensii (Martens'). natural size. Selaginellas should be treated exactly soil. creeping stems to which roots are attached. and the Selaginella planted thereon. S. blue tinged. Spikes short. Mexico. FiLiCES (Latin. Description of Plate 303. and is useful in the rockPropagation is easily effected by cutting off portions of the garden. the small species are most eflfective when grown in pans a foot in diameter. 645 Stems 1 to 2 feet long. Greenhouse. When grown in pots. FERNS Natural Order Filices This order contains not less than seventyfive genera. handsome species. a fern). upper part branched and assuming triangular A large. Branchlets short and close together (bloody). sometimes /liix. trailing. The var. Stove. 2 is a ligule and sporange. and to forms tree-like. In nearly all cases Ferns are perennial plants. those of very dwarf habit look well if the soil is heaped up in the middle above the top of the pot. lower half S. upper somewhat erect There are numerous varieties of this well-known species. or that are once. and they vary from the simple strap-shape of Scolopendrium. to the pinnately-cut Folypodium vulgare. Stems climbing. . with KRAUSSIANA (Krauss'). thrice. Stems 6 to 12 inches long. helvetica is a hardy species.. . Greenhouse. | to 1 foot long. 1 to 2 feet long. showing the yellow sporange Fig. like Ferns. WiLLDENOVii (Willdenow's). Some of the species All are useful for growing in baskets or pans suspended from the roof. enlarged. from which we can only select half a dozen genera as examples.

wMsintn. A. uidrly. ami two ^^pcri. Several of the exotic forms have years.inr PK-k.SPIDIUM (Greek. Genus Aspidiiim a shield: the form oC invohicre).n by • split. 111 1 T-"' • 1 l t •) i nearest the rachis enlarged. plant. own countr}'.Mi. The primary divisions of a frond are pinnw the divisions of a pinna are pinnules. known as sori. on the back of the frond. ^rs7>t. They are propagated by means of .ting and the garden varieties can only be represented by th igures. genus in our native the Holly Fern. but throughout V \e been manufactured out of the varieties ' nl>„tn.|iiatives of this '^ *"'^" flora..u-I. In the following descriptions the foot-stalk (stipes) and the leafy portion (frond) are measured separately. The species are widely distributed over all except the very cold and arid regions. t a c id eat am. They are natives of all regions. .lnerd I'mni th<.i:„ .-tichiuu-HkM • Stip. if is. the ^^Wu 111.rtlhni alj. microscopic.nge^^).(Acr. and its continuation through the leafy portion of the frond is the racJiis.n. A genus of with the sori globose. The frond -stalk is termed a stipes. The British species number thirty-eight.Ul..' li i . and the divisions of the frond rolled up in like manner. chiefly abounding in the Temperate and Tropical.Wrst Tn. spores. iiMihi.l A. first rolled up tightly with the tip of the frond in the centre of the coil. 1 .-:< ninfu „. A.>f!<tti>v..s aie found wild in Britain. A ^in. though of most the date of inh-o<luotion has not been nwrded. and s h.n Lu.646 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE and are at are attached to the rootstock either in tufts or alternately. on the veins of the pinnules. covered by a roundish involucre attached by its middle. d n< only in our botanists.ii Tropical American and A . jK. which grows on Prickly Shield Fern. but of this small number about six hundred varieties are in cultivation at Kew. \V(' lm\t> as r('])r(s... In all the Ferns these are and contained in very minute capsules {spovn.. which are in turn massed in heaps or ridges.Ii<-s'ln ITiJO been cultivation here for : many Ammimi m V Principal Species i:. especially where there is humidity.ii^t Ml. . similar in nature to those of SehigineUa.s. trif. about fifty-five species. and frequently covered with an involucre or indusiuni. SHIELD FERNS Natural Order Fjlices.

scaly. and eared. dark Native of Japan. Fronds 12 to 18 inches long. tlian Sori small. angulare. Greenhouse. Holly Fern. var. rhomboid. Stipes tufted. Stipes tufted. ACULEATUM (sharp - pointed). G to 9 inches broad. though hardy. A.SHIELD FERNS 647 under side of the upper. Plate 304b. 12 to 18 inches broad. Sori large and numerous. Pinnae numerous. 6 to 12 inches long. Stipes scattered. three or four times divided. stipes scattered. Stipes 4 to six inches long. : base eared. Pinnules lance-shaped. 9 to 1 Fronds to 2 feet long. LASEKPiTiiFOLiUM (Lascrpitium-leaved). iinis (spear-like). green. but succeeding in greenhouse. and scattered. lance-shaped. Hardy. blunt-toothed or entire-edged. triangular-oval. lowest pinnae the largest. Fronds 1 to 2 feet long. Pinnae 2 MUNiTUM Fronds (armed). with hooked tip and spiny teeth A. oval. Rootstock creeping. and scaly. 1 to 3 nunuToiis. . in two rows near mid-vein. L. A. Native of Xorth America. stout. Stipes tufted. 18 inches long. A. triangular-oval. A. Native of Tropical Asia. Greenhouse. pinnate. The subon each side of mid-vein. Rootstock creeping scales at base. in t^\-() rows. Stipes densely tufted. more or less scaly. elliptical. incisum has the pinnules more deeply cut and sharply lobed. covered with dark brown scales. grandiceps has the tips of The the rachis branched. 4 to 9 inches long. tripinnate. Lower pinnae and lowest pinnules much the largest . densely 1 to 2 feet long. the tips and ear ending in a spiny point. A. lower pinnae larger. scaly FALCATUM (hooked). bluntly lobed. 4 to 8 inches across. 6 to Lower pinna? 4 to 6 inches long. 1 to 2 feet long. scaly at base. shedding its fronds if wintered outside. densely below. Hard}' native. teeth numerous. Fronds 1 to 3 feet long. lance-shaped. species. 9 to 12 inches broad. 6 to 12 inches. 6 to 9 inches long. and the pinnules stalked and more equal in The var. densely scaly below. ending in long points or awns. Fronds 1 to 2 feet long. Native of Japan.)X. Native of the Southern Temperate zone. the size. 12 inches across. smaller piniiJB entirely occupied by the sori. toothed. the lower Sori very pinnuh s long. is of softer texture. . etc. lance-shaped. but. Sori small. the Soft Prickly Shield Fern.'r upper. suhtripinnatiivi is less deeply divided. Prickly Shield Fern. giving a tasselled appearance to the frond. Evergreen in greenhouse. Plate 305. 1 to 4 inches long. numerous. the pinnules somewhat rhomboid. CAPENSE (Cape of Good Hope). AiusTATUM (awned). Hardy native. overlapping. 6 to 9 inches broad. The var. covered with A. Lowest pinna? the largest . Sori on the pinnules in a row Plate 304a. Fronds 1 to 3 feet long.

