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NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735

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NDT&E International
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Damage detection in concrete using coda wave interferometry
Dennis P. Schurra, Jin-Yeon Kima, Karim G. Sabrab, Laurence J. Jacobsb,n
a b

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405, USA

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 29 April 2011 Received in revised form 11 July 2011 Accepted 20 July 2011 Available online 2 August 2011 Keywords: Coda wave interferometry Diffuse ultrasound Acoustoelasticity Concrete Damage detection

a b s t r a c t
Coda wave interferometry (CWI) is a nondestructive evaluation technique for monitoring wave velocity changes in a strongly heterogeneous medium as demonstrated in previous seismic and acoustic experiments. The multiple-scattering effect in such a medium promotes the rapid formation of a diffuse field, and waves can travel much longer than the direct path, and thus are more sensitive to small changes occurring in the medium. This research applies the CWI technique in conjunction with acoustoelastic measurements to characterize two different types of damage in concrete: damage due to thermal shock and dynamic cyclic loading. The diffuse ultrasonic signals are taken at different levels of compressive stress and then relative velocity changes are extracted using the CWI technique. The relative velocity change (or the material nonlinearity) increases considerably with increasing damage level in most samples for both types of damage. The feasibility and sensitivity of this CWI-based technique in characterizing damage in cement-based materials are demonstrated. & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction In 2006, concrete and cement-based materials were, by volume, the largest manufactured in the world [1]. Due to this prevalence, concrete structures such as buildings, bridges, roads, and parking garages are currently of special focus from a structural health monitoring perspective. Therefore, development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for cement-based materials is attracting much attention, especially for a quantitative evaluation of small-scale damage in the microstructure. Detection of damage at an early stage of degradation may significantly reduce maintenance costs and prevent a catastrophic failure of these structures. Cracks at this stage are much smaller than the size of aggregate, and thus cannot be reliably detected and characterized with the conventional techniques based on ultrasonic velocity and/or attenuation measurements. Examples of typical damage include thermally induced microcracks and chemo-mechanical damage due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) (see, for example, Chapter 5 in Ref. [1]). Numerous new nondestructive evaluation techniques have recently been developed for a quantitative evaluation of these types of damage [2–4]. Among others, diffuse ultrasonic techniques have been successful in detecting damage in a laboratory environment (see, for example, Ref. [4]), showing a high potential for in-field measurements of real concrete structures.

n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 1 404 894 2344; fax: þ 1 404 894 0168. E-mail address: laurence.jacobs@ce.gatech.edu (L.J. Jacobs).

It has been known that the later arrival signals (the so-called coda waves) in a diffuse acoustic/seismic signal carry rich information about the medium and effort has been made to develop techniques to systematically extract useful information from diffuse coda waves for the last several decades [5–7]. Snieder et al. [6] developed a technique called coda wave interferometry (CWI) to determine changes in the seismic velocity by correlating two nearly identical signals obtained from two closely spaced sensors at different times. Lobkis and Weaver [7] proposed an efficient signal processing technique called the stretch technique that uses the entire length or a large part of the recorded waveforms instead of just a small portion. In an ultrasonic CWI measurement, by launching ultrasonic waves and comparing two coda waves measured at different conditions (e.g. at different stress levels) the relative changes in wave velocity can be extracted. The velocity changes may be caused by damage and/ or microstructure modifications in the medium at the wavelength scale. Recently, a few researchers have applied the CWI technique to concrete samples. Larose and Hall [8] proposed an ultrasonic CWI experimental method based on the use of the stretch technique and demonstrated high accuracy of their experimental method in measuring the stress-dependent velocity changes in concrete. Payan et al. [9] performed CWI measurements on a concrete sample using ultrasonic waves polarized in three perpendicular directions and obtained a complete set of nonlinear elastic parameters. Their interesting results show that even in this multiple-scattering environment, ultrasonic diffuse waves have the memory of their initial polarization for a certain period of time; this fact was exploited to determine the dependence of the

