FROM THE FIRST TO THE LAST ASH: The History, Economics & Hazards of Tobacco

A Comprehensive Adult Basic Education Curriculum Developed By Marjorie Jacobs Community Learning Center (617) 349-6363

Funded by a Mass. Department of Public Health grant to The Cambridge Tobacco Education Program, Cambridge Department of Human Service Programs. Tobacco Control Activities are supported by the Health Protection Fund, established upon passage of voter referendum Question 1 (Tobacco Excise tax) in November 1992.Copyright ©

1995 by Marjorie Jacobs Revised 1997



UNIT 1: History & Economics of Tobacco What is Tobacco? History of Tobacco Economics of Tobacco Reading & Writing Activities: Finding Important Facts/Details

6 6 8 14 24

UNIT 2: Cigarette Advertising Tobacco & Youth Analyzing Assorted Tobacco Advertisements Reading & Writing Activities: Distinguishing Facts From Opinions

33 35 37 42

UNIT 3: Why People Smoke Interview #1 Interview #2 Why Do You Smoke? Test Reading & Writing Activities: Finding the Main Idea

49 50 51 55 60


UNIT 4: The Dangers of Smoking for Smokers What’s In A Cigarette & Disease: Chemicals, Cancer and Heart Disease Cycle of Addiction Other Health Dangers of Cigarettes Reading & Writing Activities: Vocabulary Through Context Clues

62 62 66 68 73

UNIT 5: Health Dangers of Smoking for Nonsmokers Smoking & Pregnancy Reading & Writing Activities: Vocabulary Through Context Clues

77 79 82

UNIT 6: Quitting Steps to Quit Smoking Going Cold Turkey Interview With An Ex-Smoker Tapering Off Method Quitting Smoking Resources Reading & Writing Activities: Drawing Conclusions

90 91 93 94 95 102 106



Each unit contains reading. It was funded in 1993 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health grant to The Cambridge Tobacco Education Program.4 INTRODUCTION From the First to the Last Ash: The History. From the First to the Last Ash was written for native and non-native English speaking. economy and the health dangers of smoking to smokers and nonsmokers. Massachusetts were given a survey to assess their knowledge and interest in tobacco-related subjects. Another was for students to develop strategies to protect themselves and others from cigarette smoke. It is comprised of six self-contained units. There is a separate teachers’ guide complete with step by step lesson plans for each unit. Economics & Hazards of Tobacco is a comprehensive tobacco education curriculum which integrates speaking. Cambridge Department of Human Service Programs. The development of this curriculum dates back to February 1994 when over one hundred students at the Community Learning Center in Cambridge. and critical thinking skills and focuses on cigarette smoking. One was to increase the students’ understanding and awareness of the historical role of the tobacco industry in the U. They were enrolled in English-as-a-second language. From the First to the Last Ash was written with three main objectives in mind. writing. writing. finding the main idea of one or more paragraphs. The third . learning new vocabulary through context clues. adult and community education classes. The reading skills taught are as follows: locating important facts/details. and speaking activities designed to teach content as well as to build written and verbal communication skills. adult populations reading at grade levels 6 through 12. and drawing conclusions. and workshops or the whole sequence can be taught as an eight-week course. Individual units can be used in focus groups. The results of the survey were used to design a curriculum to meet students’ needs and interests. and PreGED classes.S. Adult Basic Education. distinguishing facts from opinons. reading.

They felt that they had learned valuable knowledge and had also improved their reading. community outreach workers from the Cambridge Tobacco Education Program and Cambridge United For Smoking Prevention. Hispanic. From the First to the Last Ash is currently being used by many tobacco education programs throughout the United States.5 objective was to encourage smokers to quit and to assist nonsmokers in their efforts to help family members and friends to quit. and Brazil. From the First to the Last Ash was piloted from August 1994 to April 1995 with over 200 adult education students at the Community Learning Center. Among the groups represented were 18-55 year olds from Haiti. The course was rated as excellent by 99% of the participants. who had been smoking for 15 years. Venezuela. Philippines. From the United States. Barbados. China. The students come from a diversity of age and ethnic/linguistic groups. One woman in the early stages of pregnancy. Portugal. health education. writing. Several parents who smoke learned about ways to protect their children from second hand cigarette smoke. All students were low-income whether employed or on public assistance. . quit smoking at the end of the course. Cape Verde Islands. Lebanon. there were African-American. Final revisions were made to the curriculum in the fall of 1995 through the input of five. El Salvador. and white participants. Trinidad. At the end of the pilot. Panama. Asian. New materials were generated by the students through the various activities at the end of each unit. Other students thought that they could now educate their children about the dangers of smoking and be supportive and influential in helping family members and close friends quit smoking. Puerto Rico. Program personnel are using it as a resource to educate themselves and their staffs and to assist their target populations with tobacco education and cessation. and speaking skills. Jamaica. thinking. the United States. all students evaluated the curriculum.

it speeds up the nervous system. it changes our body in some way. and used in different ways. leafy plant that is grown in warm climates. After it is picked. It is the chemical that makes tobacco addictive or habit forming. or cigar. Nicotine is one of the more than 4. . and our body wants more. Once we smoke. This means that when we use tobacco.6 UNIT 1: HISTORY AND ECONOMICS OF TOBACCO WHAT IS TOBACCO? Tobacco is a green. chew. or sniff tobacco. It can be chewed (called smokeless tobacco or chewing tobacco) or sniffed through the nose (called snuff). pipe. so we feel like we have more energy.000 chemicals in cigarettes and its smoke. Because nicotine is a stimulant. It can be smoked in a cigarette. The nicotine in tobacco makes it a drug. ground up. It also makes the heart beat faster and raises blood pressure. it is dried. nicotine goes into our bloodstream.

Article appeared on 2/26/94.7 Credit: Copyright © by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission. .

the first President of the U. By the 1800’s.S. Buck Duke and his father started the first tobacco company in the U. Tobacco helped pay for the American Revolution against England. The Mayan Indians of Mexico carved drawings in stone showing tobacco use. James “Buck” Duke. . Some chewed it. many people had begun using small amounts of tobacco. He went into business with Washington Duke’s son. Tobacco was grown by American Indians before the Europeans came from England. wheat. Virginia grew tobacco as a cash crop. The first brand of cigarettes were packaged in a box with baseball cards and were called Duke of Durham.D.000 cigarettes a day. They built a factory and made 10 million cigarettes their first year and about one billion cigarettes five years later. France. The first commercial cigarettes were made in 1865 by Washington Duke on his 300acre farm in Raleigh. Native Americans smoked tobacco through a pipe for special religious and medical purposes. Other cash crops were corn. North Carolina. or they hand-rolled a cigarette or cigar. In 1612 the settlers of the first American colony in Jamestown.8 HISTORY OF TOBACCO Tobacco has a long history in the Americas. Spain. These drawings date back to somewhere between 600 to 900 A. On the average. It was their main source of money. sugar. Bonsack’s cigarette machine could make 120. people smoked about 40 cigarettes a year. It was not until James Bonsack invented the cigarette-making machine in 1881 that cigarette smoking became widespread. His hand-rolled cigarettes were sold to soldiers at the end of the Civil War. Others smoked it occasionally in a pipe. Also. They did not smoke every day. They named it the American Tobacco Company. Tobacco was the first crop grown for money in North America. and soya beans. cotton. grew tobacco. and Italy to North America.S.

Service men received about 75% of all cigarettes produced. Many of them went to work and started smoking for the first time while their husbands were away. In 1902 Philip Morris company came out with its Marlboro brand. American Brands. there have been six giant cigarette companies in the U. The wars were good for the tobacco industry. Lorillard. R. Reynolds.J.S. . At home production increased and cigarettes were being marketed to women too. Soldiers overseas were given free cigarettes every day. By 1944 cigarette production was up to 300 billion a year. They were selling their cigarettes mainly to men. Several companies were making cigarettes by the early 1900’s. They are Philip Morris. World War II brought more independence for women. Since WW II. More than any other war. Everything changed during World War I (1914-18) and World War II (1939-45). Brown & Williamson.9 Credit: An 1892 Duke of Durham box of machine-rolled cigarettes Tobacco Biology & Politics The American Tobacco Company was the largest and most powerful tobacco company until the early 1900’s. and Liggett & Myers (now called the Brooke Group).

He said that the nicotine and tar in cigarettes cause lung cancer.” By the 1980’s. ( the chief doctor for the country) wrote a report about the dangers of cigarette smoking. In 1965 the Congress of the U.S.S. It said that every cigarette pack must have a warning label on its side stating “Cigarettes may be hazardous to your health.S. In 1964 the Surgeon General of the U. and all over the world. passed the Cigarette Labelling and Advertising Act.10 They make millions of dollars selling cigarettes in the U. Each company made and sold many different brands of cigarettes. the tobacco companies had come out with new brands of cigarettes with lower amounts of tar and nicotine and improved filters to keep their customers buying and to help reduce their fears. The early 1980’s were called the “tar wars” because tobacco companies competed aggressively to make over 100 low tar and “ultra” low tar cigarettes. .

11 Credit: Smoking Tobacco & Health. Centers for Disease Control In 1984 Congress passed another law called the Comprehensive Smoking Education Act. . It said that the cigarette companies every three months had to change the warning labels on cigarette packs. It created four different labels for the companies to rotate.

federal. airlines have not allowed smoking on airplane flights in the U. and private companies have begun taking actions to restrict cigarette smoking in public places. Many cities across the U.S. local governments. “Comprehensive Smoking Education Act. The warning labels were the first step.12 Public Law 98-474. state. 1984” Credit: Smoking Tobacco & Health. do not allow smoking in public buildings and restaurants. Tobacco companies cannot advertise cigarettes on television or radio. . It is against a law that was passed by Congress in 1971. Since 1990.S. that are six hours or less. Centers for Disease Control Since the 1980’s. State taxes on cigarettes have increased.