to 4 inches long. and as carefully transferred to other pans.PLEENWOETS I'der FiLiCES. (triangular). eared at base. the Prickly Shield The var. are exceedingly fragile. and must be very delicately picked out from the less advanced individuals by means of a fine-pointed little stick. Plate Description of Plate 304 and 305. or in pots in a cool house. To this sliould be added small quantities of silver sand. scaly based. . somewhat 1| to 2 inches across. Stove or greenhouse. partly overlapping. or by the long and tedious process of raising them from spores sown in pans of peat. again transplanted into small pots when there is a danger of their becoming crowded in the pans. Hardy. or two parts leaf-mould. Give special attention to the drainage. They are propagated by dividing the crowns. margin almost entire or slightly lobed and toothed. Plate 305. showing the sorus. and put in an inch apart to be . Native of West Indies. es for the spleen). light. A compost that shall be pretty generally suitable for Ferns is arranged thus to two parts of good loam add one part each peat and leaf-mould. kept moist and shaded. Genus Asple. or well-rotted cow-manure should be incorporated with the compost. The separate figure the under side of a pinnule (enlarged). Sori in two rows near margin. . Sori in two A. The hardy species may be grown in : — a partially sliady position outside. toothed rows. TRIANGULUM Fronds Stipes tufted. These young plants until the first fronds are formed on the prothallus. pinnate. 2 to 6 inches long. the splee ifl t>p)len. charcoal. subtrvpinnaium. covered and uncovered. 1 is a small portion of a pinna enlarged. is Aspidiiim ac?f/mfii77i. Aspidiums require a well-drained. Aspidiam falcatmn. and bits of porous sandstone or such of them as may be available. The only manure that should be given to Ferns should be in a weak liquid form. In common with most Ferns. with a tirm point at apex. Fern. and spiny.648 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE California. porous soil. which will admit of copious waterings without danger of getting sour. showing the sori and their 304a. Fig. Pinnae triangular. 1 foot long. broken crocks. B. for Ferns quickly succumb to stagnating moisture at their roots.



rhizophyllum having been introduced A. and opening towards the midrib. broadly toothed or lobed.wit'h Hart's-tongue-like honda. A. with scarcely any involucre. Stove. which are long and narrow. Introduced from the West Indies. for Dioscorides applied it to our Rusty -back. classification of tlie Ferns . that. ehcneiim. place reliance on superficial resemblances. monanthemuvi. 1820. leathery. A. in 1779 . and distant from the midrib— except in those cases where (as in Lady Fern) the frond is much divided. Ceterach (Arabian name). 1 to Fronds requiring stove treatment. In the not remote past these difltering forms have been separated in different genera. twice pinnate. pinnae 3 to 4 inches long. A. pinnately lobed. Asplenium alatum (winged). clear of edge Sori and midrib. the back densely clothed with toothed. . History. fragrans. and the species assume so great . A. and the wings continued along the rachis. Several of the exotic species have been in cultivation here for a considerable period. it many difficulties. in 1793. Hemionitis and A.A. 3 to 4 inches across. or Rusty-back. A. 1| foot long. Scale Fern. A hulbiferum produce a number of young plants upon their fronds and when these. the upper part winged. Tropical American species. "high. the key to the in those little brown patches of spore-cases on but even these have to be regarded carefully. in 1790 and A. rusty scales. Fronds 4 to 8 inches long. 4 to 6 inches across. The pinnae bluntish. Sori hidden beneath the scales.SPLEENWORTS 649 hundred and eighty species of Ferns. ^ variety of presents forms. chiefly in Western Counties. Stipes 4 to 6 inches. The species are natives of all Regions except the very cold ten species are British. lies As we have already hinted. and even now certain species are so separated by some of our systematists. — . Fx'onds 6 to 12 inches long. unless studied botanically. . Native. Stipes densely tufted. as To those who will be experienced by the student of Aspleniums. 1 to 3 inches long. filix-fceynina. associated in one genus. Several species—as. . . usually with a short tufted rootThe generic character is found stock. The name Asplenium is a very old one. and fronds of very various forms. from North America in 1680 A. oblique. in the usual course. and A. pinnate. it is certainly a puzzle to find back of the frond Asplenium nidus. for instance. oval- triangular. This genus is so large. in the sori. Stipes 4 to 6 inches Principal Species. CULTRIFOLIUM (ploughshare-shaped leaves). Ceterach. wither and fall to earth. Sori distant. marinum. attached to the vein by one side. the young plants readily root themselves. scaly. of nearly equal width (| inch) throughout.tTich(mianes. The involucre is long and narrow. Hardy. not reaching margin or midrib.

In addition to several important natural varieties. Stipes very short. glossy. Rootstock stout. 4 to 6 inches across. from Temperate Australia. 6 to 12 inches long. Native but away from the sea will only grow under glass. 1820. Introduced aci'oss. sometimes forked sori marginal. A. clothed with purple-brown scales. Rootstock creeping. 4 to 6 inelies either way. Stipes tufted. close-set pinnules coarsely toothed. pinnate . lance-shaped. 3 to 6 inches long. (nest). stout. Hardy. Stipes . 6 to 9 inches long. 6 to 12 inches long. with a short oblong or kidney-shaped involucre. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE DiMORPHUM (two-formed). Greenhouse. Fronds 6 to 18 inches long. FiLix-FtEMiNA (Lad}' Fern). Sori narrow. twice or thrice pinnate. ending in a curved point. bluntly toothed. lobed. triangular-oval lower pinna? of similar shape to frond. above surface. . 1825. Sea Fern Sea Spleenwort. Fronds 2 to 3 feet long. MARINUM (sea). in humid atmosphere. Cool greenhouse. 2 to 4 feet long. Stipes tufted. J to i inch Sori oblique. stout. unequal-sided. 4 to 8 inches long. Stipes tufted. Fronds procumbent. Greenhouse. Frond 3 to 10 inches long. Rootstock stout. but irregularly scattered. rooting at the tip. Warm greenhouse. A. Frond lance-sliaped. soft and waving. oblong. numerous. and of worldwide distribution. Stipes 3 to G inches. Stipes tufted. Hemionitis (Hemionitis-like). oval. brittle. FALCATU51 (hooked). upon the veins. Pinnae fan-shaped.. and not exceeding an inch across. Native of Norfolk Island. Stipes 6 to 12 inches long. polished. thin textured. undivid<_'(l. : 650 A. rachis . oblong or lance-shaped. straggling. lance-shaped. winged. Native of South Europe and North Africa introduced 1779. over three hundred garden varieties have been named. reaching nearly to the edge. brown or pale yellow. A. Native. . if Sori large and oblique involucre leathery. leathery. chaffy. Soribearing pinnaj very narrow. A. over a foot across. Fronds spear-shaped. Pinnae lance-shaped. Sori in long irregular lines. several inches A. Nidus Bird's-nest Fern. The pinntie stalked. Fronds large. or cut pinnately. tapering Rootstock stout. Introduced from Polynesia. 3 to 8 inches broad. Sori small and numerous. some of them extraordinary departures from the type. red-brown. A. 6 to 8 inches long. . FLABELLIFOLIUM (fan-leaved). . scaly below.

