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Vibration monitoring

Assoc Prof Assoc. Prof. Dr Dr. Pelin Gundes Bakir

Istanbul Tecnical University

g gundesbakir@yahoo.com @y

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

References

• • Pete Avitable Avitable’s s web page http://faculty.uml.edu/pavitabile/22.515/ME22515_PDF_downloads.htm Safak E., ‘Structural monitoring, what is it, why is it done, how is it done, and what is it worth?’,Sixth worth?’ Sixth National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Engineering, 16 16-20 20 October 2007, Istanbul, Turkey Celebi M. ‘Seismic instrumentation of buildings’, USGS Open-File Report 00-157, 2000. 2000 Heylen W., Lammens S. And Sas P., ‘Modal Analysis Theory and Testing’, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1997. Ewins D.J., ‘Modal Testing, Theory, Practice, and Application’ (Mechanical Engineering Research Studies Engineering Design Series), Research Studies Pre; 2 edition ( (August g 2001) ) ISBN-13: 978-0863802188 Maia, N. M. M. and Silva, J. M. M.Theoretical and Experimental Modal Analysis Research Studies Press Ltd,, Hertfordshire, 1997, 488 pp.,ISBN 0863802087

• • •

•

P. Gundes Bakir,

Vibration based structural health monitoring

2

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

Vibration monitoring

• • The aim Th i of f vibration ib ti monitoring it i is i to t describe d ib a structure t t in i terms t of f its it modal parameters which are the frequency, damping and mode shapes. If we explain modal analysis in terms of the modes of vibration of a simple plate:

•

Suppose we apply a sinusoidal force. We will change the rate of oscillation of the frequency but the peak force will always be the same. We will also measure the th response of f the th plate l t due d t to the th excitation it ti with ith an accelerometer attached to one corner of the plate.

P. Gundes Bakir,

Vibration based structural health monitoring

3

Gundes Bakir. ti The response amplifies as we apply l af force with ith a rate t of f oscillation that gets closer and closer to the natural frequency (or resonant frequency) of the system and reaches a maximum when the rate of oscillation is at the resonant frequency of the system. P. Technische Universität Berlin Vibration monitoring • If we measure the th response of f the th plate. Vibration based structural health monitoring 4 • . There will be increases as well as decreases in amplitude at different points as we sweep in time. we will notice that the amplitude changes as we change the rate of oscillation of the input force.ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

We see that there are peaks in this function which occur at the resonant frequencies of the system. f i B But if we take k the h time data and transform it to the frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform then we can compute something called the frequency response function. we notice that these peaks occur at frequencies where the time response was observed to have maximum response corresponding to the rate of oscillation of the input excitation. Vibration based structural health monitoring 5 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Modal analysis • The time Th i data d provides id very useful f li information. Now. Gundes Bakir. Now. • P. there are some very interesting items to note.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 6 . Clearly Cl l th the f frequency response f function ti i is easier i to evaluate. So we can see that we can either use the time trace to determine the frequency at which the maximum amplitude increases occur or the frequency response function to determine where these natural f frequencies i occur. • P. if we overlay N l the h time i trace with i h the h f frequency trace what h we will notice is that the frequency of oscillation at the time at which the time trace reaches its maximum value corresponds to the frequency where peaks in the frequency response function reach a maximum. Technische Universität Berlin Modal analysis • Now.

Technische Universität Berlin Vibration monitoring • The figure shows the deformation patterns that will result when the excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 7 . P.

there is a first twisting deformation pattern in plate shown in red. Gundes Bakir. q y there is a first bending deformation pattern in the plate shown in blue. When we dwell at the second natural frequency. Technische Universität Berlin Vibration monitoring • We see that when we dwell at the first natural frequency.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). the p P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 8 .

Vibration based structural health monitoring 9 . respectively. Gundes Bakir. Technische Universität Berlin Vibration monitoring • When we dwell at the third and fourth natural frequencies. the second bending g and second twisting deformation patterns are seen in green and magenta.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). q . These deformation patterns are referred to as the mode shapes of the structure. P.

Technische Universität Berlin Vibration monitoring • Now these natural frequencies and mode shapes occur in all structures that we design.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). there are characteristics that depend on the weight and stiffness of my structure which determine where these natural frequencies and mode shapes will exist exist. I need to identify these frequencies and know how they y might g affect the response p of my y structure when a force excites the structure. As a design engineer. Basically. Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 10 . Now we can better understand what modal analysis is all about-it is the study of the natural characteristics of structures. Understanding the mode shape and how the structure will vibrate when excited helps the design engineer to design better structures structures. • • • P. Both the natural frequency and mode shape (which depends on the mass and stiffness distributions in my structure) are used to help design my structural applications.

Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 11 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). we can see that h there h are sufficient number of points to describe the mode shape for each mode. P. Technische Universität Berlin How many points are enough for a vibration measurement? • For a total F l of f 45 measurement points i .

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

**How many yp points are enough g for a vibration measurement?
**

• For a total of 5 measurement points along one edge of the plate, if we compare mode 1 and 3, we see that there are not enough points to adequately describe the mode shape for each mode. The same conclusion can be drawn from the comparison of modes 2 and 4 4.