. Pakistan.S. the Phillipines.13 Credit: Reprinted courtesy of The Boston Globe. U. Malaysia. tobacco companies are now growing tobacco in Africa. tobacco companies go to Asian countries. such as Thailand. Fifty percent (50%) of the sales of U. South Korea. and Taiwan. they are looking outside. 4/10/94 As it becomes more difficult for tobacco companies to sell their products in the U. and the Dominican Republic. South America (Brazil and Paraguay).S. Thailand. . Greece. the Phillipines.S. India.

education. Products are things like chewing tobacco. and insurance. Steel is the import. For example. gas. televisions. Selling their products to other countries is called exporting. The taxes that the tobacco companies pay provide a lot of money for the U. it is exporting. one or more people get together and form a company to make and sell something. Cars are the exports. government. In 1992.S.65 billion dollar trade surplus. they have a trade deficit. On the other hand. when they import more than they export. When Ford sells its cars to Brazil. Philip Morris alone paid $4.S. tobacco companies have had a trade surplus. In 1992 the tobacco industry reported a $5. they have a trade surplus. if Ford Motor Company buys steel from Japan to make a car. In other words. it is importing a product. has a capitalist economic system. They do this to make money. Under this system. a profit is the money they have for themselves after paying rent. salaries. A trade surplus is another way of saying a profit. The product that is sold is called an export.5 billion in taxes. .S. Buying from other countries is called importing. The money that they make after paying off their bills or expenses is called profit. companies buy is called an import. and what U. A deficit means a debt or money owed to someone else. cigarettes. they make a profit. When companies sell more than they spend. and cars. houses.14 ECONOMICS OF TOBACCO Economics deals with the making and selling of products and services to consumers. That is one big reason why they have been important to the economy of the U.S. In the first half of 1992. This makes it the largest tax payer in the U. utility bills (electricity. Services include medical care. Consumers are the people like ourselves who buy or receive the products and services. tobacco exports were $2 billion more than imports. The U. Throughout history. telephone) and buying machines/computers and any other equipment they need to make their product and run their business. When companies or governments export more than they import.S.

3/20/94 Tobacco companies export their products (cigarettes. Russia. Turkey. and many more countries. 1/26/94 . cigars. Credit: Associated Press. Reprinted by permission. The New York Times Magazine. In 1992 Philip Morris sold 11 billion cigarettes to Russia alone. “How Do They Live With Themselves?” Roger Rosenblatt. Singapore. Saudi Arabia. South Korea.15 Credit: Copyright © 1994 by The New York Times Company. United Arab Emigrates. China. chewing tobacco) to at least 146 countries around the world. They sell to Hong Kong.

They are still able to make big profits by buying up other nontobacco companies in the U. and by selling and making cigarettes outside the country. All of the six U.S. For example.000 tobacco farms in more than 16 states. Reynolds bought the Nabisco Food Group and General Entertainment Corporation. It is done by machines without people. The making or manufacturing of cigarettes is almost completely automated. They also roll cigarettes. cut them to length.000 people working in the tobacco industry. They are so strong that not even all the medical reports of the health dangers of smoking and all the laws restricting smoking and advertising have been able to weaken them. There are only about 800. and then package them.S. companies producing cigarettes are large and powerful.J. . and R. Philip Morris bought Miller Beer and Kraft General Foods. Machines crush and clean tobacco leaves and add chemicals like nicotine.16 One of the reasons tobacco growing is so profitable is because its costs are so low. There are 136. put on filters.

New York . clocks) Majestic Shipping Corp. Diamond M. information systems) NBA Hoops (baseball cards) Basic Four LineDrive Pre-rookie(baseballcards) Distributor of football & hockey cards Marvel superhero cards GI Joe cards World Championship Wrestling cards Terminator II movie cards Disney cards NFL Proline Portraits 1992 Olympic cards Star Trek X-men Full House Perfect Strangers Family Matters DC comic book characters Lorillard Loews Hotels CNA Insurance Co.17 TOBACCO COMPANIES: THE COMPANIES THEY OWN & THE PRODUCTS THEY MAKE Philip Morris Louis Kemp Seafood Light ‘n Lively Lender’s Bagels Oscar Mayer Claussen Pickles Log Cabin Maxim Coffee Baboli Bread Louis Rich Sharp’s Beer Meister Brau Beer DiGiorno Pasta Sealtest Ice Cream Richmix Candy Bird’s Eye Louis Rich Meats Crystal Light Minute Rice Post Cereals Stove-Top Millers Beers Shake and Bake Miracle Whip Milwaukee’s Best Beer Knudson Capri Sun Entenmanns Chiffon Jello Kool-Aid Kraft Tang Lowenbrau Country Time Maxwell House Seven Seas Cool Whip Bulls Eye Sauce Parkay Margarine Food Club Bakers Chocolate Breyer’s IceCream Brooke Group (formerly Liggett & Myers) MAI (computers. Summit Hotel. New York Loews Theatre Management Corp. (watches. Offshore Drilling Regency Hotel. Bulova Corp.

18 R. J. Reynolds .

Saks Fifth Ave. Joel Dunnington.19 Brown & Williamson Appleton Papers Inc. Credit: Dr. Marshall Field’s Ivey’s Breuners Farmers Group Inc. 1993 . Tobacco Almanac.

I know now from reading the statistics on nicotine addiction and smoking habits that 85 to 90 percent of smokers start before or during their teenage years. "After I quit I wanted to tell every twelve-yearold that I had quit. At that point I began to question what I was doing.." Louganis later told me. Mission Viejo had been the home of the top American swimmers and divers. he said that he wanted to be just like me! He knew I smoked and he figured that it did not seem to affect my diving performance." So he started doing volunteer work for the American .. an Olympic diver.. even though he had to do it surreptitiously: "My diving coach at the time. I realized that in a way I was a 'Marlboro Man' of sorts. I thought that my neighborhood pals would accept me if I joined the guys every day outside school to sneak a smoke. is owned by a subsidiary of Philip Morris called the Mission Viejo Realty Group. just power and strength. He said to a congressional committee studying cigarette advertising. I was hooked on these deadly products. and I quit smoking." Louganis continued to smoke until he was twenty-three. would never coach me again if he ever found out that I had even contemplated the idea of smoking cigarettes. The Greg Louganis Story Take the case of Olympic diver Greg Louganis. The swimming club. so he thought it must be all right to smoke. I thought I was cool and that it would make me more grown up like my parents who both smoked. He trained for the 1984 Olympics (where he was to win two gold medals) at the Mission Viejo training center in southern California. By the time he was eight years old he had started to smoke. who won seven gold medals at the 1972 Olympics. and the town in which it is located. Dr. all to get my daily fix of those little tobacco sticks. Sammy Lee. "Smoking was more of a way of rebelling than something I enjoyed. including Mark Spitz. and I was willing to risk whatever future I might have had as a diver and an athlete. By the time I was in junior high. When I asked him why.20 We can see the power of the tobacco companies by reading about what happened to Greg Louganis. Greg Louganis was born in 1960. " But then one day he had a personal epiphany that enabled him to quit smoking: "I had been practicing at the Mission Viejo facility one day and on the way out I noticed this twelve-year-old kid smoking. As a diver I kept rationalizing that I didn't need a great amount of wind to succeed.

" An athlete of his stature in that position would have a major effect on the image of smoking among young people. Of course. Since 1964 all the Surgeon Generals of the U. Both Louganis and Babbitt agreed that there was really no choice The diver declined the honorary position so that he could go to the Olympics. Two of the public relations people told Babbitt that if Louganis accepted the Cancer Society invitation. "I was pushing for it heavily. 'Don't say this. The U. since even this would have been considered a hostile act.. a great move for Greg and his career. he could not explain why." "I was very disappointed. have talked and written about the health . Credit: Permission granted by William Morrow & Co." And it didn't stop there. Ron O'Brien. they too would be fired. was the best in the world. "Heads would roll." Louganis's coach. Jim Babbitt. I thought this would have made Greg a hero in other areas than diving.S. Babbitt got the message from the public relations department of Mission Viejo. Babbitt was very enthusiastic.Y.' Maybe they could say that I was biting the hand that fed me." Babbitt says. 1988.." Louganis's activities that the Mission Viejo executives and their masters at Philip Morris on Park Avenue found so displeasing reached a crescendo in January of 1984. But O'Brien worked for Mission Viejo. away from his coach. It would have been a real coup for him. at the time. According to his manager. Louganis was asked by the American Cancer Society to be national chairman of its annual Great American Smokeout.Y. after all. very polished." he says. N. the Mission Viejo executives were not very happy about this: "They grimaced when the ACS was mentioned. he would be barred from training at Mission Viejo. was the sports world's equivalent of saying. "It was done very subtly. it's against what our company is selling. Babbitt says the threat of Louganis's being sent away from Mission Viejo. "Number one. If Greg were to accept the honorary position from the American Cancer Society.S. He told me." And they warned Louganis to "keep a low profile. N.21 Cancer Society. government and the tobacco companies help each other. I was acting as an individual and I don't feel that it was right for the company to have the power to say. but I believe that there is a higher value. In that Olympic year. But also very definite. "I'll kill your mother. for Merchants of Death. And. The diver could not contemplate competing in the Olympics without his guidance. But it was not to be. he's told me that he considers quitting smoking the greatest accomplishment of his life.

and sold. The U. The government gives farms special. any tobacco not sold one cent above the government price is bought by grower cooperatives and stored to be sold another year. When the farmer takes his/her tobacco to the market.22 dangers of cigarettes. . low interest loans to help cover the costs of growing tobacco. The tobacco industry gives thousands of dollars to help cover the costs of political campaigns of people running for political office. This is called a quota. In turn the politicians help the tobacco industry. and President. These are people who want to be elected or reelected as Senators.S. Department of Agriculture allows a certain amount of tobacco to be grown each year. Still. advertised. It also sets a minimum price for tobacco. Representatives. Under the price support system. One way politicians help is continuing the tobacco price support system. cigarettes are made. tobacco can only be grown on a certain number of government-approved farms. Vice-President.

Inc. as will all officials and agencies which play a role in tobacco programs.252-253. .23 When Ronald Reagan was campaigning for President in 1980. I also want to assure you that my Administration will end what has become an increasingly antagonistic relationship between the federal government and the tobacco industry. First. Galloway. or soyabeans-should be viewed as a valuable cash crop with an important role to play in restoring America's balance of trade. I want to assure you that I fully support this nation's tobacco price-support program. The Smoke Ring. Reprinted by permission of Pantheon Books. The Secretary of Agriculture in a Reagan/Bush administration will represent my feelings in this regard. I can also guarantee you that I will seek Senator Helms's views on any decision my administration makes concerning federal tobacco policies. a division of Random House. Tobacco price supports have helped to sustain more than a quarter of a million family farms in 16 states. The Carter administration has all too often singled out the tobacco industry for selective criticism and damaging restrictions. I can guarantee that my own Cabinet members will be far too busy with substantive matters to waste their time proselytizing against the dangers of cigarette smoking. Sincerely (Signed) Ronald Reagan Credit: Coyright © 1984 by Petyer Taylor. I hope that you consider these matters in deciding which candidate to vote for this November. and have proven to be an unqualified success. wheat. I would like to take this opportunity to write to you and several other well-known North Carolina tobacco farmers to spell out my views on federal tobacco programs. pp. Tobacco-no less than corn. he wrote the following letter: REAGAN/BUSH COMMITTEE Dear Mr.

