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Catalog No.

L51524e

PIPELINE RISER SYSTEM DESIGN AND APPLICATION GUIDE


PR-178-622

Prepared for the


Onshore/Offshore Supervisory Committee Pipeline Research Committee of Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.

Prepared by the following Research Agencies:


Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc.

Publication Date:
February 1987

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 1.2 Basis of Design Guide 1.3 Scope of Design Guide 1.4 Riser System Descriptions 2.0 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF DEEPWATER RISER DESIGN 2.1 General 2.2 Riser Design Procedures 2.3 Operating, Seabed, and Environmental Design Considerations 2.4 Applicable Analyses and Computer Software 2.5 Flexible Pipe Design 3.0 DESIGN OF CONVENTIONAL DEEPWATER PIPELINE RISERS 3.1 Description and Applications 3.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 3.3 Pipeline/Riser Connectors and Connection Aids 3.4 Conventional Riser Component Design 4.0 DESIGN OF DEEPWATER J-TUBE RISERS 4.1 J-Tube Riser System Description and Applications 4.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 4.3 J-Tube Component Design 5.0 DESIGN OF REVERSE J-TUBE RISERS 5.1 Reverse J-Tube Riser System Description and Applications 5.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 5.3 J-Tube Component Design

TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.0 DESIGN OF BENDING SHOE RISERS

(Cont'd)

6.1 Bending Shoe System Description and Applications 6.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 6.3 Bending Shoe Component Design 7.0 DESIGN OF BAREFOOT RISERS 7.1 Barefoot Riser Description and Applications 7.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 7.3 System Component Design 8.0 DESIGN OF CATENARY RISERS 8.1 Catenary and Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Description and Applications 8.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 8.3 Flexible Pipe Risers 9.0 DESIGN OF TENSION AND/OR BUOYED RISERS 9.1 Tension and/or Buoyed Riser System Description and Applications 9.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 9.3 System Component Design 10.0 COST COMPONENTS

APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C

BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF U.S. PATENT REFERENCES J-TUBE PULL FORCE PROGRAM

SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General 1.2 1.3 1.4 Basis of Design Guide Scope of Design Guide Riser System Descriptions 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 Conventional Riser J-Tube Riser Reverse J-Tube Bending Shoe Barefoot Riser Free Spanning Risers

Section 1.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 1-1 1-2

Title Platform Types Current Riser Systems (Steel Pipe)

2.0 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF DEEPWATER RISER DESIGN 2.1 General 2.1.1 2.1.2 Deepwater Risers - Fixed and Compliant Platforms Deepwater Risers - Moored Platforms

2.2 Riser Design Procedures 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 Phase I - Preliminary Engineering Phase II - Detailed Engineering Phase III - Material Procurement Phase IV - Construction

2.3 Operating, Seabed, and Environmental Design Considerations 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 Seabed Soils Operating Conditions Wave and Current Loadings Platform Motions Platform Settlement

2.4 Applicable Analyses and Computer Software 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 Operational Stress Analysis Installation Stress Analysis Analysis of Tensioned and Buoyed Risers

2.5 Flexible Pipe Design 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 Flexible Pipe Manufacturers Flexible Pipe Construction End Fittings Flexible Pipe Properties

Section 2.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8

Title Sequence of Events for Deepwater Riser Design and

Construction Preliminary Engineering for Deepwater Riser Design Phase II - Detailed Engineering for Deepwater Riser Design Phase III - M a t e r i a l P r o c u r e m e n t S e q u e n c e o f E v e n t s f o r Deepwater Risers Phase IV - Construction Sequence of Events for Deepwater Risers Pipeline Expansion Equations Conventional Riser Computer Model Basic Pipe Stress Equations

SECTION 3.0 DESIGN OF CONVENTIONAL DEEPWATER PIPELINE RISERS 3.1 Description and Applications 3.1.1 3.1.2 Riser System Components Deep Water Applications/Limitations

3.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 Installation Scenarios Riser Installation Pipeline/Riser Connections (w/Diver Intervention) Pipeline/Riser Connections (Diverless) Pipeline End Target Area Riser Location

3.3 Pipeline/Riser Connectors and Connection Aids 3.3.1 3.3.2 Mechanical Connectors Connector Aids

3.4 Conventional Riser Component Design 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 Flexibility at Lower Riser Section Flexibility of Vertical Riser/Deck Piping Riser Supports Corrosion Protection Measures Repairability/Mid-Riser Connectors

Section 3.0 - List of Figures Figure No. 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6

Title Typical Platform Riser Installation Typical Platform Riser Installation with Offset Riser Guide Rail System Spring Loaded Diverless Clamp Slotted Keyhole Typer Riser Support (Diverless) Conventional Riser Installation Using Slotted Keyhole Riser Supports Equipment) (Fabricated & Uprighted with Floating

3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17

Conventional Riser Installation Using Slotted Keyhole Riser Supports (Fabricated on Tower) Diver Assisted Spool Piece Installation Pipe Lifting Procedures Underwater Habitat (UWH) and Submersible Pipe Alignment Rig (SPAR) Diverless Spool Piece Installation Procedure Sled-to-Receiver Pull-in Installation One Atmosphere Pull -In Procedure Pipeline End Positioning in Deepwater Steel and Flexible Pipe Expansion Loops Upper Riser Supports Intermediate Riser Clamps

SECTION 4.0 DESIGN OF DEEPWATER J-TUBE RISERS 4.1 J-Tube Riser System Description and Applications 4.1.1 4.1.2 System Components Applications/Limitations

4.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Startup and Termination of Pipelay Pull-in Procedures Pipeline Approach Deck Space Requirements for Pull Equipment