P. Gundes Bakir,

Vibration based structural health monitoring

12

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

**How many points are enough for a vibration measurement?
**

• If we increase the number of measurement points to 15, we see that the modes can be measured well only if the measurement points are selected with care care. If we select the points as shown in the figure, then it will be very hard to distinguish between modes 1 and 3. The mode shapes look almost the same.

P. Gundes Bakir,

Vibration based structural health monitoring

13

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

**How many points are enough for a vibration measurement?
**

• If we only take measurements along the front and back edges of the plate, then it would be very hard to distinguish between the first rigid body mode and the first flexural mode.

•

From all these simple examples above, it becomes obvious that we need a distribution of points located appropriately such that each mode shape can be uniquely distinguished.

P. Gundes Bakir, Vibration based structural health monitoring 14

P. Technische Universität Berlin How many points are enough for a vibration measurement? • If I am only interested in characterizing modes 1 and 2. Vibration based structural health monitoring 15 . Gundes Bakir. then possibly I could get a fairly good decription with only 6 points as shown but fewer p points than that would be difficult especially p y if we needed to distingish the flexible modes from the rigid body modes.ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). The second storey beams are in phase for these two modes but the first storey beams are out of phase. Vibration based structural health monitoring 16 . Technische Universität Berlin How many points are enough for a vibration measurement? • If the only accessible surfaces are the 3 exterior surfaces surfaces. and we can not get any measurement from inside. modes 2 and 4 or modes 5 and 6 can not be distinguished. Gundes Bakir. P.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 17 . The response at the tip of the beam will contain the response of f all ll th the modes d of f th the system t (shown in the black time response plot). Gundes Bakir. notice that there appears to response at se several eral different frequencies. • P. Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • First let’s consider a simple cantilever beam and imagine that the beam is excited by a pulse at the tip of the beam.ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

or FRF for short (shown in the black frequency plot). notice that there are peaks in the plot which correspond to the natural frequencies of the system. Vibration based structural health monitoring 18 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). • P. Th frequency The f domain d i representation of this converted time signal is often referred to as the frequency response function function. Gundes Bakir. Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • The time response at the tip of the beam can be converted to the frequency domain by performing a Fourier Transform of the signal.

a second bending mode shown in red. called a mode shape. P. Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • We know that the cantilever beam will have many natural frequencies of vibration. and a third bending mode shown in green. Vibration based structural health monitoring 19 • . we see that there is a first bending mode shown in blue. Gundes Bakir.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). For this beam. At each of these natural frequencies. Of course there are also other higher modes not shown but only three modes will be discussed here. the structural deformation will take on a very definite pattern.

P. or coupling. figure) This model will generally be evaluated using some set of equations where there is an interrelationship. Gundes Bakir. Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • Now. the physical beam could also be evaluated using an analytical lumped mass model or finite element model (shown in black in the upper right part of the figure).ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 20 • . between the different points. the other dofs are also affected and also move. This means you pull on one of the dofs in the model. or degrees of freedom used to model the structure.

As the number of equations used to describe the system get larger and larger.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). We often use matrices to help p organize g all of the equations of motion describing how the system behaves which looks like: P. larger the complication in the equations become more involved. Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • This coupling means that the equations are more complicated in order to determine how the system behaves. Vibration based structural health monitoring 21 . Gundes Bakir.

stem • P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • Usually. Gundes Bakir. The size of the matrices depend on the number of equations that we e use se to describe o our rs system. the mass is a diagonal matrix and the damping and the stiffness matrices are symmetric with off-diagonal terms indicating the degree of coupling between the different equations or dofs describing the system. Vibration based structural health monitoring 22 .

we perform something called an eigensolution and use the modal transformation equation to convert these coupled equations into a set of uncoupled single degree of freedom systems described by diagonal matrices of modal mass mass.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • Mathematically. Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 23 . modal damping and modal stiffness in a new coordinate system called modal space described as: P.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 24 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir. P. Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • We can see that the transformation from physical space to modal space using the modal transformation equation is a process whereby we convert a complicated set of coupled physical equations into a set of simple uncoupled single dof systems.

stems • P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 25 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • And we see in the figure that the analytical model can be broken down into a set of single dof systems where the single dof describing mode 1 is shown in blue. mode 2 is shown in red and mode 3 is shown in green. Modal space allows us to describe the system easily using simple single dof s systems. Gundes Bakir.

in black comes from the summation of the effects of the response p of the model shown in blue for mode 1. response can be obtained from the contribution of each of the modes The total response shown modes.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). This applies pp whether I describe the system in the time domain or the frequency domain. and green for mode 3. P. red for mode 2. Gundes Bakir. Each domain is equivalent and just presents the data from a different viewpoint. Vibration based structural health monitoring 26 . Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • Now let’s go back to the time and frequency responses shown in black We know that the total black.

Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • So we can see that the total time response is made up of the time response due to the contribution of the time response of mode 1 shown in blue. We can also see that the total FRF is made up of the part of the FRF due to the contribution of the FRF of mode 1 shown in blue.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 27 . • . mode 2 in red and mode 3 in green. Gundes Bakir. P. mode 2 in red and mode 3 in green green.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space?