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by using the scaling property of the Dirac delta function (stating that d(at) ¼ (1/a) Á d(t). recorded when the material is in its reference state (i.and third-order elastic constants of the material. ð1Þ which indicates that the modified propagation velocity. (1) takes a simple form when the recorded waveform h0(t). But the theoretical model defined by Eq. In this simple case. (2) provides a simplified first-order model for the acoustoelastic effect on the entire recorded time domain waveform. i. (2) only provides where b is the nonlinear elastic parameter. In this case.12]. the stretch parameter u(k) represents the relative variation of propagation velocity.g. the stretch technique (defined in Eq. The acoustoelasticity theory can be used to determine the linear change in the propagation velocity of a specific wave mode under a given stress increment Ds (with reference to the unstressed medium). Lillamand et al. It should be noted that an analytical derivation of the acoustoelastic constant A in Eq. Eq. The previous discussion focused on variations of the relative velocity due to applied external stress (see Eq. The acoustoelastic effect The relationship between stress (or strain) and elastic wave velocity is known as the acoustoelastic effect. obtained at a given stress or temperature increment k to match a reference waveform h0(t).g. the relationship is written as: uðkÞ ¼ V ð0Þ ÀV ðkÞ b ¼ ADsðkÞ ¼ À DsðkÞ . Damage due to thermal shock and mechanical cyclic loading are considered to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the developed measurement procedure. Eq. changes in material nonlinearity result from small variations in the microstructure of the tested sample. where d(t) denotes the Dirac delta function and V(0) denotes the propagation velocity in the reference stress state of the material. Otherwise. More recently.P. / NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735 729 velocity changes on the polarization for a given loading direction.e. the acoustoelastic effect can be modeled as a simple stretch or compression of the whole measured waveform in the time domain [13. via a calibration procedure). E V ð0Þ ð4Þ where n(t) accounts for additional variations. Hughes and Kelly [11] derived equations for the speed of elastic waves in a stressed solid based on the well-known Murnaghan’s theory of finite deformation [12]. Under this general formalism. the nonlinearity of the considered medium (b) is characterized by measuring the variations of the relative velocity on the applied external stress (A) as shown in Eq. The objective of this research is to develop a robust and reliable CWI-based technique for measuring stress-induced relative velocity changes and to apply the technique to evaluate different types of damage in concrete. for an arbitrary scalar parameter a). to the first order. V(k) associated with a given stress increment Ds(k) is V ð0Þ ð1ÀuðkÞ Þ. separated by a distance L.14].e. which would still be sufficient for structural monitoring purposes [13]. can be approximated as: hk ðt Þ ¼ h0 ðt ð1ÀuðkÞ ÞÞþ nðt Þ. the relationship between the waveform hk(t). change in propagation distance) on the propagating elastic waves are smaller by an order of magnitude than the stress effects and thus can be ignored [13]. In this case.14]. [9] and observed that velocity changes in concrete are about ten times higher than those in metals. it can be shown that the relative wave velocity change u(k) is directly proportional to the mode-averaged nonlinear elastic parameter [11. ðV ð0Þ ÀV ðkÞ Þ=V ð0Þ . Eq. Implementation of the coda wave interferometry Following the previous literature. Indeed. Note that u(k) o 0 (or u(k) 4 0) corresponds to a compressive (or tensile) stress. ð1ÀuðkÞ Þ V ð0Þ ð1ÀuðkÞ Þ ð3Þ 2. (1) is not limited to a specific damage mechanism. thermal loading [7]). such as reverberant or diffuse elastic fields where many modal components exist and interfere. The stretch factor of the time axis is noted by u. between a source-receiver pair.1. (3) is commonly used to describe the classical formulation of the acoustoelastic effect [13. it can be noted that Eq. and E is the elastic modulus. (1) represents then an extension to the classical formulation of the acoustoelastic effect [11]. longitudinal wave in an isotropic and homogenous elastic solid). such as electronic noise and weak decorrelation (or distortion) of the waveform hk(t) – with respect to h0(t) – not accounted for by the stretch parameter u(k) 5 1. More generally. The present technique uses a measurement setup and data processing technique similar to [8] and devices developed in our previous work [4]. only small stress increments are considered. As an illustration of the generality of the above formulation. (1) reduces to: hk ðt Þ ¼   1 L d t À . (2) is possible only for simple waveforms or experimental geometry [13. Schurr et al. The stretch parameter u(k) corresponds physically to the relative velocity change of the propagating waves. Consequently. [10] conducted experiments similar to those of Payan et al. the reference waveform can be simply modeled as h0(t) ¼ d(t À L/V(0)). When measuring complex recorded waveforms (resulting from the mixing of several wave types and polarizations). as given by Eq. under no incremental stress). the strain effects (i.e. in the onedimensional case. Theoretical background and methodology 2.g. contains only a single broadband wave or mode arrival (e. a means for measuring relative stress increment Ds(k) (e. in this research. with respect to an unstressed material). (1)) is implemented in practice by stretching (or squeezing) the waveform hk(t). Furthermore.D.14]. such as the ultrasonic diffuse fields measured in this study. Furthermore. In practice. various damage phenomena can affect the microstructure of the tested sample (e. (3) indicates that. the more general model stated in Eq. (3). the acoustoelastic constant A needs to be determined experimentally first (e. measured for a small stress increment Ds(k) (indexed by the parameter k) and the reference waveform h0(t). Eq.g.2. The quality of the match between the stretched and reference waveforms is . Eq. the stretch parameter uðkÞ 5 1 can be measured to estimate the level of nonlinearities induced by thermal loading as will be shown in the experimental section. (4). For more complicated recorded waveforms. (2)). 2. For example. the stress increment Ds(k) can be measured either from the change in the propagation velocity of a given transient wave or mode component. Indeed. This stretch parameter is assumed to be proportional to the stress increment Ds(k) to the first order: uðkÞ ¼ ADsðkÞ : ð2Þ The acoustoelastic constant A between the stretch parameter u(k) and the stress increment Ds(k) will vary depending on the specific polarization direction and the orientation of the local stress field as well as the second. if an absolute value of the stress increment Ds(k) is desired. Physically speaking. The acoustoelastic effect is treated here as a first order perturbation.