What are the different ways tobacco is used? 2. 4. 6. 1. 5. Who were the first people in North America to use tobacco? . 3.24 UNIT 1: HISTORY & ECONOMICS OF TOBACCO ACTIVITY 1: LOCATING & UNDERSTANDING IMPORTANT FACTS AND DETAILS FROM UNIT 1 After reading Unit 1. To locate the answer. Why does the Food & Drug Administration say that tobacco companies are controlling the amount of nicotine they put into cigarettes? 8. you should look at words in the questions and look for the same ones in the reading. How many chemicals are found in cigarettes? Who built the first factory to make cigarettes? Who invented the cigarette making machine? What chemical makes cigarettes an addictive drug? What does nicotine do to the body? 7. answer the questions below in complete sentences.

13. What was the name of the first pack of cigarettes? What are the names of six U.S.? When did the number of women smoking in the U. How and why did Native Americans use tobacco? 10. 17.S. As it becomes harder for tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in the U.. today? 19. begin to increase? What and when were the “tar wars”? 15. What is the name of the first cigarette company in the U. cigarette companies? 12.S. 14. What did the Comprehensive Smoking Education Act say? What do two warning labels on cigarette packs say? 18.S. What are three restrictions on cigarette smoking in the U.S. where are they going? . What did the Surgeon General of the U. report in 1964? 16.25 Unit 1: History & Economics of Tobacco 9. 11.S.

What non-tobacco products does Philip Morris sell? 26. Why did Greg Louganis turn down the honorary position from the American Cancer Society? . What is capitalism? 21. 22. What happened to Greg Louganis? 28.26 Unit 1: History & Economics of Tobacco 20. government? 24. What is a profit? What is a trade surplus? 23.S. What non-tobacco products does R.S. How have tobacco companies helped the U.J. Reynolds sell? 27. How have tobacco companies been able to keep making so much money with cigarette sales in the U. going down? 25.

What is the tobacco price support system? 30. .S. Which tobacco company has the largest share of the U. Write the missing events on the time line. “SMOKING THROUGH THE YEARS” The purpose of this exercise is for you to find important dates from the unit and to read a time line/line graph. Reread the section on “History of Tobacco” to find the dates. place each card at the correct year on the time line.27 Unit 1: History & Economics of Tobacco 29. cigarette market? ACTIVITY 2: PUTTING DATES ON A TIME LINE. Or if your teacher has written the events on small cards.

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smoked at some time in the past. Interview any family members who smoke now. You should put the following information on your own family tree: • the dates family members smoked (beginning and ending) •what smoking related illnesses family member(s) have (had) •what smoking related diseases any family member(s) died of . Use the family tree below as an example.29 ACTIVITY 3: MAKING A FAMILY TREE TO TRACE SMOKING HISTORIES The purpose of this activity is to show you how to make a family tree and to find out the smoking histories of family members who are alive or dead. or know about the smoking habits of other family members.

30 Unit 1: History & Economics of Tobacco ACTIVITY 4: FINDING OUT ABOUT THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF TOBACCO AT THE LOCAL LEVEL As more people stop smoking. they will have to sell other things. 4/12/94 COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS: 1. and in complete sentences answer the comprehension questions that follow. what one product brings in a lot of money for convenience stores? 2. John Kennedy. As of April 1994. According to Dimanno and Lane. “The Cost of Cutting Back”. The Boston Globe’s “Breaking the Habit” series. how much money goes to the Massachusetts government from each pack of cigarettes sold? . convenience stores like 7-11 and Store 24 will lose business at first. THE COSTS OF CUTTING BACK Credit: Reprinted courtesy of The Boston Globe. To make up the money that comes from tobacco sales. Read the article below.

Ask what products the store is thinking of selling or is currently selling to take the place of cigarettes. What do convenience store chain stores plan to do to make up for the money they are losing from lower cigarette sales? 7. about how much money did the state government receive from each cigarette pack sold? 4.” You should suggest ideas for the cigarette companies of what they could make and sell . ACTIVITY 5: WRITING A BUSINESS LETTER Write a letter to your U. Speak to a manager to find out what percentage of sales comes from the sale of cigarettes. In what year did the excise tax on cigarettes double? 5.S. What products does Philip Morris sell in addition to tobacco? 6. Write up a report and share your findings with your class. Senator or Representative asking him/her to introduce a bill not allowing tobacco companies to make cigarettes based on the Food & Drug Administration’s labelling of cigarettes as a “dangerous drug. Before the excise tax increase on cigarettes. What type of store may go out of business as tobacco sales drop? Visit one or two convenience stores in your community.31 Unit 1: History & Economics of Tobacco 3.

32 to take the place of cigarettes. . Quit smoking aids ( like special gums and candies) could become profitable for the tobacco companies.

Many people are quitting smoking. Revised . the cigarette companies are trying hard to sell their products. Joel Dunninton. News & World TV Guide 6 Report 1 Working Woman 6 New Republic 0 People 6 Business Week 0 US 5 Forbes 0 Motor Cyclist 5 Fortune 0 *Numbers in parentheses indicate how many free packs of cigarettes readers could obtain from coupons in that issue.S. and through promotions. Tobacco Almanac. The tobacco companies spend 4 billion dollars a year or 11 million dollars a day to try to get people to buy cigarettes.33 UNIT 2: CIGARETTE ADVERTISING Cigarettes are the most heavily advertised product in the U. Through their advertisements in magazines and newspapers. Credit: Dr. Every day the tobacco industry is fighting against the growing number of reports about the health dangers of smoking. Others are never starting to smoke. ___________________________________ Numbers of Tobacco Ads in Magazines Magazine Cigarette Ads Magazine Cigarette Ads In A Single Issue In A Single Issue Penthouse 20(3)* Vogue 4 Playboy 14(3) Newsweek 4 Cosmopolitan 12(4) Sports Illustrated 4 Rolling Stone 11(3) 4 Wheel Off-Road 4 Glamour 8 Ebony 3 Road and Track 8 Time 3 Life 7 Inside Sports 3 Sport 7(1) U.S. on billboards. Smoking is not as popular or socially acceptable as it once was.

such as the United Negro College Fund. In their promotions. they spend millions of dollars a year sponsoring sporting. the Boy Scouts. and Marlboro provides the money for country music concerts advertising them as “Marlboro Music. beach towels. and discount coupons. tee shirts. and music events.” Tobacco companies also contribute to scholarships.C. . baseball caps. art.A. the National Urban League. Virginia Slims each year sponsors the Virginia Slims Tennis Tournament.34 In addition.M. They give donations to many organizations. with the purchase of one or more packs of cigarettes. and the Y. a person can get many other things free or at a discount price. the tobacco companies give out free samples of cigarette brands. such as the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Also. the United Way. the National Puerto Rican Forum. the Girl Scouts. Goodwill Industries.

also attract young people. every day 3. Wayne McLaren. . Still about half of all youth smoke Marlboros. A sad fact is that one of the cowboys pictured in Marlboro ads.5 years old. Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders. women. first created in 1954. Many ads are specially made to attract teens. The average age when a smoker tries his/her first cigarette is 14.S.” These ads have been very popular with young people. independent cowboy.000 teens smoke their first cigarette. Philip Morris’ Marlboro cowboy ads. cigarette sales to youth have increased from 6 million to 476 million dollars. and Blacks. These ads show a tough or macho.J. He died in 1992 after smoking for 25 years. get people who quit to start smoking again and increase the number of cigarettes people smoke each day. In the U. According to U. cigarette ads and promotions encourage young people to start smoking. died of lung cancer. Reynold’s advertises Camel cigarettes with the cartoon figure “Joe Camel.S. 3 million people between the ages of 13 and 19 smoke cigarettes. Since Joe Camel ads were first introduced. The advertisements are very successful. Most importantly.35 The purpose of cigarette ads and promotions is to make sure smokers keep smoking. R.

2/25/94 .36 Credit: Permission granted by Associated Press. Article printed in The Boston Globe.

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Ebony.38 Since World War II (1939-45). Virginia Slims ads have said. People. were made for women. The number of outdoor billboards advertising cigarettes is four times higher in Black communities than in White communities. Kools. . and basketball players. the women look very thin to give the idea that smoking will not make a person fat. motor cycle racers. Ads show men who look masculine or manly. secure. the cigarette companies have been trying to get women to smoke. healthy. the long thin cigarettes. or African-Americans. beautiful. Redbook. stylish. careers. adventurous. “You’ve come a long way. Cigarette ads appear in most women’s magazines. relaxed. Newports. Cigarettes are heavily advertised in African-American magazines too. and Salems are very popular brands among African-Americans. and Essence magazines have ads showing beautiful and handsome Black men and women smoking. Outdoor billboards have been another way for tobacco companies to reach African-Americans. Working Women. and strong. sexual freedom. smoking has been pictured as going along with independence. Many ads show athletic people who are wind surfers. Since the 1970’s. and attractive. as well as beauty. mature. Because mentholated cigarettes can be inhaled deeper into the lungs. glamorous. Through ads. hip. Cigarette companies target mentholated cigarettes to Blacks. In ads of these types of cigarettes. all cigarette ads have the same message: smoking is fun. and Vogue. aerobic dancers. Jet. Whether they were made for teens. horseback riders. such as Glamour. they are more dangerous than non-mentholated ones. cool.” Ultra Slims. Cosmopolitan. women. Women look sexy. baby. roller bladers. and independent.

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nothing could be further from the truth. Many people all over the country are talking about whether tobacco companies should be allowed to advertise cigarettes or even to make cigarettes. Unfortunately. 2/28/94 . and many other serious illnesses and conditions. USA Today. The U. government has labelled cigarettes as a dangerous drug that causes lung cancer. heart disease.41 Cigarette ads give the impression that smokers are “Alive with pleasure” and that smoking is good for you.S.

