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Construction and Consulting
Peter Ramsauer Dr.Table of Content Preface Dr. Thomas Bach /Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi Olaf Hoffmann Projects Algeria The Mosque in Algiers Bahrain An Oasis in the Desert – Bahrain International Circuit Egypt Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser Iraq Railway Network Project Jordan Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Kuwait Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Lebanon Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Libya Design and Construction Morocco Ain Béni Mathar – an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Oman Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman Palestine Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip 54 10 10 6 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 .
Projects 4 / 5 Qatar Qatar’s Fastest Elevators – The Qipco ‘Tornado’ Tower – Doha Saudi Arabia Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Sudan The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Khartoum New International Airport Syria Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Tunesia The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit United Arab Emirates Lotus Garden German Maurer Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMAL’s Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Ultimate Flight Catering Yemen Pilot Projects for Schools in Yemen Special Topics Working Group Infrastructure and Construction Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria – Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Saudi Arabia’s Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies List of Contributors Imprint 58 62 70 78 82 86 100 104 114 120 .
Projects 6 / 7 Preface Dr. In the windy and sun-kissed countries of the Arab world. between Germany and the Arab world. The reasons for this are an expected economic growth rate of just under five percent per year over the period to 2020. The building and property sector benefits significantly from this. PETER RAMSAUER Federal Minister of Transport. the German construction industry carried out building work worth around 850 million euros.5 billion euros. This is especially true of sustainable and energy-efficient construction. based on a spirit of trust. This shows just how important the Arab countries are for the German construction industry. there is huge potential for this. there will be massive investment in the infrastructure in this region. With their cutting-edge technologies. Peter Ramsauer Federal Minister of Transport. have pushed ahead with spectacular large-scale projects in recent years. The building projects presented in the Ghorfa Yearbook illustrate just how successful the economic partnership between the Arab countries and Germany is. extensive expertise and experience in the service sector. too. Building and Urban Development . German companies are perfectly placed to assist the Arab course of modernization. DR. In the future. the Arab countries continue to be one of the most dynamic and attractive economic areas in the world. At the same time. it received orders worth around 1. The Yearbook is thus also an encouragement to further expand Arab-German economic relations. an above average annual increase in population of 2 percent and the increasing expansion of the cities. Both sides can build on the long-standing relations. Building and Urban Development Despite the global economic and financial crisis. German know-how and German investment will continue to be in demand for strategic partnerships in the region. in particular. The tallest building in the world in Dubai is an especially impressive example of this. The Gulf States. plus their profound knowledge of the countries and markets involved. In 2009. The Federal Government is wholeheartedly in favour of such expansion and will continue to do everything it can to support it. But the construction sector is also booming in the other countries in the Arab world. To enable these countries to manage their ambitious investment plans in the years ahead.
The Arab region is undergoing important changes making it a location of progress and growth. Iraq. The Arab world has established itself as one of the most dynamic and potentially rewarding regions for high-scale construction and consulting projects. In the following years other thematic priorities will be chosen to give companies from all business branches the opportunity to contribute to this new serie. education or health care in the following editions of our yearbook. DR. Thomas Bach President Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlaﬁ Secretary General We are proud to present the first edition of our annual ArabGerman Yearbook. THOMAS BACH President AbdULAZIZ AL-MIKHLAFI Secretary General . We are looking forward to sum up successful examples of collaboration in technology. Algeria. This yearbook shall therefore be a useful tool to introduce various exemplary construction and consulting projects realised or planned by German enterprises in cooperation with partners in the Arab world. science. Impressive building activities starting from designed superhomes to the tallest skyscrapers in the world are above all known from Dubai. Qatar. Kuwait.Preface Dr. Egypt and other Arab countries invest on a large scale in infrastructure and numerous other construction projects to meet the requirements of fast growing megacities and rising demands of the populations. Impressive traces of the ongoing construction boom can also be found in other Arab countries and experts predict a further acceleration of the building and construction industry. Growing economic activities in the Arab world as well as the strong demand for provision of housing and rising infrastructural requirements stimulate activities in building. The main aim of our Chamber is to develop and deepen business relations between Germany and the Arab world. Libya. German enterprises are appreciated for their reliability and quality of products and services as well as for the respected and trusted cooperation with Arab companies. This directory serves to further promote the relationship between the Arab world and Germany. One of the objective targets of our new serie is to show that Arab countries welcome German enterprises as credible partners and invite them to participate in the continuing economic growth. Due to the common understanding of the principle of mutual benefits both sides can gain great advantage from increased collaboration. It focuses on construction and consulting and is to be the first of a new serie. Ghorfa therefore understands itself as a bridge between partners from different backgrounds. In Saudi Arabia for example the expansion of infrastructure needs to keep pace with the tremendous growth of population of about half a million a year. Abu Dhabi or Riyadh.
Thus. the Middle East remains the world leader in the construction industry: with more than 2. KfW.100 projects in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Why have we chosen the format ‘yearbook’? At the beginning of our century the Arab markets just added colourful detail to the media business coverage: Dubai for instance was described as a firework with no long-term impact. However. over 500 projects in Qatar and Kuwait. as population growth in the Arab world exceeds the average growth of the entire world population. Thus. The growing population together with a strong migration and large financial resources for the realisation of development projects stimulates the demand for housing and infrastructure for public and cargo transportation as well as energy.Projects 8 / 9 Preface Olaf Hoffmann CEO Dorsch Holding Dear readers. in the last two years. it seems to be the right time to keep track of the further development of the Arab economy by an annual publication. just to put the focus on impressive architecture. more than 50% of the population in the Middle East is younger than 25 years. Roads. However. the Arab world has shown a remarkable resilience in coping with the debilities of globalisation: on the basis of oil and oil exports. This is especially true for the newly industrialised economies which can be found among Arab countries. Strong growing countries like Saudi Arabia or especially Iraq with its emerging market and an economic growth rate of 5. Ferrostaal. communications and water networks have to be constructed or upgraded. This Arab-German Yearbook would not have been possible without the contributions of German companies considerably engaged in the Arab world like Siemens. OLAF HOFFMANN CEO and Shareholder of Dorsch Holding Member of the Board of Directors Chairman of the Working Group ‘Infrastructure and Construction’ Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry . Lufthansa. too.3% offer a lot of opportunities and potential for the construction industry. Despite the challenging economic situation. We are pleased to present the first edition of our ArabGerman Yearbook ‘Construction and Consulting’. Thus this yearbook and its sequels are dedicated to describing the Arab world of today and tomorrow. the Arab world has built up a stable. big infrastructure or renewable energy projects would not show the whole picture. electricity. we really appreciate their readiness of sharing their insights. At the same time. productive and growing economy. I therefore want to very warmly thank all who contributed to our first ArabGerman Yearbook ‘Consulting and Construction’. Enjoy reading! Sincerely yours. the desire for (more) Western standards in water supply and sanitation as well as sustainability is booming. ThyssenKrupp and many others. nearly 200 projects in Oman and almost 150 projects in Bahrain the construction industry lives up to the demands of a growing population.
English 1 Algerian Dinar (AD) = 100 centimes Algiers (Capital). Constantine. Oran. Annaba.000 (2009 estimate) 2.381. Setif .Algeria Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Language Currency Main Cities People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria 34.180.741 km2 Arabic French. Blida.
Frankfurt/Berlin. the mosque will encourage the future development of the adjacent district of the city. courtyard.L. Imam School. work. The unity of these buildings. and Krebs und Kiefer Algérie EURL.000 visitors a day. is also reflected by the architecture chosen. which has been designed and developed on behalf of the Algerian government by a group consisting of KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten.A. the world’s third largest mosque is soon to be erected in the bay of Algiers. forecourt and minaret – will have a GFA of about 440.. Construction is scheduled to begin before the end of 2010.Projects 10 / 11 The Mosque in Algiers KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten GmbH Anke Wünschmann. cultural centre. teaching and prayer. study. Located only 6 km east of the historical town centre and not far from the airport. and the engineering company Krebs und Kiefer Inter national. Friday mosque has always been at the centre of islamic everyday life. The complex – complete with prayer hall. Sebastian Tokarz The Mosque in the bay of Algiers.R. All buildings in .000 m2 and will be able to host up to 120.Tunis. Algiers. devoted to religion. Darmstadt. social and business life – and not least the centre of life for all community members. Introduction At present. Other local partners are: Krebs und Kiefer & Partners International S.
For a building of this height. the interplay of light and shadow is the real adornment of the interior. friezes and decorative entrance portals. it will be a visible vertical landmark for the City of Algiers per se. the courtyard links in architectural and in functional terms the sacred prayer hall to the esplanade in the west. which are up to 45 m in height. . Above this will be two research areas accessible only to accredited scholars – the Research Centre. creating a space with a sacred. public floors by means of panorama elevators. which will highlight the religion’s different epochs and dynasties.000 people. the slender tower has unusual proportions (of width to height). Museum and Research Centre are housed in the tower’s shaft. the insignia of the islamic religion and the regular rows of pillars. the mosque complex share a plinth that is in places up to 5 m high. Its external appearance is defined by the following triadic composition: as basic volume a cube with a footprint of 145 x 145 m. a cube of about 22. Together with the traditional elements. These floors house the Museum of Algerian History. The platform also ensures the complex’s clear spatial separation from the parallel motorway to the north and the profane buildings in the vicinity. It is embraced and clearly structured on all sides by two/three rows of colonnades featuring the graceful slender blossom-topped columns typical of the entire complex. The different façade architecture reflects the different sections and functions. Minbar and Dikkah are integrated into a hall of modern aesthetics. structured by folds. which bears the central dome. The minaret’s plinth is completely glass-covered and opens out invitingly to the plaza. the free plaza with the main entrance and the adjacent forecourt. and is thus on the same scale as major skyscrapers. ornamental skin made of prefabricated. it will be the highest building in Africa. while also integrating ventilation and drainage.50 m in height. Here. they are aligned from west to east in the direction of Mecca. Layout plan of the complete complex. on this raised plateau. which is divided into five equal sections each comprising five floors. Minaret Its use. the mosque’s outer skin is made of natural stone. Moreover. The multilayered façade for the museum and Research Centre is made up of an outer. perforated Moucharabieh façade elements that protect the thermal glass skin behind from direct solar radiation. restrained ornamentation and indirect natural light creates an impressive spatial experience. the Mihrab. These are clearly separated from one another by all-glass sky-lobby façades. The mosque’s courtyard serves as an extended area for prayer during the holy days. The floral columns not only blend harmoniously with the local palm vegetation. once finished. At its apex. Moreover. Visitors can reach the upper. Following the architecture of traditional islamic prayer halls. slightly set back from the edge. the latter reaches a height of some 70 m and has a diametre of about 50 m at its base. All the traditional religious elements such as the Qibla wall. shaft and upper capital. but combine load-bearing properties with other technical functions: they provide a surface acoustic equipment. design and size make the minaret unique in the history of Islam. Daylight from above steeps the hall in continually changing patterns of light and shadow. namely of 1:10. The vertical configuration corresponds to the classical subdivision of towers into a plinth. quite stunning in a region strongly threatened by earthquakes. The Moucharabieh The Mosque’s Prayer Hall The prayer hall or Salle de Prière is a massive cube towering up to 45 m and able to take up to 35.The ‘Floral Columns’ and Mosque Courtyard The leitmotif for the design throughout the edifice are floral pillars with protruding capitals in all areas of the ensemble. it rises up to some 265 m. if not mystical character. The interior with its choice materials.
P. In terms of the tradition and the modern rejuvenation of the religion. the building complex forms a successful combination of Algerian tradition and the present. Palm groves right round the mosque provide ample shade. They can practice their faith their in line with the customary ritual and can familiarise themselves in the adjacent institutions with contemporary islamic doctrine. adding an additional sense of depth and dynamism. elements. Frankfurt/ Berlin. The palm is the predominant tree defining the identity of the whole area. guests. and the engineering company Krebs und Kiefer International. Cordoba and Medina. designed in keeping with traditional Algerian patterns. give the tower a clear texture of light and shadow. Thlemcen. The mosque’s courtyard with entry to the prayer hall. The high beacon of the minaret (manâra) is reminiscent not only of a lighthouse showing the way to those seeking the right path. reinterprets traditional Algerian architecture without erasing the historical references. by a spacious park. not to mention for an entire culture. and will wrap around the sommah as the minaret’s crowning tip. the other for V. The glass will cover two viewing platforms.Projects 12 / 13 The top of the minaret will be transparent. namely the islamic religious community as a whole. Instead. the illuminated glass skin radiates. The design by KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten. the mosque represents the religious and social needs of the community’s members. Summary The new mosque (Djamaâ el Djazaïr) in Algiers is firmly set in the lineage of the major Friday mosques in Algiers. are structured by palm trees planted in regular rows – they thus serve as a supplement to the architecture. one for visitors. by contrast. visible from afar as a point of orientation in Algiers and as its new landmark. Darmstadt. and are clad in bright natural stone. Fountains foster the overall sense of calm and concentration. The prayer hall. The four access routes at the tower’s corners also provide the due rigidity for the minaret. . namely the cultural centre. but could well emerge as the new iconic landmark for the City of Algiers. The Park The mosque complex is linked to the buildings in the south. This landscaped outdoor area can house a large number of people and also offers a haven of tranquillity.I. The mosque’s plazas and forecourts. The mosque brings together the cultural wealth of Islam and Algeria with German excellence in architecture and engineering. the library and the Imam School. the materials thus set this section off from the other parts of the minaret. At night.
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Language Currency Main Cities The Kingdom of Bahrain 718,306 includes 235,108 nonnationals (July 2008 estimate) 711.85 km2 Arabic French, English 1 Bahraini Dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils Manama (capital), Muharraq, Isa Town, Riffa, Hamad Town
Projects 14 / 15
An Oasis in the Desert – Bahrain International Circuit
Tilke GmbH & Co. KG
Bahrain International Circuit – aerial view.
Tilke Engineers & Architects, originally established in 1983, is recognised as the world leading designer for racetrack and test facilities. Tilke designs individual and state-of-the-art racetracks including grandstands, pit buildings, team buildings and other infrastructure facilities by both fulfilling clients’ needs and the permanently changing requirements on track layout and safety. The design of a racetrack and its appropriate buildings depends on various principles, e.g. its location, approach, picture, function and detail. Each of these principles is interconnected with one other. Removing one of them would be comparable to dislodging a supporting column: the structure would collapse.
Bahrain International Circuit
The Bahrain International Circuit is a good example of Tilke’s design philosophy. Its Arabic architecture is reflected by its colours, materials, the tent-shaped roofs, the wind towers etc. Thus, Bahrain’s tradition and culture has been interpreted in a modern way, all of which promotes the circuit’s unique atmosphere. The beautiful landscape around Sakhir oasis is where the racetrack is located. The contrast between the oasis and the desert is taken as inspiration: the spectators view follows the drivers taking a ride into the outside desert coming back to
The roofs of the grandstands and several other buildings are equipped with a combination of light fabric tent structures that are based on the traditional Bedouin tents, and the traditional Bahraini wind towers (badqeer) used as basis for the wide-stretched tents. The motif of the wind towers is again taken up for some of the solid building elements. Generally, all solid building elements integrate and interpret elements of Bahraini architecture: the small window sizes, the deep embrasures and the clear sand colour represent all the compactness of traditional architecture. The dynamism of the architecture is not only noticeable during the daytime, but also at night: the external illumination provides a striking effect.
Bahrain International Circuit.
the oasis styled as a centre. This striking feature makes for the unique character of the track, which also inspired German photographer and artist Andreas Gursky to produce one of his famous oversized photo collages. The landscape design of the racetrack leads the visitor into the centre (oasis) of the circuit, which is formed by a double-serving paddock area, allowing operating two circuits independently during the day-to-day business, thus optimising the commercial benefits. The connection of both circuits forms a maximum loop length of 5,400 m for the Formula 1 track. As the track’s width varies at the end of the different straights it enables different race lines, thereby offering various possibilities for breathtaking and challenging overtaking manoeuvres. The impressive building ensemble includes all facilities necessary to host the Formula 1; they are state-of-the-art as well as fully sufficient to support the daily business. The architectural idea took all aspects into consideration: on the one hand lots of high-tech equipment is needed, on the other hand there is the unique and beautiful landscape with its colours and moods and an impressive architectural tradition with its own and distinctive materials. The intensive work with these fundamentals led to the present appearance of the circuit. Besides the character of being a desert track, the circuit’s particular charm is presented by an attractive mixture of traditional Bahraini and modern architecture combined with the high-tech equipment of a Formula 1 race circuit, while the outstanding V.I.P. tower, as well as the fabric-roofed grandstands, are the outstanding landmarks of this track.
Project Signiﬁcance and Impact
The significance of the project is high, as a Formula 1 racetrack is immediately popular everywhere in the world. But not only the important and famous events give the arrangement a significance, also the special architecture and the characteristics of this unique racetrack, like the double-serving paddock area, make Bahrain International Circuit stand out among all Formula 1 circuits worldwide. Thus, the impacts are many-sided: the notoriety of the racetrack leads to an increase in tourism and accordingly promotes the diversification of Bahraini economy further, as the whole economy will profit from the events and all happenings around the racetrack. Due to the immense publicity, the yearly benefits are circular und support the growing infrastructure. Thus, the racetrack can be seen as a constant impulse for the economy in combination with a high identification worldwide. The track and its buildings can become a symbol of Bahrain.
Main grandstand and the paddock area.
I. Bahrain International Circuit by night.P. . V. tower by night.Projects 16 / 17 Race control.
Tanta. Shubra el-Khema.112 (Jan. Suez. Sharm el-Sheikh . Giza. 2009) 1.450 km2 Arabic 1 Egyptian Pound = 100 piaster Cairo (Capital). Hurghada. Port Said. Mahalla el-Kubra. Alexandria.Egypt Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Arab Republic of Egypt 76.001.054.
Projects 18 / 19 Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser KfW Entwicklungsbank Mandana Bahrinipour and Andreas Holtkotte. Bernd Bauerfeld (Dorsch Gruppe) Cairo. Manshiet Nasser re presents one of Cairo’s largest informal settlements. People have limited . The area among the foothills of the Mokattam mountains has been developed since the late 50s and early 60s by rural migrants from Upper Egypt.000 to 1 million people. Since then. Commonly known as ‘Garbage City’. The community of Manshiet Nasser is beyond doubt working towards its own future. Manshiet Nasser is home to between 800. Within the dynamic urban quarter even a little industrial area has evolved generating income from recycling and traditional handicrafts. shops and teahouses shape the street scene. While still a very poor district of Cairo. more and more impoverished people had been driven out of central Cairo – a megacity with an estimated current population of around 17 million people – into districts such as Manshiet Nasser in the wake of rapid urbanisation. Today. in between the multistory buildings small enterprises. slowly extending uphill to the east as more migrants arrived. land titles and construction plans – simple dwellings being erected along the Autostrada. settlement of the government-owned land mostly took place without any authorisation. the former slum has grown so much over the past years that it is now almost located in the city centre. As a result the urban development is quite haphazard and entirely lacking any legal basis and proper administrative infrastructure. nonetheless. the capital of Egypt.
the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has supported this decision by financing the Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas (PDP). in order to combine the demands of the residents on the one hand and the constraints related to the provision of infrastructure by the several authorities on the other. local administrations. The prime objective of this project is to improve the living conditions of – and hence reduce potential health risks to – poor residents in Manshiet Nasser by rehabilitating and upgrading the urban infrastructure. A participatory approach is being applied. The key element is that residents are involved in the planning processes and that local democracy is promoted. and decided instead to turn Manshiet Nasser from an informal area into a legalised district. After the Egyptian government had abandoned its initial plan to demolish the squatter settlement in 1997. . KfW Entwicklungsbank (German Development Bank) and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) are carrying out a participatory development project to establish and secure basic needs. the residents are encouraged to put forward their own solutions in order that aid projects can be tailored to their needs. sanitation and electricity or other social services such as education and health provision. Cultural centre. this involves the provision and extension of a secure water supply distribution system.Manshiet Nasser: From informal settlement to legalised district. Disbursements to contractors are being managed Abdel Aal Canal in Manshiet Nasser. in close cooperation with the Cairo governorate. the implementation of an organised sewerage system and – to a lesser extent – the upgrading of the road network. civil society organisations and nongovernmental organisations. The sense of ownership of the improved facilities by the beneficiaries will thus guarantee the sustainability of the project. access to basic services such as drinking water. On behalf of the German government and the Egyptian Ministry of Economic Development (MoED). inter alia in Manshiet Nasser.
its people virtually identify with it and the success story is catching on: similar projects have been launched in several other suburbs of Cairo and Alexandria. which is characterised by extreme differences in elevation. sanitation and roads.1 ha). similarly. focussing on the three main infrastructure sectors of water supply. although all dwellings have privately installed septic tanks). The main objective in the design of the water and sewerage systems is to minimise the excavation depths of the gravity lines in the very narrow lanes. which have been identified as priorities in the Manshiet Nasser Guide Plan and the subsequent Participatory Budget Planning. administered externally on behalf of the client. small lifting stations are envisaged to evacuate sewage from otherwise inaccessible areas. It seems that the whole community of Manshiet Nasser does not simply accept the programme. Phase II extends the project to further parts of Manshiet Nasser. causing sewage to overflow into the largely unpaved streets and stagnant pools to develop in depressed areas. The technical cooperation component assists the district predominantly in formalising the urban planning and community development as well as the administration on process development for legalisation. Due to the low water supply standard (only 59% of households having access to the public potable supply system and some during night hours only) and lack of proper sanitation (only 56% have access to the informally constructed sewerage network. The project is implemented in the form of an open fund. the critical environmental and public health conditions prevail in the quarter. is dominated by limestone cliffs. in order to prevent the collapse of adjacent buildings.900 in 6. At present neither the quantity of potable water resources nor the pressure in the supply network is sufficient to cover overall demand. The project will also influence the wider urban development of Manshiet Nasser through small Community Development Investments in public facilities and communal initiatives in cooperation with a technical cooperation programme provided by GTZ. Shortly after the start of the project things have indeed improved for thousands of people in Manshiet Nasser. a sheikha (subdistrict) of Manshiet Nasser with a 1998 population of 28. Phase I commenced in Ezbeth Bekhit.Projects 20 / 21 through a local disposition account. . including annual audits by an independent financial adviser to international standards.5 km of the internal roads. the result of quarrying over the centuries. A central sewage collection plant has been built and many have already been connected to the drinking water network. to fully use the available resources. mainly stretching along the King Khaled Autostrada. The funding allocated will allow full water distribution and sewerage services to be extended to approximately half of the population and to pave 4. The topography. the existing gravity sewers are in a structurally unsound and poorly maintained condition.490 households. The quarter covers an area of 47 feddans (20.
