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Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010

CHAPTER 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES
The World through our senses Stimuli and responses in plants

senses

Light and sight

Sound and hearing

Touch (skin)

Properties of light

Properties of sound

Phototropism (light)

Smell (nose)

Vision defects

Reflection and a sorption

!eotropism (gra"ity)

Taste (tongue)

Optical illusions

limitations

Hydrotropism (#ater)

Hearing (ear)

Stereoscopic and monocular

stereophonic

Thigmotropism (mo"e to#ard) $astic mo"ement (mo"e run a#ay)

Sight (eye)

1.1

Sensory Organs and Their Functions

Sensory Organs and Their Stim !i 1. Humans being have five main sensory organ, which are skin, nose, tongue, ears and eyes. 2. Sense detects stimuli, that is changes in surroundings around us!. ". Five senses# i. sight ii. hearing iii. touch iv. taste v . smell $. Senses are %art of the body called sensory organs. &. 'hanges or ob(ect that can detect by our senses are called stimuli. ). The ability of the sensory organs to detect stimuli is called senses. *. +ll the sensory organs are com%lete with sensory rece%tors, that is the nerve endings that can detect stimuli. Stimuli ,ight -rightness, colour! Sound Touch, heat, cold, %ain, %ressure Sweet, sour, bitter, salty Smell or odors Sense Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell Sensory organ .ye .ar Skin Tongue /ose

Our sensory organs are used to detect stim !i Singular# stimulus!. heat.auyeung. 2.auyeung. + stimulus is anything that causes a reaction in a living organism.htm htt%#00freda.auyeung.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 . ".2 The summary of the %athway from stimulus to res%onse 1.net0&senses0smell.net0&senses0hear. .g. sound. chemicals.net0&senses0touch.htm htt%#00freda. 2hen a stimulus is detected.net0&senses0see.htm htt%#00freda. rece%tor cells in the sensory organ will be triggered and generate im%ulses.htm htt%#00freda. These im%ulses will be transmitted through the nerve and than to the brain. htt%#00freda.auyeung. e. 1ain.2 The Path"ay #rom Stim ! s to Res$onse Stimulus Sensory organs /erves -rain /erve 3es%onse P%R &' Figure 1.auyeung.net0&senses0taste.aman web.htm 1.

net0&senses0touch. For easy access. .ar Stimulus a! .3'5S. go to www.ye 2 Tongue " . Stim ! s → Sensory organ → Ner(es → )rain → Ner(es →Res$onse .Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 $.icd.my 1. Organ involve in the detection of touch stimulus is the skin.brainpop.htm Go to www. Sensory organ 1 . This information is than sent back to the sensory organ through the nerve to %rovide res%onses. 2.ight a! 'hemical substance a! Sound a! 'hemical substance a! 'old 1ressure 1ain Heat $ /ose & Skin 6etected by sense of b! Sight b! Taste b! hearing b! smell b! touch Sense o# To *h P%R &+ htt%#00freda. The sense of touch is the sense that is sensitive towards the touch stimulus %rovided by s%ecific ob(ects.com/health/integumentary/skin/index.auyeung. &.weml Watch a movie on the skin.4.com. The brain will further %rocess and inter%ret the im%ulse signals as s%ecific information than the organism has to res%ond to.

g! The %art or our body contain rece%tor are called sensory organs h! These rece%tor have nerves attached to them 6raw figure 1. heat rece%tor iv. %ain rece%tor ii. c! Our body have different ty%es of rece%tors. &. %age ) $. heat and cold rece%tors are in the dermis. cold rece%tor v. the more sensitive the skin is to the stimulus b! Number of receptors present 183 9& • The more rece%tors found on the skin the more sensitive is that %art of the skin. %ressure rece%tor d! The %ain rece%tor is in the e%idermis. touch rece%tor iii.". e! The touch. The %art of the body that are not so sensitive to touch are the# a! elbow b! knee c! %alm of the hand and sole of the foot d! buttocks0hi% *. The %ressure rece%tors are in the fat layer. The %arts of the body usually chosen by the doctor for in(ection are along the u%%er arm and the buttocks. f! . . These are# i. fat layer subcutaneous layer 7 adi%ose layer 7 fat layer! b! 3ece%tors are cell in our body that detected stimuli. The degree of sensitivity of the skin de%ends on the# a) Thickness of the epidermis • The thinner the e%idermis. dermis. The %art of the body that have thin e%idermis and many rece%tors sensitive to touch are a! li%s b! fingerti%s c! behind the ears d! arm%it e! the back of the neck ). Structure of human skin# a! The skin divided into three layer e%idermis.ach ty%e of rece%tor can detect only one %articular stimulus.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 ". This is because these %arts have thick e%idermis and fewer rece%tors.