For example. values. What are opinions? Opinions are related to people’s feelings. and write your sentences based on what you see. “I believe. ACTIVITY 2: FACTS & OPINIONS CONTINUED What makes the following sentences factual? 1.” “ought to. Go through Unit 3: Cigarette Advertising” and write down 2 fact sentences and two opinion sentences. senses. or think. aesthetics. Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders said that the tobacco industry spends nearly $4 billion a year on advertising. feel. and people view them differently. Opinions are sometimes expressed with words such as. Your classmates will discuss what makes each one factual or opinionated. proven.” “in my opinion. Facts can be viewed the same way and agreed upon. Read the sentences you selected aloud.” “in my viewpoint. thoughts. measured.” “should. Facts/Proof: . You can observe the people and things in your classroom. and/or quantified with numbers and statistics. Write down two fact and two opinion sentences. “Maria is wearing glasses. The other students will label them as a fact or an opinion.” etc.” Read your sentences aloud.42 UNIT 2: CIGARETTE ADVERTISING ACTIVITY 1: DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONS What are facts? Facts are phenomena that can be observed.” “Gustave is wearing a beautiful shirt.

” and “should remain” to express her opinion. Opinion words of Jack Baugher: Opinion words of Ervin Malcheff: Opinions words of Gene Thickening: Opinion words of Lisa Kohnke: . Facts/Proof: 3. For example.” and give examples of the words that express each person’s opinion. I may not agree. Elder’s 314-page report.A. said adolescents smoked their first cigarette at 14.S.5 years. put together by government scientists and researchers. Stacy Connors says “I don’t think.43 Unit 2: Cigarette Advertising 2. Facts/Proof: Look at the language in “Voices Across the U. According to the graph on “Teen Smoking Rising.” daily smoking among teenagers increased in 1993 1-2%. I think. should.

_______Virginia Slims sponsors the Virginia Slims Tennis Tournament every year. _______Life magazine has seven cigarette ads in one issue. 4. _______Cigarette ads give the impression that smokers are “Alive with pleasure. The number of outdoor billboards is 4 times higher in Black communities than in White communities. _______ “You’ve come a long way. Write an “F” on the line for fact and an “O” on the line for opinion.” 6. 3._______Every day the tobacco industry is fighting against the thousands of reports about the health dangers of smoking. .” 5.44 Unit 2: Cigarette Advertising ACTIVITY 3: MORE ON DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONS Do the following exercise by yourself. and together as a class go ever the correct answers. 1. baby. Explain why you labelled each sentence a fact or an opinion. 2. Directions: Label each of the following sentences as a fact or an opinion.

What group(s) of people (age. what are the messages about smoking which the ads get across? Use the questions below to guide your discussion about each advertisement: 1.. race. 8.. Using the ads included in Unit 2 and the ones you have. 9.” 3. _______Cigarette ads appear in women’s magazines. _______Smoking cigarettes makes teenagers look sexy and successful. How is this ad misleading? .. What is the message? “If you smoke this brand of cigarettes. 10. culture) is the tobacco company trying to reach? 2. ACTIVITY 4: ANALYZING CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS Cut out cigarette ads from magazines and newspapers to bring to class. _______3 million Americans between the ages of 13 and 19 smoke cigarettes. you will .. _______Joe Camel was created to get young people hooked on smoking..45 Unit 2: Cigarette Advertising 7.

With your classmates. you may want to go to Units 4 and 5 and read about the health dangers of smoking for smokers as well as nonsmokers. Select one store or outdoor location (such as a cab stand) in your neighborhood to see what kind of tobacco-related advertisements there are. In writing these ads.46 Unit 2: Cigarette Advertising ACTIVITY 5: WRITING ANTI-SMOKING ADVERTISEMENTS Write an anti-smoking advertisement for the radio. identify the facts and opinions you put in your ad. . The results of the surveys should be shared with the class. Answer as many questions as possible on the survey. and in pairs or groups map out the location of places with tobacco-related advertisements in your city. It should be one minute long when read aloud. ACTIVITY 6: CONDUCTING A SURVEY Go over the directions and all items on the “Community Assessment of Tobacco Marketing and Sales” survey to make sure you understand the form and how it is to be used. Read your ads aloud for the other students to comment whether your ads are mainly factual or opinionated.




Most people start smoking when they are in their teens and are addicted by the time they reach adulthood. Some have tried to quit but have returned to cigarettes because smoking is such a strong addiction. It is a habit that is very difficult to break. There are many different reasons why people smoke. Three of the main reasons that young people smoke are to look mature, to be like their friends, and to experiment. Since teens see older people all around them smoking, especially their parents and relatives, they smoke to act older. If their friends or peers smoke, they may feel pressured into doing the same to be accepted. The last reason is the excitement of experimenting with something that is forbidden. In Massachusetts it is against the law for anyone under 18 years old to smoke. Usually parents do not allow their under age teens to smoke. Therefore, smoking becomes very attractive. It is exciting to get cigarettes and sneak away to smoke without being caught. Adults smoke for other reasons. They may have a lot of stress and pressures because of economic and personal problems. They may be unemployed or working but not making enough money to take care of themselves and their families. They may be homeless, or they may be dealing with alcohol or cocaine/heroin addictions. Some may be in bad marriages or relationships in which there is physical and/or verbal abuse. All these people may smoke to feel relaxed or to give them energy while going through a hard time. Whether young or old, some people smoke to control their weight. Smokers, on the average, weigh seven pounds less than non-smokers. Smoking reduces a person’s appetite. It lessens his/her sense of taste and smell. This could be why exsmokers gain weight after quitting cigarettes. Food tastes and smells so much better. Finally, there are people who say they love to smoke. Smoking gives them pleasure. It just makes them feel good. The following two interviews were conducted at the Community Learning Center in Cambridge in February 1994. One was with a current teacher and former student at the Learning Center. She was born in the U.S. and is a mother of three

6. I light up before I turn the key on. Do you remember how and why you began smoking? Yes. never thinking the smoke was coming out over the top of the stall. After I eat. I smoke. always in my car. As I got older. it was just a habit. Which brand and why? I’m smoking Marlboros and Newports for a change of pace. At what age did you start smoking? At 11. one after another. and watch the head of the cigarette get long and red. 4. 2. How has smoking made you feel? As a kid. it was like an adventure. In junior high school. and Camels when my friend and I stole her grandfather’s cigarettes. I started smoking Chesterfields. I thought I was so grown up. 3. Do you smoke cigarettes now? Yes. When do you smoke? After breakfast.50 children and currently a smoker. and when we were bold just light up a cigarette. take quick drags. Lucky Strikes. He is from Haiti and is a senior. If I’m home during the . I used to sneak in the girls’ room. I felt grown up. I just smoked and didn’t think about it. I take breaks throughout the day. Interview #1 1. I’d stand on the toilet seat and smoke. The other was with a 19 year old high school student from Cambridge Rindge and Latin School. 5. My girlfriend and I used to sneak in her basement and smoke a whole pack of cigarettes.

I felt dizzy and had to sit down. I have one more cigarette. How does smoking make you feel? . I walk around just to smoke. 7. man. After that when I knew how to do it. I can’t smoke at home. He was standing smoking a cigarette. And just when I decide I’m going to bed. I went to the clubs to buy cigarettes to smoke and drink beer. One week later. this looks like fun. and I was looking at him thinking. Where do you smoke? Mostly in my living room and car. a lot of girls. I asked my cousin to show me how to smoke. It wasn’t that easy for me. Every day I bought one cigarette for 25 cents. 3. When did you start smoking? I started smoking 3 years ago in Haiti. I used to sleep over my brother-in-law’s house. I smoke up a storm. Interview #2 1. I’m afraid I’ll walk in and out of there and leave a cigarette behind. How and why did you start? I went to a big party at a gymnasium where I saw a guy the same age as me. When and where do you smoke? Any time I’m driving my car and when I’m outside too.51 evening. and I used to smoke a lot of cigarettes. playing around with him. 4. If I’m not going anywhere. more than three before I went to bed.” I wanted to know how to smoke then. I went to buy a pack with my friends. “Oh. Any time I had money. I was not feeling well. There were five girls. I just don’t smoke in the bedroom. 2. I’m afraid of fire.

They were printed in The Boston Globe in April 1994. On December 23 we made a bet if one of us smokes in the new year. All my friends and my cousins smoke. It makes me feel better after I eat. Have you ever tried to quit and why? Yes. My girlfriend and I we both smoke. . I couldn’t really quit. On January 2. but I can’t. I don’t really know how it makes me feel. I went to my brother-inlaw’s and asked him for a cigarette. I have to quit. Then she asked me for a cigarette. That will help me. we’re going to break up. and she said I was smoking. I’ll have to stay away from my friends. I couldn’t stay away from cigarettes. 5. I then went to my girlfriend’s.52 I feel like a gentleman. I tried to quit. Below are some other interviews about why people smoke. I told her I couldn’t quit just like that. I’d like to quit because I’m lifting weights.

53 .

.54 Why do you smoke? Credit: Reprinted courtesy of The Boston Globe. Interviews by Ric Kahn.

Important: ANSWER EVERY QUESTION. How often do you feel this way when smoking? Circle one number for each statement. .55 Why Do You Smoke? Test Here are some statements made by people who describe what they get out of smoking cigarettes.

56 How to Score .

which takes place in an absence of feelingpurely automatic smoking. The higher your score (15 is the highest). shame. and the enhancing of pleasurable feelings accompanying a state of well-being. the satisfaction of handling or manipulating things. The fifth is a complex pattern of increasing and decreasing "craving" for a cigarette. representing a psychological addiction to smoking. National Institutes of Health Publication No. the more important a particular factor is in your smoking and the more useful the discussion of that factor can be in your efforts to quit. Credit: Why Do You Smoke? National Cancer Institute. Three of these feelings-states represent the positive feelings people get from smoking: a sense of increased energy or stimulation. anger. The fourth is the decreasing of negative feelings by reducing a state of tension or feelings of anxiety. Reprinted January 1992 .57 The six factors measured by this test describe different ways of experiencing or managing certain kinds of feelings. etc. The sixth is habit smoking. A score of 11 or above on any factor indicates that this factor is an important source of satisfaction for you. 92-1822.

58 .