Basra.945.072 km2 Arabic and others 1 Iraqi Dinar (ID) = 1.Iraq Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic of Iraq 28. Najat . Kirkuk.657 (2009) 437. Mosul.000 fils Baghdad (Capital).
etc. the political situation in Iraq does not allow for a competitive transport provision. security. due to the presence of Somalian pirates security has deteriorated. there are several reasons that hampered the operation of those routes. a basic concept to improve the transportation network . and the sea route through the Persian Gulf as an alternative becomes more attractive for freight carriers today and definitely in the future. Thus. low capacity. However. as it introduces an alternative and more cost-efficient route for the logistics industry with benefits regarding travel time. Umm Qasr and al-Fao. Background International freight traffic to and from Southeast Asia mainly use the route through the Red Sea passing by Suez Canal. and vice versa. etc. the importance of Iraq as one of the most important gates in the Middle East is heightened: thanks to its favourably located harbours in the southeast of Iraq. It is expected that this will change to the better as soon as the newly improved railway network starts to operate.). Apart from the technical issues (broken facilities due to lack of maintenance. Umm Qasr–Baghdad–Halab-Lattakia (Syria). it connects both Asia and Europe. within Iraq – especially the railway network – in order to link Umm Qasr and al-Fao ports to the north. operational cost. Umm Qasr–Baghdad–Deer El Azour (Syria). The implementation of Dry Channel will therefore play an important role in Iraq’s future. similar routes were already in operation linking Umm Qasr–Baghdad–Mosul–Turkey. However.Projects 22 / 23 Railway Network Project Dorsch Gruppe Ulrich Beer Training of Iraqi railway engineers at Dorsch Gruppe. So far. low speed. Dry Channel Development of strategy with regard to Iraq’s long-term visions had included the discussion of the so-called Dry Channel.
During this time local conditions and constraints have changed. the rehabilitation of al-Fat Ha Bridge. Iraq and Jordan have agreed to expand their railway network to achieve this goal.000 passengers are transported each year. ten rural road underpasses and approximately eighty culverts with various dimensions. three small und three large stations (Al Rutbah. In addition. It is expected that freight and passenger traffic will increase significantly in coming years. as three wars and the imposing of sanctions in the 1990s led to the deterioration of economy in general and of infrastructure in particular: no routine transport facility maintenance or opening of new routes has come about which led to limited mobility for the Iraqi people. Iraq–Jordan Railway Link The Iraq–Jordan railway link as the major part of the planned transportation network of the Iraqi Transport Masterplan (ITMP) shall connect Iraq with its neighbouring country Jordan.200.000 tons and 8. Basrah–Fao The idea to improve the transport network in Iraq was already discussed in the early 1980s. in addition to a mine field area from the Iraq-Iran war where explosive ordnance disposal services had to be executed. Furthermore. railway technology has been further developed. Iraqi railway engineers on-site visit by train. station 6 at km 341+800 and Trebil). The existing Hajama–Sawa line from Baghdad to Basra has to be upgraded. damaged severely during the Iraq war in 2003. . 19 rural road overpasses. Furthermore. Design of structures include 25 wadi bridges. 3: the Basrah–al-Fao railway project as part of the planned infrastructure network of the Master Plan shall connect the city of Basrah – an industrial and cultural centre in southern Iraq – with the new al-Fao port to facilitate Survey of railway line Hajama–Sawa. The study recommended the so-called route No. From the Jordanian point of view Iraq is up to now the country that needs Jordanian transportation infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of transit goods between the Port of Aqaba and the central part of Iraq. Challenge of the Project The railway network project in Iraq with a total length of 660 km comprises a new West–East railway link – as part of the Dry Channel – connecting Jordan with the Iraqi railway network. when Henderson Hughes & Busby initially analysed alternative routes. Fourth part of the project is the Ramadi–Kerbala track through Mesopotamia. making it imperative to update all designs. Furthermore. It is expected that the new railway link will improve freight and passenger movement to a faster.Parts of the project were conceived more than twenty years ago. the project sites pose particular difficulties: the project area consists partially of desert and some marsh areas. more competitive and more secure access to the national and international markets. The Basrah–Fao line to be established in southern Iraq is an important connection of the network to al-Fao. The connection between Iraq and Jordan is currently realised by a two-lane road on which approximately 2.300. was commissioned. both countries have agreed to expand their railway networks by realising a new railway line from the Jordanian city Zarqa to the Iraqi border at Trebil and from Trebil to Mafraq Al Rutba road junction in order to facilitate freight and passenger traffic between the two countries. Therefore. The 400-km railway section comprises 14 passing stations. the government of Iraq aims to improve the transport situation in general.
has been damaged by allied bombing in the Iraq war 2003. others will be exchanged completely. Iraqi Republic Railways (IRR) intends to upgrade the line between both Hajama and Sawa stations with a second track running parallel and as close as possible to the existing track. the al-Fat Ha bridge has to be reconstructed.Projects 24 / 25 international trade. Design includes seven railway bridges. As a consequence pipelines in the neighbourhood were set on fire. The construction of the additional track Hajama–Sawa starts at Hajama station 0+583. assuring the movement of goods and therefore boost the economy in Iraq.345 m. its alignment will run through the Mesopotamian plain. pedestrian underpasses and standard rural road overpasses. Basrah–al-Fao railway project. pipeline box culverts. generally medium to stiff clayey silts and sandy silty clays. . Due to this situation. The predominant soil types in the Mesopotamian plain are finegrained sediments. and standard culverts. In addition. This bridge is located at the midway between the al-Fat Ha Way station and the Sarai al-Fadhil Way station. Design of structures includes four railway bridges. Due to the slope of 4. three road underpasses and 37 standard culverts. This railway bridge is the longest bridge of the line Kirkuk– Baiji–Haditha (24 spans x 40 m = 960 m) and crosses the Tigris at al-Fat Ha. Ramadi–Kerbala The Ramadi–Kerbala railway project is designed as a double track with a total length of approximately 133 km. Hajama–Sawa The Hajama–Sawa railway with a length of approximately 17 km is part of the existing single-track railway line from Baghdad to Basra. Design of structures includes pipeline overpasses. Certain members of the bridge will be reused or strengthened. Railway network’s improvement projects above will result in better mobility for the Iraqi people.500 m and ends at Sawa station. Al-Fat Ha Railway bridge damaged in Iraq war 2003. The railway project will cross the Euphrates and two of its branches – the rivers al-Suwer and al-Atshan – on three major bridges. one temporary bridge. 17 road bridges.526% the eastern end of the bridge is higher than the western end by 4. the alignment will also pass three local roads on single superstructure bridges. heavily. These fires affected the bridge. which is an important part of the railway line between Haylaniyah to Kirkuk. The project railway has a length of approximately 110 km. namely the piers. five road underpasses. Al-Fat Ha Bridge The existing railway bridge.
Al Mafraq. Salt. Aqaba .677 (July 2009 est. Jarash.198. Ajloun. Irbid. English widely spoken 1 Jordanian Dinar (JD) = 1.Jordan Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 6.000 fils Amman (Capital). Al Ramtha.300km2 Arabic official language. Zarqa.) 92.
garage. gtz International Services Florentine Visser conditions and views on site. . six bedrooms. natural ventilation is improved by carefully positioned windows. Tariq Emtairah. the use of materials and the reduction of construction waste: environmentally friendly materials are scarce and local suppliers are often not familiar with material specifications. and basement. and winters are mild. The biggest challenge for sustainable building in Jordan is. Together with strict planning rules from the local municipality and a beautiful view towards the Gulf of Aqaba – there were enough ingredients for a challenging design process. the building also had to serve as an information centre for sustainable building design and construction and should provide rooms for visiting researchers to work. wind Design concept. An analysis of sunshine. There is hardly any need for heating. Movable shades prevent solar warming in the summer period. On top of that. ventilation openings and the main staircase. kitchen. however. commissioned the construction of a pilot project to demonstrate the advantages of sustainable building and the economic feasibility of energy-efficient buildings. three storeys high. occupants can spend the day during the hot season. which further minimises the cooling load by decreasing the heat transfer. were the starting point for the architectural concept. environmentally friendly building of 420 m2. together with the most common construction methods in Jordan (plastered blockwork and stone cladding).Projects 26 / 27 Aqaba Residence Energy Efﬁciency (AREE) Sustainable building is a recent phenomenon in Jordan. a Jordanian working in Sweden. Together with the Center for Study of the Built Environment in Amman. The passive use of solar energy is optimised by the orientation and layout of the house: spaces used for brief periods (bathrooms. study. with the public area at the ground floor and private apartments on the upper floors. The north-facing main volume accommodates the bedrooms to reduce the cooling load. garage. including living room. Environmental Architecture Embedded in Local Setting Aqaba is located in the south of Jordan. which is designed to work as a ‘wind tower’. three bathrooms. Water efficiency is also important for Jordan. Due to rising energy prices there is a growing awareness among the public of the need to save energy. the challenge for the passive-solar design of the building was to provide a comfortable indoor climate. Additionally. The result is a multifunctional. All to be either used as one-family home or to be divided per floor. Here. as it is listed among the four poorest countries worldwide in terms of water. corridor) are located on the southwest side. to create a buffer that prevents the main spaces such as bedrooms from heating up too much in summer. The design brief for AREE did not only include residential functions. in a manner similar to the local Bedouin tent tradition. Moreover. where summer temperatures rise above 40 ºC. doors. storage. each floor has an attractive and comfortable outdoor space that is shaded and enjoys a refreshing breeze. family room. but allow for solar heat to enter during the winter to minimise the heat load. This main volume is finished in traditional plasterwork with added straw. Thus. the hottest area of the house. many local Jordanian contractors are not used to work with these materials and to build from drawings.
Even more unusual for Jordanian construction practice is the insulation of ‘heat bridges’ at the floor-wall connections. Jordan Energy Savings The design and construction save 30% on the cooling load compared to conventional practice. This is the first application of a solar-cooling installation in Jordan and very promising. the design provides the possibility Design view. Taking in consideration the additional investment cost. To ensure significant savings on electricity bills. With the solar cooling system the total savings on electricity costs are estimated at 72%. the expected payback time is less then nine years. In addition. The roof garden above offers a fine view to the front and an outdoor terrace. which is uncommon in Jordan. To make AREE almost self-sustainable in terms of energy supply. Aqaba. Kitchen and dining area are designed as open-plan featuring oriental ornaments and continuous floor finishing. the roof garden works as a ‘cooling element’ and contributes to reduction of the cooling load. Although shades prevent interior spaces from receiving solar heat. construction techniques improve the insulation and heat accumulation capacity of the building envelope significantly: the cavity walls are insulated by blocks with volcanic and perlite aggregate as well as insulation materials such as rockwool and polystyrene. Since the 40-cm-deep garden soil has a great capacity of accumulating heat and the plants provide further shade. Another is ‘solar cooling’. tool – and the result is a nice texture that will get more expressive in time. to connect the interior and exterior spaces between the main volume and the living area. the natural stone in the interior wall finishing and the roof garden. All design and construction elements were easy to plan on the drawing board. The subvolume of the living area is cladded with recycled stone from local stone companies. The heat accumulation capacity is further increased by the north cavity wall being filled with sand. too. it required a lot of discussion with the structural engineer and contractor on site. however.AREE Facts The use of cement is reduced – an environmentally important aspect. the roof structure is insulated. a sustainable cooling concept based on hot water from solar panels as a source of energy for an adsorption chiller that produces chilled water to cool the space: the sun heats the water needed to run the cooling system. Architect: Florentine Visser (Netherlands) CLIENT: Tariq Emtairah (Sweden) BUILDING PERMIT: Mohammed Abu Afeefeh (Jordan) Garden Design: Matilda Nilsson (Sweden) CO -Funding: MED ENEC (European Union) SUPPORT: Philips Lighting NV (Netherlands) Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (Jordan) National Energy Research Center (NERC) (Jordan) PR: Center for Study of the Built Environment (Jordan) Project Adress: Project address: 9th area. . the installations are the last step in the strategy for energy-efficient design. The energy-efficient lighting design provided by Philips is one aspect.
. In her garden design. toilets and shower heads. Grey water from showers and sinks is filtered by a sand-gravel bed with bamboo and supplies the required water for irrigation. no funding for these additional features was available. So far. Together with water-saving taps. Energy saving is important. so is the use of the house: in early 2010. AREE opened as The Aqaba House.Projects 28 / 29 Climate concept plan 1st ﬂoor. the first environmentally friendly Bed & Breakfast in Aqaba. the total expected saving on water consumption is 51%. Ground ﬂoor plan. AREE offers a model and ‘lessons learned’ on the possibilities and challenges in the field of sustainable building in Jordan. AREE is also an inspiring work of architecture and pleasant homes. Hopefully. Climate concept plan section. landscape architect Matilda Nilsson selected plants and trees that are suitable for the Aqaba climate and minimise the need for irrigation. As everything is subject to change. too. The total savings could then reach 93%. but water saving is essential for the future of Jordan: AREE is the first residential project in Aqaba equipped with a dual plumbing system for grey and black waste. to incorporate photo-voltaic panels to generate electricity and to add further shading for outdoor spaces. a good architectural design and improved building technology and installations are not enough to achieve sustainable building: cooperation and communication are essential in both the design and execution phases to achieve an integrated project. However. Second ﬂoor plan.
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Currency Main Cities State of Kuwait 2.7 million, including 1.3 million nonnationals (2009) 17,820 km2 Arabic English 1 Kuwait Dinar (KD) = 1.000 fils Kuwait City (Capital), Salmiya, Ahmadi, Shuwaikh
Projects 30 / 31
Al-Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium)
ASS Planungs GmbH Architects and Engineers Susanne Schmid schlaich bergermann und partner structural consulting engineers Dipl.-Ing. Knut Göppert
From top to bottom, left to right: View from training ﬁeld. View from parking area. Roof, top view. Upper tier seating.
During the first years of this century the State of Kuwait and its authorities promoted the development of a new National Sports Complex. The site selected for this International Football and Athletics Stadium is situated within the suburb of Ardiyah, north to the Sixth Ring Road and bound between Mohamed Ibn al-Qasem Street and East Ardiyah Road, ca. 12 km southwest of Kuwait City centre. After various realignments the total site comprises an area of approximately 400,000 m². The re-aligned area complies with the appropriate site requirements of an international stadium for 60,000 spectators and approximately 7,500 car parking spaces as well
as various stadium-related training and warming-up facilities comprising a 400 m running track of 8 lanes with all associated athletic (track & field) facilities, including an interior turf pitch and a special football pitch. In principle, the complete FIFA and IAAF (international sports federations for football and athletics) regulations, guidelines and recommendations were carefully taken into consideration for the planning of the facilities mentioned.
Out of various concept alternatives the design idea of the stadium was briefly named as ‘dhow shape’. Behind the overall
architectural configuration of the stadium’s huge, bulged building mass with its saddle-shaped roof this indigenous feature is recognisable. However, the form was essentially developed out of stadium-specific conditions and was not transferred from the historic vessel of the Arabian Gulf itself: first, the preferred seats are alongside the playing field or the running track; second, spectators’ viewing distances grow proportionally to football-related limits at 150 m (to max. 190 m) between the extreme corner of the playing field and the spectator. Thus, to form a bowl on an almost circular footprint (although the playing field itself is rectangular) is the obvious solution, as thereby an optimum viewing circle for most spectators can be assured. The second prominent feature of the design idea is the entailing double-curved roof geometry in form of a hyperbolic paraboloid (saddle shape), a condition, which strongly influences the economy of an prestressed cable structure with translucent cladding.
front of the entrance and reception hall with a passage leading to the fully air-conditioned viewing lounge. On the western stadium side, this level includes conveniences for HH the Amir and his retinue, additionally – via segregated entrances – lobbies, working spaces, special boxes and studios for the media as well as offices for the administration can be found. Arranged around the central stadium axis and on the eastern side a total of 42 corporate boxes (hospitality suites) including associated lobbies are provided. On the northern, eastern and southern sides this concourse level also provides spectatorrelated facilities and access to the seating areas. The lower tier of the stadium bowls offers seating for approximately 22,000 spectators, including 250 primary V.I.P. seating in the viewing lounge and another 500 secondary V.I.P. seats; additionally, the corporate boxes provide seating for approximately 500 guests. Furthermore, a special space on the northern and southern sides of the gap at the upper edge of the lower tier provides best views for physically handicapped spectators visiting sports events with or without attendance.
There is a clear structure in the functional and spatial allocation strictly following a very detailed space allocation programme, the aforementioned FIFA and IAAF handbooks and media guides as well as the overall local regulatory frame and, last but not least, stadium-specific experience and trends. Level 0 as the lowest of a total of four levels is arranged approximately 5 m below ground or access level. Access is provided by four ramps to the arena gates. An internal road corridor provides access to all functional spaces for the athletes and sports event participants and, furthermore, to all stores and the main central building services plant rooms. The arena itself with its four gates is fitted out with all footballand athletic-related facilities and has received full olympic characteristics in size, shape and visibility. Level 1 is arranged above ground at all sides and is therefore the actual ground level with respect to the access roads and the surrounding stadium perimeter apron. The V.I.P. entrance is provided on two levels, the lower assigned for V.I.P.s, the upper is dedicated to HH the Amir, state officials and honorary guests. Level 2 is placed in the approximately 3-m-high gap between the lower and the upper tier of the stadium bowl. A prominent, almost processional access system on the western side for HH the Amir and honorary guests is set up in a circular drive-up covered by an arts-craft glass canopy in
Bowl Access, Circulation and Viewing Distances
Level 3 as the upper concourse is an intermediate level and is designed to continue the concourse of level 2. It extends to all sides and forms an additional perimeter circulation area for the spectators of the upper tier and ends, where the conveniences for the Sovereign and his guests in the gap zone between the tiers begin. On all bowl sides (except main stand) the access stairways coming from level 2 lead to the lower and also upper vomitoria of the upper tier, thus fulfilling the FIFA requirements for an access and egress system of stringent order and discipline for the sake of spectators’ safety. The total spectator bowl lies within a 130-m circle from the centre of the playing field and the optimum viewing circle of 90 m encloses the complete lower tier on both longitudinal stadium sides.