whoso spore-bearing (fertile) fronds have of tlie margins of tlie pinna3 rolled in to tlic midril) behind. a large Surface of frond producing number young plants. or by raising spores Propagation is effected as instructed under A><pidium. A. long. The cultural directions given for Asjndium apply generally to Asplenium. Stipes tufted. with pale brown involucre. 1820. o?io. or its fronds sand. or half-cup-shaped. and this position should be imitated in cultivation. the hood-like. reduced to about one-sixth of its natural proportions. Greenhouse. whilst the hardy species do well in a mixture of peat and sand. which should be built up above the rim of pot. Onoclea (Greek. The sori are round. Fig. of nearly equal width (about | inch) throughout. lance-shaped . OSTEICH FERN Natural Order FiLiCES. not scaly. OSTRICH FERN polished red-brown. Hardy. A.s^ a beaker. Pinnae oval. and old mortar and brick rubbish should be mixed in the potting soil. often with its rootstock squeezed into fissures of the rock. Mauritius. Rachis rigid. 3 to 4 inches long Sori solitary. Description of Plate 306. by dividing the rootstock when two or more crowns have been formed. with the sori. chestnut-brown. marginal. This is the largest known Fern having undivided fronds. and to close: in allusion to the rolled up pinnae of the fertile fronds an<l the sliape of the involucre). Trichovianes naturally grow in the mortar of old walls. short. Native. oval. A genus of three species of hardy Ferns. marinum grows above sea-caves. Filix-fcemina must have plenty of free moisture. They are natives of the . sorus. A. about I inch long. Aspleniutii Nidus. oblique. pinnfB numerous and crowded. 6 to 9 inches Fronds 1 to 2 feet long. the Bird's-nest Fern. 6 to 8 inches across. by the buds (" bulbils ") developed on the fronds of many species. The stove and greenhouse of species should be potted in the peat-loam-sand compost. Cetera ch and A. on tlie veins and the involucre is originating from the under side of the Cold and Temperate Regions. 651 Frond 6 to 12 inches long. will rapidly wither and never recover. pinnules deeply and pinnately lobed. 1 is a portion of a frond showing the back.. Genus Onoclea klcio. pinna!. entirely concealing the fructification. viviPARUM (bearing live plants). fifteen to Sori forty in number. or leaf-mould and A. black at base.

lance-shaped pinnpe. The fertile fronds are produced within the circle of barren ones. ORiENTALis Plate 807. which they often exceed in length. pinnate. arise. The fertile fronds are twice-pinnate. flatter rachis of a . orkntalis is a much more recent addition to our Collinson in 1760. Also known as Struthiopteris orieutalis and S. Rootstock erect.652 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE The typical species of this genus is Onoclea sensibilis. glossy. SENSiBiLis (sensitive). xUthough this species is hardy. from which new crowns Stipes short. germanica is a native of Europe and North America. orient alls succeed best in Cultivation a soil of a good strong loamy character. creeping. divided into oblong. tilling up the pot with its roots. ^ a North American plant. Onoclea germanica and 0. whose native habitat is Assam. to which leafdoes better in a soil that consists almost entirely of leaf-mould and sand. Fronds oval oblong. downwards. Unrolling one into pinnae about September. ferneries. the . several of them uniting one mass. O. pointing upwards. but the pinnules are curved back over the sori. japonica. not greatly narrowed at base. Onoclea germanica (German). dark purple-brown. O. Its sensibility consists in its fronds withering as though scorched on being handled slightly. and usually about three in number. 0. that it was growing there in 1699. It is also known - as Struthiopteris f/ermanica and Onoclea Struthiopteris. and Japan. Fronds broad-triangular in outline. The fertile or spore-bearing fronds are quite different. We have it on the evidence of Jacob Bobart. which has been in cultivation here for two hundred years. Stipes 3 inches long. of these fertile brown colour and a knotted appearance. 0. not produced until autumn. and branching extensively. enlarged at base and co%'ered with blackish scales. Rootstock naked. and the pinnc-e thus have a rounded appearance. pinnae with margins curled back. 3 to 5 feet long pinnse very numerous. smooth-edged segments. sensibilis headway. which are entire or wavy-toothed. will creep over the rim and down tlie side. In such a soil it will make rapid is mould added. yet it in Inst l:^ a\ n in a . and. Ostrich Fern. keeper of the Oxford Botanic Garden. Frond broad. 1 to 1^ foot long. sending out creeping branches in all directions. the sori will be found to be round. lower ones short. The pinnje are cut into many blunt. (Eastern). also sending off underground branches to a distance of 6 or 7 feet. turned broader. lancc-shaped. the pinnae are much contracted. They are 1| to 2 feet long. having been introduced from Virginia. like the others. with a largest about 5 inches long. which was introduced by Peter 0. Sikkim. 9 inches high.

var.PTERis QUADRIAURITA. argyraa .


the veins of the frond forked or netted. from pteron. In that year Mr. The upper portions and sterile fronds are shown. for Folk-lore it . species of stove.—40 . Fronds 1 to 3 feet long. James Gordon ])rought P. tremula. the Ostrich Fern. from Crete P. Pteris aquilina. "covered with dark-brown scales. and in the same year P. in allusion A genus of about eighty-three to the plumy appearance of the frond). Next year came P. with which the involucre is united. Stipes erect. a year later. in 1824 P. serriilata came from India. we have called them by the English of the generic name. reduced. Then came the familiar P. Our common Bracken. As there is no popular term generally applied to this genus. greenhouse. There is great variation of habit in this genus. 1 is an enlarged " but the " one-third of both fertile representation of part of a pinna. P. a feather or wing. 2Mlrnata. from the West Indies. from Brazil. An important period in the cultivation of Pteris appears to have been about the year 1820. being British. The lines under the figure should describe it as " one-third natural size. from Caraccas. Pteris arguta (sharp-notched). Pteris aquilina. saggitifolia. leptophylla. from Australia. Khizome creeping. V or brown.FEATHER FERNS cool greenhouse. thin-textured •. . 1 foot long. Eight years later Mr. the Bracken. Description of Plate 307. heterophylla. Francis Masson introduced P. 1 foot across. but the rootstock is usually creeping. 653 where its thin-textiired fronds are less likely to be These species are readily propagated by shrivelled by wind or drought. and hardy Ferns. longi/olia from the West Indies. cretica. Onoclea germanica. from Madeira. They are distributed widely over all the Regions of the earth one only. has played an important part in and and popular superstition its but its chief connection with gardens has consisted in the use of for fruit plants. showing the sori and their involucres. dividing the rootstock. FEATHER FERNS Natural Order Filices. the sori in continuous lines under the curled-back edge of the frond. argida. Genus Pteris Pteeis (the old Greek for Ferns." has been inadvertently omitted. Fig. There is fronds as a handy packing material no evidence of foreign species of Pteris being grown here prior to 1770. and P. whence also came . has a very extensive history. although this savours of tautology.

