BILINGUALISM AND CODE-SWITCHING

Bilingualism is the ability to use two languages effectively. Monolingualism refers to the ability to use a single language. The ability to use multiple languages is known as Multilingualism.

 Bilingual or multilingual is a person who can speak two or more than two
languages with equal or less equal proficiency.

 A society is called bilingual or multilingual if the people there speak more
than one language. About half of the world's population is multi / bilingual. It is in fact very hard to find a monolingual community or society like !apan etc. "hile talking about sub continent in general and specially #akistan we come to know that we are a multilingual community. "e use $rdu as a medium of communication in our schools and colleges. %urther it also serves as &lingua franca' in our country. "e use domestic languages at local level such as #un(abi )indko Barahwi *indhi #ashto Balochi *araiki +ashmiri etc. and we use ,nglish also as a foreign language. #eople of #akistan are bilingual / trilingual or generally multilingual.

 If a speaker has equal proficiency in both or all the languages he can
speak or write he is called a ‘Balanced Bilingual’ or ‘Equilingual’. )owever there may be some situations where a bilingual's abilities in a given language suffer due to pressure of situation etc. There may also be a situation of more receptive knowledge of one language and more active knowledge of another i.e. he may understand a language but may not speak it and he may speak and understand other language very well. There are also some situations in which a bilingual is familiar with the spoken system of one language and written system of another. There may also be a diglossic situation in which some topics and situations are considered better suited to one language over another. In a community or a society where there are bilinguals and the people interact with each other in more than one language a situation arises which is called &code-switching' and &code-mi.ing'. This situation can lead towards the language interference in which a language is influenced by another language on the levels of semantics grammar and phonology.

CODE-SWITCHING (CS)  The practice of moving back and forth between two languages or between
two dialects or registers of the same language. /ode switching occurs far more often in conversation than in writing.

 In linguistics code-switching is the concurrent use of more than one
language or language variety in conversation. 0ultilinguals1people who speak more than one language1sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the synta. and phonology of each variety.

/ode-switching is distinct from other language contact phenomena such as ‘pidgin’. *peakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate third language. 2n the other hand speakers practice code-switching when they are each fluent in both language.

Difference Between Code-Switching And Code-Mixing
It is necessary to understand that unlike code mi.ing code-switching refers to the switch or shift from one language to the other which involves

longer stretches or units of language at the clause or sentence boundary while generally code-mi.ing does not involve shift beyond smaller units of language such as words or phrases. "hile discussing the three types of code-switching3 tag-switching, intra-sentential and inter-sentential, #oplack differentiates between codeswitching and code-mi.ing as well. To #oplack

1. Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word or
both from one language to the other.

2. In inter-sentential switching a switch is made on clause or sentence
boundary or between speaker's turn.

3. Intra-sentential switching on the other hand occurs within the
clause or sentence boundary as a result of the insertion of a part of a word a word a combination of words or a phrase. It is actually this type of code-switching i.e. intra-sentential code switching which is called &code-mi.ing'. *cholars have used a fourth term ‘Intra-word switching’ which occurs within a word itself such as at a morpheme boundary. *o code-mi.ing is a type of code switching which include the borrowing and hybridi4ation of words while code-switching refers to all these i.e. borrowing code-mi.ing and code-switching. In the 5678s and the 5698s many scholars called code-switching a sub-standard language usage. *ince the 56:8s however most scholars have recogni4ed it is a normal natural product of bilingual and multilingual language use.

CODE-SWITCHING IN PAKISTAN
In #akistan we find a number of non-,nglish words phrases clauses and sentences being inserted in ,nglish to create variety as well as a particular effect on the listener. These are the some of the e.amples ;Taken from Dawn, Helad etc.< of code-switching between $rdu and ,nglish.

Noun Phrase
*ome e.amples of code-switching in noun phrases3

 A poor hari can be sent to the gallows even on the mild accusation of
a crime leveled against him by a noble.

 An honorable sardar or wadera can walk free even after proven
record of the most heinous kinds of crimes.

 They alleged that the naib nazim was receiving threats to force him
to part ways with the ###-backed Awam =ost panel. In the first two e.amples the ,nglish ad(ectives are modifying the $rdu nouns in a noun phrase while in the third e.ample both the ad(ective and noun are from the $rdu language. All the noun phrases have the ,nglish determiners &a' &an' and &the' respectively in the beginning of the sentences.

rdu Noun Phrase as an A!!osition of another Noun
&Apposition' means the placing of a noun group after a noun or pronoun in order to identify something or someone or give more information about them. In the following e.ample the $rdu noun phrase is giving information about the proper noun &)a(i >am4an'.