Since a stadium roof is based on the spectators’ comfort requirements (or demands) for providing shelter against rain, sun, wind and dust. And since FIFA not only recommends, but requests to have stadia with world cup qualifications with at least 70% of the seats covered, the International Stadium is provided with a roof unique in structure and dimensions: the roof top view shows the almost circular roof area of
Tender procedure including evaluation was concluded by end of 2002. whose design and planning architects (and engineers) are now based at the architectural and engineering office of ASS Planungs GmbH. The placing of the compression ring on the main concrete cantilevers. The roof cladding excludes of course not only the structurally required circular area of the central opening. and was completed in 2008. Section-related Findings and Expertise The sections reveal the figurative origin of the term ‘dhowshaped’: dived in the ground by one storey (arena level) and booming up to the bulged stand perimeter a similarity between the traditional vessel and the stadium cross section is evident. high-strength prestressed cables for the tension elements and the light weight membrane material is most qualified for large roof coverings of the magnitude of the new Kuwait stadium. New York and São Paulo. Cape Town and Johannesburg) for the FIFA World Cup 2010 and many new stadia on the drawing boards. with offices in Stuttgart. been responsible for the planning and construction of the wrestling and the weightlifting hall for the Commonwealth Games 2010 in New Delhi. Its structure of a single-layer cable-net system is based on a bicycle wheel: the radial and ring cables are arranged within the steel compression ring (the rim of the bicycle wheel) and the inner main tension ring (replacing the central node of a typical spoked wheel). represented by the Public Authority for Youth and Sports. its geometry is determined by the shape of the seating bowl which results in a double-curved structural system. Stuttgart/Germany. appointed (the former) Weidleplan Consulting GmbH. Its saddle shape is interrupted by an elliptical-circular opening just above the centre of the playing field which has an diametre of approximately 88/113 m. The combination of steel tubes for compression forces. as is the tension ring which encloses the inner roof opening and the cladding edge. among others. another one is the continuous slot between the two tiers promoting favourably the air circulation for spectator stands and arena by this jet principle. Berlin.500 m². ASS’ is an expert in the field of sports architecture and has. The roof cladding is composed of conical membrane elements supported by flying masts. The sections also show the continuous ventilation gap between the upper bowl perimeter edge and the compression ring of the roof. but also the elliptic area above the arena. after an interruption due to political reasons only. Assignments For the study. and the radial-concentric cablenet system spanned between compression and tension rings provides a visually simple but unique structural composition. design and planning of the Jaber al-Ahmad International Stadium Kuwait the State of Kuwait. Durban. The design team included as special and expert subconsultants for the project’s roof structure the renowned office of schlaich bergermann und partner. Time Flow Preliminary design was finalised by mid 2001. Stuttgart/Germany. furthermore. its self-cleaning properties are superior. The strict structuring of the bowl exteriors with their boom-like vertex tops make the support positions of the compression ring as one essential roof element clearly visible. The translucent PTFE-coated glassfibre fabric is perfectly suited to provide sufficient natural light for the seating area. among others for Dubai Sports City. the latest new stadia in South Africa (in Port Elizabeth. The compression ring is clearly perceptible at the exterior perimeter. The arrangement of two tiers overlapping each other – thus providing less distance between the spectators of the upper tier to the arena – is one characteristic feature of the design. forming thus an ellipse of 146/118 m axis lengths. The local collaboration partner was Sief Engineering Consultants of Kuwait. Construction started in 2004. final design and tender documents by early 2002.Projects 32 / 33 approximately 42. programme-related requirements and standards. Its managing director Knut Göppert is one of the world’s leading experts in roof design. The elevations on each side convey a stadium image of motion and emotion as well as functional compliance with the . responsible for as many as twenty realised large stadium roofs. the cantilever beams further underline the bearing and stiffening function of the whole superstructure and call to mind the indigenous feature of the Arabian Gulf dhow.
971.452 km2 Arabic with both English and French widely spoken Lebanese Pound = 100 Piaster Beirut (Capital) .Lebanon Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic of Lebanon 3.941 (July 2008 estimate) 10.
erection and commissioning of a complete mechanical-biological treatment plant for the municipal solid waste of Saida. Background Saida is an ancient coastal city at the Mediterranean Sea.Projects 34 / 35 Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Passavant-Roediger GmbH Michael Pfeifle Municipal solid waste treatment plant in Saida. but the municipality has been under high political pressure to find alternative solutions for the waste management of the city. parts of the landfill are washed into the sea and thus pollute the beaches. the private Lebanese investor IBC signed a contract with several partners for the design. The treatment plant is located at the southern periphery of Saida where soil had to be raised to built an artificial peninsula of approximately 20.000 and is still growing. In September 2003. The landfill used for the disposal of waste is close to the seaside. The main contractors are the Lebanese construction company Sidoon Environmental and the German company PassavantRoediger for the mechanical-electrical part of the digestion plant. the plant was ready for commissioning. and after performing the necessary cold tests the authorities granted the operation permit. Construction was completed by September 2008. biogas treatment and storage. Negotiations are ongoing to establish a joint venture between IBC and a German partner to guarantee an adequate management of MSWTC Saida during the next 15 to 20 years. In May 2009. However. The environmental impact is very high: in times of stormy weather.000 m². Lebanon. sludge dewatering. . 40 km in the south of Beirut. It has a population of over 230. there is no other area for the landfill available.
300 tons of solid waste of the City of Saida are delivered to the plant with vehicles. metals and whatever is reasonably described as municipal waste. Another aspect of this process is the biological treatment of organic waste in order to produce biogas and fertiliser for agricultural use. glass. The dewatered. biogas is produced. branches and tree leaves. which is run in completely closed digestion tanks without any air and light.g. light particles. is finally fed to the two digesting tanks. sand blockages. which are build concrete and have a total height of 30 m each and an inner diametre of 19 m. light reject material is then collected in containers. It is then pumped into the digesters. paper. consisting of the following: Average Organic material Paper/cardboard Plastics Glass Metals Textiles Inert/others Total 63% 11% 11% 5% 3% 4% 3% 100% 58% 19% 10% 6% 3% 2% 2% 100% 60% 15% 11% 5% 3% 3% 3% 100% The treatment concept consists of two steps: the mechanical pretreatment and the biological treatment using the principle of anaerobic digestion in which Passavant-Roediger here applied their extensive experience and integral development . stones. The process water used for several treatment steps is to a high degree reused in the plant. the fractions. the socalled mechanical pretreatment. splitting and separation. Within the second step. vegetable market waste. The bio-suspension coming from the feed preparation tanks is mixed with a certain amount of recycled sludge from the digesters. ceramics. The output of the digestion process is a compost-like material which contains organic carbon as well as nutrients like nitrogen and phosphate. The digestion process generates enough energy to run the entire plant without the need for any external source of energy. comprising a total volume of 7. is separated from the organic suspension.300 m³. textiles and plastics can be recycled. The gas-injection system Daily. float to the surface of the digestion liquid. The entire process is an intensified digestion process well mixed by the Passavant-Roediger gas injection system with 14 hanging gas lances in each digester. i. wearing and tearing of pumps. which are entrapped in the thicker feed suspension. which is used for the generation of heat and electricity. Within the first step. the so-called biological treatment. e. the enriched organic fraction is treated anaerobically. The separation itself is performed by a special backwashing and heavy reject-removal procedure. This is particularly important as minerals. The gained bio-suspension.The Treatment Process The company Passavant-Roediger has developed a treatment process by which household waste can be separated in various fractions. may cause many incidents. The light reject is regularly taken out of the reactor to keep the surface free of scum. tires. The concept guarantees: – – – – – Minimising of the total solid waste to landfill Reutilisation of recyclable matter Protection of the resources by utilisation of the produced biogas Reuse of the waste water after treatment and disinfecting Reuse of the organic fraction from waste and waste water by conditioning and utilisation as fertiliser know-how and technology. metal and plastics. which are not biodegradable and/or can be reused as raw material. cardboard. etc. The solid waste includes: house garbage. are separated from the organic waste fraction by means of crushing. which is regularly applied and part of the continuous feed preparation process. which contains the organic matter of the waste. The residual waste is economically separated and prepared for recycling. The fine fraction produced through the mechanical treatment is fed to two feed preparation tanks (FPT) where it is transformed into a liquid suspension by adding process water coming from the process water tank.e. batteries. The temperature inside is maintained by continuous sludge heating. By this anaerobic process. At this stage the mineral fraction containing sand. 10 to 30% of process water is treated prior to its disposal into the sea or to its reuse. Consequently. paper. and valuable substances like metal. which are coming with the waste in considerable amount. pipes and gate valves. plastics. During the following digestion process the organic substance is decomposed by means of microorganisms.
000 kWh/d of thermal energy. in which the sludge is dewatered to a dry solid content of approximately 30%. The filtrate which comes out of the dewatering machines is pumped into the process water tank for the internal recycling and reuse in the feed preparation tanks.g. For this purpose approximately 11. ensures an excellent mixture of the reactor content to maintain minimum temperature and concentration gradients. e. and the waste air is purified by means of a biological system (biofilter) and a chemical scrubber system.000 m³/d of cleaned biogas is available for further use.Projects 36 / 37 Environmental Measures and Outlook A comprehensive waste water and waste air management is provided in order to reduce emissions from the plant as far as possible. The biogas produced contains approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide as main components.000 kWh/d of electrical energy and approximately 45. Therefore. In the digestion process 50 to 60% of the organic load is converted into reusable biogas. in the cement industry. From a buffer storage tank the anaerobically treated sludge is pumped to the four mechanical dewatering machines where it is mixed with flocculent to support the dewatering process. The municipal solid waste treatment plant of Saida is a first step towards an overall concept for waste management in Lebanon and is to be considered a pioneer plant for further similar projects in the Middle East and Northern Africa. It is then treated in a postmaturation step. all noise-intensive machinery is installed inside or equipped with sound-damping so that noise emissions from the operation of the plant are reduced as far as possible. . All separated fractions with a high calorific value can be used as an auxiliary fuel. Conveyor belts transport the mechanically pretreated waste to the feed preparation tanks where the waste is mixed with recycled process water. Especially odorous substances are thus removed and the odour of waste is after purification not noticeable . Air emissions are captured. Approximately 19. This is particularly important for a proper working digestion process with maximum organic conversion rates and a maximum gas yield to be achieved. During normal operation the gas will be used in a cogeneration plant to produce approximately 40. the water consumption is optimised in such a manner that the water needed for the process is reused in an internal cycle as far as possible.000 m² of open space is available to produce compost which can be used in agriculture as fertiliser or for landscaping. Furthermore. Sand and minerals are separated through the hoppers by means of pneumatic sluices. Measuring instruments are installed to monitor the digestion process and the gas utilisation.
000 Dirhams Tripoli (Capital). Sabha. Benghazi.173. Tobruk .579 (July 2008 estimate) 1.8 million km2 Arabic 1 Libyan Dinar = 1. Misurata.Libya Fact File Country name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 6.
In the 70s and 80s German construction companies have already contributed to the development of Libyan infrastructure. the Papadopoulos Group started to develop its business activities in project design.-Ing. During this period. Libya has thus not only started infrastructure projects such as waste and real-estate projects like housing. industrial parks.Projects 38 / 39 Design and Construction Papadopoulos Associates GmbH Dipl. offices. but is also investing in developing a nationwide railway system as well as the airport. Since their removal. New Infrastructure Projects in Libya Key to leading a country into the future is installing a modern infrastructure that is functioning countrywide. hospitals. North African countries and especially Libya started to modernise their infrastructure and installed nationwide projects to develop their activities under a coordinated umbrella. All these are coordinated by the Ministry of Utilities. Housing and Infrastructure Board (HIB). However. Jürgen Papadopoulos Car. project management and project operation. ports and various street and traffic projects. the liberal opening of the Libyan market around 2001 and the huge revenues from the oil export. At the beginning of 2005. Opportunities and Challenges Arab-German business relations over the last few years have been mainly dominated by the field of construction and project design. this came to a complete halt during the severe economic sanctions. investments into the infrastructure projects have been taken up again due to the high need to catch up. shopping and ofﬁce centre. tourist resorts. the Organisation of Development of Administrative . which was and will always remain one of the main business activities for German companies abroad.
these infrastructure projects amount to 100 billion Libyan dinars. Public buildings: hospitals. In the run-up to the 40th anniversary of the 1969 revolution. shopping centres. Libyan authorities focus at the moment on the major cities. New Challenge in Libya Since 2005. university. etc. water. As mentioned already. all actual infrastructure projects are organised by state-owned coordination systems such as In total. especially Tripoli: big housing projects have been realised and are still under construction. .Car. hotel. The General Board for Projects was established a few months ago in order to centrally coordinate the numerous projects. which focus at the moment on: – – – – – Transportation: streets. Vital to planning infrastructure projects is to understand that a modern infrastructure system should not simply copy western design. this did not last. ports and airport Housing and living projects Commercial real estate projects: offices. the challenge is to avoid past mistakes other countries already made and to consider new technologies like energy-saving concepts as well as economical and reliable techniques. As it lies in the nature of those projects to be long-term. shopping and ofﬁce centre. Centres (ODAC) and the Social Economic Fund (SEF) as well as many other national planning offices. conference centre. PAPADOPOULOS GROUP together with its local partner is engaged on the Libyan market as it believes that Libya has and will have a high potential to realise its infrastructure projects. Waste and infrastructure: waste. an infrastructure master plan is still one of the major tasks. etc. railway. as after this important date projects seem to be driven by more economic principles rather than by a great logistic perspective of the infrastructure development. Thus. etc. However. like airports for example. they can only be accelerated by single mandatory projects. Albeit it is mandatory to target main infrastructure projects for rural areas too. Yet. but should adapt modern technologies to local processes. electricity. numerous projects were accelerated.
’ TRAINING The instalment of a local office with local staff is the natural result of this. German expertise and know-how in terms of construction standards like DIN and project management reporting tools. A cross-cultural communication style such as a flexible time management. are highly welcome as all concerned are interested in finding the right modus operandi for these large-scale projects. driven not only by business but also by a necessary identification with the project and the country’s demands are from our point of view key factors for successful business in Libya. . such as finance control systems. Also under way is the installation of a countrywide geographic system which will update important documents like maps. Due to absent practical experience of many Libyan engineers.Projects 40 / 41 ministries or funds. Though lately private joint ventures have taken up the initiative as well. foreign companies have an advantage over competitors. planning and negotiation are necessarily important factors for success. In Libya this is known as: ‘Without flexibility no success. To integrate the training of staff right from the beginning is advised. naturally combined with a long-term engagement in the country itself. Business Concept QUALIT Y In our projects. Thus. employers sponsor the qualification and the expertise development. we found that a clear understanding of the quality and demand these long-term projects make on the invested competence in designing and managing them is essential for their successful completion. This is possibly due to the fact that the legal environment has developed favourably. The local staff has to be trained with view to combine German expertise with local know-how to guarantee the mentioned quality. CROSS-CULTURAL The serious support of the projects.
850 km2 Arabic Moroccan dirham (MAD) = 100 centimes Rabat (Capital). Agadir.000 (July 2009 estimate) 710. Tetouan. Oujda.Morocco Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Kingdom of Morocco 34. Casablanca. Fes. Laâyoune . Tangier. Meknes.860. Marrakech.
Owner of the plant is Office National de l’Électricité .Projects 42 / 43 Ain Béni Mathar – an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Fichtner GmbH & Co. Fichtner performed the initial studies. Spain. Introduction This article describes the technical features. in April 2007 under an EPC contract. Project Description Ain Béni Mathar is the first integrated solar-combined cycle power plant actually under construction in Morocco’s northern province of Jerada. construction is scheduled for completion in summer 2010. drew up the tender documents as well as assisted ONE in selection and contract negotiations with the successful bidder. Contracts for construction and five years of initial operation and maintenance were awarded to the Abengoa Group. KG Klaus Richardt Erection status February 2009: First mirror mounted on site. financing and construction of the first integrated solar-combined cycle power plant at Ain Béni Mathar in Morocco. Abengoa (EPC contractor) and Fichtner as consultant to ONE. which is being built by Office Nationale de l’Électricité Morocco (ONE). At present we finalised the design review and assist ONE in assuring the quality standards during construction are met.
. The solar field consists of parabolic-cylindrical collectors concentrating the solar radiation onto a central collector tube. one Alstom steam turbine. during daytime. drawing up the tender documents.538 GWh/y. with commissioning of the entire plant foreseen in May 2010.The concept of the Ain Béni Mathar ISCC. one evaporation pond. covering the feasibility study. its width is 5. Thus. of which 40 GWh/y come from the solar field. since April 2008. The total construction time is scheduled at 22 months for the simple cycle gas turbines and 34 months for the entire combined cycle with the solar part. one 225 kV substation. commissioning and assistance to the client during the warranty period. The 472-MW-combined cycle power plant consists of two Alstom GT13 E2 gas turbines. the hot exhaust gases of the gas turbine(s) are used in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam which can power the steam turbine. tender evaluation and. The typical length of a collector is 99 m. The simple cycle gas turbine was commissioned in December 2009. design review. Morocco. In a conventional combined cycle power plant. who awarded a contract to the Fichtner Group for consultancy services.76 m and its reflector surface is 545 m². In an ISCC – integrated solar-combined cycle power plant – additional steam is raised in a parabolic trough solar ﬁeld. The power Erection status September 2008: Mirror workshop erected. two heat-recovery steam generators built by Cerrey (Mexico). Each collector consists of a row of six mirrors. the country’s national energy supplier. The total annual production is 3. Four collectors make up a row and two adjacent rows form a loop that discharges its HTF to the central piping system connected to the HTF/steam heat exchangers. one solar field with parabolic trough mirrors and heat transfer to the boilers via high temperature fluid (HTF) as well as BoP equipment. There are fifty rows in the north and 62 rows in the south of the central piping system. The generated electricity is evacuated via two 225 kV power lines to Oujda and Bourdim. site supervision during construction. the electricity yield is increased. The combined cycle plant receives its fuel via a 13 km connection pipeline to the Maghreb–Europe gas pipeline with additional thermal energy from the solar field. workshop and offices. through which flows high temperature fluid (HTF) that transfers its heat to the steam generator of the combined cycle. (ONE). The electrical rating of the plant is 472 MWe.
when His Majesty Mohammed VI.8 million 2. Abener. King of Morocco. Erection status March 2010: ISCC almost completed. 1 took place in May 2009. together with local subsuppliers started the works by levelling the plant area and excavating the pits for the gas turbine and transformer foundations. the two gas turbines were operative. First synchronisation of gas turbine no. the gas turbine foundations were under construction and a start had been made on erecting the pipe racks for the steam generators. At the same time ONE started to built its switchyard. and in December 2008. 2 started its commissioning. We are optimistic that we will get the entire plant operational by summer 2010. Erection of the heat recovery steam generators. Electrical installations and erection of the gas turbines continued. ONE and Abengoa: €127. so the total number of rows here is only fifty. World Environmental Fund: €36. Between April and June 2009.688 mirrors was mounted on its foundation (see figure 1) and the 13 km long 14" pipe connection to the Maghreb–Europe gas pipeline was completed. the first one of two gas turbines arrived on site. unveiled the traditional stone monument into which he inserted the tube containing the inauguration act. the GT bypasses and the pipe racks. In May 2008. the water supply and water treatment systems were finished as well as the gas turbines.6 million Construction The official inauguration of the project took place on 28 March 2008. . Since March 2010 cold commissioning of the steam turbine is underway and the solar field is complete to approximately 95% (see figure 4). In September 2008. which is not part of the Abengoa project. Civil construction of all other buildings progressed. Financing of the Project Financing of the €452-million plant is assured by following sources: 1. 1 passed its performance test and gas turbine no. In October 2008.6 million 3. the first of 2. aero condenser and solar field continued. steam turbine. the workshop for manufacture of the solar collectors was erected (see figure 3). In February 2009. and this was mounted on its foundation. In summer 2009. the engineering arm of Abengoa. African Development Bank: €287. aero condenser and steam turbine powerhouse main crane were under construction. In December 2009. The two heat-recovery steam generators.Projects 44 / 45 plant itself is set in the middle of the northern solar field. gas turbine no. Cleaning and maintenance of the collectors is done from the aisles between the collectors. the main transformers had been mounted on their foundations.
Sur.Oman Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Sultanate of Oman 2. Nizwa. Duqm .8 million (June 2009) 309.500 km2 Arabic. Sohar. Salalah. with English widely spoken 1 Rial = 1000 biaza (Fixed Peg with US Dollar) Muscat (Capital).