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. In giving the reason.60 UNIT 3: WHY PEOPLE SMOKE ACTIVITY 1: UNDERSTANDING MAIN IDEA What does topic refer to? What does main idea mean? What is a topic sentence? What questions should you ask yourself to find the main idea of a paragraph or a passage with several paragraphs? Give the main idea of each paragraph on the first page of “Why People Smoke. facts. look at the scoring sheets of Examples 1 and 2 of the “Why Do You Smoke ?” test.” ACTIVITY 2: FINDING THE MAIN IDEA FROM INTERVIEWS Give the one main reason that each person interviewed in The Boston Globe smokes. Figure out why each of these people smokes and write the main idea in one sentence. what reasons. you should have written two sentences with a different main idea in each one. Then. details. A person can have more than one reason. you will be finding the main idea. and/or examples are provided to support the main idea? ACTIVITY 3: WRITING THE MAIN IDEA Working together in a group. When you are finished.

4. 5.61 Unit 3: Why People Smoke ACTIVITY 4: CONDUCTING AN INTERVIEW Interview a smoker or ex-smoker you know well using the following questions: 1. Write a one paragraph summary from your written answers to the interview questions. 3. Also. 6. In this summary you will be giving the main ideas from your interview. 2. Share your summary with the class by reading it aloud. At about what age did you first start to smoke? How did you start smoking? When do (did) you smoke? Where do (did) you smoke? How does (did) smoking make you feel? Why do (did) you smoke? Write out the answers to each of the above questions in complete sentences. .

larynx. leukemia (cancer of the blood). part of the tumor might break away and go into her bloodstream.62 UNIT 4:THE DANGERS OF SMOKING CIGARETTES FOR SMOKERS WHAT’S IN A CIGARETTE & DISEASE The main ingredient in cigarettes is tobacco. Tobacco is a green. stomach. abnormal cells. A cancerous growth is called a malignant tumor. Artificial flavorings and other chemicals are added. A carcinogen is something that causes cancer. if a woman who has a malignant tumor in her breast does not have it removed while it is small. they are dried. In all kinds of cancer. and machines break up the leaves into small pieces. In a person with cancer. 51 of them are known to be carcinogenic. prostrate. the abnormal cells destroy the normal cells. After the tobacco plants are picked. otherwise. They use fertilizers to make the soil rich and insecticides to kill the insects that eat the tobacco plant. For example. the cells keep dividing and forming new. If cells divide when new cells are not needed. In a healthy person. These cells are not normal or healthy. they would go out. invading them like an army. They travel to another part of the body or organ like a kidney or lung. Cancer usually kills a person when it spreads to other parts of the body. etc. Some chemicals are put in cigarettes to keep them burning. new cells are made only when the body needs them. There they start multiplying and dividing and form new cancerous tumors. There are over 4. There are many types of cancer: breast. lung. Our bodies are made up of thousands of cells. Farmers use many chemicals to grow tobacco. kidney. Cancer is a disease that often kills those who have it. It could be small like a pea or large like a grapefruit. From there it may travel to her brain and give her brain cancer.000 chemicals in cigarettes. a growth or hard mass forms. leafy plant that is grown in warm climates. Sometimes cancer cells break away from a malignant tumor and find their way into the bloodstream. .

Sources: Dr. May 1993. and carbon monoxide. If a person ate one pack of cigarettes. Revised. Joel Dunnington. Many of the chemicals are poisonous. FAMILIAR CHEMICALS IN CIGARETTES Chemical carbon monoxide nicotine tar arsenic ammonia hydrogen cyanide cyanide acetone butane DDT formaldehyde sulfuric acid cadmium freon geranic acid methoprene maltitol Found in: car exhaust bug sprays material to make roads rat poison cleaning products gas chamber poison deadly poison nail polish remover cigarette lighter fluid insecticides to preserve dead bodies car batteries used to recharge batteries damages earth’s ozone layer a fragrance a pesticide a sweetener not permitted to be used in foods in the U. just one drop on a person’s tongue would kill him/her. tar. It is the main ingredient in insecticides or bug sprays. In its pure form.63 Chemicals in cigarettes and cigarette smoke are known to cause not only cancer but also other serious health problems. Three of the most widely known chemicals are nicotine. Tobacco Almanac. he/she would die.S. . Nicotine is a strong poisonous drug.

spongy. National Cancer Institute. In a healthy nonsmoker. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas. dust. A smoker inhales this gas which is also found in the exhaust of a car. a lot of the tar sticks to and blackens the lungs. Credit: Cancer of the Larynx. and germs. The cilia remove small pieces of dirt. This gas interferes with our respiratory (breathing) and circulatory (heart. They are protected by the ribs and separated by the heart. the air passes down the windpipe (trachea) and bronchial tubes into the lungs. 2/92 We each have two lungs. and veins) systems. NIH. When we breathe in air through our nose and mouth.64 Tar is the oily material which remains after tobacco passes through the filter. . arteries. The cilia which are made up of small hairs and mucous (a sticky fluid also found in the nose) help to clean this air as it moves down and into the lungs. When a smoker inhales. the lungs are made up of soft. pinkishgray tissue.

the chemicals in cigarette smoke narrow the walls of the arteries. Oxygen is used by all cells of the body to do their work. Arteries are large tubes with thick. the heart must work harder. The lungs also must get rid of carbon dioxide which is the waste product of the cells’ work. In addition. When we exhale. They are elastic like rubber bands. breathe out. The heart pumps the oxygen rich blood throughout the body by arteries.65 The lungs also have hundreds of air sacs that fill with air when we inhale or breathe in. strong walls. This reduces the amount of oxygen going to the heart. This oxygen is carried in the blood to the heart. we are getting rid of the carbon dioxide from the body. the carbon monoxide in the smoke gets into his/her blood stream. One of the jobs of the lungs is to take oxygen in from the air. With less oxygen passing through the arteries. When a person smokes cigarettes. . Blood pressure also goes up.

If a person smokes more than five cigarettes a day. the heart may stop beating. How Cigarettes Addict Credit: Figure 6. This is called a heart attack or coronary arrest.66 The result is that the heart may not receive enough oxygen rich blood. If a large enough part of the heart muscle stops working. From the lungs it goes into the bloodstream and is carried to the heart and then the brain. CYCLE OF ADDICTION Nicotine is the chemical that makes cigarette smoking addictive. When people inhale the smoke of cigarettes. The body and mind want and need the nicotine. the person dies. the nicotine goes deep into the lungs. and part or all of the heart muscle may die. Smoking is a habit that is not easily stopped. .Tobacco: Biology & Politics. he/she is usually addicted. Waco. When this happens. It only takes six seconds for nicotine to reach the brain. HEALTH EDCO. It is just as addictive as heroin or cocaine. Texas.

They may feel tired and irritable (angry. heavy smokers will usually begin their day with a cigarette very soon after waking up.67 Nicotine is a stimulant. A person can tell how addicted he/she is to smoking by how soon after waking. he/she lights up the first cigarette of the day. After sleeping. The nicotine will stimulate them and make them feel awake. impatient. It makes smokers feel more alert or awake. They keep increasing the number of cigarettes until they reach a certain level of nicotine in their blood. Withdrawal is the feeling they have when the nicotine is taken away. It speeds things up. Usually they will light up a cigarette before they start to feel any withdrawal symptoms. It makes the heart beat faster and increases blood pressure. the level of nicotine in the blood is lower than it is during the day. After about 45 minutes when the level of nicotine in the blood goes down. nervous). . Smokers slowly increase the number of cigarettes they smoke to prevent the bad feelings of withdrawal. they start to feel withdrawal symptoms. Therefore. People smoking low tar and nicotine cigarettes will have to smoke more cigarettes to reach their maintenance level.

68 OTHER HEALTH DANGERS OF CIGARETTES FOR SMOKERS Most people know that smoking is bad for the health and causes lung cancer and heart attacks. when a person has a stroke.000 smokers will die from different cancers. 83.000 deaths or 1 out of 6 deaths in the U. .S. 20.S.000 smokers will die from heart disease.000 flu and pneumonia deaths are tied to smoking. and 26. A stroke happens when the brain does not get enough oxygen. For example. What they may not know is that smoking causes many other diseases and illnesses. Every year 174. each year. It is also the single most preventable cause of death in the U.000 from lung cancer alone.000 from strokes. Smoking increases the risk of dying of a heart attack by 60%. Every year 143. Tobacco causes about 435.

151. Mentholated cigarettes are particularly dangerous because the smoke is pulled deeper into the lungs. This is partly because black males are more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes like Newports. U.S. “Smoking has killed more people in the U.S. lung cancer has been the number one killer of women. kidney. deaths in the Vietnam War was 58.69 he/she may not be able to talk and/or move a part of his/her body for awhile or forever. Dept. Smokers die not only of lung cancer but also of cancers of the mouth. Since 1987. 40% of men and 28% of women die prematurely. Because of smoking. before their time. larynx (throat). and blood (leukemia). esophagus. of Health & Human Services. Kools. Women who smoke more than 15 cigarettes a day double their risk of getting cervical cancer.” The total number of U. 87% of all lung cancers are caused by smoking. and Salems and higher tar and nicotine brands. bladder. Adult black males have a greater chance of dying from cigarettes than adult white males. cervix. Smoking is the number one killer in the African-American community. . According to the Surgeon General Report of 1985.S. Credit: African Americans and Smoking At A Glance. CDC Cigarette smoking is responsible for 30% of all cancer deaths. alone than the number of Americans killed in battle or who died of war related diseases in all wars ever fought by this nation.

2/7/94 Cigarette smoking also causes or increases the risk of getting other lung diseases and conditions. A person with this disease has difficulty breathing because the walls of the small air sacs in the lungs are being destroyed.70 Lucky To Be Alive Credit: Reprinted with permission of the Boston Herald. As the disease gets worse. and the smoker coughs a lot. . They produce too much mucus. He/she uses up so much energy just to breathe. This mucus blocks the tubes. When a smoker has bronchitis. There is no cure for emphysema. his/her bronchial tubes become inflamed or irritated. Smoking causes bronchitis and emphysema. Emphysema is a lung disease that has no cure. This makes big air surfaces. he/she cannot breathe in enough oxygen from the air and has to breathe through tubes attached to an oxygen tank. A person with emphysema gets tired very easily.