6 to 12 inches long. finely and sharply toothed lowest pinnules sometimes again divided. Native of South Brazil. Stipes 6 to 9 inches long. Sori in broad lines. and the lower ones with from one to four lance-shaped pinnules on the lower side. P. Fronds and the pinnules again divided. ELEGAXS (elegant). The var. 4 to 12 inches Pinnae 6 to 12 inches long. Greenhouse. CRETICA (Cretan). long. alholineata has a white streak down the whole centre of the frond. . Stipes tufted. 3 to 6 inches long. cut nearly to the rachis. triangular. Pinnae slender. Fronds Stipes stout. P. 1 QUADRIAURITA (four-eared). . oblong. Fronds 6 inches to 3 or slightly-toothed feet long. erect. Fronds triangular. 4 to 8 inches across. pinnately-lobed. Greenhouse. erect. pinnate lowest pinnae wedge-shaped. P. yellowish or brownish. pinnate. with entire margins. LEPTOPHYLLA (thin-leaved). Stove. and drooping general form oval. pinnate. very slender. across. wedge-shaped. 4 to 9 inches across. Stove. yellowish brown. Stipes to 2 feet long. chestnut-brown. lanceshaped pinnules of similar shape. thin-textured. Fronds 6 to 12 inches long. divided. Stipes 1 long. Sori on lower part of frond. pale. foot . 6 to 12 inches long. P. Sori not extending to the tips of the segments. erect. and as broad barren fronds. No true involucre. yellowish. erect. long. scaly at base. of variable length. an inch long central ones lance-shaped. Fronds 4 to 9 inches long. . thin textured. tapering below. twice pinnately-cut. side. P. heart-shaped. lowest pinnae again divided. Stove. Uppermost pinnae simple. The sori are continued to the tips of the lobes. the pinnules as much as 2 inches long. from which five triangular lobes run oflf. Involucres yellowish brown. The lobes are lance- shaped. pale. continuous along three-fourths of margin of pinnae. Stipes 1 foot long. usually none on the upper Sori continuous along margin. firm-textured tapering to a long fine point. The lowest . the lobes of the fertile fronds are narrower and cut nearer to the rachis. nearly to the rachis. Stipes wiry. broad. 3 to 6 inches across. Fronds of equal length with stipes. into cntii-e-edged blunt lobes.654 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE . lowest wedge-shaped. Stove. very large. erect. oblong. and . P. but not occupying whole margin . the lobes sharply and deeply toothed. but somewhat curved forward. PALMATA (hand-shaped). Pinnae numerous. yellowish. of segments. lance-shaped. Stove. HETEROPHYLLA oval. Pinnse few. 9 to 12 inches long either way upper pinnae simple. . with a broad undivided centre. LONGIFOLIA (long-leaved). P. thrice-pinnate. 1 to 6 to 12 inches 2 feet long. (various-leaved).



greenhouse kinds will be found suitable for planting on an indoor rockery. longifolia like fronds. Upper pinnae pinnately divided into numerous lobes. the Spider Fern . 2 to 4 feet long. spear-shaped or arrow-shaped. serruloid. aquilina. P. Sori continuous. Rachis winged. natural sori. \-AY. broader above. Pteris semdata. single frond. Sori almost covering the segment. aiyafc The common G. • 655 often continued along Sori more or Stove. cut bipinnately into very narrow. Fronds Stipes 1 foot long. size. It rciiuires a roomy pot or tub to accommodate its hoi-izontal underground rliizoinc Tiuy may all be propagated either by divisions of the rhizome or ])y sowing the spores. cretica will come up freely from self-sown spores in the greenhouse. erect. Several of the greenhouse kinds may be grown in pots.FEATHER FERNS pair of pinnse bx^anching near the base. or Ihaekeu. The general directions must be observed in regard species do well in a Fern culture already given to this genus. the largest 6 inches long. brown. 8ERRTJLATA (saw-edged). Plate 309. taking them in again in autunm.natural position. argyrcea (figured in Plate 308) has a band of white down the centre of the pinnse. upper ones simple. enlarged. with a view to plunging these in summer in a sheltered fernery out of doors. Stove. Stipes 4 to 6 inches long. lower ones with several pinnules. long. lace- from those developed when growing on dry heaths. P. 4 to 6 inches long. p. Fronds 4 to 6 inches long. Pinnse in distant opposite pairs. which in we liave not c«jii. of pinna. Plate 308. portion of fertile pinna. Involucres narrow. frond Piates308and309. TREMULA (trembling). entire edge of lobes. These two. Fig. There are a number of garden varieties of this species. Description of Fteris qmidriaurita. nearly a foot long. as will F. erect. if gi'own a nioi. among the most suitable for this purpose being 1'. As a rule. come up so freely in the pots of other ferns that they are considered a nuisance in some establishments. size. blackish.argyrcm. lower pinnse compound. and C. Stipes 6 to 9 inches Fronds 9 to 18 inches long. erect. | to 2 feet across. broad. pale brownish. Spider Fern. altogether different in appeai-ance in a warmer house. less distinct The var. sliady greenhouse produces niagniticent arching. 1. Greenhouse. for Greenhouse.sidered necessary to describe. in fact. compost of sandy loam and peat. long segments. F. Under si. the edges of the barren ones spiny-toothed. 6 to 9 inches broad. with entire margin and blackish midrib. showing .st. SAGGITIFOLIA (arrow -leaved). These are also much used for table and window decoration. the The stove and rrrtici. showing sori in Plate 309.

and usually compound fronds. one most commonly cultivated. from Dorset to Cornwall. so that it appears to open inwards. was not a cultivated plant until comparatively recently. It was introduced by the younger Tradescant. The involucre consists of the turneddown margin of the pinnule. . also A.'.winu at Oxford.. .656 FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE MAIDENHAIR FERNS Natural Order Filices. The rachis and its branchlets are hair-like. or four times pinnate. hispldidum. far from the sea. but as a rule the pinnules are wedgeshaped. came from Brazil in 1820. probably. si./^ A. We ceased introducing Maiden-hairs then for ihaily a hundred years: but the importation of A. for in 1699 Bobart had it -K. in ITTo. cuneatum. but the headquarters may be said to be Tropical (the old Maidenhair Fern. macrophyllum. a'tkiopicum. In the humid atmosphere of sea-caves and wet rocks. Adiantum Ca-pillus. thrice. these being twice. irapeziforme. whence the popular. 2''edatum. it would not grow out of doors. Among more . is a more hardy subject. hiurir.. whence also came A..Veneris.'<l to (h-aw attention to the West Indies as a intiN... Genus Adiantum Adiantum Greek name. dry. They are found in all Tropical and Temperate Regions. which came from North America prior to 1640.aneed sourci' lor new A. This. or rounded or lunate. s^u ciis. for in T7!i:> \\v which year we got A. from Madeira and Teneriffe. A genus of about eighty species of stove and greenhouse Ferns. and A.i II . in 1822.. This gives the plants a character that distinguishes them at a glance from other ferns. reniforme. rounded. There is considerable variety in the general form of the fronds and of their parts.ih is till' wliieh in btought thence A. vhich is widely distributed in the warmer portions of both Old and New Worlds. titty-sewn years ago. /ni/r. and was growing in the famous garden at Lambeth two hundred and The . in Glamorgan. or oblong. fm^iosuvi from Australia. as in Pteris. however. A. name of these plants. for. The sori are marginal. villosum from -bniiaica. and ^1. from the fact that water rolls off the fronds without wetting them). A. to which the sori is attached... with tufted or creeping rootstocks. from adicmios.iii. is the only one of the genus that has extended its range aci'oss the Channel from Europe to the westerly portions of these islands. was during the 17th century. in Man and the West of Ireland this Fern is occasionally found though more rarely every year. in 1823.