C.L.. The ‘black gold’ from the desert has transformed what was once an agrarian country into a sought-after exporter of raw materials. A large number of sources have been in operation for 30 years and no longer yield as much oil as they once did. it is hoped to maintain this prosperity through explorating and refining natural gas. Matthias Mitscherlich Ferrostaal implemented a methanol plant in Sohar. . The reserves of over five billion barrels are expected to last just another 20 years and are relatively small when compared with those of the neighbouring United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. In future. The production capacities are already declining. which forms an important part of the strategy to diversify the Omani economy. which forms an important part of the strategy to diversify the Omani economy. However. Ferrostaal implemented a methanol plant in Sohar for the Oman Methanol Company L. The power supply is also largely based on it. Whether in the short or long term.Projects 46 / 47 Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Ferrostaal AG Dr. The Sultanate of Oman has changed greatly since it started exporting oil in the late sixties. Up to now practically everything in the country has revolved around oil. the ‘black gold’ from the desert is a limited resource. while new oil fields are more difficult to exploit. it is essential for Oman to diversify its economy. Introduction The level of prosperity in Oman is mainly due to its large reserves of oil.
a leading global methanol producer. An important building block in the diversification of Oman’s economy is the methanol plant MO3000 in Sohar. it is hoped to maintain the prosperity in Oman through explorating and reﬁning natural gas. The three partners founded the project company ‘Oman Methanol . Natural Gas as an Alternative This state in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula possesses not only oil but also natural gas. The demand is at present higher than the supply and will continue to grow if greater added value is to be brought into the country through various gas-based projects. The gas reserves are still largely undeveloped and open up new opportunities for value creation in the country: the confirmed gas deposits would be enough for more than 50 years at the current production rate. Reduce Dependency on the Oil Price Ferrostaal signed a joint-venture agreement with Oman Methanol Holding Company.In future. part of a leading privateindustrial conglomerate in Oman. and Methanol Holdings Trinidad Limited.
which is then routed to atmospheric storage tanks. The responsibilities of Ferrostaal included the development and the creation of a structured finance concept as well as the engineering and the procurement for the project. Currently. The actual conversion into methanol does not begin until after the desulphurisation. a previously undeveloped site. the natural gas passes through a supply pipeline into a desulphurizer.C. an additional annual requirement of five million tons is expected. which was developed into an industrial park by the Sultanate of Oman. heats up to about 880 °C and the remaining hydrocarbons are also split and synthesis gas is formed. the prereformer. 250 km northwest of the capital of Muscat.’ with the purpose to develop. The Process at MO3000 in Detail First of all. the real refining process starts. The process is initiated and accelerated by catalysts. With current investments exceeding $14 billion it is one of the world´s largest port development projects. In the chemical industry. Methanol Methanol is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH4O. Now. for the raw methanol still contains unwanted constituents which have to be removed. the plant was designed for an operating capacity of 3. The experience. Today. Natural gas consists mainly of a variety of hydrocarbons. CO and CO2. methanol is used mainly in the chemical sector. What is left is 99% pure methanol. The location of the methanol plant is the Sohar Industrial Port Area. The gas heats up and it becomes possible to break down the natural gas into its individual components. To develop and operate the industrial park as well as the associated port the government of the Sultanate of Oman and the Port of Rotterdam founded a joint venture named Sohar Industrial Port Company. Then the raw methanol is distilled again and surplus water is removed – raw methanol contains a large amount of residual water. already partly split. In the energy sector. This is achieved by adding some more steam prior to introducing it into a tubular steam reformer. implement. The result of the catalytic synthesis is raw methanol. In 2008. hydrogen. these hydrocarbons can be transformed into a balanced mixture of methane. There.L. Hot water vapour is added. By means of heat. The aim is. knowledge and expertise gained in Trinidad played a key role in the design and construction of this plant – the design and construction of the project MO3000 has been based on the same model as those on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. the port is fully operational with state-of-the-art facilities. the hot synthesis gas is cooled down to 250 °C and mixed with the remaining split gases in the synthesis loop. There. pure methanol (M100) in engines allows sulphurfree. own and operate a methanol production plant to be built in Sohar. clean combustion and is used in fuel cells to supply hydrogen. After passing through the prereformer the actual conversion process begins as not all the hydrocarbons can be broken down in the prereformer. This split is a precondition for the further processing of the natural gas. The desulphurised natural gas passes through a heated pipe into . as natural gas contains sulphur. by promoting private-industrial development in the downstream sector to reduce the previously strong dependence of the Omani economy on the oil price and to achieve a higher added value. What Started in Trinidad Will Be Continued in Oman The MO3000 methanol plant is the fifth of this type that was built by Ferrostaal over the last 20 years. Ferrostaal´s partner Proman was in charge of the construction of the MO3000 plant. This takes place in two stages. Through the heating process. After the steam reforming process. Representing an investment of more than $500 million.000 tons of methanol per day – or one million tons per year – destined for the chemical industry in Europe and Asia.Projects 48 / 49 Company L. the highest increases are expected in the fuel sector. light components of the raw methanol are first separated and fed back into the process in order to achieve more efficient methanol production. it is first cleaned – for sulphur is aggressive and attacks some plant components. the natural gas. methanol is used as a raw material for the production of conventional fuels. In addition. By 2012. global consumption of methanol was 45 million tons. basic chemicals such as formaldehyde and acetic acid are produced out of methanol.
The basic idea was to establish an university of technology in Oman based on German expertise in the education and training of engineers and scientists. Moreover. In autumn 2007. to which four Bachelor of Science programmes were added in the following . the university should have strong ties to the industry in order to support the industrial and economic development of Oman. Dr. German University of Technology in Oman Masterplan The German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech) was founded in 2007 based on a Collaborative Agreement between RWTH Aachen University and the private company Oman Educational Services LLC. Since education is a high priority in Oman. Burkhard Rauhut Halban Campus masterplan. consisting of rented buildings.Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech) Prof.000 students in the future.000 m2 for a campus enabling the university to enrol up to 10. GUtech took up operation on a temporary campus. by enrolling its first students into a pre-university programme. thus being the most significant cooperation between Germany and Oman in the field of higher education. the government of Oman supported the establishment of the university by allocating in the Halban region near Muscat 500.
The building accommodates the university administration. the inner courtyard is shaped like an amphitheatre with more than 650 seats. spinoffs from GUtech or combined research activities between GUtech and industry. Accordingly. The main building receives a finish of natural stone. it also considers economic and ecologic sustainability due to the necessity to use resources such as water and energy sparingly. music presentations and sport events. the rectorate of GUtech. taking into account not only the special climatic conditions in this part of the world but also the cultural and religious traditions of Oman. All other axes are reserved for accommodating students as well as staff. Variations in the façade details create an impression of staggered stone blocks. The layout of the campus is based on a grid with perpendicular axes. The application of low energy standards for new buildings saves energy and cuts operational as well as future maintenance costs. The next axis contains the buildings for different faculties. Furthermore.and medium-sized lecture halls and seminar rooms as well as the central library. which are almost unidirectional. The building dedicates also space to external institutions which are linked to the university. and many smaller seminar rooms. which is also aligned to the wind direction. Mecca. Ventilation and cooling are thus critical not only within the buildings but also across the campus itself. dominate the area. this orientation supports cooling throughout the whole year.Projects 50 / 51 year. the cafeteria. the campus grid has been rotated against the orientation of the layout by an angle of about 45º. the student club and the large lecture halls. The elevated ground floor accommodates the cafeteria. All other floors accommodate small. The main axis is defined by the connection between the main entrance and the main building. Together with the increasing height of the buildings. used water can be reused for different purposes depending on the initial use. The main idea in commissioning this German-Omani company was to combine German scientific education with Omani architecture. It is a square building with a side length of around 84 m and an inner square courtyard with a side length of about 46 m which is shadowed by movable tarpaulins. Pilaster and gutter are used to create further nuances. showing sun-lines. such as the Goethe Institute. with both German and Omani partners. The vertical axes are assigned to specific purposes: one axis is meant for industrial settlements like research departments of companies. The climatic conditions in Oman make high demands on the design of the whole campus. The amphitheatre connects these different elements. . the Goethe Institute. The use of water and energy has to follow three guidelines: reduce. reuse and recycle. wind direction. covering more than 5. At the same time the masterplan for the main campus was developed by Höhler + Partner LLC.000 m2. Water for example can be saved by avoiding evaporation and leaks. lecture halls of different sizes. The masterplan thus comprises architectural as well as urban planning aspects. the main library. whereas the third one is dedicated to facilities used for social activities such as students club. faculty club. Northwesterly winds from the sea. the DAAD lectureship and the German Chamber of Commerce are all located on the second floor. gym or other social facilities.000 m2. The gross floor area (GFA) of the building is around 24. which is spread over three floors. The offices of Oman Educational Services. Main Building of GUtech Campus The main building is the campus’ centre. and recycled water might be good for irrigation. open days. the DAAD lectureship and the German Chamber of Commerce. Temperatures above 40 ºC and a relative humidity of up to 95% are not exceptional. Moreover. architects and engineers in Oman. The campus is surrounded by service roads so that several side entrances are possible. The building is accessible from the main road via several parking zones and delivery ramps as well as from the plaza level. Halban Campus without buildings. It provides space for both formal and informal functions like graduation ceremonies.
which covers the bigger part of the whole layout. The main public area is a wide green axis prolonging the line from the main gate to the main building. whereas . the faculty buildings as well as additional housing quarters and social activity buildings will be built step by step. enhancing the idea of ongoing communication. It changes its appearance from small to wide. laboratories and research facilities will be available in the main building. The balustrades of the ramp are used to create a more playful atmosphere.Amphitheatre. school and kindergarten as well as sport areas.500. Housing opportunities for staff. With its variations of open and closed space. one for staff and one for guests. The windows are equipped with a flexible shading and ventilation system. the student club. depending on the growth of GUtech. Photo-voltaic elements in Islamic patterns provide shade and simultaneously make use of sun light. semipublic and semiprivate spaces.200 or 1. In Phase I only the main building and two housing quarters for students and staff will be erected. The semipublic spaces are the central areas of each housing quarter. thus allowing administration and library to expand in the main building. the campus will be built in a series of phases. Since the administration and the library will be relatively small at that time all the departments including offices. Therefore the housing area. Following a well-defined schedule. twisted to folded. It is expected that GUtech moves into the main campus at the end of 2012. The whole housing area is further separated into public. it is absolutely necessary to provide student accommodation. Therefore. This permeability supports the interaction of corridor and ramp as a communication zone. The façade towards the inner courtyard is a semipermeable membrane. fly-in teachers and guests are also useful to improve the attractiveness of the university. The railing runs along the ramp like a broad dancing ribbon. Housing Quarters and Green Axis of GUtech Campus In order to attract students from beyond Muscat. At that time the number of students will not exceed 1. The accommodations for female and male students are separated. rough and fine textures the façade alludes to the abundance of forms and shapes found in nature. is divided into three resorts of different size: one for students. health services. Two green stripes vertical to the main green axis give access to a wide range of social facilities like another cafeteria.
but also two additional tools. Pools in the housing quarters offer refreshment and recreation. The wind towers are located at the roof of each building using the difference between high and low air pressure to channel wind into the rooms below and extract the used air from the inside. In this way. The microclimate created by the dense design supports the cooling and humidification between the buildings thus reducing the costs for artificial air conditioning. After finishing the construction of the main campus of the German University of Technology in Oman. not only the high density of buildings is copied. This century-old knowledge of sensible construction is not only reflected. In order to create a comfortable microclimate. The use of water as a design element serves two purposes: it is an aesthetic element of the landscape and it helps to humidify and cool the air. but actually used for the campus design. they also cool down the air between the densely build houses. Cross-section of the main building. . The distinctive density of buildings takes into consideration traditional Omani architecture which was formed by the necessity to create a cooling microclimate. these facilities will be an outstanding symbol of the successful cooperation between Germany and Oman. the Omani building tradition strengthens the concept of sustainable building of the 21th century. Floor plan. which were used in ancient times already: the traditional Omani falaj system and the concept of wind towers.Projects 52 / 53 the garden-like courtyard of each house can be seen as a semiprivate place.
126 (2009 estimate) 6.013.220 km2 Arabic Ramallah and Gaza (current location of government institutions) East Jerusalem (desired capital of a future independent Palestine) Gaza .Palestine Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Main Cities Largest City Palestinian Territories 4.
Evidently.3 million population equivalents. Buriej. The implementation of the project has started in 2003 and follows a double-staged approach. Deir El Balah. and urban quality of life in Gaza are interdependent to such a large degree that integrated water resources planning is a priority need. etc. sanitation and agriculture under increasing stress resulting in ground water depletion. environmental protection.) with a total of 1. comprising Gaza City and the middle area communities (i. In the first stage the project . health. with pumps out of service. The Gaza Strip suffers severe constraints in water supply and sanitation due to its location.e. In addition to its already high population density steady population growth is putting the limited water resources. confinement and semiarid coastal climate. degradation of water quality and reduced crop productivity.Projects 54 / 55 Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip Dorsch Gruppe Keith Brooke Bio-Tower PS. Recognising this context the Palestine-German Development Cooperation has launched an ambitious waste water project comprising an overall investment budget of approximately €70 million. water resources. The specific objective of the Gaza central waste water project is to ensure an environmentally and hygienically safe treatment of sewage in the central Gaza Strip.
Waste water discharges over the western Gaza City beaches. Provision is being made to upgrade the capacity to 200. The principal .000 m3/d. Pressure main DN 1400: 3. including the construction of a new central waste water treatment plant in Buriej. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial analysis as several indicators justify effluent reuse for irrigation purposes. Effluent that is surplus to irrigation demand is recharged to the Coastal Aquifer to reduce and ultimately reverse the decline in ground water quantity and quality. The feasibility study shows the specific requirements in planning and management for waste water treatment. Furthermore.4 m3/s (2025).000 m3/d.000 m3/d and a summer peak daily flow of 135. the following components are planned to be constructed under four contracts: – – – – El Buriej waste water treatment plant: a mechanicalbiological plant for the year 2015. adjacent to the Green Line in the security area otherwise restricted for development. Wadi Gaza central pumping station: peak capacity 3. The study illustrates practicable and enforceable concepts under various scenarios and discusses the impact that waste water reuse will have on the water resources as part of the overall water balance in the Gaza Strip. Gravity trunk main DN 1500: 5. Altogether. including connection to the DN 1000 Central Communities gravity trunk main.7 km long from Wadi Gaza central pumping station to Buriej waste water treatment plant.2 m3/s (2015). will provide a fully functional sewerage and waste water treatment system. The overall goal of the project is to use the substantial quantities of treated effluent produced by the Buriej waste water treatment plant as an efficient substitute for irrigation by ground water. a specific study for the optimisation of systems for dealing with the effluent and sludge has also been carried out: it exemplifies a serious effort to develop a plan to realise the opportunities for beneficial effluent and sludge reuse that will be opened by the Gaza central waste water project.4 km long from Gaza City to the central pumping station. with an annual average flow of 115. irrigation conveyance and aquifer recharge to meet high technical standards and sustainable economical benefits. upgradeable to 4. including nitrogen removal and tertiary treatment in future stages up to 2025.Waste water treatment plant project site.
this waste water reuse project serving Gaza City and the central communities will be the first of its kind in Palestine and therefore its successful implementation will provide a framework on which further waste water reuse projects can be developed. As an integral part of the regional water strategy to provide full coverage of waste water treatment. .Projects 56 / 57 economic output of the project will be an increased agricultural production that will strengthen farm profitability and ensure sustainable agricultural production while the regions dependence on fertiliser imports will gradually decline. At this point. The intent is to proceed with implementation when the security situation in Gaza is sufficiently stable to allow the project to proceed without unacceptable risk. Initial planning Gaza waste water project. design for the Buriej waste water treatment plant has been completed and tender documents have been finalised.
6 million (June 2009) 11. Ras Laffan Industrial City. Dukhan.437 km2 Arabic with English widely used 1 Qatari Riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams Doha (Capital).Qatar Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities State of Qatar 1. Al Wakrah. Mesaieed . Al Khor.
a tower with the dynamic form of a whirlwind in the desert. Project Overview The West Bay district of Qatar’s capital will become home to a new high-rise quarter shortly. a café and a recreation lounge. The highlight will be a distinctive 200-m tower to be known as The Tornado Tower. also at night. several restaurants. parking slots. in recognition for its . Qipco Tower has been awarded the ‘2009 Best Tall Building in the Middle East and Africa’ by the Chicago-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Steel-reinforced concrete slabs combine the characteristic steel support structure and the inner reinforced concrete core in the ‘eye of the tornado’. The shape is based on a construction optimised for economic and energy efficiency that can withstand heavy loads despite its own light weight. creating a city landmark in the new quarter.Projects 58 / 59 Qatar’s Fastest Elevators – The Qipco ‘Tornado’ Tower – Doha ThyssenKrupp Elevator Christian Kozma Qibco Tower elevator cabin. The 51-storey high-rise plus three basements will accommodate offices. while featuring an extremely flexible interior completely free of interior supports.
safety for its occupants and preservation of the urban quality of life.600-kg elevators ascend at a speed of 4 m/s.P. elevators ascending 51 stops up to 195 m at a speed of 7 m/s). building systems. structure.5 m/s).546 x 1. Qibco Tower in Doha. sustainable design strategy. each group serving a certain number of storeys of the building. a top-class German elevator consultant. This is the first time a building in Qatar has won such a prestigious award. In total. SpECIAL LARGE MOTORS FOR HIGH-SpEEd LIFTS Motors for the 7 m/s lifts were our Gearless DAB 530 weighing 4. architectural form.000 kg.The ThyssenKrupp Elevator Solution HIGH-SpEEd ELEVATORS: THE FASTEST ELEVATORS IN QATAR AT 7 M/S ThyssenKrupp Elevator installed 23 elevators in the Tornado Tower. Another group of five 1. the building comprises sixteen high-speed passenger elevators (including 2 V. 16 high-rise elevators are divided into three groups (high-rise.I. acceleration. and one service elevator (ascending 53 stops up to 199 m at a speed of 3. etc. mid-rise and low-rise). and are the fastest ever installed in Qatar. depth and height (machine only). and very demanding performance ratios for noise levels.600-kg passenger elevators can ascend at a rate up to 7 m/s. or about two storeys a second. with very high standards to be achieved for each and every elevator component. Eleven 1.300 x 1. stop lost times. The Elevation Challenge The elevation systems in this emblematic building were logically required to be state-of-the-art.500 mm in width. six MRL passenger elevators (for the three floors of parking area). with the following key aspects: – – – – – High-speed transportation of people Safety and reliability Cutting-edge technology to compliment the building structure Minimum waiting times State-of-the-art aesthetics DSC screen. STATE-OF-THE-ART ELEVATOR TECHNOLOGY All high-rise elevators had to follow the strict requirements of the 77-page technical specifications prepared by JAPPSEN INGENIEURE. with dimensions of 1. .
In addition to the special architrave for the main lift lobby. users allowing them to be the exclusive users of their lifts. ground floor. Evacuation systems under normal and emergency power have also been included. The doors have a 3-D door sensor to add to the safety and comfort feature. The sills for the landing and car doors are made of stainless steel. .P.P.P. as well as – custom-built cabin interiors for passenger and V. The main lobby and all high-rise cabins have S-5 highperformance doors. floors: through the DSC screens a password is introduced by the V.P. at 7 m/s.800 mm which is more than the standard dimension. Strengths of the Project State-of-the-art elevation systems are a key component of this building.Projects 60 / 61 LOWER WAITING TIMES ACHIEVEd 16 high-rise passenger elevators in the Tornado Tower are integrated into a common Destination Selection Control (DSC). A PIN code for cleaning activities.P. being all components of very high reliability. The project included a large number of special features. safely and comfortably in the cabins. recreation floors. Safety and reliability: EN-81 standards have been complied with in this project. AddITIONAL SpECIAL FEATURES – – Elevator doors: adapting to the circular lift lobby. Within seconds the computer selects the best elevator and informs the passenger via the terminal which elevator to proceed to. A handicap button which activates special handicap functions such as longer door opening times. A special feature button which activates the password function previously described.I. with special mention to the ThyssenKrupp motors and controllers. Qibco circular. Most particularly. The elevators provided by ThyssenKrupp Elevator are the fastest in Qatar to date.I. allowing the maintenance personnel to work easily. both in terms of technology as well as decorative elements. cabin are a Thin Filled Transistor display compatible with Internet inside the cabin.400 x 2. High-quality aesthetics: Among the special features included in the V. mezzanine. SpECIAL FEATURES ON THE DSC FOR THIS pROJECT – – – – – – The DSC special features include a personal identification number code access to V. including emergency doors every two landings (every 7 m) for those parts of the shafts where no landings are available. A system of several personal passwords has been developed for this project. The initial menu of the DSC screens counts with direct access buttons to restaurants. The DSC optimises traffic flows and helps passengers reach their destinations faster through touch screen terminals placed in the lobby areas where travellers enter their destination before entering the elevator. lift was decorated with Kiwi-mesh walls and an exclusive and multicolour stone-engraved car floor with a company logo. All elevators in the project were manufactured in Germany. the largest number of elevators operating on a single common DSC for any high-rise project in the Gulf region and the only ThyssenKrupp Elevator project in the world with 16 elevators on a single DSC – a new world record.I. This results in a 30% increase in handling capacity and optimises passenger comfort and waiting times. Buttons to change the display from English to Arabic. the V. the door jambs are fully walled to blend with the unique circular lift lobby.I. The service elevator’s doors were made of the dimension 1. lifts as per client requirements. and the bank of 16 passenger elevators on a single Destination Selection Control is the highest number to date in the Gulf region and the largest ever for ThyssenKrupp Elevator.I. to ensure a highest-quality solution for this emblematic building.
but English is now widely spoken in business and public life Saudi Arabian Rial (SAR) = 100 halalah Riyadh (Capital).000 km2 Arabic is the national language.7 million (2009) 2. Jeddah.Saudi Arabia Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 28.240. Damman .