The water to cement ratio is 1 by volume. and a total of 11 steps on a load frame (SATEC 22 EMF). T2. For the thermal shock damage samples.6 cm  7. The stretching technique has recently been used by Larose and Hall [8] who noted that this stretching technique can be more precise than the doublet technique [4] by several orders of magnitude. and also to minimize capturing the ballistic waves. Mix design of the samples is shown in Table 1. possibly due to some initial settling in of the inherently more resilient components of the concrete. Each experiment includes one common step: the compressive loading on the sample to make the acoustoelasticity measurements as shown in Fig. the slope at lower loads is different from that at higher loads. which is in accordance with the acoustoelastic theory of Section 2. and it showed some inconsistency at the beginning of the loading. ultrasonic measurements are performed 4 times during the entire thermal exposure period.2133 1. The dimensions of all samples are 30. Samples and ultrasonic measurement Concrete samples are cast to perform ultrasonic measurements for different damage types that can cause velocity changes.3216 1. Schurr et al.84119 0.P. [16]. ASTM C1293 [15] and the mixing procedure The American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard. 3. but also the mechanical and ultrasonic properties of the entire batch of samples.6 cm (12  3  3 inches). A schematic of the acoustoelastic measurement setup is shown in Fig. 2(b). The received signal is amplified with a preamplifier (the receiver part of Panametrics 5058PR) in order to improve signal-to-noise ratio. the ultrasonic signals rk and sk are acquired and saved. 1.5 cm  7. Another fixture with a retainer spring that is designed to apply a constant force onto the transmitting transducer is also used. At each load step level. 2(a). The size of the samples is not big enough to be considered statistically homogeneous in their microstructure and thus no single sample can represent not only the microstructure. such as the loose interfaces between the cement matrix and aggregate (which are aligned perpendicular to the loading direction) that can be closed at a relatively low compressive load. Experiment 3. The stretching technique implies the linear stretching of the whole waveform hk. which maximizes the CCk(u)-function provides an estimate of the actual relative velocity change u(k) and is used for further processing uðkÞ ¼ maxCCk ðuÞ. Both transducers are placed in the center of two neighboring faces of the sample to ensure that the ultrasonic transducers are sufficiently far away from the sample ends where the compression force is applied and thus local damage may develop. Procedure to impart damage and mechanical loading for acoustoelasticity measurements Two different types of damage in concrete (or changes in the microstructure) are examined: thermal shock damage and damage due to dynamic mechanical loading. The current research employs the stretching technique to determine the slope A of the variations in the measured relative velocity changes u(k) for different levels of compressive load. The applied stress where the ultrasonic measurements are made is in the 3–4 MPa range for both the thermal and mechanical damaged samples. Use of these fixtures guarantees a consistent contact and repeatable ultrasonic measurement.5% of the maximum capacity of the loading machine is activated. . The largest dimension of aggregate is about 4 cm. The radius of the circular contact area is about 1 mm. 4 and 7 of Shokouhi et al.1. The requirement for separation distance between the two transducers will be discussed further in the next section.3789 2. a linear frequency modulated up-chirp signal with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 10 Vpp beginning at 200 kHz and ending at 800 kHz. the samples are stored at room temperature for 24 h in order for the sample to fully cool down before the ultrasonic measurements. provides the input signal. The samples are kept in a thermal chamber at 120 1C for 3 h to induce free water evaporation. The ultrasonic results at stress levels below 3 MPa are not consistent enough. Samples T1. One additional point is that we observed that our loading machine is not in its best condition. Agilent 33250A.2. A small specially designed aluminum cone is attached to the receiver surface using superglue to achieve a point-like detection and thus to avoid the phase cancellation of the received diffuse waves [4]. for a total of 9 h in the chamber as shown in Fig. / NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735 quantified with the following cross-correlation function [7]: RT 0 hk ½t ð1Àuފh0 ðt Þdt ffi CCk ðuÞ ¼ qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi RT 2 RT 2 0 hk ½t ð1Àuފdt 0 h0 ðt Þdt : ð5Þ The cross-correlation function CCk(u) is computed over a duration T of the measured waveforms hk(t) and h0(t). This effect is seen also in Fig. Component Cement (kg) Water (kg) Coarse aggregate (kg) Fine aggregate (Adairsville) (kg) Water–cement ratio by volume Value 0. Both the transmitter and receiver are Panametrics V103 broadband transducers with a center frequency 1 MHz. or any change at the sample ends will not affect the diffuse field due to the high attenuation in the frequency range used in the experiment (200–800 kHz) (or a short transport mean free path). The water evaporation during the thermal shock cycles is known to produce microcracks and pores in the concrete microstructure [9]. The local damage. 3. as well as to achieve two parallel faces (Fig.1. The cement used is the Type I Portland cement. The input (s(t)) and output (received and then amplified) signal (r(t)) are digitized by a Tektronix TDS5043B digital oscilloscope and saved for further data processing. The mix design follows the American Standard for Testing and Material standard. while C1 and C2 are used for the mechanical damage measurements.8 kN (22 lbf) and thus about 23. the diffuse waves will probe only the volume near the transducers and will not be sensitive to the remote damage. The stretch parameter u. uAG ð6Þ where G is the domain of u. 1). The concrete samples are compressed with steps of 100 kPa each. Therefore.0002 and clamped on the concrete sample. After the period in the thermal chamber. Early and late parts might be discarded due to poor signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements. The bottom and top surfaces of the samples are polished to avoid an imperfect contact with loading plates when the samples are compressed.730 D. It should be mentioned that the dimension in the sample cross section is less than two times larger than the largest dimension of aggregate. The receiver transducer with the attached cone is held by a fixture Table 1 Mix design of concrete samples. and T3 are used for the thermal damage measurements. for the receiver to be perfectly perpendicular to the sample surface at all times during the experiment. k. This fact inevitably can cause a large sample-to-sample variation in the results obtained. The maximum load capacity of this machine is 97. An arbitrary function generator.