It was pro- honour of its place of origin. There are several geographical varieties of this widely-distributed species. hair-like branches.. FORMOSUM (beautiful). with thin. 12 to 18 inches long. its surfaces devoid of hairs. Sori roundish or oblong. and among them was a magnificent variety. Sori in roundish patches. more membranous texture. Frond 4 to 12 Pinnules many spreading. Briggs. Native of China and Himalaya. Fronds triangular. Barbados. Greenhouse or stove. Lower pinnae 4 to 6 inches long. Stipes slender. polished. Stipes 2 to 4 inches long. Stove. Stipes 6 to 9 inches long. slender. wedge-shaped. Pinnse oblique the upper edge rounded and cut hairy on both sides. and the tip rooting. or four times . trapeziforme. Sori four to six. Sori between the round teeth. A. Fronds 6 to 12 inches long. oval. cip pecies. a hybrid between that It is now given species and A. three. and it was variously thought to be a sport of A. The most popular of the Maidenhair Ferns. tufted. caudatum. among the more important being dissectum. from America. black. Greenhouse. in its origin and status. Stove or warm greenhouse. erect. MAIDENHAIR FERNS recent introductions 657 Tropical we may mention A. Legrandi. T. 1 Stipes Fronds IJ to 2 feet long. covered by a somewhat kidney-shaped involucre. Capillus. the upper part broadly lobed. three or four ^^^^^^ 6 to 9 inches long. Williammi. In the year 1865 some Ferns were received for exhibition from Mr. erect. three or four times pinnate. Edgworthii (Edgworth's). to 1| foot across. CAUDATUM (tailed). half -erect. rubellum was introduced from Bolivia in 1868: and A. Stipes slender.Veneris (Venus' Hair). A. but varying considerably the upper edge deeply lobed. There are numerous A. two. A. curvatum. which for some years caused Fern-growers to have doubts and perplexities regarding visionally called Farleyense. pinnules wedge-shaped. . in 1841.. tenerum. pinnules half-round. Fronds 9 to 18 inches long. CUNEATUM (wedge-shaped). from which it differs by reason of its thinner. of Farley Hill. fan-shaped. A. There are a great number of garden varieties. Native of the Tropics generally. and a distinct species. from the Andes of Peru. A. Rootstock creeping. in 1877. kidney-shaped. Plate 310. and its upper margin being scarcely lobed. pinnate. pinnae triangular. Stove. deeply-lobed at top. 4 to 9 inches long. and segments round-toothed. and is acknowledged as one of the most magnificent of the genus. inches long. This is very similar to A. tenerum. viundulum. Adiantum ^thiopicum (Ethiopian). . wiry. rank as a variety of A. Gr. rachis often extended beyond pinnae. and Pacotti. times pinnate.

There are several which Forlfijruse Stipes exceedingly popular. wedge-shaped . to A. Greenhouse. A inches long.658 pinnate. which are each recurved. Fronds Stipes G to 8 inches long. A. pinnate. thrice pinnate . RUBELLUM (reddish). PEDATUM (footed). and bear on the outside of the curve a number of nearly straight. Fronds wedgeshaped. Sori rouudisli in varieties. the rachis dividing into two main branches. Stipes erect. Pinnules oblique. purplish crimson when young. upper margin also finely toothed. whose upper margin is lobed and bears the roundish sori. Sori in marginal lines. A. roundish. tlie sides nearly pai'allel. undivided. when young. Sori numerous. dusted with . is Stove. changing to green with a pinkish tinge. 4 to 9 inches long. somewhat kidney -shaped. A. A. 6 to 15 inches long. erect. pinnate branchlets. pinnules wedge-shaped. Willi AMsrr (Williams'). A. outer edge bluntly rounded. polished. 4 to 8 inches broad. Similar to A. triangular. side GLAUCOPHYLLUM it is (glaucous-leaved). A. erect. spreading ones. Greenliouse. Greenhouse. Stipes 4 to 6 inches long. REXiFomiE (kidney-shaped). all respects. THAPEZiFottME (rhomb-sluiped). Stove. cuneatum. Fronds 9 to 15 inches long. of tlie lubes of upper pinnules. Plate 311. oblong pinnules. finely toothed A. Stove. Fronds kidney-shaped. 1 foot l. and on each side two to four large. ( Greenhouse. are often branched again. Sori imnjerous and continuous. Fronds forking. . HiSPiDULUJt (somewhat bristly). Sori numerous. continuous or interrupted. Fronds 1 to 2 feet long. Sori round. nearly black. Pinnas 6 to 9 of a glaucous hue.iUg. 3 or 4 inches long. FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Lower pinniB 12 to 18 inches long. to 4 inches across. each division being fan-shaped. Stipes 1 to 2 feet long. 4 to G inches long. Fronds 1 to 3 deeply lobe-l. Lower pinnse. Frond fan-shaped. round upper and outer edges. with a central pinna 4 to G inches long. 6 12 inches long. Greenhouse. to I inch broad. MACROPHYLLUM Stipes 6 to 12 inches long. erect. . TEXERU>[ tender). ^ Stipes tufted. 2 tlie Sori all around margin. in the lobes of pinnules. (large-leaved). with about thirty pairs of one-sided. the base overlapping the rachis margin deeply lobed. Hardy. twice pinnate. except that is one-third larger in and that the under Mexican plant. 9 to 18 inches long. tlie lowest of which Pinnules oblique. A. The largest of these pinnas are 6 to 12 inches long. Stipes erect.



twice. which spread in irregular lines. A frond. conclnnv. natural size. Faiiryense. en 11 datum and A. and particular attention should be paid to drainage. situated on or between the veins. showing the sori under the involucre. 659 with somewhat rhoiuboidal pinnules. whilst to those of average robustness equal quantities may be used. and are not covered by any involucre).. A. Propagation is effected by dividing the rootstocks and by raising young plants from the spores. They are The sori are oblong. var. beautiful fronds will shoAV to the greatest A. a line: from the form of the sori. mostly stove subjects. loam. with fronds of di\'erse habit. For the more delicate sorts the peat should be to the loam in the proportion of two to one . They should not be stinted for pot room. Plate 310.'^. natural size. hanging basket in a warm. a pinnule enlarged. except the outer. (Greek. the stronger-growing will require the proportions reversed . Fig. tenerum. side of a pinnule. gi/ravo. 1 shows the under the rachis doubled over to get it in the space. but Fig. Adiantitm impeziforme. . oval. 1 is an enlarged view of the prothallus and the first frond 2. showing involucres 3 is a still greater enlargement of one of the lobes of a pinnule. The species are The involucre is not present in any of the genus. its large. • .m are also good subjects for such treatment. pedatuvt may be grown on outdoor ferneries in most places. A genus of about a himdred species of Ferns. will be found specially Hue for a large. and sand. with the sori and involucres along the upper edges 2 is an enlarged view of a sorus and its involucre. GOLD AND SILVER FERNS Natural Order FiLiCES. on the under surface of the frond. under surface. GOLD AND SILVER FERNS a yellow mealiness. ilistributed chiefly over the warm regions of the Globe. The general directions already given for Fern-culture still apply. united into narrow irregular lines. or thrice pinnate. which is occupied by Greenhouse. Adimitum cimeatiim. . when advantage. Genus GjjmrnxjMynme and (jramine. whose edges are ragged. A. sori. once. Plate 311. one extending into the British Islands as far as Jersey. the Maidenhair Fern. The soil most suitable to the majority of Adiantmns is a compost of fibrous peat. the kidney-shaped Pinnffi distant. moist atmosphere. Gymnogramme bare.