4.3 J-Tube Component Design 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 J-Tube Conduit J-Tube Exit and Pipe Span Riser Pipe String Pipeline Platform Appurtenances Corrosion Protection Measures Flexible Pipe J-Tube Risers

Section 4.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10

Title J-Tube Riser Installation J-Tube Pull Force vs. Back Tension for Example Cases J-Tube Pull Force vs. J-Tube Radius for Example Cases J-Tube Pull Force vs. Clearance Ratio for Example Cases J-Tube Minimum Radius vs. Riser Pipe Wall Thickness (24" O.D. Riser Pipe in 2,500 ft. Water Depth) Typical J-Tube Installation Procedure (Intermittent Pull Off Conventional Vessel) Second End J-Tube Pull-In Procedure Typical J-Tube Installation Procedure (Continuous Pull) Typical J-Tube Pull Winch Arrangement on Platform Deck J-Tube Conduit Configuration Showing Stepped Down Conduit Size and Mid-Length Connections for Multi-Piece Jacket Installation (Shell Cognac 12-Inch Line)

4-11

Releasable J-Tube Mouth

SECTION 5.0 DESIGN OF REVERSE J-TUBE RISERS 5.1 Reverse J-tube Riser System Description and Applications 5.1.1 5.1.2 System Components Applications/Limitations

5.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 Pipe Transfer Equipment Deck Space Requirements for Equipment Production Rates Anodes on Pipe Pulled Through Riser Pipeline Approach

5.3 J-tube Component Design 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 J-tube Conduit J-tube Exit and Reverse Bend Riser Pipe String Corrosion Protection Measures

Section 5.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4

Title Reverse J-Tube Installation Reverse J-Tube Pull Equipment Reverse J-Tube Pull Platform Configuration Riser Pipe Elevator Slip

SECTION 6.0 DESIGN OF BENDING SHOE RISERS 6.1 Bending Shoe System Description and Applications 6.1.1 6.1.2 System Components Applications/Limitations

6.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 Startup and Termination of Pipelay Pipeline Approach Pipeline Line-up/Uprighting

6.3 Bending Shoe Component Design 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 Bending Shoe Riser Pipe String Pipeline Riser Supports Platform Appurtenances

Section 6.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4

Title Bending Shoe Riser Installation Pipeline Positioning for Bending Shoe Installation During Pipeline Abandonment Bending Shoe Arrangement for Example 24-Inch Uprighting Riser Uprighting Configurations (24-Inch Riser in 2,500 ft. Water Depth)

SECTION 7.0 DESIGN OF BAREFOOT RISERS 7.1 Barefoot Riser Description and Applications 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.2 System Components Applications/Limitations

Installation Related Design Considerations 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 Startup and Termination of Pipelay Pipeline Approach Pipeline Uprighting/Lowering Riser Supports

7.3

System Component Design 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 Riser Pipe String Riser Supports Platform Appurtenances Corrosion Protection Measures

Section 7.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 7-1 7-2 7-3

Title Barefoot Riser Installation - Lifting from Seabed Barefoot Riser Installation - Lowering from Lay Vessel Pipe Bending Restrictors

SECTION 8.0 - DESIGN OF STEEL CATENARY AND FLEXIBLE PIPE RISERS 8.1 Catenary and Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Description and Applications 8.1.1 8.1.2 System Components Applications/Limitations

8.2 Installation Related Design Considerations 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 Startup/Termination of Pipelay Pipeline Approach Mid-Depth Riser Lowering Procedure Example Mid-Depth Catenary

8.3 Flexible Pipe Risers

Section 8.0 - List of Figures

Figure No. 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6

Title Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Geometry of Catenary and Mid-Depth Catenary Risers Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Support/Connector Configuration of Mid-Depth Catenary in 2,500 ft. of Water Configuration of Mid-Depth Catenary in 1,000 ft. of Water Flexible Riser Configurations

SECTION 9.0 DESIGN OF TENSION AND/OR BUOYED RISERS 9.1 Tension and/or Buoyed Riser Description and Applications 9.1.1 9.1.2 System Components Applications

9.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

9.3 System Component Design 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 Tensioning Component Riser Arrangement Top Interface Bottom Interface

Section 9.0 - L i s t o f F i g u r e s

Figure No. 9-1 9-2 9-3 3-4 9-5 9-6 9-7

Title Typical Tension/Buoyed Riser Configuration Riser Tensioning System Integral Buoyancy Air Chamber Arrangement Tension vs. Log Fatigue Life Cross Section of Integral & Non-Integral Risers Subsea Templates - Single and Multi-Well Bottom Joint Concepts

TABLE 10-1 1. 1A. 1B. 1C. 1D. 1E. 1F. 1G. 1H. 1I. 1J. 1K. 1L. 1M. 1N. 1P. 2. 2A. 2B. 2C. 2D. 2E. 2F. 2G. 2H. 2I. 2J. Material Pipe Corrosion Coating Concrete Coating Anodes Riser Clamps Insulating Flanges (Standard, above water application) Connection Joints (Between riser and platform) Neoprene Coating Mechanical Connect ions (Between riser and pipeline) J-Tube Bending Shoe Support Tower Splash Zone Protection Riser Bend (Prefabricated) Insulating Flanges (Monobloc, below water application) Installation Equipment and Appurtenances Pipelay Installation Vessel (Laybarge, Reel Vessel, etc. Pulling Winch D.P. Vessel Riser Clamps J-Tube Bending Shoe Support Tower Platform Crane Structural Rail System ROV

10. J-Tube Stopper Plug (Normally neoprene)

3.

Installation Methods

3A. Field Installed Riser (Using floating vessels) 3B. 3C. Pre-installed Riser (Installed in fabrication yard) Field Installed Riser (Using deck equipment)