for example in the Young’s modulus [1]. 2(c). For the mechanical damage samples. Due to the longer signal length and the . The main objective of the cyclic loading experiment is to see if the proposed ultrasonic technique is sensitive enough to detect such small changes in the microstructure. there can be some small changes in its properties.P. 2(a)) and the ultrasonic measurements are taken at every cycle. To achieve the impulse response function. The range and pattern of the unit cyclic load are the same as in the acoustoelastic measurement (Fig. The maximum load is about 10% of the yield strength of the concrete sample and is apparently too low to produce any substantial progressive damage. Experimental setup for the CWI-based acoustoelasticity measurement.D. Another method is the so-called pulse compression technique in which the input is a long chirp signal in an arbitrary shape and duration. 1. Data pre-processing In many ultrasonic measurements. hk(t). Schurr et al. 3. the output signal rk (t) is cross-correlated with the input signal sk (t): hk ðt Þ ¼ rk ðt Þnsk ðt Þ. ð7Þ where n is the cross-correlation operator.3. / NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735 731 Fig. 12 consecutive compression cycles are performed to introduce any change in the microstructure as shown in Fig. as concrete is loaded numerous times in a row. This operation is also known as matched filtering. a short pulse signal is used as the excitation signal and then a frequency domain deconvolution technique is applied to obtain the impulse response function. Nonetheless.