Powdeivd white. must be characterised as precipitous haste for those shed in summer have produced plants by autumn which are full-grown the next spring. but the rachis is darker in colour. This is known as G. Fronds 1 to 3 feet long. pinnate. Stove. species share this Several other also G. is is similar to the var. from Vancouver Island. 1864 G. The vixr. entire. lowest pinnae again pinnate. from Jamaica. oblong-oval. rufa was introduced from Jamaica. . character. but its correct designation long. japonica. G. 1 2 inches across base. G.dusted trifoliata (Jamaica. chrysophylla. and perish in summer. and the present genus has the distinction of two of these. a yellow . Among the more recentlyintroduced species we may mention G. and G. . a Tropical American species. Pinnae 6 to 12 inches long. among Ferns. 66o FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE There are very few Ferns known that are only annual in duration. Stipes 6 to 12 inches Fronds lA to 2 G. 6 to 12 inches long. as printed beneath the plate G. chrysophyWi. Stipes 6 to 9 inches long. four times pinnately cut (qwnl ri j'' innif>jhl i pinna) 4 to 6 inches long pinnules overlapping. Stove. Pearcei. l)lunt lobes annual. smooth. The spores of these two Gymnogramme chwrophylla and G. Stipes 1 to 4 inches long. twice or Pinnules oval. from Jamaica. Stove. 6 to 'tufted. 1810) has both white- sulphurea. feet long. Hardy.i . 1863 G. Thi' var. 1880. usually lepresented on Plate 312. but now ranks as a variety of G. In the normal form this species has the under surface sprinkled with white powder. dense white powder. was introduced. led to the plant being called Silver Fern. The genus is best known in gardens through G. G. chrysophylla. Fronds triangular. from Peru. a foot across. Annual Silver Fern. Gymnogramme calomelanos (beautiful black).— . G. fronds 12 to 16 inches long: stipes and racliis chestnut-brown. and. of course. 2^(^riiviana. /u r^i r!. 1874. triangularis. JAPONICA (Japanese). Rootstock creeping. chrysophylla. In 1824 a yellow-backed form was introduced. . in 1808. with two or three thrice pinnate. and yellow-backed fronds. Lower I foot eitlior way. . : Pinnae lance-shaped. tartarea (1817). from Japan. Frond slender. smaller iliau the type. As a contrast to G. and long known as G. calomelanos. LEPTOPHYLLA (slender-leaved). is Powdered white. calomelanos. Pearcei (Pearce's). including — . and the powder is golden-yellow. leptophylla germinate with what. which imparts a silvery appearance. In 1793 G. calomelanos. which was introduced from the West Indies in 1790. var. the lowest pair much larger lliau tli(M)th('rs the lowest pinnules aluK^st again pinnate. wedge-shaped. 1 to 3 inches long. there species. schizophylla. . Stipes PrincipalSpecies.



triangular upper lance-shaped. Fronds 1| to 2 feet long. var. long. so. 3 to 4 inches across. Pinnules cut fan-like. oblong-triangular. 1 Stipes tufted. and most are evergreen. Stova . and marginal or roundish sori. D. Stipes tufted. very finely and intricately cut into numerous minute pinnules. leptophylla. fronds of varied form. 6 to 12 inches long. fernery. The species are widely distributed. 3 or 4 inches either way. it has been in cultivation here since 1699. twice pinnate. G. Stipes tufted. the Hare's-foot Fern. well drained. Its rhizome is densely clothed in brown hair-like scales.HARE'S-FOOT FERNS G. 6 to 12 inches long. 6 inches. and as it creeps over tlie rim of the pot it presents a wonderful likeness to the fo(jt of a luire. SULPHUREA (sulphur-coloured). scaly rhizomes. SCHIZOPHYLLA (cut-leaved). the Pinnules blunt. HARE'S-FOOT FERNS Natural Order FiLiCES. schizophylla is a beautiful basket plant. TART ARE A (infernal). Fronds triangular. a Swiss lx)taniHt). Davallia (named in . Fronds or to 2 feet long. Stipes tufted. Stove. G. as the water gathers in the powder and soon spoils their appearance. G. do well in a compost of fibrous peat and sand. 6 to 12 inches long. They require a sunny position if grown under glass. Lowest pinnae the largest. Some of them have proliferous fronds. Stove. Powdered bright yellow. 6 to 12 across. The fronds should never be syringed. The others may be propagated by dividing the rootstocks and by sowing the spores. A genus of about a hundred species of greenhouse Ferns with creeping. as they require plenty of water whilst growing. which renders the fronds valuable for cutting. G. from deep orange to white. entire Powdered pure white. Gold Both sides of a small frond are shown. Genus Davallia honour of Edumnd Davall. calomelanos. annually reproduces itself Gymnogramme Fern. when once established in a All the species of Gymnogramme from self-sown spores. Fronds thrice pinnatifid. chrysophylla. 66x slender. 1 to 6 inches upper part powdered. Powder of variable hue. TRIANGULARIS (triangular). pinnately cut. Pinn^ nearly lance-shaped. is the best known. with a scale-like involucre attached by a broad base and sides. canariensw. lowest largest. G.

clothed with hair-like scales. Lower pinnae lance-shaped-triangular. The rhizome is of climbing habit. 4 to 6 inches long.! An^nic-a and Polyiu-.-r Tiopi. Thf soli aiv Mtu. should be piled up above the rim of the pot. Irathery. Introduced from Java. to which it will attach itself. They are also suitable for basket- DICKSONIAS Natural Order Filices. ])ICKM)NIA (iiHinrd in Genus Dicksoaia honour of James . four times pinnate. and. Many of the species are Tree F. or similar body.. of one of the most cherished of travellers' tales. and appeared to furnish conclusive eviduucc ot tliu truth This was />. D. Rhizome creeping. A gvnu. coming from St. .r . Evergreen. a cryptogamic botanist).i. Not evergreen. "Rhizome stout. with entire more oval segments. The in fibrous peat grown rhizome should not be covered with soil. the old trunk of a Tree Fern. each occupying an lobe of a pinnule. but much larger. Fronds 8 to 12 inches long.FLOWERS OF GARDEN AND GREENHOUSE Davallia bullata (blistered). Jia . 9 to 12 inches triangular. Squirrel's-foot Fern. of Movr and greenlumse Ferns. there grows a plant r. Stove. with somewhat rhomboid segments. . slightly pegged down until its roots are lolly .ru^ ^^itl. across. Greenhouse. t.-n. first • • species i • of this genus to be nitro(kicefl to cultivation m this country. .<.sp. densely scaly. Helena in 178G but another . oblong. in and the story founded upon it the deserts of Scythia. similar to that l>'i ''ill iii was to the utilct that. Stipes stout.'!>' >rr^r(i> s . D.ill ^tmis aiM l. Stipes erect. a plant with ci-i't'[)ing ol" rlii/oine densely clad in silky hair-like scales rirDsis.vhich and sand.species liad li^ng bim known to fame. Fronds 1 to 1 J foot long. . .it-d nr. erect. I . The sori are minute./ .si. Lower pinna3 lance-shaped. CANARiENSis (Canary Islands). thc • . of climbing habit should have the growing point of the rhizome placed against a length of Virgin Cork. cliiefiy nat^.ii-v.thr iiini-'in of ilu. Sori.snii'ni History. triangular.><(:.:. and evergreen. . Native of Europe and the Canaries.iVond and at tlie extremity Jhr/.». Davtillias should be . but simply pressed in. bullata. 1855. Native of Sori half-cup-shaped. if Those necessary. Tropical Asia. \vas i .cir. Similar to D. 3 to 4 inches long. much-divided fronds. 4 to 8 inches across. DissECTA (dissected).