There are five ty%es of ?? ??? in the skin sensitive to various stimuli.com. The ???????? rece%tors there are on the skin. The skin is an organ of ?????????????????? 2. Prevents entry of microorganisms that cause illnesses . ). Water proof < %revent water loss from skin. the more sensitive it is to stimulus. ii. S%ELL htt%#00freda.com/htm/body/html. i. iv.auyeung. The sensitivity of the skin de%ends on the ??????????? of the e%idermis and the ???????????? rece%tors on the skin. iii. the more sensitive it is to stimulus. For easy access.. 3ece%tors number thickness thinner sense of touch touch more 1. &.net0&senses0smell.innerbody. $.icd. choose `nervous system’ and click on the `nose’ for detailed information.htm Go to www. v. -raille is a code made u% of small raised dots on %a%er. go to www. The ???????????? the e%idermis. ". urea and mineral salts. Produces Vitamin in the %resence of the sunlight. . >uick check Fill in the blank with the suitable terms given in the bo=.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 :.my mucus . Other functions of the human skin. -lind %eo%le use their ???? to hel% them read -raille THE SENSE O. !tabilise body temperature < sweat glands %roduce more sweat to cool the body if body tem%erature rises. -lind %eo%le use their sense of touch to read -raille. Remove waste products < e=cess water.

The inside of the nasal cavity %roduce mucus & The chemical va%or entering nose during breathing dissolves in mucus. The nose is sensory organ for smell. $. a. %age . The smell rece%tor then %roduce im%ulse which are sent through the nerves to the brain & The brain inter%rets 0 evaluates the smell . The human nose has a cavity lined with e%ithelium tissue. The nasal cavity has a %air of e=ternal o%ening nostrils! which have hair to filter dust from the air inhaled through the nose. d. 6raw figure 1. 2. The surface of the nasal cavity is moist because of the mucus secreted by the cells of a gland. Structure of the human nose. ".Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Sensory 'ells smell rece%tors! /erve to brain /ose +ir in % nostril /asal cavity tongue 3oof of the mouth 1. b. The nose detects smell in the following way. c. On the surface of the e%ithelium tissue are the sensory cells known as olfactory cells. The dissolve chemicals stimulates the smell rece%tor at the to% of the nasal cavity. 'ells sensitive to smell smell rece%tors! are found on the to% of the nasal cavity.:.

htm draw figure 1. 2here are the smells rece%tors found@ he to% of t he nasal cavity 2. ). a lot of mucus is %roduce. The tongue detects taste in the following way# 6issolved substance % taste rece%tors % message %brain % ty%e of taste &. The surface of the tongue has grou%s of cells known as taste buds which are sensitive to taste. 183 9" $. bitter.This e=%lains why food dose not taste a%%etiAing when we have a cold or flu because we cannot smell effectively . The smell rece%tors are surrounded by this thick layer of mucus and vary little of chemical va%or gets to the smell rece%tors. 2. TASTE htt%#00freda. Therefore. sour and salty. + stronger smell will be detected by the nose easily com%ared with a weaker smell. the nose cannot function effectively as a sensory organ of smell The sensitive rece%tor cells covered with mucus block the chemical substances from stimulating the smell rece%tors. + lot of mucus will reduce the sensitivity of the nose.19. ." 1. THE SENSE O. the smell rece%tors do not get stimulated enough to effectively function as a sensory organ of smell. The %resence of mucus in the nose. The sensitivity of the nose towards stimuli is influenced by the following factors# 183 9& i. The strength of the smell. %age 11 1. ii.auyeung.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 &. 2hen we have a cold or flu.net0&senses0taste. The sense of smell hel%s the sense of taste . There are four ty%es of taste buds on the tongue sensitive to sweet . >uick check 1.=%lain why when we have cold or flu . ". The tongue is the sensory organ for taste.

my 1. ii.: Structure of the human tongue and the areas of taste on the tongue The Taste and the Sense o# Sme!! Go to www. 2hen we eat. Sense o# THE SENSES O. The inner ear.brainpop. The ear is the sense organ that is sensitive to sound stimuli %roduced by vibrating ob(ect.icd.1&. 2. filled with air. HEAR-NG htt%#00freda.com.htm 1.$. %age 1& .. i. + human ear has three main %art. %age 1$ ". our tongue gives us the taste and our nose smell of the food. For easy access. filled with liBuid 6raw figure 1.net0&senses0hear. Salin table 1. Function of the different %arts of the human ear. +ll our sense work together#< sense of smell and taste are s%ecial %artner 2. go to www. iii. filled with air.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 Figure 1.auyeung.com/health/senses/taste/ Watch a short movie on taste and try a quiz about taste. the outer ear. The middle ear.