especially if there is any dependence on the measurement technique used. [16] ( À 75).732 D. all the slopes are plotted against the exposure time in the thermal chamber or the number of compressive cycles. The relative velocity changes uðkÞ are plotted against the applied stress (Ds(k)) to determine the slope A from a linear curve fitting. (b) temperature profile for the thermal shock damage. the average nonlinearity parameter obtained is À 36 which is fairly close to that in [8] ( À 40).1. The range of resulting slopes (the acoustoelasticity constant) measured for the undamaged concrete samples is 0. One has to consider the effect of temperature on the relative velocity changes. Profiles for thermal and mechanical loading: (a) load profile for acoustoelastic measurements (single compression cycle).2 Â 10 À 6 and this is close to the published value 1. but lower than that of Shokouhi et al. the method of matched filtering provides a higher signal to noise ratio. in the . is taken as the reference h0. The average fluctuation of the room temperature is quite small. Measurement repeatability Eqs. Finally. Since one compression loading takes less than 12 min. the room temperature is measured in every ultrasonic measurement. (1) and (2) show that the higher the compressive stress is. Results 4.6 ms. Schurr et al. [9] ( À 157). Therefore. higher energy input at each frequency component as compared to the short pulse signal. / NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735 Fig. the thermal diffusion from the air into the concrete sample will be slow and can be neglected. the obtained impulse responses (hk(t) and h0(t)) are cross-correlated according to Eq. 3 shows a typical impulse response function obtained using matched filtering. and following the procedure to calculate the nonlinearity parameter [8]. for one damage state. Also. (4) is thus positive). (5) in the time range up to 0. 2. obtained at 3 MPa. 36 GPa of the concrete samples used in this research.P. These inconsistencies need to be investigated.6–1. since it has been shown that diffuse waves are also sensitive to the ambient temperature variation [17].0 Â 10 À 6 for a concrete sample with similar material contents [8]. The impulse response function calculated from the measured diffuse field signal. Each set of data during the compressive loading provides one slope. the faster the waves travel through the concrete. and much lower than that of Payan et al. one can expect a negative relative velocity change as the compressive stress increases (A in Eq. After matched-filtering. Fig. Using the nominal value of the Young’s modulus. 4. and (c) profile for the cyclic compressive loading.

The diffuse envelope for frequency 525 kHz is shown together. Typical impulse response obtained from matched filtering in Eq. t the time. One has also to ensure that the diffuse field is fully developed at the receiver. A concrete sample is compressed and released five times with an interval between the loading/unloading of at least five hours for a full recovery from any slow dynamics effects [18]. In Fig.2–0. 0. D the diffusivity. 3. and thus it can be neglected as is 5 Â 10 À 5. P0 the released source amplitude. Another effect is the relative velocity change through strain. The five linear fits from the five ultrasonic measurements (Fig. (5). The values for D and a agree well with those in [4]. the possible errors in the slope are determined. Due to this removal and reattachment of the transducers. which represents the maximum experimental error or the sensitivity of the thermal damage experiments.24 m/s. 4. Nonetheless.6 1C range depending on time. (8) to the impulse response function shown in Fig. errors in the relative velocity change can occur.15 m2/s and a ¼ 10 s À 1 at 530 kHz. 4) have a maximum variation of the relative velocity changes of 8 Â 10 À 5. 3. the transducers are removed from the samples while the samples are in the thermal chamber to avoid damaging the transducers and the transducers are reattached for the next ultrasonic experiment. / NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735 733 Fig. The diffuse behavior of the multiply scattered ultrasonic waves can be described by the diffuse field solution for a three dimensional space given by: E¼ P0 Àr2 =4Dt Àat e e . The strain induced relative velocity change is about 16 times smaller than the stress induced relative velocity change. This is the level of sensitivity of a single measurement. and r the source to receiver distance. the absolute level of experimental errors is relatively small and acceptable. the diffuse envelope is shown together with the recovered impulse response function.P. 3 are: D ¼ 15. a the dissipation rate. Repeatability plot showing the maximum variation of the measured relative velocity changes uk. which corresponds to an absolute velocity change of 0.D. the diffuse envelope is . In a preliminary experiment. this variation is higher than the maximum variation for a single loading cycle and is the result of slight variation of transducer positions as well as the coupling condition. Best fit parameters obtained by fitting Eq. In the thermal damage experiments. As expected. 4Dpt ð8Þ where E is the average energy. Note that while the impulse response function contains frequency components in the 200–800 kHz range. Schurr et al. Fig.