Alhazmi. Its consulting services focus on airline restructuring. during the signing ceremony for the extension of the consultancy contract. Partner at Lufthansa Consulting. Numerous projects were successfully concluded. Among the most important projects it has taken on in recent years are the Performance Improvement Program at EGYPTAIR Cargo. Lufthansa Consulting has also been active in the Middle East for more than twenty years in the course of its worldwide activities. Saudi Arabian Airlines.Projects 62 / 63 Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Lufthansa Consulting GmbH Marlene Hollwurtel Ala Toukatli. Saudi Arabian Airlines’ Deputy Director General and Chief of the Passenger Airline. The most challenging project that Lufthansa Consulting is currently managing in the region is the strategic advising of . Saudi Arabian Airlines on the Way to Becoming an Aviation Group with the Support of Lufthansa Consulting As one of the leading management consultancies in the aviation industry. the restructuring of the Jordanian Civil Aviation Authority and the start-up of Wataniya Airways in Kuwait. and Gero von Goetz. Advisor to the Deputy Director General. Abdulaziz R. providing support for airline start-up projects as well as upgrading the overall traffic infrastructure.
in a state-ofthe-art. Positioning as the most important carrier for pilgrims travelling to the Muslim world. especially in fleet modernisation. For the airline. Lufthansa Consulting conducted assessments and examined them with particular regard to best practice. specific dynamism in the Middle East market. In this context. Establishment of a private jet service (Royal/V. particularly with regard to the current. Airbus A320-200. The consultants implemented a range of established change management methods to engage the support of the entire workforce for the implementation of the new strategy. Each year more than six million Muslim pilgrims from all over the world travel via the Saudi Arabian capital Jeddah to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. While competition in the domestic market is strong. these plans mean the complete restructuring of the company including investments. The project was launched against the background of Saudi Arabia’s plans to privatise the airline sector. Carrying guest workers from Asian countries.I. the airline’s position in the international market was also taken into account. Pakistan and the Philippines. processes and organisation. predominantly low-cost carriers. Saudi Arabian Airlines. In addition. One of the main measures proposed for Saudi Arabian Airlines was the concentration on five core aims: – – – – – Positioning of the company as the Middle East carrier. network carriers in the Middle East are also posting markedly higher growth figures and are achieving dominance in the region and their target markets. committed to Arab-Muslim tradition based on state-ofthe-art-methods. in the course of its privatisation. the government also intends to open the internal market to competition. Lufthansa Consulting took on the complex consulting task in March 2008 after the airline commissioned the German aviation experts to help it to validate and implement its new corporate strategy. Having made comprehensive structural and functional assessments. Lufthansa Consulting made the appropriate strategic recommendations to its client and presented concrete action plans. the company’s market potential was identified and defined. . In all core areas and functions.airline group to private investors. Lufthansa Consulting had to establish the extent to which Saudi Arabian Airlines is equipped for the new tasks facing it and for market requirements and its ability to face future challenges arising from the new strategic alignment. Several airlines. have already based themselves in the region. mainly from India. standard IT platform as well as in modern management expertise. Saudi Arabian Airlines placed special emphasis on the close integration and participation of the management and its staff. To begin with. Future serving of the high volume of domestic traffic on a purely commercial basis. The carrier’s comprehensive restructuring to become an aviation concern is modeled on Lufthansa’s successful privatisation process. It will have to refrain from regulating prices and also initiate the sale of the Saudi Arabian Airlines’ headquarters in Jeddah. Saudi Arabian Airlines will not receive any more subsidies./ Private Charter). Here.P. Saudi Arabian Airlines is rising to this challenge and together with Lufthansa Consulting it will tackle a range of tasks to reposition the airline. In the analyses. one of the largest and most reputable carriers in the Middle East. Furthermore.
Many of the measures and steps identified jointly with Lufthansa Consulting meet these aspirations. Medical Services Staff: 28. Cargo. of which 26 in Saudi Arabia with 10.5 million passengers Fleet: 120 aircraft in the business units Passenger Airline.500 employees. Saudi Arabian Airlines has an extremely sophisticated clientele and aims to offer its customers excellent. Catering. . and will thus help to develop the airline into one of the most important providers of airline services in the Middle East and further expand its role as one of the leading airlines. of whom 14. Private Aviation.5 million passengers and 55 international destinations with 7. Royal Fleet. Consultants working on site at Saudi Arabian Airlines’ headquarters in Jeddah are also involved in coaching top management and experts from the airline. Flight Training. Royal Fleet and Private Aviation Revenue: $5 billion Since 2009. Maintenance. Ground Services.Projects 64 / 65 SAUdI ARAbIAN AIRLINES Facts & Figures Business units: Passenger Airline. The experts are currently managing 49 projects ranging from the development of a new network strategy including fleet and flight planning and the creation of a quality management system in the safety and quality area through to the restructuring of flight operations.000 work in the Passenger Airline division Destinations/Passengers: 81 destinations. Lufthansa Consulting has been involved in the concrete implementation of strategic measures to reorganise internal structures and processes and to ensure the efficiency of operations at Saudi Arabian Airlines. A team of more than twenty professionals from all areas of the Lufthansa Group is based in Jeddah and is working very successfully in close coordination with the client. dedicated services.
.Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Outotec GmbH. Oberursel Rosemarie Overstreet and Manfred Tapfer Panorama view of the site.
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has developed a strategy based on its vast mineral deposits. fastest. the three plants will also be able to produce energy in form of highpressure steam at a rate of about 800 tons per hour. In addition to producing the sulfuric acid necessary for fertiliser. mid-sized power plant. Economic diversification has been high on the kingdom’s agenda since the 1970s. Metallic ores such as gold. To realise a project of this size and to strengthen its local presence in the kingdom. Today. in June 2007. in 2007 and set up a local office in the important coastal city of Al-Khobar. gargantuan facility with three parallel production lines capable of turning out a total maximum capacity of 15. turnkey. Following its success with some gold projects. copper. Outotec agreed with Ma’aden to deliver the world’s largest sulfuric acid plant facility. The company was formed in March 1997.000 tons of sulfuric acid per day – there is no benchmark on the books of a sulfuric acid plant of this size. it required reaching economies-of-scale for a fertiliser plant complex this size in a relatively short time frame. Outotec entered into a joint venture with the Saudi-based Central Mining Company Investment Ltd. silver. The senior management at Ma’aden believed that the plant had to be large enough to ensure that they would instantly become one of the top players in the fertiliser market instead of taking a more traditional approach of building up a steady market share with a number of smaller plants. Largest Sulfuric Acid Plant Worldwide In an effort to exploit these deposits. Roughly 31 months later. and phosphate and bauxite deposits are found in the northeast. the project has reached its mechanical completion and will soon begin the re-commissioning phase before going ‘live’ in 2011. The scope of Outotec’s involvement ranged from the engineering and proprietary technology to the delivery and turnkey installation of all three sulfuric acid plants. miles from the nearest city having any kind of infrastructure. And it has also meant complete dedication to the task at hand especially under the turbulent conditions the global market has been faced with – the kingdom can simply no longer depend on oil to guide its future. Thus. which is located in the middle of a desert along the Gulf coast. The challenges of a project of this scope and nature could be found at every turn: the site selected for construction is Ras Az Zawr. responsibility for coordinating the worldwide purchase of import equipment as well as all local supplies in addition to the installation of the facility. Because the client’s goals were of a superlative nature – biggest. For the training of the plants’ operators. Ma’aden decided to expand its activities by developing fertiliser and aluminium plants. From a technical standpoint. Upon its completion. similar to that of a traditional. top –. . the country continues to pursue opportunities to broaden its industrial base and is firmly focused on making mining the third pillar of its economy.Projects 66 / 67 Background Long aware of the dangers of being overly dependent on its oil wealth. zinc and iron can be found in the western half of the kingdom. the government set up the Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Ma’aden) to lead the sector’s development. Outotec was to design and deliver a lump-sum. Outotec has developed a state-of-the-art. the facility’s entire acid production will be utilised solely for the purpose of manufacturing phosphate-based fertiliser. with First fundaments at site. dynamic computer simulator.
Converter area. .
Projects 68 / 69 .
Port-Sudan. Omdurman.506.000 km2 Arabic.200. also in use is English and about 115 tribal languages 1 Sudanese Pound = 100 piaster Khartoum (Capital). El-Obeid. Atbara.000 (July 2008) 2. El-Fasher.Sudan Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities The Republic of the Sudan 40. Juba .
Kuwait. Further international contracts for the hydromechanical works (€52 million). Sudan. Furthermore. contracts and construction management.4 billion in 2010) were funded by Arab funding agencies from Saudi Arabia. The Inauguration of the Biggest Hydropower and Water Resources Infrastructure Project in Africa The Merowe Dam and its hydropower plant is located on the Nile some 350 km north of Khartoum and some 550 km upstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. In February 2002. Abu Dhabi.Projects 70 / 71 The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Lahmeyer International GmbH Egon Failer The Merowe Hydropower Station in March. It has been designed to serve several purposes. Thus. namely: the generation of electricity from its 1. including construction supervision. construction design.250 MW hydropower plant. tendering and contracting. Qatar and Oman. this project represents one of the most economic ‘Green Energy Generation Options’ worldwide with the lowest CO2 emissions. was signed in Khartoum.650 km is the longest river in the world. In 2001. The remaining 30% of the project’s costs were financed by the government of the Sudan. the executing agency.000 ha) and the protection against the devastating high floods of the Nile. this population is expected to nearly double by 2025. this massive engineering contract was awarded to Lahmeyer International. it has to be noted that slightly more than 400 million inhabitants are served by its waters currently. Germany. the supply of water to centralised agricultural irrigation schemes (about 400. More than 70% of the total project costs (which reached €1. Early in June 2003. with a Chinese consortium of civil contractors. and the value of its waters to the people. which with its length of 6. To understand the importance of the Nile to Northeast Africa. amounting to €555 million. 2010: The Merowe Spillway in operation. the electro-mechanical installations (€257 million) and for the power transmission system (US$397 million) were awarded in December 2003. which was attended by the President of the Sudan and more . covering the preparation of tender documents for the various works. reducing sedimentation of the Aswan High Dam further downstream in Egypt. launched an international competitive tender for the engineering services. the contract for the civil works. the Dams Implementation Unit (DIU). The first two of the ten generating units started commercial operation on 3 March 2009 during the inauguration ceremony of Merowe Dam. the Merowe Dam will act as a sediment trap. According to studies conducted by internationally recognised organisations.
powerhouse. the nonoverflow dam. For the erection and maintenance of the power generating units. The inauguration ceremony of this historic event was held at the dam site and was attended by more than 1. which feed the 500 kV GIS by HV cables. concrete faced rockfill dams on the left and right banks.5 m. Each two generators are connected via generator circuit breakers to single-phase step-up transformers.3 km and a maximum height of 67 m. one 220/110 kV substation and three 220/23 kV substations.000 m³/s were diverted. each 55 m long. The dam is made up of several sections. Local people visiting the project.000 people of the region. the complete power station started commercial operation with full capacity on 8 April 2010. During the first two years the water flow was diverted through this main channel while the spillway and power intake dam were constructed up to elevation 264 m ASL in the dewatered secondary channel.700 GWh of electric energy were generated. to the capital Khartoum and to the Northern Provinces (Dongola/Debba). were installed. while construction of the spillway and installation of the 14 radial gates were ongoing.700 ministers and high-ranking government officials from Sudan and neighbouring countries. During the second stage of construction the flow was diverted through the partially completed spillway for a period of four years. More than 55 executives of the various Arab funding agencies attended the inauguration. Dam Speciﬁcation and Construction Due to the topographic conditions of the dam site. directly coupled to the 140 MVA synchronous generators. Prior to the inauguration of the dam in March 2009. a rated discharge of 306 m³/s and a capacity of 125 MW. During the build-up period from March 2009 to April 2010. Lahmeyer International was awarded a further services contract to assist the owner (DIU) in the operation and maintenance of the power and dam facilities and to train his staff to operate.000 kN. . the project features a dam with a total length of about 9. the power transmission system includes three 500/220 kV substations. each with a capacity of 3. It accommodates the ten power generating units.than 20. maintain and manage the complete facilities. For the transmission of power to the city of Port Sudan via the city of Atbara. Since January 2010 the Merowe hydropower plant has generated more than 75% of the electricity demand of the country and has proven to be the ‘backbone’ of the national electric grid. two overhead travelling cranes.800 GWh of low-cost and clean electricity annually. each with a Francis turbine with a net head of 45. The 500 kV power transmission lines. more than 2. including the power intake dam. In addition. With the completion of the tenth and last power generating unit. the earth core rockfill dam and dykes on both banks. The power station can generate about 5. During the flood season 2006 peak flows of close to 11. the spillway. The powerhouse is located at the toe of the intake dam and consists of a 38 m long erection bay and five unit blocks. A natural two-stream flow regime existed at the project site with the main channel and the secondary channel separated by a small island. some 981 km of 500 kV lines and 795 km of 220 kV lines were constructed. This energy represents a monetary value of more than €350 million when using a crude oil price of US$70 per barrel.
Merowe Dam and the People About 70. The total volume of both CFRD is 5. . Random rockfill was used for the construction of the cofferdams. In total. At the maximum reservoir water level of 300 m ASL the bottom outlets and surface spillways will have a combined capacity of about 20. coarse filters and random rockfill. The main dam of the Merowe project is a classic earth core rockfill dam (ECRD) with a central earth core. consisting of a transition zone. they received generous areas of agricultural land and cash payments as compensation. mainly farming families. The zoning of both CFRD is conventional. Furthermore. a 1 m thick and 40 m deep plastic concrete cut-off wall was provided. The volume of the total storage is about 12. The power of the water when spilled at full capacity reaches almost 10.000 people. Concrete face rockfill dams (CFRD) were selected on both the left and right banks for economic reasons.5 H. is connected to the power intake dam by the nonoverflow dam.3 x 106 m³. Start of operation of units 1 and 2 and celebration with the local people. which were constructed by DIU. Their original living conditions were very poor and the houses were without water and electricity supply. were affected by the reservoir. with 12 bottom outlets and two surface spillways. only about 40 km² of agricultural land has been submerged. The ECRD is founded on alluvial sediments. To avoid seepage through the river sediments underneath the ECRD. which is dissipated in the 35 m deep plunge pool.3 H and 1 V:1. Due to the fact that almost 95% of the reservoir area is desert land.000 new solid and modern houses. which are up to 30 m thick. with very poor health and schooling facilities. The reservoir formed by the dam is about 180 km long and covers a surface area of around 800 km² at the maximum reservoir water level of 300 m ASL. more than US$500 million were spent by the DIU for mitigation measures to provide the same or better living conditions for the resettled people. respectively. These people were resettled in more than 6. which represents less than 20% of the average annual flow of the Nile.5 x 109 m³. On top of the cut-off wall a ‘cushion’ of highly plastic material was placed to avoid stress concentrations in the wall and cracking of the core. fine filters.000 m³/s. The upstream and downstream slopes are inclined at 1 V:1.000 MW.Projects 72 / 73 The spillway structure. fine and coarse filters and upstream and downstream rockfill shoulders.
Khartoum New International Airport Dorsch Gruppe Albert Mair and Frank Thimm Main passenger terminal. .
The aviation sector has therefore a tremendous importance for the economic development. employment and future industrial development both on a regional and national level To guarantee the highest level of safety standards in air transportation . Since the end of 2003. residential and recreational areas with their respective facilities. an airport masterplan was developed. The project foresees total integration to a larger scale development strategy for the entire Khartoum region. for irrigation). To ensure safe operation also during the rainy season with partly impressive sandstorms. shopping mall. Phase 1 of the Khartoum New International Airport (KNIA) is designed with full aircraft code-F capability. The new passenger terminal is an iconographic building for KNIA. cargo. Planning Process For this location. which was finalised in June 2004. maintenance and general aviation apron as well as a separate apron for presidential affairs. a welcome gate to Khartoum and to the Sudan. which includes the opportunity of handling up to Airbus A-380 aircraft. Site Selection During a site selection analysis. The band structure of the roof is uniting the different characters of the country and contributes to establishing a harmonic relation between building and landscape. especially as other transportation methods (rail. an area approximately 40 km southwest of the city centre was selected as the most promising one. The urban development of the airport is separated in a passenger and an industrial area. commercial. industrial. fence and access gates. aircraft maintenance hangar. a General Aviation Terminal. regional and environmental factors. This potential has been translated into an overall vision and strategy for developing a well-balanced mix of business. All facilities are supported by the necessary infrastructure with access roads. the capital of the Republic of the Sudan. infrastructural. Dorsch Consult Airports evaluated different locations around Khartoum for suitability. Further important elements of Khartoum New International Airport are facilities like cargo centre. prosperity. It is located at the centre of the airport with a height of 58 m. After analysing aeronautical. roads and rivers) are developed on limited standards only and are subject to interruptions during the rainy season. This kind of building is unprecedented in Sudan and should set a new standard for state-of-the-art construction and architectural design in both country and region. hotel with conference centre. is enclosed by settlements of the strongly developing capital and extremely limited for extension possibilities.g. A constantly changing silhouette against changing light conditions can be experienced. fuel farm for aircraft fuelling and a separate presidential terminal. the partly lax planning policy is contributing to the fact that safety distances between settlements and air routes are not in line with international practices. aircraft catering facilities. It dominates the landscape from the distance and contributes to the spatial and aesthetic identity and image of KNIA. an ILS landing system with category II will be installed. mosque. power and water supply system as well as waste water treatment. Future development of the airport also incorporates a separate Hajj terminal. Furthermore. The runway is dimensioned with 4. that was opened in the early 50s of the last century.Projects 74 / 75 Introduction Sudan is the largest country in Africa. a residential area and own solid waste treatment. which will be split by the centrally located passenger apron. Waste water will be treated outside the airport area in a separate plant and may be used by the airport after treatment (e. It does not even cater for a parallel taxiway for the increased traffic that is currently experienced in Sudan both for passengers and cargo. The ATC Tower incorporates all functions for Air Traffic Control and Apron Control and has a separate training area. The existing Khartoum airport. The vertical concrete shaft and the 10°-inclined textile external membrane are creating a translucent volume between the tower cabin and the tower footprint. It is furthermore a leading principle for all other buildings of the airport.000 m by 60 m and is supported by an efficient taxiway system that provides fast access to the apron areas which include passenger apron. This caused a popular request for the realisation of a new international airport for more than twenty years. Dorsch Consult Airports is general planner for the development and implementation of a new international airport in Khartoum. The underlying objectives in designing the project were: – – – To provide a modern state-of-the-art international airport catering for today’s and future aviation needs To provide opportunities for economic growth. Another landmark building is the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC).
Their scope includes the construction of an access road to the airport area. The responsible project unit is carrying out highly engaged public relation activities to ensure support by local communities and the public. During the construction phase. maintenance hangar and ground handling activities will be given to concessionaires. These will on the one hand be carried out by an international contractor. has the highest priority and is dedicated to a special Ministry of Presidential Affairs. On the other hand. when the site was handed over to local construction companies. Dorsch Consult will act as Owner’s Engineer in the construction management and construction supervision.Project Realisation An important step towards project realisation was taken in 2005. The KNIA project. incorporating residents and high-ranking officials from politics and economy. the second largest infrastructure project in Sudan next to Merowe Dam. aircraft fuel supply. the construction of a perimeter road and fencing as well as the construction of 16 building units which will be used during construction. the drilling of water wells and installation of a water supply system up to the airport area. based on FIDIC Red Book planning that is currently under preparation. The preparatory works of local companies that were supervised by Dorsch Consult Airports are now nearing finalisation and ensure a quick start of the main construction works. . Main access corridor. the installation of a power supply system for the construction phase. The start of these works was celebrated in a public ceremony. parts of the work like cargo facilities.
Khartoum New International Airport will be a new gateway to the Republic of the Sudan with hub functions to East Africa and the Middle East. Its outstanding importance for the prosperity and future development of the Sudan and the region of Khartoum and Omdurman also becomes apparent in the context of the harmonisation of conflicts between the north and the south of Sudan and the resulting opening of the country for economic activities.Projects 76 / 77 Khartoum new international airport – aerial view. Outlook After the expected construction time of 36 months for the main construction works. serving a growing air travel and freight market. The project is designed as a modern and attractive airport. .
Idleb. Dar’a. both English and French are widely used Syrian Pound = 100 piaster Damascus (Capital).18 million (2009 est. Dayr al-Zur. Homs.170 km2 Arabic. Hama. Latakia.Syria Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Syrian Arab Republic 20. al-Raqqa and Tartous . al-Hasakeh. Aleppo.) 185.