3.+3 1art OCT.3 . balance the body %osition. .ukis01hotostat figure 1.ardrum 8566.+3 'ochlea semicircular canals auditory nerves . transmits sound waves to the eardrum. transmits sound vibrations from the middle ear to the inner ear. balances the air %ressure at both side of the eardrum. .Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 The Hearing 8echanism . 1. send messages to the brain which inter%rets the messages as sound.imitations of hearing. 2. The range of freBuencies of hearing in man is 29 HA until 29 999 HA. vibrates and transmits sound waves to the ossicles. following table shows the range of freBuencies of hearing of several animals# The function collects and directs sound waves into the ear canal.ustachian tube oval window 5//. HC8+/ . transforms sound vibrations into im%ulses.. intensify the vibrations of the sound waves by 22 times before transmitting to the oval window./T 1+3TS OF TH.+3 Ossicles . 2e cannot hear all the sounds around us.+3 1inna ear canal 0 auditory canal .3 .1) m0s 1& FC/'T5O/S OF 65FF.

ii. Our ear drum become less sensitive to sound as we grow older. old %eo%le generally cannot hear as well as young %eo%le.uk/hearing aids/twoEarsBetter.co. iii. To overcome the limitations of hearing.S 199<:99HA &9<19 999HA 19<&9 999HA )9<)9 999HA 1999<129 999HA 199<1& 999HA 19<&9HA ".my 1.shtml Find out more about stereophonic hearing from this website or other websites. 6ifferent %eo%le have different limitations of hearing. we use i.wardless. hearing aids E collects sound signals before being sent to the middle ear. $./'5.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 +/58+. the stethosco%e E enables doctor to detect the soft heartbeats of %atients. iii.icd. This is because the ear nearer the source of sound receives sound louder and earlier than the other ear. 2. )( sound can transferred throughF . For easy access.com. snake frog dog cat bat grassho%%er whale 3+/D. Stereo%honic hearing is hearing using both ears. Stereo%honic hearing Go to : http://www. go to www. . For e=am%le. ii. ). of F3. 1ro%erties of sound see %age 1) science volume 1! '( The transfer of sound reBuires a medium.>C. enables the direction of the source of hearing to be detected more accurately. +nimals that have stereo%honic sound can detect the %resence of %reys and %redators more Buickly. &. am%lifier E boosts weak sound signals. The advantages of stereo%honic hearing# i.

. 2. Structure of the human eye# 183 9$ i. the choroids middle! and iii. metal and mirror $. . OF S5DHT htt%#00freda. Sound can be reflected or absorbed by the surface of an ob(ect. +( This is because the %articles in solids and liBuids are closer each other com%ared to the molecules in gases. The sense of sight is the sense that can detect light stimulus. even and hard are good sound reflectors and %roduce loud echo. car%et and cushion. S1. *( Sound can be transferred fastest in solids and slowest in gases./S. hollow and soft are good sound absorbers and %roduce weak echo.( Gacuum is s%ace that does not have any %articles. 8. ". solids liBuids gases cannot be transferred through in vacuum. cork.. concrete. The sound reflected re%eatedly from one surface is known as echo.6 of SOC/6 m0s! "$9 1&99 ")99 &999 )999 S.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 b. For e=am%les cloth. rubber.auyeung. -( S%eed of sound transferred in various media. c.net0&senses0see. e. d. Surfaces that are smooth. Surfaces that are rough. The function of each %art of the eye.htm 1. 2. s%onge.65C8 +ir 2ater 2ood 5ron Steel 3eflection and absor%tion of sound 1. the retina innermost! lukis ra(ah m0s 22 ". the sclera outermost! ii. For e=am%les. %lank.

focusing distant ob(ect. The eye lens becomes thinner. Focusing near ob(ects To focus near ob(ects onto the retina. the ciliary muscles contract. elastic conve= lens retina o$ti* ner(e 8echanism of Sight 183 9". The eye lens focuses the image onto the retina by changing the thickness of the eye lens. draw figure HHow do we seeI m0s 2" . 2. ii. i. the ciliary muscles rela=. The lens in the human eye is a trans%arent conve= lens. To focus distant ob(ects onto the retina. 9* 1. ". .ight rays are refracted by the eye lens. The eye lens become thicker. n*ti(a iris $ $i! Lens P%R &/ *i!iary m s*!e s $$orti(e !igament (itreo s h mo r a0 eo s h mo r Structure 0 characteristic function Trans%arent and 3efracts and focuses light onto the retina.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 1ela(ar diminta mencari maklumat ini isi maklumat se%erti (adual dibawah! %art s*!era *ornea *horoids *on. +n inverted image is focused on the retina. The thickness of the lens is changed by the ciliary muscles.