His penis cannot get erect or hard because it does not receive a good flow of oxygen-rich blood. People who are HIV positive are twice as likely to develop full blown AIDS if they smoke. . the person gets gangrene. A man with Peripheral Vascular Disease may have trouble performing sex. not enough oxygen-rich blood goes to the arms and/or legs. Heavy smokers also increase their chances of getting Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD).71 Smoking greatly increases the risk of getting other diseases and health problems. Smokers also have a greater chance of getting stomach ulcers. In this disease the arteries that lead to the limbs (arms and legs) keep getting narrower. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones get thin and weak. If the arteries get closed and no blood gets to a limb. PVD causes pain in the arms or legs. The bones can break very easily. Ulcers are sores in the stomach that are very painful and can bleed. it cannot heal well. It also makes it harder for the body to fight off infections. As a result. It speeds up the loss of bone in older women leading to osteoporosis. The limb then dies and must be cut off (amputated). When an arm or leg is hurt.

Tobacco Almanac. Revised. Joel Dunnington. May 1993. . 20-30% in women) Lung (82%) Cancer (30%) Cataracts Gum disease Raynaud’s Ulcers Colds Tuberculosis Leukoplakia (white patches in the mouth) Caries (tooth decay or cavities) Credit: Dr.72 Smoking-Related Diseases () indicate the % of diseases caused by cigarettes Cardiovascular Diseases coronary artery disease (21-40%) heart attacks strokes (18%) pain in the legs & gangrene atherosclerosis emphysema (90%) chronic bronchitis lung cancer (80-85%) mouth larynx (84%) esophagus pancreas kidney leukemia cervix myeloma bladder (40-60% in men.

Your sentence: ___________A cancerous growth is called a malignant tumor. example. 1. 3. Your sentence: ___________A carcinogen is something that causes cancer. Your sentence: 2. explanation. . give the meaning of the underlined word. and in your own words. Then.73 UNIT 4: THE DANGERS OF SMOKING CIGARETTES FOR SMOKERS ACTIVITY 1: LEARNING ABOUT AND USING CONTEXT CLUES There are five context clues that writers use to help the read understand hard vocabulary words. restatement. go back to the reading to locate the word. 4. They are definition. ___________Farmers use insecticides to kill the insects that eat the tobacco plant. write the context clue the writer used to help the reader understand the meaning of the underlined word. Activity 1: Exercise on Context Clues On the blank space in front of each sentence. See how the writer used it. Your sentence: ___________Nicotine is the main ingredient in insecticides or bug sprays. and punctuation.

___________Carbon monoxide interferes with our respiratory (breathing) system. 12.74 Unit 4: Dangers of Smoking for Smokers 5. 9. . 7. Your sentence: ___________ Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones get thin and weak. Your sentence: ___________Nicotine is the chemical that makes cigarette smoking addictive. Your sentence: ___________ When a person’s heart stops beating and part or all of the heart muscle dies. before their time. Your sentence: ___________The cilia which are made up of small hairs help to clean the air we breathe in as it moves down and into the lungs. Your sentence: ___________A stroke happens when the brain does not get enough oxygen. 10. 8. Your sentence: 6. Your sentence: ___________ Air sacs fill with air when we breathe in and are elastic like rubber bands. he/she has had coronary arrest. 11. 40% of men and 28% of women die prematurely. Your sentence: ___________Because of smoking.

75 Unit 4: Dangers of Smoking for Smokers ACTIVITY 2: MORE ON CONTEXT CLUES Go to the text and find two or more examples of the use of context clues that were not found in the Activity 1 exercise.” list five commonly known ingredients in cigarettes and state where else (in what specific products. your teacher will give you one or two of the following words: lung cancer stroke osteoporosis ulcers emphysema tobacco addiction coronary arrest peripheral vascular disease chronic bronchitis . brands) these chemicals are found. ACTIVITY 4: IDENTIFYING CONDITIONS/ DISEASES THROUGH SYMPTOMS On a folded piece of paper. Bring the list to your next class. ACTIVITY 3: INGREDIENTS IN CIGARETTES Without looking at the chart on the “Familiar Chemicals in Cigarettes. Make a list of products you have at home that have some of the same chemicals found in cigarettes.

a former smoker who has lung cancer. CONGRESSIONAL HEARING Pretend your classroom is holding a hearing in the U. the class will figure out what illness/condition you have from your symptoms. The teacher picks a rotating doctor from the class.76 Unit 4: Dangers of Smoking for Smokers Do not tell anyone else what illness(es) you have on your piece(s) of paper.S. Every sentence in the paragraph should be written in a complete sentence. and a current smoker speak before the committee. write up your opinion as to whether or not the sale of cigarettes should be banned as a dangerous drug.S. Have 2 to 6 people be members of the Tobacco Committee of the U. Look for the discussion of the illness(es) in the text and write a paragraph describing your symptoms. You will have one representative from the Food & Drug Administration. Congress. For homework or in class. You will have a turn to read aloud your symptoms to the doctor and class. Your teacher. someone in your class. . or you will type up the class list of cigarette warning labels. You will be discussing whether the sale of cigarettes should be banned (not be allowed) because they are a dangerous drug. If there is no doctor.S. the members of the Tobacco Committee will vote on whether or not to ban cigarettes. ACTIVITY 5: WRITING WARNING LABELS Write two warning labels to be rotated on a pack of cigarettes. Congress. At the end of the hearing. Then the doctor will tell you the name of your illness/condition. Philip Morris. ACTIVITY 6: CONDUCTING A MOCK U.

we are breathing the same 4. They also harm the people who are near cigarettes and breathe the smoke.000 chemicals a cigarette smoker breathes. About 53. government agency called the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has labelled cigarettes as a Group A carcinogen. Second hand smoke is the smoke that comes out of the lit end of a cigarette and that a smoker exhales (breathes out). They are breathing second hand smoke. Second hand smoke is also called passive smoke. This includes fetuses (unborn babies still inside their mothers) and small children. a cancer causing material that used to be put around pipes to insulate them. A carcinogen is something that causes cancer. 51 of those chemicals cause cancer. which is a deadly poison.S. and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). That is why a U. The EPA put cigarettes in the same group with arsenic.000 people die from second hand smoke every year. and asbestos. When we breathe second hand smoke. involuntary smoke.77 UNIT 5:HEALTH DANGERS OF SMOKING FOR NONSMOKERS Cigarettes do not just harm the people who smoke. Source: Centers for Disease Control .

wrote about the dangers of second hand smoke. They have a 34% higher risk of getting lung cancer than workers who do not smoke or breathe second hand smoke on the job. their lungs are affected. It increases the risk of heart disease in human beings by 30%. These deaths are not just from people breathing cigarette smoke in the workplace. but does not eliminate.000 deaths from lung cancer in nonsmokers over 35 years old. When people breathe ETS or second hand smoke on a regular basis in the workplace. Second hand smoke increases the risk of lung cancer even in dogs. Every year 37.000 nonsmokers die from heart disease caused by exposure to ETS. increased respiratory symptoms and slightly smaller rates of increase in lung function as the lung matures. Second: The children of parents who smoke compared to children of nonsmoking parents have an increased frequency of respiratory infections. including lung cancer. . Third: Simple separation of smokers and nonsmokers within the same airspace may reduce. in healthy nonsmokers. That means nonsmoking workers in a smoking office have the same lung damage as a mild smoker. The filter on the end of a cigarette removes some the harmful chemicals.S.78 In 1986 the Surgeon General of the U. exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke. He listed three conclusions: First: Involuntary smoking is a cause of disease. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is dirtier than the smoke that is inhaled in a cigarette because it is not filtered. Their lungs look as if the people smoked one to 10 cigarettes a day. Restaurants that allow smoking can have six times the pollution of a busy highway. ETS is the largest source of indoor air pollution. Every year second hand smoke causes 3.

Credit: California Dept. funded by Proposition 99. funded in 1988 . California Dept. That is why babies of smokers are more likely to be born with low birth weights (less than 5 1/2 pounds) and birth defects. They are sometimes born prematurely (before 9 months) or even born dead (stillbirth).000 babies are born under weight. of Health Services Second hand smoke is particularly dangerous for pregnant women and their children. The carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen in the unborn baby’s blood.79 Credit: Hey. of Health Services. Girlfriend. Each year 53. Smoking also increases a woman’s chance of having a miscarriage by 24%. All the poisons from cigarette smoke that enter a mother’s blood are passed along to her fetus.

funded 1988 . 15. It is much more common in babies of mothers who smoke than in babies of mothers who do not smoke. bronchitis. funded by Proposition 99.000 of them must be hospitalized.80 A smoking mother’s baby might die within the first 28 days of life from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS or “crib death”). wheezing. SIDS is the sudden. pneumonia. unexpected death of a baby who seems very healthy. ear infections. of Health Services. Infants and young children are very affected by second hand smoke because their lungs are weak and are just beginning to develop. headaches. too much phlegm or mucus. and asthma attacks. In addition. They may suffer from coughing. and sore or dry mouth. Credit: California Dept. Each year passive smoke causes 300. burning eyes.000 respiratory or lung infections in children younger than a year and a half. smoking can make any allergies related to breathing worse. Children of smokers have more colds.

81 Parents. of Public Health . should remember that they are role models for children. Credit: Mass. Dept. as well as all adults. They learn many things. like smoking. by watching adults. Children copy what they see.

another player takes a turn. You will be given 4 to 8 index cards. punctuation clues. If the 2 cards do not match. Explain what each of these words mean in your own words. When all the cards are completed.82 UNIT 5: HEALTH DANGERS OF SMOKING FOR NONSMOKERS ACTIVITY 1: UNDERSTANDING VOCABULARY THROUGH CONTEXT CLUES Skim Unit 5 and identify 6 words for which the author directly gave the meanings by a definition. People take turns playing the game. The teacher will write a list of all the words given on the blackboard. This should be done for each assigned word. or restatement. join a group of 4 to 5 students and each play the game of concentration. . The game continues until there are no more cards face down on the table. If the vocabulary word and the definition match. The person with the most cards wins the game. The first player turns over any 2 cards. ACTIVITY 2: VOCABULARY REVIEW FOR UNITS 4 & 5 Make a list of the unfamiliar or new vocabulary which the author defined through context clues in Units 4 & 5. In concentration all cards are placed face down on a table so you cannot see any writing. that person keeps the cards and gets another turn. On one card write the vocabulary word on the lined side and its definition on the lined side of another card.

If you have never filled in a crossword puzzle. . You can choose to fill in the crossword puzzle by yourself or with a partner. work with another student who is familiar with crossword puzzles.83 Unit 5: Second Hand Smoke ACTIVITY 3: CROSSWORD PUZZLE Before beginning the exercise. make sure you know the meanings of the words on the crossword puzzle list. Provide the definitions in your own words either by memory or by looking back at the reading material.