The greatest potential for saving energy in buildings is through the right insulation.Projects 78 / 79 Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Wacker Chemie AG Dr. Suitable thermal insulation not only optimises the indoor climate. Stefano Iannacone and Dimitrios Moussios The Merowe Dam VINNAPAS® polymer powder is added to the adhesive mortar to ensure a stable bond between the EIFS insulation materials and the wall. Using Polymeric Binders to Save Energy and Protect the Climate The costs for energy and raw materials are rising worldwide. while resources are becoming scarcer. WACKER experts helped to fit a customised state-of-the-art exterior insulation and finish system to a building in Syria for the first time – to save energy and protect the climate. but also significantly lowers energy use. In a pilot project. . people have started looking for ways to conserve energy. Even in regions with large oil reserves.
The climate in Damascus is continental. creates a stable bond between the insulation board and the wall. The thermal insulation board is protected from weathering and mechanical stresses by a reinforcing layer. the first EIFS layer is an adhesive mortar modified with polymer powder. people started to rethink how they use energy. with each layer fulfilling a different task. Only after dispersible polymer powder has been added can a strong and stable insulation system result. In close collaboration with Syria’s National Energy Research Center (NERC) and other local partners. Not surprisingly. So. This bonding layer is followed by the thermal insulation board. a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. Now. is actually quite logical as temperature differences in Syria are comparable to those of central Europe: outdoor and indoor temperatures normally differ by about 30° C. The most important thing is that they bond well to the substrate. such as VINNAPAS®. Today. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.000 BC. when the government announced that it intended to double oil prices. Reference building in Syria: equipping buildings with state-of-the-art EIFS results in longterm energy savings and thus helps protect the climate (photo: Wacker Chemie AG). since modern insulating materials such as styrofoam sheets do not form a stable bond to cement. are increasingly being fitted with modern EIFS systems. The greatest potential for saving energy in buildings is through thermal insulation. Syrian architecture is recently undergoing a transformation in order to adapt to changing needs. However. Though Syria is an oil producer. the less energy is needed to create a permanently comfortable interior climate – regardless of whether the building needs to be heated or cooled. EIFS systems reduce temperature differences between indoor air and wall surfaces. the systems are ideal for both purposes. Syrians are looking at ways to save energy and want to take appropriate measures and thermal insulation has become a hot topic. too. and so conserve energy and reduce operating costs. with hot and dry summers and mild. . But buildings in hot and dry areas. Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate Why insulate buildings in a land of deserts? What may seem paradoxical at first sight. where exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are mainly used to keep buildings cool in the summer heat.6 million. extensive tests had to be performed. they significantly improve the comfort level inside – regardless of the weather outside. The outermost layer is a decorative plaster or a paint coat. And that is only possible with special dispersible polymer powders. is a cultural and religious centre of the orient and redolent of tales of 1001 nights. The better a building is insulated. Typical Arabian architecture is best viewed in the picturesque old town. consisting of a glass-scrim fabric embedded in a mortar modified with polymer powder. EIFS are multilayered material systems. The mortar levels irregularities in the substrate. which is made of rigid polystyrene foam or other materials. its reserves are exhaustible. The goal was to improve the building’s energy balance. In addition. Previously. the capital of Syria has a population of 1. Applied to a building’s exterior. Temperatures below freezing point are not unusual. Syria’s main concern has been to save heating costs in winter. EIFS were mostly used in regions with cold and damp winters. with around six million living in the surrounding metropolitan area. The reference building is the two-storey kindergarten that takes care of the NERC employees’ children. in finding the right VINNAPAS® polymer powder formulation to be used in polymer-modified dry-mix mortars for the regional construction industry. the EIFS will protect the walls from heating up unnecessarily on even the hottest of days. sometimes damp winters. both at WACKER’s Burghausen site and its Dubai technical centre. This is in contrast to other Arabian states. Starting from the wall. narrow alleys and high minarets: Damascus. And with good reason: a façade covered with an EIFS wards off heat very efficiently. However. some 500 m2 of façade at their sites were extensively renovated with state-ofthe-art EIFS systems. By doing so. and provides the system with the necessary flexibility.Oriental bazaars. Traces of settlement date back to 5. For this.
the demand for intelligent. energy-saving insulation such as WACKER’s EIFS systems will rise. all new construction projects must meet a local adaptation of the US Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard for environmentally sustainable construction. Dubai is the first city in the region to do this and one of only a few in the world to commit itself to this standard. which wants to insulate further buildings. In a pilot project. the pilot project has already won over the Syrian Ministry of Energy. NERC is even considering making EIFS obligatory for all new buildings. Although more exact figures will not be available for another year. And as. . the construction boom is continuing uninterrupted. Outlook Some parts of the United Arab Emirates have already gone a step further: since January 2008. WACKER experts helped to develop an optimal adhesive-mortar formulation to suit the climatic conditions in Damascus . too.Projects 80 / 81 Construction workers ﬁt an exterior insulation and ﬁnish system to a house in Syria. according to Middle East Economic Digest Magazine. Construction specialists expect to lower the kindergarten’s energy costs by about 50% with EIFS. EIFS systems have been used successfully in the Emirates for over three years.
El Kef. Gabes. Tozeur.600 km2 Arabic and French for business Tunisian Dinar (€ 1 = 1.9 D (2009)) Tunis (Capital).000 (July 2009 estimate) 163. Sfax. Sousse.Tunesia Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Languages Currency Main Cities Tunisian Republic 10. Kairoaun. Bizerte. Hammamet. Gafsa and Monastir .490.
the signal was given to go ahead with the project – under the leadership of Siemens Mobility. Siemens Mobility was the general contractor responsible for the entire turnkey project. a French-Belgian-Tunisian engineering consultancy was commissioned to conduct a preliminary survey for constructing a new LRT system. Around half of all industrial enterprises were headquartered in Tunis. About one quarter of Tunisia’s total population was living and working in the capital. For over 20 years. When it was built.Projects 82 / 83 The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit Siemens AG Hans-Jürgen Schweer The Tunis light rail transit system. the Tunis light rail transit (LRT) system has been a reliable mode of transportation for more than 270. Upon completion of the review phase in 1980. the Tunis LRT system continues to be the German rail industry’s showcase turnkey LRT system: the Métro Léger de Tunis is still the most modern LRT system not only in Africa. The goal: to permanently reduce the use of private cars and relieve the strain on the bus network. The effects of the global trends of urbanisation and concentration of population in metropolitan regions were also clearly apparent here in North Africa. it had become obvious that the existing transportation system in Tunis could no longer cope with the exploding number of inhabitants. By the end of the 1970s.000 people a day. Besides supplying the vehicles. Siemens was also responsible . In light of these trends. but in the whole Arab world. To this day.
The 2.600 kW. the Société du Métro Léger de Tunis (SMLT) comprised some 30 km of track. The DC supply is distributed in a truck-type switch-gear unit with high-speed DC circuit-breakers which protect the track sections and is fed to the catenary system through load . During braking power is returned to the overhead system to save energy. however. of which around 600. SUbSTATIONS: The power supply. Lines 2 to 4 extend from the main train station to the Place de la République at the northern edge of the new town by way of the magnificent Avenue Habib Bourguiba. CATENARY: The 750 V from the substations is supplied to the catenary suspension system and on the other hand to the direct suspension system in the Tunis-Marine depot. the traction power supply. which greatly speeds up the flow of passengers. or around €250 million based on the exchange rate at the time. making it the backbone of urban mass transit system for the capital city’s population of over 2. Siemens’ computerised traffic guidance systems ensure that the trains have right of way at all intersections. In October 1985. while the rest are on the side. ending in Ibn Khaldoun and Den Den respectively. VEHICLES: 78 cars (8-axle double-articulated) with two 240 kW chopperfed traction motors. Today. The system is mostly suspended by approximately 1. This means that passengers cannot access the train without passing the ticket kiosks. 2.400 H-beam steel masts.50 m wide and 30 m long LRT vehicles consist of three mechanical sections. All stations are arranged at surface level and equipped with high platforms and barriers that open only upon the arrival or departure of trains. the signaling and train protection systems as well as the civil works. The maximum span length is 60 m whereas the messenger wire (95 mm2) is fixed and the contact wire (120 mm2) is automatically tensioned. followed in the next year by the northwestern and western lines. From there. In return. The trains can be boarded from both sides. Line 2 continues on to Ariana. The supply is taken from the 10 kV system of the public utility supply and converted to 750 V DC by cast-resin transformers and natural-convection-cooled silicon rectifiers. 3. 5. 4. The vehicles can reach a maximum speed of 70 km/h. while Lines 3 and 4 pass north of Medina. each rated at 2 x 1. block foundations are used. a multitude of suppliers and a considerable number of local services. This section of the contract also included the supply of two diesel-hydraulic shunting locomotives and the heavy workshop-equipment. Siemens Mobility managed the entire project including all subprojects. TRACK CONSTRUCTION: The track system was constructed in very narrow streets without impeding the flow of traffic along a route of over 30 km and at the Tunis-Marine depot before the entire trackworks including switches and connections were laid and welded. The northern line opened in 1989. which stops the vehicle automatically and immediately if the driver does not keep it depressed.000 or so oak sleepers came from Germany. after a mere 36 months of construction. with a further 2 million in the Greater Tunis area. have four trucks and can carry a maximum of 360 passengers.for the entire electrification equipment. only in the depot area foundation plates are requested. Total investment in the LRT system was 165 million Tunisian dinars. the overall project was divided into eight subprojects: 1. a fleet of 134 Siemens trains provide enough capacity to transport around 20. Safety has top priority at Métro Léger: the tracks are segregated from the other traffic by means of kerbstones. of which 80% are located between the tracks. Normally. The contract went far beyond the mere delivery of vehicles. the first 10-km stretch of track opened for commercial operation. All deliveries and the installation were under the Siemens scope. is provided by 13 wayside rectifier substations. For the sake of clarity.000 people per hour per direction – or over 100 million passengers a year with fast. the African metropolis was provided with a high-capacity infrastructure and state-of-the-art technology such as the ‘deadman’ safety device. which was also delivered by Siemens. Upon completion of the project. TRACK SUpERSTRUCTURE: More than 70 km of track were required. punctual and frequent service. and even simultaneously at many stations. due to the nature of the ground.3 million people. Line 1 connects the port (Tunis-Marine station) with the main train station (Place Barcelone) and the suburb of Ben Arous in the south of the city.000 live in the city itself. The 100.
underpasses. the LRT network in Tunis was tested without passengers over a 2-week period. cuttings and support walls were required. WAY STRUCTURES: More than 13 bridges. . 8. As responsible party for this total turnkey project. 7. As part of section 6. 6. Siemens also supplied telephone systems for communication. GENERAL STRUCTURES ANd bUILdINGS: Such as the buildings in the Tunis-Marine depot. The substations are controlled and monitored from central load dispatch station. The cost per kilometer of track was equivalent to a mere €6 million including the first consignment of 78 vehicles. where the transit system has only limited priority. After a period of theoretical and practical training and prior to final commissioning. At the end of the project. monitoring of schedules. Germany.Projects 84 / 85 interrupters. the signals are controlled automatically from the train. The most important crossings. are controlled by the urban traffic computer supplied by Siemens to Tunis in 1980. Siemens also trained Tunisian drivers using a similar system in Hanover. SIGNALING EqUIpMENT: The signals at the terminals and at the stations with turning possibilities are controlled manually from the console in the station or inductively from the train. a passenger information system for the stations and the safety system for the vehicle holding yard at the Tunis-Marine depot. the customer and general contractor unanimously agreed that the tasks involved could not have been distributed more effectively – an essential prerequisite for managing large projects of this kind. Where the line crosses a road with the train having absolutely priority. the 13 substations. quality standards and coordination of the construction works. including the signal station controlling the signals and turnouts. Siemens performed the project management at the site including technical supervision of planning documentation. Thus. the high-level platforms and station equipment. the Tunis LRT system is one of the most cost-effective passenger transport projects to date.
Sharjah. Al Ain. and Dubai is the main commercial centre. Ras Al Khaimah.United Arab Emirates Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities United Arab Emirates 4. Ajman. Umm Al Qawain .600 km2 Arabic UAE Dirham Dh (AED) = 100 fils Abu Dhabi is the administrative centre of the Federation.8 million (2009) 83. Fujairah.
Those elements are landscaped areas. ‘suburban centres’.g. the overall development plan. . a decentralised urban development concept was considered most convincing. ‘suburban centres’.700 ha and about 83. the Mainland Development encompasses an area of a mediumsized city. ‘blossom leaves’. in an appropriate way. The urban constellation of ‘blossoms’. various footpaths and traffic connections that tie the spine-centre functions to the ‘blossoms’ and the overall area. where the phasing within complete development modules is easily realised and avoids for example disruption to the inhabitants by construction works of later scheduled extensions. town houses) the masterplan includes a variety of common facilities integrated both within the various townships and along the central spine for the overall development. spine centres as ‘droplets’ and the landscaped parks is a well-balanced spatial concept which provides multifaceted relationships. This decentralised concept fits well with the timetable of a development area of this size. Dorsch Gruppe Rembert Wösthoff Project Data The following overview of key project figures indicates among others the total percentages between the built and unbuilt environment of Mainland Development: Project Objective and Vision With an area of 3. apartments. Besides zones for residential units and different kinds of housing (e. spine centres as ‘droplets’ and landscaped parks that has a clear spatial concept with the potential of becoming a unique and lively environment. ‘blossom leaves’. links.Projects 86 / 87 Lotus Garden Project Background Mainland Development in conjunction with other development projects is one of the solutions to the challenging requirement of delivering sufficient facilities to cope with Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. Due to this insight the ‘Lotus’ concept was created with its township composition of ‘blossoms’. connections and interfaces. To avoid in general a competitive position to the city of Abu Dhabi. This successive development allows for a general flexibility and variability of the urban constellation.000 inhabitants.
Public infrastructure facilities are placed strategically throughout the development area: – – – – – 2 police stations 4 civil defence stations 4 post offices 4 health centres 2 small hospitals The schools are designed to be coeducational. for the residents. social facilities located in the green spines and suburban centres in Mainland Development consist of: – 9 women development centres – 3 youth centres – 6 cultural centres Commercial activities are focused on the suburban as well as the spine centres. The introduction of new public transport systems to the city of Abu Dhabi will connect to Mainland Development as well. thus reflecting the objectives of Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 to make the city one of short trips. Transportation Mainland Development will enjoy a good connection to the regional transportation network via the Emirates Desert Highway as well as with the connective street grid of Abu Dhabi providing convenient access to the capital’s city centre and the CBD areas.Left and right: Birds views Mainland Development (north south and west east). in the leaf apex): – 67 local mosques – 8 Friday mosques The cultural. Key to a successful development is a strong social infrastructure offering kindergartens.g. Religious life is a foundation for each Arab community. neighbourhood centres (at the suburban centres) to a large-scale mall and cinema (at the CBD spine centre) serving the needs of the total population. Mainland Development therefore has: – – – – 17 kindergartens. 9 primary schools. with primary schools being integrated in the ‘Lotus blossom’ and intermediate/secondary schools being located on the edges of the ‘blossom’. personal improvement. . schools and development centres etc. Overall Mainland Development will offer a range from small-scale local shops (integrated in the green spines or residential zones). 4 intermediate schools and 4 secondary schools. Mainland Development will have easy-to-reach local mosques as well as stately Friday mosques (located e. giving residents and visitors more choices in choosing alternative modes of transportation in the future.
vehicular and pedestrian respectively. not only aesthetically. a nursery and roadside greenery. Its illumination levels follow both the recommendation of Commission International Eclarge (CIE) and the specifications of ADDC/ADWEA. slopes. ELECTRICIT Y Electrical Power System Design concept for the power network according to: – Connected load of network – Voltage drop calculations as per latest Wiring Regulations of ADWEA – Peak load demand of the network Street Lighting The lighting system accommodates the visual needs of night traffic. Future topography (based on road design) has been considered by developing the water supply concept. Secondly. Maintenance should be minimised by for eyample locating manholes at the edge of residential roads resulting in higher investments in the beginning but avoiding the necessity of closing complete clusters in case of problems at one single location. where plants are of vital importance. Future growth of population and further land use has been considered although decreasing consumption due to educated usage of water and minimised losses are expected. Landscaping Generally. high spots are cut to have reasonable depths of sewerage pipes. 10 l/m2 for roads and intensive/ extensive landscape. Independent networks have been developed for each phase due to the former objective to develop the whole project stepwise (in phases).000 m3. The focus on the needs of Emirati families and their desire to live in low-density communities will create a viable new modern community. The landscape design is therefore based upon ecological principles taking local conditions into account. However. .Projects 88 / 89 Infrastructure WATER SUppLY A few main ideas are determining the concept developments: – – – – – – – The general consideration of water as a valuable resource has been influencing the overall concept. Its unique and distinctive layout will promote the values. SEWERAGE The area is tentatively designed to be drained by gravity. which create a pleasant although minimal contrast to the surrounding desert. There are some sand dunes which are visible from a distance. The Mainland Development project located in the southeast of the city of Abu Dhabi developed by the Urban Development Committee (UDC) addresses these needs by creating a low. these do not spatially enclose the future housing areas. The branch collectors are ranging in diametre from DN 200 to DN 350. landscaping will obviously be a desideratum to create an attractive environment. Mainland Development will offer choices with different living possibilities (villa. It will therefore become an important part of the unique and truly memorable Arab capital Abu Dhabi.to medium-density residential and mixed-use development for up to 100. but also in terms of their contribution to improving the microclimate and thus human comfort. The trunk sewer line is ranging in diametre from DN 300 to DN 1000 and has a maximum depth of about 14.000 residents. 8 l/m2 for extensive landscape. Irrigation The demand of water could be estimated at 12 l/m2 for intensive landscape.00 m due to high ground at that location. Urban Design – Résumé The strong population growth in Abu Dhabi (projected two million residents by 2020) has created a surge in demand for suitable residential units by Emirati as well as expatriate families. The low lying areas are filled to cause gravity flow. Synergy effects with further infrastructure are projected considering common corridors and required measurements. the area is not dominated by any distinct feature. courtyard house and apartments). there is a large water reservoir and some sparsely planted areas in the form of farmland. Similarly. afforestation. The total demand of daily water for the whole project will account for approximately 140. social arrangements and culture of an Arab community to flourish. Main lines are running along/underneath arterials. Nevertheless. Thus. town house. esp.
A. Manufacturer for dynamic loaded joints: Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co. KG Project status: Under construction Anticipated completion: 2010 . S. Data and Contributory Project name: Sheikh Zayed Bridge Structural type: Arch Bridge Project client: UAE/Abu Dhabi Municipality Design architect: Zaha Hadid Limited (ZHL) Design checker: COWI Consult Consulting and structural design engineer: High Point Rendel (HPR) Project contractor: Archirodon Construction (Overseas) Co.German MAURER Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co. KG Raad Hamood View of work site.
The level of the roadway at the centre will be 22. . MAIN BRIdGE DESIGN ANd CRITERIA Design and Construction of Sheikh Zayed Bridge DESIGN CONCEpTS At first the architect bridge design bureau proposed two concepts: the first design was characterised by a linear framework and was referred to as the ‘zigzag’ option. the second design was characterised by an asymmetric arch in the shape of dune sand hills. and is shaped like a gigantic sculpture weaving its extreme proportions of concrete and steel between the traffic lanes.5 m high. Bridge location. The design had to be carried out according to AASHTO LRFD. The overall height of the main steel arch is 63 m. Her special architectural design for the bridge in Abu Dhabi makes for a challenging assignment and certainly one of COWI’s more unusual bridge projects. The main bridge is a prestressed concrete cellular box with large cross beams linking the two carriageways. renowned for pushing the limits of architectural design. two 3. The bridge has two carriageways each with four 3. Bridge view at night. Behind the architectural design of this unusually challenging project is a power woman: Iraqi-born architect Zaha Hadid.5 m wide emergency sidewalk on the outer edge. Google bridge position.65 m wide traffic lanes.0 m wide shoulders and a 2. Bridge construction. After months of cooperation and in teamwork between the consultant and the architect. The bridge links Abu Dhabi Island with the mainland. The archs above deck level are steel boxes and have large cable hangars helping to support the concrete deck. a challenge. a sculpture. a desert-sand-dune design for a bridge with a touch of the Arabic – that is the Sheikh Zayed Bridge in Abu Dhabi. The client approved the ‘dune’ option. an architecturally unique form which was considered to be buildable and structurally feasible was developed. – – – – – – The overall length of the main bridge is 850 m with a central span of 150 m. the capital of the United Arab Emirates. referred to as the ‘dune’ option. including Dubai and the International Airport.Projects 90 / 91 General Information A project.
