FOUR SCIENTIFIC GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology has four main foals i.e. describe, understand or explain, predict and control or modify the behaviors . Psychologists differ with respect to the goals they emphasize. They are concerned with one or more of the four basic goals of psychology. Beyond that, psychology's ultimate goal is to gather knowledge to benefit humanity (Coon, 1997) 1. DESCRI BE BEH AVI OR : The first goal of psychology is to describe behavior. Description involves naming and classifying behavior. This description is based on careful, systematic procedure in contrast to haphazard description of common sense. Description is very important in that it makes u clear about what the phenomena under study. Only after we described the behavior or phenomenon clearly we can move to the other goals. 2. UNDERST AND OR EXPLAI N BEH AVI OR: The second goal of psychology becomes explaining the behavior or phenomenon that was described. Psychologists who are concern this goal try to find out why such behavior occur. They take help of existing theories and knowledge to explain or understand behavior. In some cases if there are no theorizes or researches that can explain such behavior psychologists make tentative statements and try to test such hypothesis. 3. PREDI CT THE BEH AVI OR: Another important goal for psychologists is to forecast future event. By carefully analyzing the relationship between different variables, psychologists can accurately predict what will be the relation in future between them. Prediction helps in modifying the behavior. It is facilitated by understanding of the relationship. 4. CONTROL OR MODI FY BEH AVI ORS: The fourth goal of psychology is to control, modify or change the existing behavior. The behaviors that need to be corrected are modified through the help of psychological techniques. Only psychologists who work in applied are of psychology are concerned with controlling the behaviors. Psychologists working in theoretical or basic are only concerned with first three goals of psychology.
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SUB-FIELS OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Abnormal Psychology

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Reinforcement Schedules Behavioral Analysis

Abnormal psychology is the area that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsessioncompulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in this field.  What is Abnormal Psychology?  Mental Disorders 2. Behavioral Psychology Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. While this branch of psychology dominated the field during the first part of the twentieth century, it became less prominent during the 1950s. However, behavioral techniques remain a mainstay in therapy, education and many other areas.  What is Behaviorism?  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning

3. Biopsychology

The branch of psychology focused on the study of how the braininfluences behavior is often known as biopsychology, although it has also been called physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience and psychobiology.  What is Biopsychology?  Neuron Basics  Nervous & Endocrine Systems  Structure of a Neuron

4. Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking and attention. This area of psychology has continued to grow since it emerged in the 1960s.  What is Cognitive Psychology?  Careers in Cognitive Psychology  Memory  Intelligence 5. Comparative Psychology Comparative psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. The study of animal behavior can lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology.  What is Comparative Psychology? 6. Cross-Cultural Psychology Cross-cultural psychology is a branch of psychology that looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior. The International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP) was established in 1972, and this branch of psychology has continued to grow and develop since that time. Today, increasing numbers of psychologists investigate how behavior differs among various cultures throughout the world. 7. Developmental Psychology This branch of psychology looks at development throughout the lifespan, from childhood to adulthood. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development. Topics studied in this field include everything from prenatal development to Alzheimer's disease.  What is Development?  How is Development Studied?  Issues in Developmental Psychology  Child Development Theories

8. Educational Psychology Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with schools, teaching psychology, educational issues and student concerns. Educational psychologists often study how students learn or work directly with students, parents, teachers and administrators to improve student outcomes.  Careers in School Psychology  Jung and Learning Styles  Multiple Intelligences 9. Experimental Psychology Experimental psychology is the branch of psychology that utilizes scientific methods to research the brain and behavior. Many of these techniques are also used by other areas in psychology to conduct research on everything from childhood development to social issues.  Introduction to Research Methods  Steps in Psychology Research  The Simple Experiment  Correlational Studies 10. Forensic Psychology

Forensic psychology is a specialty area that deals with issues related to psychology and the law. Forensic psychologists perform a wide variety of duties, including providing testimony in court cases, assessing children in suspected child abuse cases, preparing children to give testimony and evaluating the mental competence of criminal suspects.  Overview of Forensic Psychology  What Is Forensic Psychology?  The History of Forensic Psychology  Careers in Forensic Psychology 11. Health Psychology Health psychology is a specialty area that focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. Other terms including medical psychology and behavioral medicine are sometimes used interchangeably with the term health psychology. The field of health psychology is focused on promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness.  What Is Health Psychology?  Careers In Health Psychology 12. Personality Psychology

This branch of psychology is focused on the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best-known theories in psychology have arisen from this field, including Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.

13. Social Psychology Social psychology seeks to explain and understand social behavior and looks at diverse topics including group behavior, social interactions, leadership, nonverbal communication and social influences on decision-making.

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What is Personality? Theories of Personality Personality Disorders

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What is Social Psychology? Research Areas in Social Psychology Love & Attraction Leadership Nonverbal Communication
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