84 Unit 5: Second Hand Smoke .

85 .

In your letter. The letter should explain the dangers of second hand smoke and request a smoke free environment. Begin the list with a couple of sentences stating the dangers of second hand smoke. Then pick one restaurant. bar. particularly to babies and young children. ACTIVITY 6: GIVING ADVICE TO PREGNANT MOTHERS ABOUT THE DANGERS OF SECOND HAND SMOKE In pairs write a dialogue between a pregnant woman who smokes and her doctor. Write up all the specific suggestions and bring or send the list to a nearby daycare center to be given out to parents. ACTIVITY 5: WRITING A BUSINESS LETTER TO REQUEST A NO SMOKING POLICY Brainstorm about how you feel when people around you in a restaurant. or club are smoking. The doctor tells the woman that she is two and one half months pregnant .86 Unit 5: Second Hand Smoke ACTIVITY 4: MAKING A LIST OF THE DANGERS OF SECOND HAND SMOKE AND YOUNG CHILDREN Summarize the specific dangers of cigarette smoke to young children presented in the reading. Use a copy of “Tips for Effective Letters” to help you write your letter. or club that allows smoking and write a letter to the manager/owner of that establishment. Make a list of things adults and teenagers can do to protect babies and young children from second hand smoke. discuss the benefits of a smoke free policy. bar.

The doctor should provide enough information to convince her to want to quit smoking. . read your dialogue aloud to the other members of the class.87 and talks to her about the dangers of smoking for her and her baby. When your partner and you are ready.

88 .

Each group must write up a smoking policy for the company and support the policy with a list of specific reasons. the owner of a restaurant that has live music and a bar. and an official from the Environmental Protection Agency. or bar. restaurant. . Each group makes up the board of directors for a large insurance company employing two hundred workers. a smoking customer. The doctor. EPA official and both customers will be asked to testify or give their opinion about the bill. a nonsmoking customer.89 Unit 5: Second Hand Smoke ACTIVITY 7: HOLDING A MOCK CITY COUNCIL MEETING LEADING TO THE PASSAGE OF NO SMOKING LEGISLATION Turn your classroom into a mock city council meeting. Volunteer to represent one of the following people: a city councillor presenting a bill. There are many copy machines and computers in the space. The council will vote to pass or reject the bill as it is written or pass it with some changes or compromises. restaurant owner. Go back to Unit 5 to get specific information on the dangers of second hand smoke. The city councillor’s bill makes it against the law for anyone to smoke in a public building. ACTIVITY 8: WRITING A SMOKING POLICY FOR A WORK SITE Join a group of at least three people. smoking is allowed everywhere in the company. Currently. The work site is a closed building with windows that do not open. a doctor.

Local and state governments are even passing laws that say that no one can smoke in restaurants and/or bars. In 1992. 42 states had laws restricting smoking in government buildings. . Smokers are finding fewer places outside their own homes and cars where they can smoke. and national governments are passing laws against smoking.S.S. or tank. Less than ten years ago. people could smoke almost anywhere and feel comfortable. Today. and 21 have them in private work sites. The U.90 UNIT 6: QUITTING As more people learn about the dangers of cigarettes to everyone. Maryland. As of April 1995. city. airplane. whether in an office. More than 3 million Americans quit smoking each year. the U. 505 cities in the U. all restaurants in New York City. had passed ordinances (local laws) restricting or not allowing smoking in restaurants. In 1992.S. government is talking about stopping smoking in all workplaces. state. helicopter. Smoking is no longer socially acceptable. One result of these new laws and increased public information about cigarettes is that more and more smokers are quitting. 39 states did not allow smoking on buses and trains. Smoking is no longer allowed in any military workplace. California. and Washington are smoke-free. Postal Service has gone smoke free.

______________________________________ 7.______________________________________ 5. and the customer can buy a pack of cigarettes. Each person must try what works best for him/her. cities are passing laws against vending machines. a person has to show someone like a store clerk an ID. YOUR REASONS FOR QUITTING 1. not allowed or against the law.______________________________________ 3. Many heavy smokers say that they have found it harder to stop smoking than stop drinking or stop using cocaine or heroin.______________________________________ 8. Quitting smoking is not easy.______________________________________ 2.91 To make it harder for youth to buy cigarettes.out devices. there are some basic steps that all smokers can take. he/she should write a list of all his/her own reasons for quitting. If the person is 18 years old or older. Under other city ordinances. vending machines must have lock. the more likely he/she will really do it. the clerk will remove the lock out device.______________________________________ 10. It usually takes a person several tries to really quit. The first step in quitting is deciding whether or not a person is ready. However.______________________________________ 9. There are many different ways to quit. In 54 cities cigarettes vending machines are banned. To buy a pack of cigarettes from a vending machine with a lock out device.______________________________________ 4. The more reasons a person has to quit.______________________________________ 6. After deciding that a person is ready. One way does not work for everyone._____________________________________ .

Tobacco Control Activities are supported by the Health Protection Fund.. is funded by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. 51 Inman St. Cambridge. (617)349-6353. established by the passage of voter referendum Question 1 (Tobacco Excise Tax) in November 1992. MA 02139.92 Are You Ready to Quit Smoking? The Cambridge Tobacco Education Program. .

separated from a husband or wife. They might also not inhale the smoke as deeply as before. or bought a house. and ashtrays. lighters.93 The second step is choosing a quit date. . They might visit a hypnotist. moved into a new apartment. People who quit by going cold turkey do it on their own or with help. The third step is to decide how to quit. When a person goes cold turkey. It would not be good to choose a stressful time. acupuncturist. some people change cigarette brands. the easier it can be to quit. started a new job. counselor. He/she just stops and does not smoke another cigarette. Before the quit date arrives. or doctor. One should not try to quit smoking if he/she just lost a job. They keep trying brands that have less and less nicotine and tar than the brand they usually smoke. he/she throws away all cigarettes. He/she should pick a date when no big changes are going on in his/her life. There are two main ways: “cold turkey” and tapering off. A person must decide when is the best time for him/her. lost his/her housing. The less nicotine in the body.

I said to myself while sitting in the semi-circle.” . seven years ago I quit for five years.94 Interview With Joan Bruzzese. and I’ve been smoking ever since. anger. I started smoking again by taking two puffs off of someone’s cigarette. and that evening on the way home. at the time. light colored furniture. We sat around in a semi-circle with him in the front of the room. “This is the time to quit. I called the office of Yefim Shubentzoff. I felt if I didn’t smoke. and white sheer curtains. it was just as if I never stopped. cream shirt and beige pants. and stress. known as “The Russian. white paint. and he was standing behind this light oak desk with nothing on it. he charged $35 for just one visit. cigarettes. Why did you quit five years ago and how did you do it? I decided that I wanted to do something healthy for myself. I had to wait nine months for an appointment. you use cigarettes almost like a comforter.bare wood floors.” His office is in Brookline and. and nail-biting. Behind him were the windows. anxiety. He was wearing a clean. I had become aware about how bad my car. drugs. Walking into his space. I’d eat better because cigarettes are a good substitute for food. I bought a pack. It was bare. Teacher at the Community Learning Center 1. Psychologically it kept me from losing my self-control. Without knowing. Have you ever quit cigarettes and for how long? Yes. alcohol. 2. After five years. and my hair smelled from cigarette smoke. I was very impressed with how clean his place was -. When I decided to quit smoking. He’s the man who deals with people who have all kinds of addictions: over-eating. I bummed a cigarette off of a co-worker. The next day at work. my clothes.

If you feel the urge to eat. Take a minute to think before you yell or snap at someone. Keep fresh fruit and vegetables around you all the time. “Were you out of control? Did you eat because you were hungry? You don’t need to do that. He believed they could stop and needed them to believe they could stop.” He’d make a point by asking. he/she reduces the number of cigarettes smoked little by little over a period of time. People who smoke do not breathe. He said. saying such things as. “I’ll get fat. he/she may switch brands by gradually going from a brand that is high in nicotine to one that is lower and lower. Breathe. “If you didn’t really want to quit. He said.” He stressed that it was important to exercise like walking outside in fresh air. you wouldn’t. . you don’t have to eat fattening foods. “You need to encourage yourself to take deep breaths. They only take deep breaths when they inhale cigarettes.” When a person quits smoking by tapering off.95 The Russian stood in front of the room and said many people had come to him with their problems and said they couldn’t stop.” The Russian encouraged people to ask questions. “You didn’t need to overeat or yell at your husband or children.” “I tried before and all I did was yell at my family. swinging your arms when you walk. Also. Drink lots of water. One day he/she is not smoking anymore.” The Russian said. People would make excuses about why they couldn’t quit.

96 Switching Cigarette Brands Credit: Permission granted by Fox Chase Cancer Center. . PA.1992. Pathways to Freedom.

dry mouth. the smoker chews it whenever he/she feels the desire to smoke. Over a period of time. Whatever method a person chooses to quit. getting new hobbies. the doctor changes the patch to smaller and smaller ones. Eventually it is removed. They should also eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. If a smoker continues to smoke with either the nicotine patch or chewing gum. The doctor may prescribe either nicotine chewing gum or a patch. Both work the same way to decrease the amount of nicotine in the person’s system. and suck on cough drops and hard candies. Over time he/she chews fewer and fewer pieces of gum and feels less desire for a cigarette. he/she will probably feel bad during the first week or two of quitting. he/she could get very sick or even die from too much nicotine in the body. and visiting nonsmoking friends and relatives. and hungry. Above all. . irritable or in a bad mood. People who quit can expect to have headaches.). a cough. For example. tired. It releases a continuous amount of nicotine through the skin into the bloodstream. especially during the first week of quitting. The nicotine patch is placed on a smoker’s skin by a doctor. many people find it helpful not to drink alcohol or coffee or hang out in bars (See the list of nicotine withdrawal symptoms on the next page. With nicotine gum. They may feel nervous. chew sugarless gum and toothpicks. The first 2 or 3 days are the worst. They need to stay busy by exercising. and trouble sleeping. depressed. They need to drink a lot of water and fruit juices. they should avoid foods and situations that remind them of smoking. This is the time when the body is getting rid of the nicotine.97 Some people who taper off see a doctor.

people must exercise and eat a low fat/low sugar diet. Credit: Quit For Life. .. and McHenry. Martin. U. It does not mean dieting. of CA School of Medicine.F. CA. On the average. Wilner. Look at the chart below. To prevent weight gain and help fight the desire to smoke. Hansen.98 It is natural to gain weight when quitting smoking. S. people gain five pounds.