The steel arches. The deck slab is also prestressed transversely to minimise any cracking. The form and mode of action of the structure made it difficult to allow for construction of the deck span by span out from the abutments towards the middle. mainly due to presence of exceptionally heavy trucks on the existing road network. being open with cantilevers. the Abu Dhabi climate is hot. The design wind gust velocity is 160 km/h. The corresponding peak spectral acceleration was assessed to be 22. The bridge has been designed for a 475-year return period earthquake. arches and cross-ties. and a 5-m depth was selected to meet all of these design conditions. High-containment vehicle parapets are specified for the inner edge of the deck to provide extra protection to the hangers. . The reference construction sequence starts with: Bridge construction. standard New-Jersey-type barriers are provided. The connection of the steel box to the arch is with highstrength alloy prestressed bars anchored deep in the concrete pier arms.400 KN was also considered in the design. meets the architectural requirements but this feature adds problems due to the nonsymmetry of the section. The outer section.impressed current cathodic protection system. often humid. no obvious sequence presented itself. The piers and the crossheads. are then cast. zone 2. which support the decks on half joints. all exposed concrete surfaces have silane treatment and are painted. Thus. The removal of any hanger in cable-supported spans for repair works or due to accidents will be possible under service conditions. equivalent to 45 m/s. are fabricated in sections weighing up to 800 tons. which are curved boxes 5 to 8 m deep. On the outside of the carriageway. It also restricts the width available for placing bearings of support. A constant section was required by the architect throughout the length of the bridge.5%g peak acceleration. – – – – – – – The bridge is required to have a service life of 100 years. which had to be revised at each stage as the design evolved. The selected vehicular live load is twice AASHTO HL93. The deck cross section is a multicellular prestressed box that provides the necessary torsional stiffness and strength to resist the constructional effects. The decks are cast in situ on staging. A reference sequence was adopted for design. and the bridge is in a marine environment. A single permit vehicle type with total weight 1. in some cases several spans are cast together to provide the required continuity and locked in stress in the deck. The design temperature range is 0 to +60 °C. with each span being unique. As the structure is irregular. Regarding the corrosion protection system.5%g. In the outer layers in the splash zone stainless steel has been specified. then brought to site and erected on staging and welded in situ. – – – – The construction of the piled foundations. It was also checked for a 750-year event with 27.These conditions require exceptional precautions to achieve durability. whereas all reinforcement is made of uncoated black steel for future connection to an Construction steps. The following interpretations and additional requirements were adopted to suit local conditions. Construction Sequence The construction sequence for this project required very careful consideration. beyond which there is a walkway with pedestrian parapets on the outside.
In addition. For these reasons. and was also checked for a 750-year event with 27. these arms are within the overall arch profile. Central and East Main are all constructed within double-walled sheet-piled cofferdams. typically –6. The four main piers. Seen in elevation. is one of the leading companies in the field of structural steel engineering. KG. Therefore. West Main. and it was considered by the designer that at this elevation it would be more practical and quicker to lift them in prefabricated steel box sections rather than to construct concrete arches in situ. the dominant stresses in the arches are bending rather than compressing with high torsions. Marina. Bridge construction. In cross section. founded in Munich in 1876. The arches rise to over 60 m above sea level. the bridge accessory devices have been designed to absorb the resulting loads and any movement in all directions (multidirectional by full stroke) as there are bridge isolators and movement expansion joints part of this bridge. mechanical and plant engineering. The chosen system was approved by the bridge designer and consultant as the joints cannot only follow the main movement of the bridge in carriageway direction but also distinctive movements in two spatial directions perpendicular to the main direction. . Maurer Söhne Involvement in the Sheikh Zayed Bridge Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co. Its structural protection system helps to avoid damages caused by ‘forces in motion’ by seismically isolators and energy dissipaters. the antiseismic expansion joints MAURER Swivel Joist Expansion Joint. there are outer pier arms which support the deck via the pier crossheads and half joints. The Sheikh Zayed Bridge has been designed for a 475-year return period earthquake. Even rotations of the bridge on three spatial axes are easily coped with. the sections of arch above deck level are all designed in steel. they have been sculpted to maintain the architectural concept of the deck floating through or around the arches. The filling is then excavated to pile cut-off level. At each marine pier.0 m and the pile cap is constructed.5%g peak acceleration.0 m.Projects 92 / 93 The arches and piers form a continuous integral structure. Bridge view at night. zone 2. These are initially filled above water level while the foundation piling is carried out from a working platform at around +2.
Köln Manfred Beilstein HSE award to Outotec for 1 million construction manhours worked without lost-time incident. .Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMAL’s Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Outotec GmbH.
Abu Dhabi. like the calcined coke and liquid pitch unloading and storage system.000 tons of aluminium per annum. such as regenerative thermal oxidisation (RTO) for pitch fume treatment are being employed. After grading.7 billion and will comprise 756 reduction cells arranged in two potlines. and once fully operational will produce 750. The joint venture was established in 2007 under the leadership of HH Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan.Projects 94 / 95 Background Emirates Aluminium Company (EMAL) is a strategic joint venture between aluminium producer Dubai Aluminium (DUBAL) and Abu Dhabi investment vehicle MUBADALA. are consumed in the reduction lines for producing aluminium metal. Innovative technologies. The molded blocks are then . anode manufacturing plant and multiproduct casthouse. These anode blocks. by Emiri Decree Number 7 of 2007. cooled in a water-cooling system. each rated at 50 t/h capacity. Ancillary facilities.5 million tons annually at the end of phase two. a global leader in minerals and metals technologies. HTF heating system. The aluminium smelter will be built in two phases: phase one commenced operation on 2 December 2009. after baking. doubling to 1. the carbon materials are continuously mixed with binder pitch to produce a homogenous paste before molding it into green anode blocks on vibrocompacting machines. also known as vibrocompactors. It is the flagship project of Abu Dhabi’s industrialisation and diversification strategy. proportioning and preheating. making it the world’s largest single-site aluminium smelter – and making EMAL the fifth largest aluminium producer in the world. an on-site 2. Building the first phase will cost approximately US$5. EMAL is constructing one of the largest single-site primary aluminium smelters in the world at the new Khalifa Port and Industrial Zone at Al Taweelah. President of the United Arab Emirates. For the anode manufacturing plant. The EMAL green anode plant has two anode production lines. EMAL had awarded the contract to design and construct the green anode manufacturing plant and carbon scrap crushing facility on EPC basis to Outotec. The green anode plant has the purpose of producing in a fully automated process green anode blocks from calcined petroleum coke and recycled green and baked anode scrap. with coal tar pitch being added as binder. as the best available technology (BAT) for this purpose. along with a crushing plant for recycled carbon materials. plant operation centre and production control laboratory are part of the scope. United Arab Emirates.000-MW power plant. Largest Industrial Project Outside the Gas and Oil Sector The construction of a new high-tech aluminium smelter in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is already making history: it will be the largest greenfield aluminium smelter project ever – and one of the largest industrial projects in the United Arab Emirates outside the oil and gas sector.
. KG Torsten Brendel Exterior view: Emirates ﬂight catering facility at Dubai International Airport.Ultimate Flight Catering i+o Industrieplanung + Organisation GmbH & Co.
Thanks to decades of experience in realising inflight catering systems.000 meals a day. which has a total size of 55. Asian subcontinental. Cool Despite Desert Climate The biggest conceptual challenge was to not interrupt the cold chain. Next to dishes in different ethnic varieties like Arabic. with an utilised area of more than 1 million m2. Korea and Singapore. Moreover. i+o planned a building which allows capacity expansion into all directions – without stopping production. the team – consisting of i+o representatives and the management of Emirates Flight Catering – worked hand in hand. it also increases the durability of the food. Together.g. each corner and each process step in the facility. The dirty trolleys are sent through two washing systems that have a length of 25 m. A central. The most important hub in the Middle East possesses the world’s largest inflight catering facility. e. empties and cleans the airplane trolleys. Emirates Flight Catering. the frontages of the building remain free for further expansion in the future. A hall as big as a soccer field with 20 washing facilities. a length of 10 to 17 m each. is provided for used dishes and cutlery only.000 per day. currently the most powerful washing plant in inflight catering worldwide. A main target of the new catering facility is flexibility with regard to construction.9 million passengers were processed. the airport of the desert metropolis sets benchmarks: in 2009 alone. which fly from Dubai to more than 150 destinations. Chinese or Western there are also trolleys for non-food items like drugs or duty-free items for on-board sale. in 2008 the new terminal ‘T3’ started operation. space-saving and covered transport area on the ground floor connects incoming and outgoing goods across from each other. Sophisticated Logistics Systems An electronic state-of-the-art trolley conveyor is the mode of transport of the sophisticated intralogistics and forms the backbone of the new catering facility. Cook & chill means that conveyer belts automatically forward cooked. Japanese. Despite the current crisis. As a solution. a subsidiary of Emirates. The Heidelberg-based consultancy i+o Industry Planning + Organization was responsible for the planning and realisation of the facility. the emirate is expanding its airport. despite the fact that the temperature in Dubai can rise up to 50 °C in the shade during the day. an increase of 9. This process not only saves precious time. which starts at the socalled inbound.2% compared to the previous year. in Frankfurt.000 m2. Dubai International Airport is the headquarters of Emirates airline and more than another 100 international airlines. which lasted about one and a half year. which experienced strong growth last year. It automatically transports the incoming trolleys – up to 13. The world’s largest inflight catering facility stresses the efforts for expansion at Dubai airport. the inbound receives. authorised i+o Industry Planning + Organization to plan this large-scale project. warm meals to a central cooling room before they are portioned and cooled down to 2 °C in speed coolers. produce up to 115. One example is Dubai. Middle Eastern. where 1. In the course of constant growth. working on three floors. In addition to receiving groundside goods. 40. i+o was once again able to set benchmarks. A traffic yard with 84 ramps simplifies transport to and from the planes parked on the airfield and shortens the process of the internal material flow. to make sure that it quickly adapts to an increasing demand. was planned down to the very last detail. During the conceptual phase. With regard to the cleaning process. Hong Kong. The facility consists of three storeys and has a size of 160 x 130 m.Projects 96 / 97 Ambitious plans for expansion and large construction projects have been the special characteristic of the Gulf region. the new Emirates Flight Catering facility is full of superlatives. . The terminal is designed for wide body planes of the type A380 and belongs to the largest terminals worldwide.800 employees. Further developing the cook & chill principle is an essential part of i+o’s cooling concept. Even during difficult economic times.
the new hub will develop at an area of 20 km2. the Emirates flight catering facility is a major project i+o has realised in the Middle East which still sets benchmarks in the market. high bay warehouses with about 1. logistical and organisational standards. wherefrom more than 6. the warehouses for the duty-free goods and the cargo centre.800 pallet spaces for storing more than 1. Since the beginning of its activities in the Gulf region in 2005. . the catering facility sets new technical. This also leads to an increasing demand for professional consultancy know-how. The system manages up to 40. the German consultancy established its office in Dubai and acquired further largescale projects in the Persian Gulf region. i+o was also authorised by the investment company Emirates Advanced Investments (EAI) to plan a new food company that produces sterilised meals according to the latest international GMP and HACCP standards Well-connected: Dubai and the Gulf Region The GCC states. Dubai’s second airport will be located close to the freeport Jebel Ali Free Zone. Furthermore. will certainly continue to develop strongly in order to prepare themselves for the times of decreasing oil reserves. the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council.000 airline-specific items – from napkins and tableware to blankets and duty-free goods – are available. In total.Due to this reason a modern container conveyor system equipped with six automatic storage systems was designed and implemented. Until today. Located directly at the shore. Just recently. another inflight catering facility is being established for Qatar Airways.000 container movements per day. the region will become more important in their function as a central hub for trade between Asia and Europe. In this context. At the same time it will be absolutely necessary to intensively develop the infrastructure in order to be able to Covering three ﬂoors and an area of 55. keep up with this development. i+o has constantly broadened its portfolio offering many additional services and core competencies. Ambitious megaprojects such as the Al-Maktoum International Airport are already under way. All processes of the new Emirates flight catering facility are operated by a central control station.000 m². the catering facilities. One good example is the New Doha International Airport in the neighbouring Emirate of Qatar.000 international companies do business. In early 2008. i+o’s task is to create a comprehensive logistics concept which focuses on planning inhouse logistics for the terminal building. especially in the logistics segment. The first construction stage is supposed to start operating in June 2010.
Projects 98 / 99 Emirates airline aircraft and crew. .
869 km2 Arabic.Yemen Fact File Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic Of Yemen 22 million (2009) 536. with English as the main business language 1 Yemeni riyal = 100 fils Sana’a (Capital) .
Since schools do not exist at all places. a one-storey and a two-storey construction. some of the children have to walk to their school up to three hours on foot. The project’s aim is to achieve schools that provide ‘a peaceful and democratic environment’. They have big structural defects and lack sanitary facilities. The lack of partition (e. climatic and topographic as well as resulting constructional requirements. . which is partly covered with greenery and serves as ground for the pupils and contributes to the improvement of the climate. but sufficiently equipped to be able to teach the pupils adequately. practical and innovative variant for the construction of schools in Yemen. The existing school buildings are predominantly in a very bad condition. Within this context. Overview Due to the inadequate education situation in Yemen the Ministry of Education of Yemen and the Reconstruction Loan Corporation (KfW) have decided to implement a school project. According to the area programme there are two variants. particularly girls in Yemen are very disadvantaged. The classrooms are strictly separated between the user groups of boys and girls. The detailed adaptation to the genius loci can only be made when specific estates have been designated. But basically the draft is a module construction consisting of a classroom to which a porch is added. Several prototypes have been developed which can be adapted to different regions in Yemen and thus promote an economic. Targets of the project carried out by the Society for Organization. each consisting of eight classrooms for about 30 boys or girls respectively.Projects 100 / 101 Pilot Projects for Schools in Yemen Kere Architecture Diébédo Francis Kéré Cross section. social-religious. Teachers get their own building which is structured as a multipurpose room and thus meets various requirements. clean drinking water and electricity. Planning and Education (GOPA) are the development and the construction of new schools corresponding to the educational. Task: Area Programme and Concept The preliminary draft is planned on a fictitious estate with the minimum dimensions of 31 x 40 m and is intended as a measure catalogue. walls around the school buildings) and lack of latrines frequently contribute to the fact that girls do not attend school at all. The rooms are simple.g. Depending on the orientation and offer of space the element can be added in various ways. Each user group has its own courtyard.
are manufactured there or at least can be repaired and maintained on the spot so that construction can be as economically as possible. these should be designed in such a way that they also can be transported with a donkey. This gap constitutes a shadowed area and guarantees the air-conditioning of the classes. By this. There is a subdivision of the classes into two user groups. Primarily. but has to be cultivated and supported nowadays. A great part of the mandatory surrounding wall is used as part of the buildings. to which four classes are connected. which are connected to each other. This tradition and the treatment of local materials should not get lost. however. . no floor slabs and no exterior corridors. Furthermore. highly developed tradition of architecture. with a long. which would be obligatory in case of an entry installed at the side. building components and materials should be used. Thus people should be encouraged to deal with the local materials of their region and impart their utilisation to future generations. Two classes are allocated a building established at the outermost edge of the estate. Due to the low height of the construction less scaffolding is needed. This includes particularly the use of clay in all conceivable areas of utilisation. There are whole towns in which all buildings were made of clay. which cause relatively high costs at the common way of construction. a great deal of construction material is saved. The two-storey building is the ideal solution in case of a very small estate. Perspective. By not integrating an exterior corridor.MINIMAL VERSION A – ONE-STOREY In principle the one-storey building clearly separates the two user groups by space. It would also ensure that people can identify themselves with the project. In case of a one-storey construction there are no stairs. If it becomes obvious that certain indispensable building components have to be supplied. MINIMAL VERSION B – TWO-STOREY Foundations of the Architectural Concept Though Yemen is an economically very poor and hardly developed country. In their midst two further buildings. which is used for the ventilation of the classrooms. A separation according to age groups or sex can easily be achieved this way. By means of an intelligent form this variant attempts not only to achieve climatic but also economic advantages. a clearly defined courtyard is created. which are available on the spot. are placed. The created space constitutes a buffer zone. so that their utilisation rather seems to be inappropriate in Yemen. and use their thus gained experience in the construction of other buildings at a later stage. which is achieved by a gap between them. it is very rich in culture and trade. This common courtyard can be placed in the shadow or partly be covered with greenery. Floor plan. the use of prefabricated components requires a sufficient transport infrastructure.
Projects 102 / 103 ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS ANd PRINCIpLES (VERSION A ANd B) CLASSROOMS As far as possible. bamboo. The buildings are part of the wall and not surrounded by it. Further precautions will be taken in the deserts so that dust caused by sandstorms will be kept away from the rooms. Thus. insolation/rain). Each class is to receive its own latrine. which are designed and covered with greenery. the guard has the possibility to sell something to earn himself a small income. The ventilation of the rooms is guaranteed by openings installed in a well-directed way. and. The massive walls store the heat of the day and guarantee a constant temperature in the rooms. MEASURES A big room is planned in the entry sector. form the courtyards. It is used to establish a room and correspondingly engineered. the high variations in temperature between day and night can be compensated. which is structured as multipurpose room. Within the context of the often extremely barren Yemen landscape an oasis with a high quality of staying is created. which can be developed from diagonally placed stones or plantings that give the wall a structure and guarantee ventilation as well as protection against sight. GARdEN MOdULE The climatic conditions on the spot are of central importance for any architectural draft as they have effects on almost all parts of a building. They are very plain bodies. e. Furthermore. They are oriented towards the openings of the rooms. With reference to the wished . too. By this. ROOF The roof can be formed as a massive barrel-shaped roof or as light sheet metal construction. TEACHERS’ OFFICES If possible. the system of the module with its diverse possibilities of combination will facilitate the implementation. in the coast region attention is paid to a strong ventilation of the rooms in order to avoid dampness collecting in the rooms. In the mountain region. sand or pieces of rock are to be used. which however protect the pupils against the climate (e. to protect the girls against gazes from the outside. Here an installation of terraces may become necessary. In order to fulfil the requirements of the climate in desert regions one will work with massive elements comparable to those used in the mountains. MATERIALS In hot areas latrines are a source of stench. local materials such as BTC-stones/adobe.g. materials like steel or concrete are used at the construction. WALL The wall is not only a sheer element of separation. For example. as conference room for the teachers. the individual building components and openings are adapted and optimised. This is also advantageous for those families. combinations of fanlights and low-situated openings are preferred to optimally ventilate and light the rooms. which are formed like a snail due to the protection of sight. building and wall. A small room is separated from the multipurpose room to the front and determined for the school’s guard. However. smaller openings and more massive walls are planned. In some places openings in the wall are planned. To avoid this. according to the various climate regions in Yemen. the latrines have to be placed in a corresponding distance to the classrooms. which can be locked as this makes it easier to supervise the cleanness and efficiency. additionally. A special challenge is the topography of the terrain. cool air for the pupils not only in the classrooms but also on the school playground. Only when it is indispensable. which stand in the front area of the estates. as a place of encounter between teachers and parents. the plantings are installed as protection of sight between the two user groups.g. a part of the room can also serve as school library. TOILETS protection against gazes the girls can freely move behind the wall. The plantings are very important to guarantee fresh. who live in remote villages with the nearest market miles away. The wall thus will become a decisive component of the architecture. This room can also serve as a small store. Thus. In both drafts two units were planned. Depending on the region it is decided which construction is readily available. Apart from this. Together. as their children could buy small things after finishing school and take them home.