999. ".2* %age 2$ . .ight can be reflected.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 . 3efraction of light. 183 9". i.%hys. u%right iii. .. we can see the ob(ect. htt%#00www.ufl. *( The image in a %lane mirror is. 9& 1. 9* .999 m0s in glass ".ight and sight 1. ii. .+1O3+/ 1.%dfJsearchKHwhatL29is L29incidentL29andL29reflectedL29rayI '( . 9). 2.999. "99. the same siAe as the ob(ect v.=%eriment %age 2&. draw figure 1. 3eflection of light. 22&. 2.999 m0s in water iii. light travels at a s%eed of F i.ight is a form of energy.ight travels in a straight lines. 183 9". This ha%%ens when light travels from one trans%arent medium to another which is of a different density. 3efraction of light is the bending of light.ight travels through media like air. water and glass. 299.999. thatIs mean change direction! )( 2hen the reflected light rays enter our eyes. laterally inverted iv.M+ 1 Garious defect of vision. The s%eed of light decrease when light enters a denser medium.999 meter0second m0s! in the air. the same distance behind the mirror as the ob(ect is in mirror. virtual cannot be formed on a screen! ii. .edu0<delamater0o%tics?%ictures.

1.org0e=em%larchem0entries029920u%ton0defects?of?the?eye. 2. Two common vision defects are long"sightedness hy%ermetro%ia! and short" sightedness myo%ia!. H'om%arison between long<sightedness and short<sightednessI Short<sightedness 1. 'auses of defect 1osition of image of ob(ect 6iagram .chemsoc.ong<sightedness Sym%toms of defect. 'om%arison between long<sightedness and short<sightedness.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 htt%#00www. 1. 2. 6ifferences .htm 1.

ihat %ower %oint 'orrection method ". . . the image formed on the retina is distorted and not clear haAy0blurred!. The image of the ob(ect formed at the blind s%ot cannot be seen by the eye because there are no light<sensitive cells %hotorece%tors! at the blind s%ot.indianchild.=%eriment se%erti ms 2. This defect can be overcome by wearing glasses with cylindrical lenses or contact lens or by surgery. $ptical illusion. 5ts caused by the cornea and the eye lens that are not evenly curved. ii.$1 %age "9 %.com0"dL29main%age. . draw figure 1. O%tical illusion occurs when the brain cannot inter%ret im%ulses received %ro%erly. i. iii. &lind spot i.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 . +s a result. ii. htt%#00www.htm i. #stigmatism is another vision defect. ii.=am%les of o%tical illusion. $.michaelbach. The blind s%ot is a s%ot on the retina of the eye that cannot detect light stimulus.de0ot0 htt%#00www.

5ts disadvantage is that it cannot estimate distance accurately. &.$2 %age "9 +%%ro%riate devices to overcome the limitations of sight Go to www. O%tical devices are invented to increase the ability to see minute or very distant ob(ects. See three<dimensional %ictures of ob(ects. draw figure 1. *. 5/ST3C8.htm 1. a. to see far<off ob(ects such as stars and %lanets.com.google. 1.com0sterea0"dvision.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 8onocular and stereosco%ic vision. Type LASIK or PRK . to see tiny distant ob(ects such as birds in the sky. .nables more accurate estimation of distance and %osition. 2. The overla%%ing area of the vision of both the left and right eyes is called stereosco%ic field "./T 8icrosco%e Telesco%e -inocular 8agnifying FC/'T5O/ To see minute ob(ects such as microorganisms and bacteria. draw figure 1. The advantage of monocular vision is having a wide vision field. The stereosco%ic vision is vision using both eyes. c. htt%#00nA%hoto. +nimal %reys use monocular vision to detect %redators coming from all direction. you can get more information about the latest technologies to correct the different types of defects of vision.$" %age "1 $. +nimal %redators normally have stereosco%is vision so better estimate the distance when getting to %ounce on their %rey. +dvantages of stereosco%ic vision. b.tri%od. to magnify tiny ob(ects to become glass larger than . ). 8onocular vision is a vision using only one eye.

.. 9: b. Drowth away from an e=ternal stimulus is known as negative tro%ism.com.+/TS.icd. ..html Click on `24 plant hormones and nutrition’ then `plants respond to external stimuli’. ".. 8ovements of any %lant %arts towards stimuli are known as tro%ic movement or tro%ism.emc. b.S1O/S. 5/ 1. "$.Science Form 2 note Teacher zaidi@maher2010 original... Ty%e of tro%ism# a.. go to www. ST58C... "& masukkan gambar ra(ah sekali N. /astic movement E move run away < Salin nota sendiri dari buku teks m0s ""..tammat... NNNN..maricopa. Tro%ism res%onses in %lants include# a... 9: d. For easy access.. 1hototro%ism 183 9". Deotro%ism 183 9) c.5 +/6 3..edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Biobook TOC. Thigmotro%ism E move towards E to obtain su%%ort e..my 1. Drowth of %lant %art towards an e=ternal stimulus is known as %ositive tro%ism. 2. Hydrotro%ism 183 9". Go to www.