• Please note that we have only shown the magnitude part of the FRF here, here this function is actually complex which is correctly displayed using both magnitude and phase or real and imaginary parts of the FRF. Since we can break the analytical model up into a set of single dof systems, we could determine the FRF for each of the single dof systems as shown with mode 1 in blue, mode 2 in red, and mode 3 in green.

•

P. Gundes Bakir,

Vibration based structural health monitoring

28

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space?

• We could also determine the time response for each of these single dof systems due to the pulse input Or we could simply inverse Fourier transform the FRF for each of the single dof systems systems. Or we could also measure the response of the beam at the tip due to the pulse and filter the response of each modes of the system, and we we would see the response of each of the modes of the system with mode 1 in blue, mode 2 in red, and mode 3 in green green.

P. Gundes Bakir, Vibration based structural health monitoring 29

•

•

ERASMUS Teaching (2008), Technische Universität Berlin

What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space?

• As a result, we see that there is no difference between the time domain frequency domain , modal domain, space and physical space. Each domain is just a convenient way for presenting or viewing the data data. However, sometimes one domain is much easier to see things than another domain. domain For instance instance, the total time response does not clearly identify how many modes there are contributing to the response of the beam.

•

P. Gundes Bakir,

Vibration based structural health monitoring

30

Gundes Bakir. we transform one d domain i t to another th d domain i simply i l because the data is much easier to interpret. • P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 31 . Technische Universität Berlin What is the difference between time domain and the frequency domain and the modal space? • But the total FRF in the frequency domain is much clearer in showing how many modes are activated and the frequency of each of the modes.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). modes So often.

Technische Universität Berlin Single degree of freedom systems .ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin System equation and transfer function • The force equilibrium for a viscously damped SDOF structure: &(t ) + Cx & (t ) + Kx(t ) = f (t ) M& x • Transforming this time domain equation into the Laplace domain: ( Mp 2 + Cp + K ) X ( p ) = F ( p ) or Z ( p) X ( p) = F ( p) where Z is the dynamic stiffness. Gundes Bakir. Inverting Z gives the transfer function: H ( p) = 1/ M X ( p) = 2 F ( p ) p + (C / M ) p + ( K / M ) 33 P. Vibration based structural health monitoring .

Gundes Bakir. damping ratios • Th d The denominator i t of f th the equation ti H ( p) = X ( p) 1/ M = 2 F ( p ) p + (C / M ) p + ( K / M ) is referred to as the system characteristic equation. 2 = −(C / 2M ) ± (C / 2M ) 2 − ( K / M ) • If there h is i no damping. Technische Universität Berlin System poles. d i the h system under d consideration id i i is a conservative i system (C=0).The undamped natural frequency (rad/s) is then defined as: Ω1 = K / M P. natural frequencies. Vibration based structural health monitoring 34 . Its roots are called the system poles which are given by: λ1.ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

Technische Universität Berlin System poles poles. Vibration based structural health monitoring 35 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). natural frequencies. damping ratios • The critical damping Cc is the damping value that makes the term under the square root of the equation λ1. 2 = −(C / 2M ) ± (C / 2 M ) 2 − ( K / M ) equal to zero: • Cc = 2 M K / M Fraction of critical damping or damping ratio is: ξ1 = C / Cc • The first equation yields in the time domain a solution to the homogeneous system equation: λ1t λ2 t x(t ) = x1e + x2 e P. Gundes Bakir.

They have no tendency to oscillation. natural frequencies. critically damped (ζ1=1) or underdamped (ζ1<1) systems. Gundes Bakir. the systems are classified as overdamped (ζ1>1). The response of overdamped systems consist of a decay only. the damping ratio is rarely larger than ten percent unless the system contains some active damping mechanisms. Technische Universität Berlin System poles poles. The response of underdamped systems is a decaying oscillation.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). damping ratios • Depending on the value of the damping ratio. Vibration based structural health monitoring 36 • • • • . P. Here only the underdamped case will be considered. For real world systems. Critically damped systems form the border case between over and underdamped systems.

natural frequencies. q damping p g ratios • The equation λ1. Technische Universität Berlin System poles poles. Gundes Bakir.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). 2 = −(C / 2M ) ± (C / 2M ) 2 − ( K / M ) • Yields two complex conjugate roots λ1 = σ 1 + jω1 • λ1* = σ 1 − jω1 Where σ1 is the damping factor and ω1 is the damped natural frequency λ1 = (−ζ 1 + j 1 − ζ 12 )Ω1 P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 37 .

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Residues • With the knowledge g of the equation q λ1 = σ 1 + jω1 the equation for the transfer function H ( p) = λ1* = σ 1 − jω1 becomes: X ( p) 1/ M = 2 F ( p ) p + (C / M ) p + ( K / M ) H ( p) = 1/ M ( p − λ1 )( p − λ* ) 1 Applying the theory of partial fraction expansion yields: A1* A1 H ( p) = + * ( p − λ1 ) ( p − λ1 ) In this formula A1 and A1* are the residues. P. Gundes Bakir. with A1 = 1/ M j 2ω1 Vibration based structural health monitoring 38 .