in the living state. Fronds 6 to 9 feet long . lance-shaped. Greenhouse. thrice pinnate. This little lamb grows upon a stem. but the stem should be syringed frequently. mixture of two parts peat to one of loam. JJ. not only to the roots. of Dantzig. rhomb-shaped. head. Stem erect and slender. Specimens were brought to this country testifying to the truth of this story. to 2 feet diameter. rough. and. Barometz. with the bases of stipes of the fallen fronds. who published a true account of in D. and its skin covered with soft down. Breyne. and tail distinctly formed. It was not until the year 1725 that the story was "blown upon" by Dr. divided into oblong segments. thrice pinnate. rough. D. and sufficient sand to keep the whole open.DICKSONIAS 663 resembling a lamb. Trunk 30 feet 1 high. from which it bends down to crop the grass around it. was also introduced in 1824 from Australia. it is part of the creeping rhizome. feet long. SQUARROSA (rough). They should be grown in pots or tubs. scaly. where it has been for more than a hundred years. with the basal portions of four stipes cut to equal length to serve as legs. scales. Greenhouse. a Tree Fern. suitable for these plants. As a matter of fact. Pinnules slender. it. when inverted. ^ inch wide. was introduced from China 1824. dvtdrctica. with feet. Native of New Zealand. Stipes 1 foot long. this has a very lamb-like aspect. spreading. with dense Pinna? Fronds oblong-triangular.. and may be placed outside during the A warm summer months. and one of these is still to be seen in the British Museum. will be found most A liberal supply of water should be given. with lance-shaped segments. Pinnae 1 to 2 pinnules narrow. . Stipes 6 to 12 inches long. DiCKSONiA ANTARCTICA (Antarctic).


lOO. 101 A.L 28 ml nun 401 . \itifoliiitn r .utlioi i 100 101 dhire of lOl 10 > of 101 toi I omtiiin laUemaiiehe h of 100 uituimnlL ^S 28 1 aiLitum rhmen<.1 Ulllltl >l Acnosum. I i . 100 I 1. xltint of -iV) \.ll«lgIlL.

V). 103. 13. \ Ju4onj Agci.r.!'" 9 V'"'' ^^ naiWiiM'. G31. 2f!().muiii.' 12. AVeiidbiiidi. 101..'\v). SW. 631. '.^^\^. 10.'aiuntlmMmibullatu^r>87..H7.' Hookeri. | ^einperviren>.ulo.(w/. H)l.. ' Altf../.j. loO. plnh. 103. pubaLi]la.1n3. /uVon/ o/-. pJah. <i'lhi)eof.10.E^chyiunthus 449. r. 2r. firifolia. A<. ivgalc.3.(^e:>3l. Agro^ti. jau^uicu^ 119. 2G().'l()3.120.'ndiduin. jan>?. 1(. '^atkuticiim.H._(n3. ^™.ri3.296. 2r)9.-. 031. 103.9. inexicanuiii. i l^yhZTniyo'.knvnthkkv^ 182-184. officinalis 102.]ap. 401.^! polyanthes l)r. luont. -pe. 631. . 449.. 102. 104. couy/oide-. 10. 11.Tulfiun.Kl..r7/ of. :.mioa. lo^ii^ 4oO.:)88. ™arla' c\nhmlf.iVeo/.'l. n/i<. ^ palmata. 10. 2G0. G31. d. lindenianiiiu. 2.. ' Ilepitiai. caribaM. c. lobbianu^ Altha. ?^/.2. pU'h j horter^^i-.l. ]dn ''\ of. iii-igne. 2o9. inaiitii'iumi. 103. 103. .«ea. .9. nilforeof.acannabina.itiim oHl.9. longilloru^. ro. 102. j .guio.iti'n^i-.

: .gilioidc^. 2 )4 l.^ lonjrifohus.MgiU. 2.

Sliulb\ 230 .

}:>!>.33].INDEX .' .hiun. . 33(1.

is.. cucxnthcmuni.Clniu Kost. 23h plale 147 uidiflorii-. 61 ) saidcu'. i ')2 nina.. 289 Pnthemuiii. hcpt'i. 61 plate n7 237. 289 T .

' ]n>tnni„f..436 | I uahiKlum 46? 1 aiduii. / .i>lat.200 ui.////..(. i gibhilloia. oibiculiU. hi. UK) ' roKVL'^''7Kl'LS. 408 in.s I Aliiioi ot clw uonii.408 407.4(. 43') 1)7 CorulloNNU 2''" ^ Mnunt >" 4i5 \ I .. of. J()0 <^iU)fliHoi 1. 4(}S._>. 107.toi^ culture of. 407. 138-14 . 43 | >.-i MoUcLd.


21. DyerMhu. .™.-Mwc-ul gmndifloniiii. I ::s:.. i tlmli<fi'itnl .:f2>.


'"i :t.— '"" .

INDEX ctkVilui<ui.<)-2f. •t< 2o^ 2(.J.5'>l/. tnanguluisGO tiifoliritci. :'>o GOO (»/^«/^ o/. GGI .

HONEYbUCklJ^ Hornbeam.. - 5f. 4')"i .HoN^Ti.

051.. is]i.s. pl^^t^ i KiirAtas^lilgniV:. 556. .' Liolid albid.-.49.'. It's. . ancop-. .i 3f.

.Truiuiiet. Libonia flor Lobelia cardinalis. 6-2ii. 217. 334. spicata LiBOXIAH. 333.

. plate.oLDs. K.i. .28:->.. i 289.MAHMf . Mhi'hi Mallo\r. plate 143a. 17. . l'ii'nch.Corn. lil'. 120. Eig 242- 244.M via.

inl .lvinu. 5G2.HK ()h. 561.62.— fi/?(^ri! Xarcis. 472..i.\n(. i Ii. Moss Cam I . .a". ->r)!)A. poclicus./„. 1!)4. r. Junciuilla.. 5G1 "'* M.siirt r)(.n(' uiii'i'^' cSta '-"gallic | ^i^^r^ing Sor ' ' ' Polyantliu.-uln. o/. Mnn. IVeudo-iiarcissus.INDEX ]Vrirabili'. liKJ. rnUun: of. /. 5G2 M. 471.s. 561./. t)8] Bulbocodiuiii 5G1. I I p/'f^.