 %ive militants who tried to kidnap tehsil municipal officer )ameedullah
on 2ctober : were forced to give up their hostage after )a(i >am4an

the tehsil naib nazim and his men confronted them on the main Tank-!andola road.

rdu Noun Phrase as the Sub"ect

 The #slamabad $a mu%adas dara$ht revolved around a popular
Banyan tree that stood in sector ,-? but was a few months back burned down.

 %ateh 0uhammad 0ailk argued that $ufar $a fatwa is nothing new
with us.

rdu Phrase introduced b& an 'nglish Ad(erb
In the e.amples below the ,nglish relative adverb @asA introduces the $rdu stretches of words. This type of switching is very rare and demands high proficiency.

 Am(ad considered her as ustad se zi&ada dost)  And an old friend of hers a female writer was so infuriated on being
referred to as a *C&cle wali lar$i+ that she broke relations with her for good.

 According to them they were not shunned by the public as lula,
langra and a!aha")

Ad"ecti(e Phrase
In the e.amples below an $rdu ad(ective phrase has been inserted in the ,nglish sentence.

 )e is called sher $a bacha and mard $a bacha.
In the following e.ample the ,nglish intensifier &very' has been used with an $rdu ad(ective. This kind of code-switching is very rare.

 &I think you are right madam ' said a young man city life and modern
education makes men very beghairat. In the e.amples given below the $rdu ad(ective phrases are modifying the ,nglish nouns in the noun phrases.

 It was a taiz raftar bus and I merely sat on it as well.  The B8-minutes interview was largely spent in advocate Bukhari name
dropping saying he grew up with the lordships of the *uperior /ourt and what !a&are insaan they are.

Pre!ositional Phrase
$rdu has a postposition instead of ,nglish preposition which differs in the way that it precedes ob(ects. A collective term used for both preposition and postposition is adposition. In typical $rdu adposition phrases adposition comes at the end. An $rdu postposition phrase is syntactically inserted in ,nglish synta. in the following e.ample3

 Both of them unhurt ,huda $e& fazal se& while *ha4ia became
paraplegic.

Co-ordinated Clauses
In #akistani ,nglish co-ordinated clauses are (oined by ,nglish as well as $rdu con(unctions. )owever $rdu con(unctions do not occur quite frequently. A con(unction that often con(oins the ,nglish clauses to the $rdu ad(acent clauses is @andA. )ere is an e.ample of the use of the ,nglish coordinating con(unction3

 "hy don't we all go together to Cew =elhiD N $i shaddi $i sho!!ing
bhi ho "a&e gi and we can have much fun. As can be seen in the above e.ample there is switching here back and forth between ,nglish and $rdu. An $rdu clause is embedded in ,nglish and ,nglish is taken up again. In the following e.ample an $rdu con(unction @lekinA ;but< is inserted in the ,nglish sentence. This $rdu con(unction has a pragmatic effect as a discourse marker in drawing attention to the utterance.

 "e reached there in time la$in no body was there to receive us.
Another interesting feature of #akistani ,nglish that has been found as a result of $rdu-,nglish code-switching is the use of an independent $rdu clause or sentence with ,nglish in written as well as spoken ,nglish. )ere are three e.amples where $rdu clauses are syntactically independentE however they share a semantic relationship with each other3

 Fery soon I will be a big star in Bollywood main naumeed nahin
hougni)

 )e is set to release some very interesting films which he describes as
happy-go-lucky movies aa" $al ha!!& fims $a zamana hai)

 I cannot make new friends. Main buri, mairi dosti buri)
Noun Clause
These are the switched $rdu noun clauses.

 Sub $utch chalet hai is their dictum.  The whole thing is that $e& bhai&a sab se bada ru!ai&a)
In the following e.ample the ,nglish noun clause is (oined with the $rdu main clause through the ,nglish subordinating con(unction &that'.

 Mu"he shi$a&at hai that we are not making history.
-e!etitions and .ther Switches
*ometimes $rdu phrases or clauses are used (ust as the repetition of an ,nglish phrase or clause. The purpose of this type of switching is to give emphasis. *ometimes it is used to address different audiences.

 Take care a!na bahut $ha&al ra$hi&a ga)  %ero4 was very drunk. s$o chad ga&i thi)
In some cases $rdu clauses are used to quote ma.im and proverb in #akistani ,nglish. )ere are some e.amples3

 0y unbending procrastination is one thing that repels the beauty of the
world but they say *sabar $a !hal meetha hai+)

 )e gave the e.ample of the phrase *auratein bhot bolteen hain+)  *he was very touched and impressed especially when the waiter
uttered these words *baa"i, mehman se& !aisa& nahin leta&)

 *he opened the G and A session by saying *ab ball aa! $i court
main hai+)

/ommand of only a single variety of language whether it be a dialect style or register would appear to be an e.tremely rare phenomenon. 0ost speakers command several varieties of the language they speak and bilingualism even multilingualism is the norm for many people throughout the world rather than unilingualism or monolingualism.
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