• H ( p) • p = jω A1* A1 = H (ω ) = + * ( jω − λ1 ) ( jω − λ1 ) The FRF is a subset of the transfer function. This relation can also be expressed in the frequency domain. The transfer function evaluated along the frequency axis (jω) is called the frequency response function (FRF). Technische Universität Berlin Frequency response function • The previous section discussed the relation between input (force) and output (displacement) of a single degree of freedom system in the Laplace domain.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). The contribution of the complex conjugate part (or negative frequency part) is negligible around resonance Therefore resonance. Therefore. the FRF for SDOF system is often approximated by: A1 H (ω ) = ( jω − λ1 ) P. Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 39 .

Vibration based structural health monitoring 40 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Impulse response function • Inverse Laplace transforming the expression for the transfer function H ( p) p = jω A1* A1 = H ( jω ) = + * ( jω − λ1 ) ( jω − λ1 ) * t * λ1 yields the expression in the time domain: the impulse response function. • The impulse Th i l response of f a system t is i th the system t response t to a Dirac Di impulse at time t=0. and ω1 is the frequency of oscillation. h(t ) = A1e + A1 e λ1t = eσ 1t ( A1e jω1t + A1*e − jω1t ) The residue A1 is the real part of the pole which defines the initial amplitude σ1 is the imaginary part of the pole which defines the decay rate amplitude. Gundes Bakir. P.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Multi degree of freedom systems .

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). The inverse of [Z(p)] is [H(p)] {X ( p)} = [H ( p)]{F ( p)} P. Gundes Bakir. assuming the initial displacements and velocities are zero yields: [Z ( p)]{X ( p)} = {F ( p)} ( p 2 [M ] + p[C ] + [K ]){X ( p )} = {F ( p )} where [Z(p)] is the dynamic stiffness matrix. Technische Universität Berlin System equation and the transfer function • The Th equation ti of f motion ti is: i &}+ [C ]{x &}+ [ K ]{x} = { f } [ M ]{& x • If we transform this time domain equation into the Laplace domain (variable p). Vibration based structural health monitoring 42 .

Technische Universität Berlin System equation and the transfer function • Standard calculus proves that the inverse of a matrix can be calculated from its adjoint matrix: [H ( p)] = [Z ( p)] • −1 adj[Z ( p )] = Z ( p) Where adj([Z(p)]) is the adjoint matrix of [Z(p)] which can be expressed as. Gundes Bakir. without row i and column j ε ij = 1.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). adj ([ Z ( p )]) = [ε ij Z ij ]t Z ij : the determinant of [ Z ( p)]. if i + j is even. Vibration based structural health monitoring 43 . = -1 if i + j is odd Z ( p ) : the determinant of [ Z ( p)] P.

Gundes Bakir. P. Since [M]. Vibration based structural health monitoring 44 . This is what is meant by reciprocity. This implies that hij=h hji which is called reciprocity. [K] are symmetric. This means that you can measure the FRF by impacting point i and measuring the response at point j and get exactly the same FRF as impacting point j and measuring the response at point i.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). [C]. [H(j ω)] is also symmetric. Technische Universität Berlin System equation and the transfer function • The frequency response function can be written as: [ H ( p )] p = jω = [ H ( jω )] = ∑ k =1 m * [ Ak ] [ Ak ] + ( jω − λk ) ( jω − λ* k) • The individual term can be written as: hij ( jω ) = ∑ k =1 m aijk ( jω − λk ) + aijk * ( jω − λ* k) • hij(ω) means a particular output response at point i due to an input force at point j.

p . Always select a reference point where all the modes can be seen all the time from that reference point. Technische Universität Berlin Residues • The residues are directly related to mode shapes and a scaling factor as: • This shows that the frequency response function can be written in terms of residues. then it becomes very y clear that if the value of the mode shape at the reference point is zero (or almost zero) then that mode will not be seen in the frequency response function. P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 45 • • . Gundes Bakir. id When written as a mode shape.ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

Technische Universität Berlin Residues • Never select the reference point at the node of a mode! P. Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 46 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

Vibration based structural health monitoring 47 . Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • FRFs can be generated from residues and poles. The residues are directly related to the mode shapes and the poles are the frequency and damping of the system. P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir.

Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • First let's start with an analytical representation such as the finite element model shown. Since the analytical approximation is described in terms of a force balance for each mass that is described in the system. Basically. • P. we end up with one equation for each mass (or degree of freedom) used to approximate the system. we use the FEM to approximate a lumped mass system that is interconnected by springs to represent the physical system. Vibration based structural health monitoring 48 . Gundes Bakir.ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

the system's frequencies and mode shapes This is what we do in the shapes. Vibration based structural health monitoring 49 . finite element process. • P. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • Since we need many small little finite elements to accurately describe the system. Gundes Bakir. ti N Now once I h have assembled all these equations. it becomes convenient to describe all these equations using i matrices. a mathematical routine called an eigensolution is used to represent the system in simpler terms . Right away.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). I end up with many equation and unknowns.

the system t transfer f function.[Hs)]. Now in the Laplace domain. This inverse is described in all vibrations text books • P. Gundes Bakir. we have.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). [B(s)]. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • I can take those same equations and transform them into the Laplace domain. Vibration based structural health monitoring 50 . the system equation and its inverse. f ti Now N we know k that th t this inverse is the adjoint of the system matrix (or the cofactors of the system matrix) divided by the determinant of the system matrix.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 51 • • • . So we could determine the system dynamic characteristics from either the analytical model or from the Laplace domain representation they both will give the same results. Gundes Bakir. this is the same basic i f information ti that th t is i obtained bt i d f from th the analytical model. Well. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • It turns out that the adjoint matrix contains the modal vectors and we call this the Residue Matrix. or poles of the system. The determinant of [B(s)] contains the roots. .