99 .

People should see their doctor to make a safe exercise plan. It fills with air when we inhale and moves outward. It relaxes them. If it is possible. ex-smokers start to feel much better. it releases air and moves inward. Their senses of taste and smell return. They have more energy. they should remove their shoes.” They should be breathing through their diaphragm. Within weeks of quitting. It can be done almost any where or any time. healthier life. and any tight clothing. They have improved their chances of a longer. The diaphragm is located below the ribs and above the belly button. They then breathe in through the nose saying the word “calm” to themselves and slowly breathe out saying “relax. This should be done gradually or little by little. Practicing deep breathing or meditation helps people to stay smoke free. they sit in a comfortable position or lie down on their back. People begin meditation by practicing deep breathing for ten full breaths. they can increase the number of breaths and length of time they meditate. Their cough goes away.100 Walking just 30 minutes each day is something that almost everyone can do. They get rid of bad breath and the smoky smell on their clothes and in their hair. . When they feel that strong desire for a cigarette. To get more relaxed. eyeglasses. When we exhale.

. commitment. Texas. For many ex-smokers. For some people it takes several tries to quit forever. and a positive outlook. Waco. HEALTH EDCO. willingness to make changes in one’s life.Tobacco: Biology & Politics. There are a few free hot lines with counselors and many organizations with programs and support groups to help a person quit. There are many places to go for help. What it takes is a strong decision.101 Credit: Figure 25. the desire to start smoking again is very strong.

Hot lines: Hot lines have staff that will answer your questions about smoking or quitting. Alliance of Portuguese Speakers Somerville. offer support if you feel the desire to smoke and want to talk with someone. Cambridge Hospital Department of Behavioral Medicine Cambridge. Quit line: 1-800-TRY-TO-STOP (English) 1-800-DEJALO (Espanol) 1-800-TDD-1477 (deaf/hearing impaired) National Cancer Institute Cancer Information line: 1-800-4-CANCER II. MA (617)628-6065 . MA (617)499-4214 Mass. or refer you to local programs to help you quit smoking. Groups: There are many support groups to help people quit smoking. They teach people to make the changes needed to stop smoking. MA (617)498-1520 Harvard Pilgrim Health Plan Freedom From Smoking Program Various sites/cities (617)731-8223 Mount Auburn Hospital Cambridge.102 Quitting Smoking Resources In & Outside Massachusetts I.

Tobacco Education Clearinghouse: (617)482-9485 Tobacco Education Clearinghouse of California: 1-800-258-9090 . Self-Help Materials: The following organizations offer quitting kits and free brochures with guidelines and tips on quitting: American Cancer Society (Fresh Start Program): 1-800-952-7664 X4664 American Lung Association: (617)272-2866 National Cancer Institute: 1-800-4-CANCER Cambridge Tobacco Education Program: (617)349-6353 Mass.103 III.




Exercise Directions: For each group of sentences, write a conclusion on the line provided. Use the information in the reading on quitting to help you write the conclusions.

1. Bo-Ping hates the wrinkles around his mouth and his yellowed teeth. He looks older than his 30 years. His wife complains about his smoky clothes, hair, and chronic cough. Bo-Ping has a lot of self-control and determination. He works very hard to get what he wants. Next week he plans to_______________________ ____________________ (and how?)___________________________.

2. 8 months ago Pablo lost his job, and his unemployment benefits are running out. He figured out that he spends about $70 dollars a month on cigarettes. He can’t play soccer very well any more because he has trouble breathing when he runs. He doesn’t have much of an appetite. Standing 5’10” tall, he only weighs 130 pounds. The doctor told him he needs to gain weight and get into shape. He set up five appointments with the doctor to help him ____________________ (and how?)___________________________.

3. The Food and Drug Administration has said that cigarettes should be treated as an addictive drug, and U.S. Surgeon Generals have reported that cigarettes cause

In addition. She smokes a pack and a half of cigarettes every day. He knows he is ready to quit this time. she should _________________________ __________________________________________________________________. studies of the Environmental Protection Agency have found that cigarette smoke harms nonsmokers as well as smokers. She just quit smoking and needs something to take the place of a cigarette. 7. Monica is a heavy smoker. 5. Thus. In Massachusetts it is illegal for cigarettes to be sold to anyone under 18 years old. 6.107 Unit 6: Quitting lung cancer. Last week she found out that the apartment building she lives in was sold and her boyfriend has been having an affair with her best friend. . emphysema. 4. Many teenagers under 18 can still buy cigarettes from vending machines. Monica just lost her job. federal. His wife and children want him to stop too. she enjoyed holding the cigarette in her hand and having something in her mouth. and heart disease. To stop them from buying cigarettes. When Angelique smoked. You can conclude that Monica________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. before he sets his quit date he should ___________________ __________________________________________________________________. and local governments _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________. Therefore. more and more cities and towns like Cambridge have_________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. As a result. Marvin has tried to go cold turkey many times before but couldn’t quit smoking. state. She wants to quit because she is two months pregnant.

She does not feel comfortable with doctors. eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables but has still gained weight. Claudette’s father. She really wants to quit smoking but knows she cannot do it on her own. Why did you decide to quit? 2. Claudette and her husband both quit smoking before the birth of their first child one year ago.108 Unit 6: Quitting 8. You should ask this person the following questions: 1. 9. Samuel needs to _____________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. When did you quit? 3. Marie is a recovering alcoholic and current smoker. ACTIVITY 2: INTERVIEWING Interview someone you know who has quit smoking. 10. he will not be able to fit into his clothes. He is eating a lot more lately. You can conclude that at the end of 5 years being smoke free. died of lung cancer. a heavy smoker. Quitting was difficult for both of them. she was getting pains in her heart (angina). Therefore. but they did it for their child’s and their own health. She has found the support she gets from her sponsor and others in the group to be very helpful. _______________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________. To conclude. One night a week she attends AA (Alcoholic Anonymous) meetings. He is drinking plenty of water. she should to _______________________ __________________________________________________________________. Samuel quit smoking two weeks ago. When she smoked. If he gains any more weight. How did you quit? .

ACTIVITY 3: WRITING A QUIT SMOKING PLAN Pretend a family member wants to quit smoking. Going cold turkey is not suitable for everyone. How many times have you tried to quit? Write your answers to the above questions in complete sentences. known as affirmations. 1 week. Many people who quit smoking have a relapse (return to their habit) within the first 3 months. or starting a business. “It’s tough. Develop your plan according to these considerations.” or “Each day I don’t smoke. 1 month. how strong his/her addiction is. cardboard. the amount of discipline the person has. when he/she smokes.” Write each affirmation on poster paper. Make your handwriting neat and if possible. and why he/she smokes. but I can do it. Examples of such negative thoughts are “This isn’t a good time to quit after all” or “I’ll just smoke this one” or “I’m driving everyone around me crazy. getting a GED diploma. and 1 year later? 5. What advice would you give that person.109 Unit 6: Quitting 4.” Write down 6 positive statements. colorful to attract attention and send out positive energy. ACTIVITY 4: WRITING AFFIRMATIONS Positive thinking is necessary to keep yourself motivated to reach your goals. They think certain negative thoughts that weaken their decision. I feel better and better. leaving an abusive relationship. to encourage yourself or someone else to stick to his/her decision to stop smoking. For example. or notebook paper. Write a step by step quit smoking plan for him/her. Keep in mind how much the person smokes. whether they include quitting smoking. . How did you feel after 3 days. neither is tapering off.

February 1993 Dunnington. Bethesda. Stanton & Dr. Centers for Disease Control. Tobacco Biology & Politics. May 1993 . National Institutes of Health. Bethesda. June 1993 Major Local Tobacco Control Ordinances in the United States. U. Health EDCO. Maryland. Monograph 3. National Cancer Institute. Texas.110 BIBLIOGRAPHY African Americans and Smoking At A Glance. April 5. The Boston Globe. 1992 I Mind. June 1993 “It’s Official: Passive Smoking Poses Health Risks. National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute.” Prevention Report. National Institutes of Health. “Passive Smoking & Heart Disease. Texas. Jan. Tobacco Almanac: A Collection of Tobacco Facts. University of Texas. Joel. Glantz. Dr. National Institutes of Health Publication No. May 1990 Lung Cancer. National Institutes of Health. Atlanta. Houston. Dr. Georgia “Breaking The Habit” Series. National Cancer Institute. Dr. Public Health Service.S. Maryland. William Parmley.” Family & Community Health. 1993 Glantz. 93-3532.” JAMA. April 10-12. Stanton. 1994 Cancer of the Lung. June/July 1993 “Health Behaviors In Minority Families: The Case of Cigarette Smoking. 1995.

. Department of Health and Human Services. U. Department of Health & Human Services. San Francisco. Washington. and McHenry. July 1993 Smoking & Health: A National Status Report. Maryland. National Institutes of Health. February 1990 Smoking and Health in the Americas. PA. Hansen. October 1989 . James. Wilner. California Mayberry. 1. Department of Health and Human Services. Pathways to Freedom: Winning the Fight Against Tobacco. “Targetting Blacks in Cigarette Billboard Advertising: Results From Down South.S. Centers for Disease Control. A Report of the Surgeon General.S. No. U. Monograph 4. University of California. and Sutton. Environmental Protection Agency.C. Georgia. 17. January/February 1993 Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking. 1992 Rosenblatt.S. Fox Chase Cancer Center. Atlanta. 1992 Smoking Tobacco & Health.” The New York Times Magazine. U. Vol. Philadelphia. Robert and Patricia Price. Roger. August 1993. Rockville.” Health Values. Orleans. Environmental Protection Agency.S. Robinson. U. U. Report of the U. D. Rockville. March 20. 1994 Secondhand Smoke. “How Do They Live With Themselves. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon General.111 Martin. 1989 Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders.S. School Medicine. Maryland. Quit for Life.S.

Monograph 5. New York. Peter. New York. Georgia. 1990 Tobacco and the Clinician. Larry. Atlanta. White. William Morrow and Co. National Institutes of Health. January 1994. 1985 The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation..S. A Report of the Surgeon General.112 Taylor. 1988 . New York. Beech Tree Books. U. A Mentor Book. Merchants of Death. Department of Health & Human Services. The Smoke Ring. New York.

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