Fig. This trend demonstrates that the more thermal damage that is introduced into the concrete. Therefore. 4. The approximate formula for the transport mean free path is given by [19] le ¼ 3D . the transport mean free path le can be calculated which is the mean distance where the direction of propagation of the energy is fully randomized [19]. which gives the transport mean free path le on the order of 1 cm. In addition. Cyclic loading Fig. The slopes (the . which is L ¼ 5. Note also that the changes in slope are much smaller than those in the thermal damage case. only for 530 kHz (which is around the center frequency) and is shown as a representative in this frequency range. The present cyclic load testing is in fact a highcycle fatigue test and the poor repeatability of fatigue test results (even for small metallic fatigue samples) is well known.2. which consists of 4 slopes versus the exposure time for the 3 different samples. the diffuse field is assumed to begin. To ensure that waves are diffuse before reaching the receiver. Therefore. The measurement procedure developed in this research is shown to be repeatable and highly sensitive to damage in concrete and thus can be useful for repetitive measurements during degradation. These curves also show an increasing trend at the beginning.734 D. The slopes for all three samples show a clearly increasing trend. which may be interpreted that the changes in mechanical state due to the cyclic loading get saturated. This saturation may have occurred since the level of the applied cyclic loading is far below the stress level that can lead to a continuous accumulation of damage. [21]. the thermal loading (temperature changes up to 120 1C) are easier to repeat using a thermal chamber unit with an automatic temperature control capability. A complete set of data points and fit curves can also be found in Ref. 5. [20] experimentally showed that the energy velocity in an ultrasonic diffuse field is very close to the group velocity. A complete set of data points and curves can be found in Ref. an unproven conjecture but practically there is no other way to characterize these small changes and to prove or disprove the conjecture.P. as well as the sample-to-sample variation in material properties. 6 shows the ultrasonic results from the cyclic loading experiment. than a physical cause. From Fig. ue ð9Þ 4. the distance le must be smaller than the source to receiver distance. With le being smaller than L. From this diffusivity. This is. this is consistent with the well-known fact that the evaporation of free water occurs in the first a few hours (but with an exact length depending on temperature) and so does the damage (porosity and microcracks). the concrete samples may have undergone slight changes in their microstructure only in the first few cycles.3. 5. the greater the measured slope (or the nonlinearity) of the concrete. 5. Conclusion This research presents initial results to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting small scale damage in concrete samples using the diffuse ultrasound and the coda wave interferometry data processing technique. The increase in the acoustoelasticity constant (A) is shown for 3 different specimens. the diffuse field is fully developed before arriving at the receiver. Schurr et al. On the contrary. Note that the elastic nonlinearity parameter (b) is proportional to the measured acoustoelasticity constant (A). the group velocity is estimated to be ve ¼ 4752 m/s. 3. the distance from the transmitting transducer to the sample end is about 15 cm. Thermal damage The ultrasonic results for the thermal damage samples are shown in Fig. 5 also shows the increase of the slopes tends to slow down with time. and then tend to level off as the number of cycles increases. [21]. the variation in the two different damage tests appears to be more due to differences in the testing procedures. where ve is the average velocity at which energy is transported. this distance is far enough (about 15 times the mean free path) for the excited ultrasonic diffuse waves to become sufficiently attenuated at the sample end. after this distance. Page et al.4 cm. It is observed that the variations in the results for the two cyclic loading samples are larger than those for the three thermal shock samples. Results of the thermal damage experiment. It is partially due to the different loading conditions that the machine produces at each different test. in fact. / NDT&E International 44 (2011) 728–735 Fig.

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