So a particular output response at point 'i' due to an input force at p point 'j' j is called hij(jω). since we are dealing with a matrix. Gundes Bakir. ) . Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • Now another important p relationship p is the Frequency Response Function. Vibration based structural health monitoring 52 . it is convenient to identify input-output p p measurements with a subscript. [H(jω)]. FRF. This is the system transfer function evaluated along the jω axis.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Well. The FRF is actually a matrix of terms. • • P.

Gundes Bakir. Remember that the FRFs can be generated from residues and poles. P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 53 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). • . Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • Now what we need to realize is that those FRFs that were generated (synthesized) contain information relative to the system characteristics. And that the residues are directly related to the mode shapes p and the poles are the frequency and damping of the system.

Gundes Bakir. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 54 .

Vibration based structural health monitoring 55 . damping p g and stiffness to describe the system and so they will both provide the same basic information. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • Up p until now we have only y discussed using the mass. Both these approaches use approximations of the physical parameters of mass. • . P. Gundes Bakir. p .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). damping and stiffness approximations to compute system characteristics from the finite element model or from the Laplace domain representation of the system.

Gundes Bakir. P. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • If there were some other way y to estimate those FRFs without assuming physical properties then I could employ the modal parameter estimation techniques to extract the desired information. Now this time data is transformed to the frequency domain using the FFT and basically a ratio of output response to input force is computed to form an approximation of the FRF. This is where modal testing comes in. my structure is excited with some measured force.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). . Basically. The response of the system due to the applied force is measured along with the force. Vibration based structural health monitoring 56 • .

and I avoid any erroneous approximations I may make. sure re that I make very good measurements otherwise I will distort my system characteristics characteristics. If we used a shaker to excite the structure and move the accelerometer to many points then we could measure a column of the FRF matrix. Technische Universität Berlin The big picture • So we could measure one input-output p p FRF based on this approach. So the big advantage of making measurements is that I measure the response of the system due to the applied force – I don't ever make any assumptions as to th mass. Vibration based structural health monitoring 57 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir. . d the damping i and d stiffness tiff of f th the system . Of co rse I need to make s course. P.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Vib ti Vibration monitoring it i in i buildings .

Gundes Bakir.): ): 1. 3. P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 59 . Laboratory Testing Computerised analysis Natural Laboratory of the Earth:Integral to the “natural laboratory” approach is the advance instrumentation of selected structures so that their responses can be recorded during future earthquakes. Technische Universität Berlin Seismic behaviour and performance of structural systems There are three main approaches to evaluate seismic behavior and performance of structural systems (Celebi et al al.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). 2.

(b) System identification techniques: single input/single output or multi input/multi output. The procedure requires the blueprints of the structures which may not be readily accessible. subjected to timehistory.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Structural response The methods used in studying structural response records are quite diverse: (a) ( ) Mathematical modeling g( (finite element models varying y g from crude to very y detailed. In these procedures. the parameters of a model are adjusted for consistency with input and output data (Ljung (Ljung. (c) Spectral analyses: response spectra. 1987). cross spectral amplitudes Sxy. Gundes Bakir. cross-spectral autospectra. and coherence functions ( γ) [using the equation : γ2xy (f) = S2xy (f)/ Sx (f)Sy (f)] and associated phase angles P. autospectra Sx or Sy. Fourier amplitude spectra. Vibration based structural health monitoring 60 . response spectrum or modal analyses).

Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • Improve our understanding of the behavior and potential for damage in structures under the dynamic loads of earthquakes. Vibration based structural health monitoring 61 • • . P. Gundes Bakir.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Emergency response : A detailed real time hazard analysis i urban in b environments i t Improvement in mathematical models: An instrumentation program should provide enough information to reconstruct the response of the structure in enough detail to compare with the response predicted by mathematical models and those observed in laboratories.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 62 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Determine the importance of nonlinear behavior on the overall and local response of f the th structure. Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • • Damage detection: Explain the reasons for any damage to structures Quantify the interaction of the soil and the structure: The nearby freefield and ground-level ground level time history should be known in order to quantify the interaction of soil and structure. t t • P. Gundes Bakir.