Oxlip. 30. 652. 241. orientalis. hnmilis. Orange. 214. 359. history of 652. 215. 524. (Enothera acaulis. multiHora. sensibilis. pulchelliun.Odoxtoglots. 30. culture of. 119. 120. 615. 525 triumphans. amcena. 29. cultxhre of. Moutan. 120. culture histm-y of. history of 241. 242. 241. 523-526. 119. enneaphvlla. nigricans. plate 105. 241. 52( decora. plate culture of 121. 29. 30 (fronfis- . Floribunda. 193. 653. of. 194. 524. corniculata. 52^ Rossii. 215. history of. plate unibellatum. 526. Mock. 652. 652. biennis. Onoclea germanica. 652. 120. 120. 215. Oranges. Onopordon Acantliium. 125-127. Eafinefsqiiii. plate 307.

iiur. 109. 109.BouThon. Date. 132. ( ncheri."). 621. lnjhrids of. 623. I'eriwinklo. 619. 48.. 49. lilate 57. Large. 619. tv-^vhin. pldte 2!)2. miliaria. Itatiiin. Cocoanut. grandilloruin. 471.i. Wall. 110. plnte gravfolens.2Dl. 372. 227. iM-li. Eastlndiaii Wine.iiMi.G-22. ercifolinm. 109. 1 . Curlv. 22. \VriphtiiJ4 Cocos. 415. 394. plate 55. 618.plate.110. e of. Perilla nankinenso. 617. phde IVppcr. 202. 625. uberopa. 623.. 109.i. :. 625.

74-81. 624.'356 . .") cHltine o/. 38<3.38o. T)iw'38G I europari. ph>t>' :i[)•^ . /jlute 37 pamculata. .. 35.i Po?pn's^S crew.

'n!!t tin ^u\<\u^^^ 1 l'(. 173 g/uiithi uiui .tonj ofl 172.h>. (\/) I'lulT i .

Santolina alpina. 148. 80.«<^s 73-78. 149. ceiitifolia. Guelder. 148. imlica. pbifes.6».(n. Tea.. 15.. 407. ir. y-/--i. llosK 148. 75. triloba.etto. Rosemary.i. a/urea. (. lncida. 467. 466. 148. 80. of. Perpetual.' 2>l^iL 'ikVikX'. Mu^k. hL'vigata. 14^.tifolia. boliviana.JJuurboii. Sa . 109.uli. 153.1. caralijefolia.2.1.. leucantha. fepim>is.n-e of.alen>is. . . lo^afoliu-s.osus. :^[oss. 249. 466.<>-ca.o. li.(k ]U>VKwrri.siaciciilans. 154. 154. 286.«^e45. ocvnundes. 99. alba.iiia.-. 169. 165.}. 467 (ioudotii. 148. llo. 169. 45. rrl.. 197. 407. Mallows. 148. chama'Cspan-^Mis ^^. Wilidin Allen RichardWiinkleci. 467.flora.onaria'ca-pitosa. 4C nenieriana. Cherokee.160. 147. 148. Cabbage. 467.V.u. 148.^286. purpurea. loO. 149. 466. 466. b. ]^KkeU'au(lvtufL. Ivia all.ns..rulea.i>[:. 149. 152. Hietigci'a. 150. conlertillora. Uudbeckia' ' aniplexicauli. po. 149. ruU.V hi.. 148. plates 74.31 plde 73.:^. al]. - 149. seiupei-vireiis.:i. 80. o.-iMrtabilis. 407. 148.147-163.. pl<dc splendens. JioseofShar(m. Common.l. 149.inusothcinalis. 148. 109. ])ratensis. inuscliaU. 250.91. 153. 310. 4f Verbena.-/-^'. 422.148. 147.-k Camlvtuft. Painter'. 400. n'//. gi^lIonj. 466. ]io. cauiiia. Ku. involncrata.o. J5(. apeciosa. 287.-. 49. Sa nguinaria canaden^ ralilnr of. 79. ]{ni:K-i \u:>:^./"'"-)ri'*:i''-yf. 86. imisettiana.iulVra.lbu-'l. ]iatens. 07. Heerii. plnle 202. 467.•antissin. Itock Soa]>wort. 151. 467. 168.^ rugo':sa''i53. 287. piimata.470. lutea. hemisi>henca. l. 400. oliinnalis.'l51. Kosma. irXJ. t.iiiia. lutea. . 98. plalc borbouica. 119. Kosi:s. 470..' 151.i.nHm (lamascena. 169. plafc -li..' Sa . 153.m l. 148. luiuiatus.3. o>imala.2>. xNoL. 1(>7 ge«nera. sinica.:>0.-5.<e. 154. J 50. ollicinalis. 86. 154. 169.itiorus. ((xrinea. 466 I'ulg. imiltirtora. plaf Buniut. 15^!. 149. 286. 148.(H). 465. 73. i:A. rutilans. 15.' 286.15l. 48. uitkla.o/.nj Sand 405. 472. gallica. hi\h.<toni of. 4 angu.pluL2t^. 8 calabrica.

i> . 258. 422.2 125. \vell)iiuia. 422. 202. liookeii. Moss 258. 644. Selagiru'lla apuir.}jious. of. 259. 259.'82. 258. history of.Saxilriige Pawim-llow -i'onicunf?i)3 acauliH. 125. stellata. ii. 258.-l-2d. 258. hidonj i. . iKo/!'2(jt"205. plate 258. .lidus.

history of 145. I SpiREA. UiH. . j)?( 97. alrop Ani-mone.: . 050. I pui-puroa. Stoiiecroi). luni acantliocle?. 192-194.^alicifolia. 050. Stokesia cyanea. 48. Small Indian (Jres's. gig. 410.' 400/410. Ulrnaria. | niarginatuiu. 431. liiling. 49. 140. 48. . Swi-d.lula. 2O2-205. plat 145. 118. 48.otropurpurcuni. 146. I 018-051. . 327. 47. I 92. I Stocks. 261. SNAi'uaAuoxs/430. iR-'ricitulia. Sultan. I lamx'olii. (Jreat Sea. 308. 10. I ^faulenliaii'. 409. Japanesk. I 145. 124. japoiiica.— Siimiiigia contd.98. 124. 447.n. lanceoLita. Queen. 409. 147. 409. Melongt'iia. 145. 44G. ' 2iJAite'. 202.intea. Si'LKKNWORTs. plale Stoke's Aster. 4S. 409 aviiulare. 410 antliroj)or)]iagoruni. 146.M)\). 308. I Great Cape. 143. cuUttre of. | Sea. plati'. vlilu^^f!}. Siii)a ek-ganlis-^ima. Stoneciioi's. 309. culture of.

gri(lia. 285.imber^malata 45^ giandifloia. luiLetuni ieuL(jpli>]luiii.552 hitea.i. n2. 311 210 ligu^ llowci of. vulgare. 259 lea Shrub.lotc 255 J'l '(< Wild. 457 TdgLtcs electa. Vsa .2.ibel.itiaU. 94 Te. T.

I maritima. 250. pinguifolia. i)ar\ itlora. Creek. siipina. tenera. Vakriati. Tiuus. j>hfc j Wigaiulia luacT'opliYlla. 442. 460. Oi)ulu. 4(>0.i i>hmt.: : . 442... 250. 442. 2>l(n. Vci-beua AuWelia. Uinl. 460. 249.rell. -2. 391. 460. 2^lide plilogi flora. plicatum. 187.