Gundes Bakir.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 63 . Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • Follow the spreading nonlinear behavior throughout the structure as the response increases and determine the effect of this nonlinear behavior on the frequency and damping Correlate the damage with inelastic behavior Determine the ground ground-motion motion parameters that correlate well with building response damage Make recommendations to improve the building codes Facilitate decisions to retrofit/strengthen the structural system as well as securing the contents within the structures • • • • P.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 64 . Gundes Bakir. Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • • • • • • Determine whether the structure has to be retrofitted or not in an objective way following big earthquakes and aftershocks Determining the structural members and parts that have to be retrofitted in the structure Determine the best retrofit technique Evaluating whether the intended benefit from retrofitting is obtained or not Determine the maximum interstory drifts in the structure Providing an early warning system for traffic closure when the bridges are subjected to excessive wind loading P.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 65 . Gundes Bakir. • Immediate occupancy? • Life safety performance level? • Collapse prevention? • Collapse?? • P. Real time assessment of the performance level of the structure following catastrophic earthquakes and aftershocks.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • Prediction of the behaviour of the buildings under future earthquakes by monitoring their behaviour under small magnitude earthquakes or ambient vibrations.

P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 66 . Gundes Bakir.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). for seismic zones 3 and 4 a minimum of three accelerographs g p be placed: – in every building over six stories with an aggregate floor areas of 5500m2 or more – in every building over ten stories regardless of the floor area. the Uniform Building Code (UBC-1997 and prior editions). Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • The most widely Th id l used d code d i in the h United States. recommends.

• • P. Gundes Bakir. As an example. Vibration based structural health monitoring 67 . Experiences from past earthquakes show that the UBC minimum guidelines do not ensure sufficient ffi i t data d t to t perform f meaningful model verifications.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). three horizontal accelerometers are required to define the horizontal motion of a floor (two translations and torsion). Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • UBC-Code UBC Code type instrumentation is illustrated in Figure.

a minimum of 12 accelerometers would be necessary to record these modes. P. Therefore.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 68 • . Gundes Bakir. Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • Rojahn and Matthiesen (1977) concluded that the predominant response of a high-rise building can be described by the participation of the first four modes of each of the three sets of modes (two translations and torsion).

Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • If vertical motion and rocking are expected to be significant and need to be recorded.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). recorded at least three vertical accelerometers are required at the basement level. Gundes Bakir. This type of Thi f instrumentation i i scheme h is i called ll d the h id ideal l extensive i instrumentation scheme herein and is illustrated in the Figure. • P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 69 .

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 70 . P. Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • Diaphragm effects are best captured by adding sensors at the center of the diaphragm as well as the edges. • Performance of base-isolated systems and effectiveness of the isolators are best captured by measuring tri-axial motions at top and bottom of the isolators as well as the rest of the superstructure. Gundes Bakir.

These downhole arrays will serve to yield data on: (1) the characteristics of ground motion at bedrock at a defined distance from a source (2) the amplification of seismic waves in layered strata. D Downhole h l d data are especially i ll scarce. • P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 71 . Gundes Bakir. To confirm these processes requires downhole instrumentation near or di directly l b beneath h a structure. or they obtain the motion at foundation level by convoluting the motion through assumed or determined layers of strata to base rock and deconvoluting the motion back to foundation level level. although a few such arrays have been developed outside of the United States. Technische Universität Berlin Why do we instrument buildings? • Engineers use se free-field free field motions as input inp t motion at the foundation fo ndation level.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Steps in instrumenting structures .

Technische Universität Berlin Selection of Structures to be Instrumented 1. Structural parameters: the construction material. P. discontinuity discontinuity. Se a Severity-of-shaking e ty o s a g factor acto to be ass assigned g ed to eac each structure on the basis of its closeness to one or more of the main faults within the boundaries of the area considered (e (e. Gundes Bakir. the San Andreas. and Calaveras faults are considered). Site related parameters: a. Hayward.g. geometry geometry. g for the San Francisco Bay area area.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 73 . structural system system. and age 2 Site-related 2.

3.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Expected value of strong shaking at the site. P. The purpose of this parameter is to consider the regions where there is strong chance of recording useful data within an approximately useful life of a structure. occupancy and relevance to life safety requirements following damaging earthquakes. Other parameters of interest to owners or public officials. functionality. 4. Gundes Bakir. c.5 or 7 occurring on the fault(s) within the next 30 years was obtained. Technische Universität Berlin Selection of Structures to be Instrumented b. Vibration based structural health monitoring 74 . determined as the product of a and b. Probability of a large earthquake (M = 6. Building usage.

P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Selection of Structures to be Instrumented Once the particular structure to be instrumented is identified. Vibration based structural health monitoring 75 . the engineering staff • obtains instrumentation permits for selected structures • gathers information relative to the project including structural plans and design and model information • directs structural evaluation and if necessary performs ambient response studies. Gundes Bakir.

forced-vibration test results. Technische Universität Berlin Selection of Structures to be Instrumented • • • • study of available design and analysis information after permission for instrumenting is granted by the owner. Gundes Bakir. and ambient-vibration test results. site visit required analytical studies and tests. if feasible and necessary. the following information. P. In general. will be required: (1) relevant blueprints and design calculations (2) ( ) dynamic y analysis y (mode ( shapes p and frequencies) q ) (3) if available. Vibration based structural health monitoring 76 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). if available.

The installation Th i ll i team works k with i h the h contractor d during i this hi phase h and d subsequently calibrates and installs sensors and recording systems. p and any yp peculiarities of the instrumentation or access to required sites.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). characteristics of total system y response. A final step is a complete documentation of each transducer location and orientation. Technische Universität Berlin Selection of Structures to be Instrumented • • Seldom is all this information available for any structure. Vibration based structural health monitoring 77 . The collected set of data is then used as a basis for determining transducer locations that will ill adeq adequately atel define the response of the str structure ct re d during ring a strong earthquake. • • P. and an electrical contractor is called in to plan placement of the data cable. a representative of the owner of the structure. Gundes Bakir. the installation team. After the sensor locations have been agreed upon by the engineering staff staff.

it is advisable to include into the instrumentation scheme. a building specific free-field station.5-2 times the height of the nearest/tallest building. Gundes Bakir. free-field and ground-level motions should be known in order to quantify the interaction of the soil and the structure structure. Such a free-field station is usually deployed at a distance greater than 1.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). This is due to the desire that motions recorded by a free-field station should not be influenced by the shaking of the buildings buildings. Vibration based structural health monitoring 78 • • . However. data recorded at building specific free-field stations can be used to augment data bases used for structural response studies as well as ground motion studies including development of attenuation relationships and quantification of site response transfer functions and characteristics. Technische Universität Berlin Importance of Building Specific FreeFree Field Station • • If physically feasible. P. In general.

Gundes Bakir. If the j structure experiences p nonlinear behavior during g a strong g subject shaking. Ambient vibration tests can be performed efficiently using portable recorders at three to five locations that are expected (from analytical studies or other information) to have maximum amplitudes during the first three to four vibrational modes. Technische Universität Berlin Tests on Existing Structures to Determine Dynamic Characteristics • Although it is possible to obtain a satisfactory understanding of a structure's expected dynamic behavior by preliminary analytical studies. it will be much easier to evaluate the nonlinear behavior once linear behavior is determined before the nonlinear behavior occurs during the strong shaking. Thus. an ambient-vibration and/or a forced vibration test on an existing structure can be performed to identify mode shapes and frequencies. elastic properties of the structure can be determined.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Vibration based structural health monitoring 79 • • . P.

recorders. Gundes Bakir.g. a forced-vibration forced vibration test is more difficult to perform. accelerometers. SAP2000. Dynamic Analysis A simplified finite-element model can be developed to obtain the elastic dynamic characteristics. State-of-the-art vibration g generators do not necessarily y have the capability to excite to resonance all significant modes of all structures (Çelebi and others. and STRUDL). Vibration based structural health monitoring 80 • • • • . P. This is performed with any one of the several tested computer programs available (e. weights. 1987). and the test takes longer g than the ambientand cables) vibration test.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). ANSYS. . ) is heavier. The required equipment (vibration generator with control consoles. Technische Universität Berlin Tests on Existing Structures to Determine Dynamic Characteristics • Compared to ambient-vibration ambient vibration test.

Technische Universität Berlin Selection and installation of instruments .ERASMUS Teaching (2008).

• P. While developing the instrumentation scheme within the budgetary constraints. it is best to consider the maximum available channels for each recording system. Vibration based structural health monitoring 82 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir. an optimum list of hardware is p after careful developed consideration of cost and data requirements. Most recording systems have maximum of 12 or 18 channels of recording capability. Technische Universität Berlin Selection and installation of instruments • In selection and defining an instrumentation scheme.

Figure exhibits a sample schematic showing locations of sensors. placement of data cable runs. routing of cables. monitoring team and the owner's representative review the site to determine exact sensor locations and routing of cables satisfactory to both parties. potential interference with the occupant's space. Vibration based structural health monitoring 83 . P. and aesthetic requirements of the owner. Gundes Bakir. This is important from viewpoint of longterm accessibility accessibility. location of junction boxes and recording g units. Technische Universität Berlin Selection and installation of instruments • The following general approach is followed to install seismic instruments: 1.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). After an instrumentation scheme is developed and approximate sensor locations are chosen.

and di in some circumstances is enclosed with separate fencing in an open area. The recorder location is selected on the basis of security. junction boxes at key locations and terminal boxes (if required) at t each h sensor site. 3. P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Selection and installation of instruments 2 Next 2. it typically t i ll i in a t telephone l h or electrical l t i l switch it h room. Gundes Bakir. N t a technician t h i i should h ld i inspect t th the entire ti structural t t l scheme h with an electrical contractor who will install the data cable. Actual cabling by the contractor is monitored by the monitoring team and the owner's owner s representative to be sure the cable is installed as desired and that all building code regulations are followed. it The Th modern d recording di systems t may not t require terminal boxes as they have internal terminals. The cable-termination box includes data circuits. batteries and battery charges. Vibration based structural health monitoring 84 . This box is normally mounted on the wall above the recorder.

period and damping of each unit. g cable runs. this information is entered into the recorder data section and is stored in a general database. and circuit diagrams.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). The i instrumentation t t ti undergoes d a preliminary li i calibration in the strong-motion laboratory and is then installed in the structure with appropriate test procedures d i including l di a static t ti tilt sensitivity iti it t test tf for each component and determination of direction of motion for upward trace deflection on the record. Gundes Bakir. Other documentation includes precise sensor location. . For modern digital systems. P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 85 . location of . access information. Technische Universität Berlin Selection and installation of instruments 4 Th 4.

Technische Universität Berlin Sensor locations • The number of required sensors and sensor locations depend on the condition that whether 2 dimensional or 3 dimensional motions of the structure are going to be monitored.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). In 2 dimensions. three measurements are needed needed. h In order to determine these two translations and one rotation. Vibration based structural health monitoring 86 • • • • . Gundes Bakir. the degrees of freedom are 2 translations and one rotation. A typical example to such a structure is a multistorey building with shear walls ll and d a rigid i id di diaphragm. – The three measurement directions should not intersect each other. These three measurements have to satisfy the following conditions: – The measurements have to be taken from two separate locations – The three measurement directions should not be parallel. P.

– The 6 measurement directions should not intersect each other. P. Gundes Bakir. In such a structure structure.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). – The 6 measurement directions should not be parallel. we need at least 6 measurements which have to satisfy the following conditions in order to solve for the 3 rotations and 3 translations from the dynamic equilibrium equations: – The measurements have to be taken at least from 3 separate locations. Vibration based structural health monitoring 87 . the vibrations of the structure can be fully described by 3 translations and 3 rotations. Technische Universität Berlin Sensor locations • • In 3 D space space. – The measurement locations should not be on a straight line.

2009).. For typical multi-story multi story buildings. Gundes Bakir.2009). afak 2009) For torsion. because that displacement can be dominated by a single mode.2009). Technische Universität Berlin Sensor locations • Sensor locations should not be determined based on the locations of maximum displacements. Vibration based structural health monitoring 88 . Even then. The location you should search for is the one whose displacement has contrib contributions tions from a maximum ma im m n number mber of modes modes. if you put a sensor there you would only identify that mode. which is more important when matching analytical models (Şafak. it would record only the local behavior of the floor slab. e the better the signal to noise ratio in the torsional signal) (Şafak.e.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). That way you can identify more modes (Şafak. the larger the distance between the two parallel horizontals. not the global behavior of structural system. That means. • • • P. buildings there is no reason to put a vertical sensor in the middle of floor slab. unless it has a huge span with no beams and columns to support it. the more accurate the calculated torsion (i (i.

Gundes Bakir. Vibration based structural health monitoring 89 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Sensor locations In general I l the h order d f for placing l i sensors: • Roof • Ground floor • Basement • Any location where stiffness and/or mass changes significantly • Any location where the curvature of the deformed shape is expected to change. P.

1 2.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Sensor locations in buildings 1. Vibration based structural health monitoring 90 . The first group of sensors should be located on the roof of structures structures. 3. The third group of sensors should be placed at the locations where the rigidity and the mass of the structure change. The second group of sensors should be placed on the top of the foundations (in the ground floor or basement). The rest of the sensors should be placed on locations where the amplitudes of the vibration modes of the structure are expected to be large. large P. Gundes Bakir. 4.

Gundes Bakir. 2. 3. Effective Independence Technique Optimum Driving Point Based Method Non-optimum driving point based method EFI Driving point residue method EFI- P.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). 4 4. Vibration based structural health monitoring 91 . Technische Universität Berlin Optimal sensor placement 1.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 92 .ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Effective Independence Technique P. Gundes Bakir.

ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Technische Universität Berlin Effective Independence Technique where Q is the Fisher information matrix P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 93 . Gundes Bakir.

The Fisher Information Matrix can then be simplified as: P. Gundes Bakir. it is assumed that the measurement noise is uncorrelated and possesses identical statistical properties of each sensor.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). For simplicity simplicity. Technische Universität Berlin Effective Independence Technique The best state estimate can be obtained by maximizing Q which results in the minimization of the covariance matrix matrix. Vibration based structural health monitoring 94 .

Effective Independence Technique P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 95 . Gundes Bakir.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 96 .Non-Optimum driving point based method P. Gundes Bakir.

Optimum driving point based method P. Vibration based structural health monitoring 97 . Gundes Bakir.

Vibration based structural health monitoring 98 .Effective Indepence Driving Point Residue Technique P. Gundes Bakir.

Gundes Bakir. P. routine maintenance is conducted every 3-12 months if circumstances and e perience so allow. Unless maintenance arrangements are made. Remote calibration of period and damping. g and charge g rate ( (batteries are replaced every 3 years).ERASMUS Teaching (2008). successful recording of data cannot be accomplished. load voltage. 2. Inspection p of battery y terminals. 3. a calibration record is obtained and then examined for the desired characteristics. All inspection procedures are recorded in the permanent station file at the laboratory. Therefore. Technische Universität Berlin Maintenance • It is essential to have periodic and consistent maintenance of instruments in order to have a successful program. Measurement of threshold of triggering system and length of recording cycle. Vibration based structural health monitoring 99 . • • As a final maintenance procedure. experience allo This maintenance includes the following: 1.

• To verify these developments. • However. in general. sensors directly measuring g displacements p or relative displacements p (transducers. observations of damages during the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. have forced engineers and scientists to focus on performance based seismic design methods and to find new techniques to control drift and displacements.ERASMUS Teaching (2008). Gundes Bakir. P. general only accelerometers (single (single. Vibration based structural health monitoring 100 . Technische Universität Berlin GPS units • Until recently recently. laser devices and GPS units) are now being considered. biaxial or triaxial) were used to instrument structures.

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