Special Topics .
investment and technology transfer. security technologies. and environment and water. the Secretary General Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi. In autumn 2009. every member is invited to now take over a shaping role within the Ghorfa on a sector-specific level. tourism. thus not only broadening one’s own horizon but Ghorfa’s as a whole. the idea is Dorsch Gruppe Olaf Hoffmann 1. transport and logistics. health. thus making it possible for each member to adjust its level of activity within the Ghorfa individually. As overall issues are discussed on the executive level. to mark and visualise the main trends and important developments in the region on the basis of our daily insights. . Each of these will be self-organised and will be led by a CEO of a company doing business in the specific field. based on individual interests.Special Topics 104 / 105 Working Group Infrastructure and Construction The Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry is currently undergoing a transformation process driven by the President Dr. We are convinced that clearly defined points of contact. legal affairs. With the construction industry in the Arab world continously growing and its tremendous business opportunities the exchange of views is getting ever more important for German construction companies doing business in the Arab world. financial services. information technology and communications. The Board of Directors agreed on the following working groups: education and training. Thomas Bach. 3. 2. With the introduction of industry-sector-specific working groups Ghorfa is offering its members the possibility of actively building industryspecific networks. Thus. the Executive Board. will not only build an effective and well-connected platform but will also expand and cultivate professionals’ relationship to the Arab world by gaining valuable insights and by discovering new and profitable business opportunities. to built up a dynamic network of professionals to analyse. to use our experiences and common business contacts in an ever more synergetic and target-oriented way. dependent on individual time frames and personal or business interests. infrastructure and construction. anticipate and discuss developments in the Arab markets. the working group ‘infrastructure and construction’ was established. energy. the Board of Directors and the members.
state customers have. many laws dealing with commercial and civil law as well as finance and tax issues have undergone fundamental changes during the past few years. Amereller Rechtsanwälte Dr. including all off-shore components of the project. For a foreign contract partner. Wolfgang Graf von Armansperg choose noncompetitive or sole-source contracting. Only in urgent cases may state organisations Place of Jurisdiction and Applicable Law Contracts with public entities in Syria regularly provide for application of Syrian law and for legal disputes to be decided by Syrian courts. All procurement contracts refer to the ‘Special Book of Conditions’. The Customer Contract Syrian civil law is far more liberal after its reform. the law still requires a public tender. which repealed several old laws dealing with the tender process for public entities. accepted consortia as contract partners in large infrastructure projects. These laws now provide a much more reliable legal basis for foreign companies entering the Syrian market as contractors or investors. and public procurement can now be found in Law No. It is a recent development that international contractors may now bid on infrastructure contracts in Syria as part of construction consortia. also being taxed in its home country. This provides for better risk sharing among participating companies. the laws in Syria are not yet prepared to deal with this structure. The strong desire to reform the legal framework and to provide an attractive environment for foreign investors comes along with an increased number of infrastructure projects commissioned by Syrian ministries and state organisations. many legal issues must be solved by trial and error. As the combination of both components into one overall price could have a negative tax impact on the project. For all high-value contracts. Even under the new law. However. Accordingly. This is clearly in favour of the customer as .Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria – Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Legal and Administrative Background of Construction Consortia Business in Syria Syria is opening its country to foreign investment and business. it is in the interests of consortium members to set out in the contract the shares of the respective consortium members and. This paper shall set forth recent observations relating to doing business as a construction consortium in Syria and shall offer practical suggestions for overcoming obstacles such consortia may face. to separate the price of its off-shore component (all supplies and services effected outside Syria) from its on-shore component (all supplies and services provided inside Syria). in the meantime. one overall price could apply that value to the entire contract taxation. this could mean general or partial double taxation of the income from the contract. which clearly shapes the contract in favour of the government customer. contracting with public entities still means more or less accepting the contract terms and conditions presented by the customer. Since the customer tends to consider the consortium as one contract partner and prefers to communicate only with one spokesperson for the consortium. 51/2004. the companies law and the investment law. in addition. Among these are the commercial law. Although Syrian law thus far does not specifically address the consortium structure. it is also recommended that the invoicing should distinguish between the contributions of various consortium members. Thus. For example. Hence.
if the leader of the consortium had the authority to issue directives and was responsible for controlling the performance of the other partners. In Syria. In the case of a registered branch office. Law No. Swiss law and the rules of the ICC in Paris are well known and well accepted in Syria. as a withholding tax from the payments of its customers. all foreign parties who wish to conclude contracts with the Syrian public sector require a commercial agent or a branch office in the country. In addition. such as Syrian consortium partners or subcontractors. Usually. How will these principles be applied to a construction consortium? As long as the consortium is not considered to be a partnership or a de-facto company. an undisclosed partnership that is not a legal entity. An association of contractors and suppliers carrying out a common goal to fulfil the obligations of a customer contract does not automatically result in a partnership relationship. The agent must be registered as the exclusive agent for the company. This is the result of Law No. Consequently. it is difficult to enforce any judgement. 34/2008. in the new Agency Law No. in addition. Both must be registered with the Ministry of Commerce and Economy. In any event. as such. against a public entity in Syria. 51 states that the actions of one member of the consortium impute the same liability to all consortium members.Special Topics 106 / 107 there are almost no examples of a private claimant successfully being awarded a judgment against a public defendant. This requirement must be fulfilled even if the tax on the entity is not assessed based on the profits shown in its books. Law No. therefore. and it is unlikely that a Syrian civil court would affirm any foreign judgement. In contracts combining off-shore and on-shore components. The company. It is important to note that only Syrian nationals may operate as agents. Such a company would constitute a de-facto company (Art. on 3 July 2001. Agency law is partly contained in the Syrian Civil Code and. every branch office of a consortium member must have its own set of books and records. However. Reciprocity under Syrian procedural law still does not exist in practice. contracting with public entities under the consortium structure always involves joint and several liability of all consortium members. describing the conditions for public procurement. The analysis would be different if the company had a fixed place of business and operated as a commercial firm with the general public. 15 (effective 3 January 2002) was released. Branch or Agency Requirements under Syrian Civil Law In theory. instead. it is not required to have a branch office or agent on its own. but is levied. it is a purely undisclosed partnership. and with a similar effect. the chances of enforcing a foreign judgment in Syria are rather limited. this is considered notice to all consortium members. even an arbitration award. 34/2008 also is the basis for regulating the establishment of a branch office of a foreign company. In practice. Legislative Decree No. even if this is not specifically stipulated in the contract. As long as this entity does not do business with the public and does not hold itself out as a partnership. According to this Decree. The consortium structure. if the customer gives notice to one consortium member. With private contract partners. does not result in liability to third parties not contractually connected with the consortium. a foreign contractor may supply its customers in Syria without the involvement of a local entity or agent. Branches of foreign companies are required to keep their accounting books and records in Arabic. the company must be registered in Syria and its shareholders must be Syrian nationals. there is a much better basis for agreeing on foreign law and on arbitration procedures. foreign companies operate through an agent or authorised dealer. ‘offene Handelsgesellschaft (oHG)’. As was previously the case with Decree 195 and Decision 1336. Liability under the Customer Contract and towards Third Parties Under Syrian law. Moreover. Moreover. this could be compared with a ‘Sharekat al-Mahassa’. the requirement for an agent or branch office registration is applied to every member of the consortium separately. the general manager of the office must be resident in Syria. 56 Commercial Code) and all participating partners would have unlimited liability. that member could be made liable for all the company’s business activities. the books and records also must include the off-shore component of contract income. 51. could be compared with the German . In contracts with the Syrian private sector no branch office or agent is required. In the case of a company agent.
This is typically handled by the consortium leader. selfemployment and industrial activities is levied on the profit generated from these activities. however. However. it is not known if or when this will be implemented. a 3% income tax and 1% salaries tax will be due on the combined components of the customer contract. however. in contracts with public entities. In the event the account is held by a branch office of a foreign company.Taxation of Construction Consortium Activities in Syria In principal. it is important to structure this account as an escrow account. the tax withheld is 5% for income tax. Under certain circumstances it may be worth trying to seek relief in Syrian courts. and transferability. Therefore. However. who in parallel transfers part of his or her payments to the other consortium members. Under a consortium structure it is advisable that every member of the consortium submit its own invoices to the customer. the full scope of an employer’s legal obligations are applicable. it is not allowed to open a bank account in its own name. Syria’s income tax on commercial activities. and not after an additional guarantee period. Bank Account – Currency Issues – Transfer of Money – Letter of Credit Since the consortium is not a legal entity and has no registered place of business. documents on consortium letterhead are used to request payment of all consortium members. This is normally the account that will receive customer payments and pay local debts. it is still a challenge to get a performance bond returned immediately after all tasks under the contract have been fulfilled. all transfers must be reflected in the accounting books and records of the branch office. many hire their personnel through local third-party companies. Syrian labour law is considered employee-friendly. that this approach involves the risk of illiquidity for individual members in the event the money is paid to the consortium leader’s own account. It is not yet common practice to accept individual letters of credit from all participating consortium members. 640 to 664 of the Syrian Civil Code. often request the customer to make payments in foreign currency to their overseas accounts. payments in foreign currency typically will be operated from accounts abroad. the request to ‘pay or extend’ is a frequent experience for foreign contractors. There are cases where foreign contractors have been successful in settling their cases and having their bonds returned. therefore. Due to legal restrictions on convertibility Foreign and Local Workers Employed with the Project If a foreign contractor performs any local work in Syria. A letter of credit also is an accepted tool to secure customer payments. 24/2003. This is surprising since. The practical solution of many local employers – making moderate compensation payments – is probably not easily available to foreign companies. Bid Bond and Performance Bond Bid bonds and performance bonds customary in international project business also are common in Syrian project business. In addition. It is obvious. There is a new law under consideration. and 2% for the salaries tax. It not only covers the income tax obligation of the foreign contractor. 91/1959 and by Art. The local bank account normally is used only for payments in local Syrian currency. but also extends to salaries for all personnel employed under the contract. In practice. However. under ‘The Special Book on Conditions’ for Syrian public entities. In some . Normally. The withholding tax is defined as a certain percentage of all payments for supplies and services and must be withheld by the Syrian customer in settlement of the foreign contractor’s tax obligation under the Syrian income tax law. the law provides for a withholding tax approach to income generated by foreign companies or individuals. the contract is fulfilled when the work is completed. If the customer contract provides for a clear price differentiation between off-shore and on-shore components of the contract. Syrian labour law is still regulated by Law No. this is now seen as by-passing the law and should not be used. However. with the introduction of the new Income Tax Law No. A local bank account in Syria must be opened by one of the registered members of the consortium under its own name. as amended. the consortium leader should provide a statement allocating the overall tax deduction to the respective consortium members. Should the contract not provide for such a clear price differentiation. Termination of an employment contract is an especially severe obstacle for any employer. Contractors. on the amount invoiced for the domestic component of the contract. In practice it is accepted that payments to the consortium are collected in an account of the consortium leader.
Legal and administrative support.1% of the gross salary. a local work permit is required for foreign experts or supervising personnel. may be necessary to avoid the obstacles that crop up during any project activity. Only in exceptional cases may an exemption be granted. contracting with the government in Syria is still slow and complicated. Outlook Many of the mentioned legal requirements appear complicated and impose an administrative burden on foreign contractors entering the Syrian market. actually subcontracting local work may help to overcome these labour law issues. This contribution amounts to 24. the obligation to contribute to the local social security system is also applicable to foreigners. which includes the tax on salaries. despite legal reforms. On the other hand the opening of the Syrian economy to private investment. However. The Ministry will draw down on this guarantee in part or in full if payment obligations with respect to the employee are not fulfilled.Special Topics 108 / 109 cases. and Syria’s interest in European imports. will further improve conditions for foreign entities doing project work in Syria. the employer must furnish the Ministry of Labour with a bank guarantee in the amount of 100. Due to the withholding tax approach in project business. . therefore. This is regardless of the duration of their stay. but not all. there is no need to declare the salaries tax by individual employee. especially German technological products.000 Syrian pounds for every foreign employee. The practical solutions currently in use by foreign consortia may be viewed as evidence of an evolving business environment going beyond narrow legal regulations. Furthermore. In addition. Syria likely will continue to develop in this area and become an interesting market for large international infrastructure projects. The employer must provide for the immediate filling of any gap that may arise. Moreover.
Saudi Arabia’s Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies Apricum – The Cleantech Advisory Romy Schildhauer Business park within King Abdullah economic city at the Red Sea. .
in the future. The project was put into operation in 2008. However. Saudi Arabia’s economy returns to robust annual growth rates of 3 to 4% in 2010. has assessed the suitability of the kingdom’s industrial parks and structural characteristics for attracting solar manufacturing companies. are currently actively searching for investors and are intentionally geared towards becoming sites for the solar industry. The kingdom’s energy infrastructure however is not prepared for peak demand. The people of Saudi Arabia. Apart from the petrochemical industry. but concentrate in particular in coastal regions along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. Apricum.Special Topics 110 / 111 Background Following a slight recession in 2009. PETRO RAbIGH CONVERSION INdUSTRIAL PARK (RCIP) Solar Energy – a Future Pillar of Saudi Arabian Economy Thanks to its geographic location. as both the usage of electric appliances and water consumption increase. such as Petro Rabigh und Yanbu. many of these graduates aim for a position in management or in the technology sector. Producing potable water through desalination processes is highly energy-intensive. which will foster the creation of industry clusters. Already today. as is for example the case with Jubail 1 Park. The high oil prices of the past years have provided the strongest economy of the Arabian peninsula with a sound capital base. energy both as one of the future pillars of national energy supply as well as an export product. experienced a notable improvement in living standards. while trying to create jobs for a young and rapidly growing population. While today’s lion’s share of GDP is produced by the petrochemical industry and related industries. In the context of a national solar study for the Saudi Arabian government. a globally operating strategic management consultancy specialised in Cleantech and renewable energies particulary focussed on solar energy. the solar industry is especially suited to generate long-term growth and to respond adequately to social challenges. Some parks. In the long run. And with rising levels of education. As such. Saudi Arabia fulfils all requirements for the profitable production of solar electricity: vast spaces and one of the world’s most excellent solar irradiation. the kingdom plans to attract high-tech solar enterprises to profit from the benefits of a national solar industry. RCIP is a nonprofit base project where power and water will be provided at cost bases. Nearly half of the 25 million Saudis are still enrolled at school. The utilities and power stations needed would at first be imported from Europe or Asia. In addition to the above developments. The Saudi government is therefore keen to diversify the national industry. blackouts are predicted to worsen. Saudi Arabia continues to face a broad range of economic and social challenges. next to a large petrochemical complex approximately 120 km north of Jeddah. Saudi Arabia lists more than 30 industrial parks. such as creating a large number of highly skilled jobs. the Saudi government has identified solar Petro Rabigh Conversion Industrial Park is located at the Red Sea. The national strategy for attracting enterprises focuses on large industrial parks. It is targeted to attract investors for producers of high value-added and . high-tech industries. the associated suppliers and relevant research institutes. In the future. Of those selected industries. These clusters comprise various stages of a product’s value chain. Several parks have already reached the limits of their capacities and cannot accept any more enterprises. attention will also be paid to other modern. The petrochemical complex was created through a joint venture between oil giant Saudi Aramco and the Japanese Sumitomo Chemical Corporation. Saudi Arabia’s population is growing at above average rates. Others are still in the exploration phase. blackouts are a frequent occurrence during peak times. primarily the construction business has profited from oil and gas revenues. It produces a diverse set of petrochemical derivatives including polyethylene. Thus. Energy demand in the kingdom is therefore predicted to have doubled by 2020. polypropylene monoethylene glycol and propylene oxide mounting up to a total of 2. The parks are located throughout the entire country.4 million tons of petrochemical products per year. It marks Aramco’s first entry into the petrochemical sector and is the first of several downstream investments designed to keep as much value as possible inside Saudi Arabia from domestic oil output. The sudden improvement in living standards of a vast majority of people combined with the economic focus on the heavy industry sector have also led to a rapid increase in energy demand. The park encloses 240 ha. too. Such positions however are short in supply in Saudi Arabia’s current economy. where mainly the petrochemical and the crude-oil industry are represented.
.Modern service centres within the industrial parks are to offer high standard support for international companies.
Yanbu is especially suited for upstream PV production.000 m3 fresh water daily. Unlike its neighbouring facility Jubail. a future seaport within city boundaries and the Jeddah International Airport. ROYAL COMMISSION YANbU Also near the Red Sea lies Yanbu Industrial Park. water. airport. let alone full-blown industrial development. The Yanbu site is a perfect example how park developers successfully managed the challenges imposed by geographical and infrastructural conditions in Saudi Arabia. It is a major development project with six districts including industrial. The challenge. water from the Red Sea is fed to nine desalination units producing 95. therefore. which are primarily relevant for energy-intensive manufacturing processes. housing. KING AbdULLAH ECONOMIC CIT Y (KAEC) From the outside. was enormous: to provide power. With the large amount of energy readily available at low cost. When preparations at Yanbu started. polysilicon ingot and wafer production. Outlook Saudi Arabia´s industrial parks and economic cities offer attractive manufacturing conditions for various high-tech industries. Together. these units can produce 900 MW of electricity. the site lacked everything required to support even a minimum level of human existence. It therefore seems predominantly poised to become a manufacturing location for PV-module or thin-film companies. Yanbu is home to approximately 20 heavy hydrocarbon. like high-performance plastic films that for example are used in photo-voltaic modules. the first steps of the photo-voltaic value chain Excellent financing opportunities including practically zero tax burdens for industrial companies Very high market potential within Saudi Arabia and neighbouring countries The King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) pursues a concept reaching beyond industrial park development to foster national industrial cluster creation. At 158 km². . including solar. the site was far from the nearest metropolitan area and ready access to essential goods and services. schools. They intend the city to be built for ‘intelligent’ living.Special Topics 112 / 113 export-oriented products. efficient health care and an advanced transportation infrastructure. industrial port. all capable of burning either gas or fuel oil. it is one of the largest industrial parks of Saudi Arabia. which means that communities will enjoy a suite of value-added services such as eGovernment. KAEC is located north of the Jeddah metropolitan area. home automation. the economic city concept rather focuses on establishing light industries and service providers. the country offers a wide range of assets that are especially advantageous for high-tech manufacturers: – – – Low energy costs. health care facilities and all other services and facilities required by a modern industrial city.g. Its power needs are supplied by nine gas-turbine and three steam-turbine generators. the park is accessible via several multilane main highways. directly on the Red Sea coast and in close proximity to the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Beyond those facilities. Today. telephones. roads. e. petrochemical and mineral facilities as well as 37 light manufacturing and support operations. Also in the central utility complex. Contrary to the industrial park approach. commercial and residential zones covering a total area of 168 km². KAEC planners envision a futuristic new form of living and working for the inhabitants of their city.
List of Contributors .
Special Topics 114 / 115
Project: Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria – Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Contact: Dr. Florian Amereller, Partner Lenbachplatz 4 D-80333 München Germany Tel: +49 89 549019-0 Fax: +49 89 549019-99 E-mail: email@example.com www.amereller.com
Project: Railway Network Project Contact: Ulrich Beer, Project Manager Kerstin Schneider, Head of Marketing and Public Relations Dorsch Holding GmbH Berliner Strasse 74-76 D-63065 Offenbach am Main Tel: +49 69 130257-0 Fax: +49 69 130257-32 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.dorsch.de Project: Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip Contact: Keith Brooke, Regional Director Dorsch Consult Wasser und Umwelt GmbH Regional Office Cairo 6 El Sad El Ali St., P.O. Box 31 11431 Maadi, Cairo Egypt Tel: +20 2 23802563 Fax: +20 2 23802394 E-mail: email@example.com Internet: www.dorsch.de Project: Khartoum New International Airport Contact: Albert Mair, Project Director Hansastrasse 20 D-80686 München Germany Tel: +49 89 5797-0 Fax: +49 89 5797-874 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.dorsch.de
Apricum – The Cleantech Advisory
Project: Saudi Arabia’s Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies Contact: Nikolai Dobrott, Managing Partner Neue Gruenstrasse 17 D-10179 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 308776-221 Fax +49 30 308776-225 E-mail: email@example.com www.apricum-group.com
ASS Planungs GmbH Freie Architekten
Project: Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Contact: Susanne Schmid, Managing Partner Seestrasse 65 D-70174 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 220226-60 Fax: +49 711 220226-66 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.ass-architekten.de
Project: Lotus Garden Contact: Hany Labib Dorsch Consult Abu Dhabi Office Salam Street P.O. Box 26417 Abu Dhabi, UAE Tel: +971 26721923 Fax: +971 26720809 E-mail: Hany.Labib@dorsch.ae
German University of Technology in Oman (Gutech)
Project: Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman Contact: Prof. Dr. Burkhard Rauhut, Rector P.O. Box 1816 Athaiba PC 130, Muscat Sultanate of Oman Tel: +968 98134616 Fax: +968 24495568 E-mail: email@example.com www.gutech.edu.om
Project: Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Contact: Adalbert Graff, Head of Petrochemical Industry Hohenzollernstrasse 24 D-45128 Essen Germany Tel: +49 201 8182099 Fax: +49 201 8182822 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.ferrostaal.com
gtz International Services
Project: Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Contact: Florentine Visser, Architect, Project Manager 4D, El Gezira Street 11211 Zamalek/Cairo Egypt Tel: +20 2 24181578/9 E-mail: email@example.com www.med-enec.com/en/
Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG
Project: Ain Béni Mathar – an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Contact: Mansour Hamza, Managing Director Sarweystrasse 3 D-70191 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 8995371 Fax: +49 711 8995459 E-mail: Mansour.Hamza@fichtner.de www.fichtner.de
i+o Industrieplanung + Organisation GmbH & Co. KG
Project: Ultimate Flight Catering Contact: Martina Dandl, Business Unit Manager Marketing/PR Roemerstrasse 245 D-69126 Heidelberg Germany Tel: +49 6221 379-0 Fax: +49 6221 379-200 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.io-consultants.com
Special Topics 116 / 117
Project: Pilot Project for Schools in Yemen Contact: Diébédo Francis Kéré, Architect, Owner Arndtstrasse 34 D-10965 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 789523-91 Fax: +49 30 789523-98 E-mail: email@example.com www.kere-architecture.com
Lahmeyer International GmbH
Project: The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Contact: Egon Failer, Executive Director Friedberger Strasse 173 D-61118 Bad Vilbel Germany Tel: +49 6101 55-1745 Fax: +49-6101 55-1414 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.lahmeyer.de
Project: Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser Contact: Mandana Bahrinipour, Project Manager Palmengartenstrasse 5-9 D-60325 Frankfurt Main Germany Tel: +49 69 7431-0 Fax: +49 69 7431-3559 E-mail: email@example.com www.kfw.de/entwicklungsbank
Lufthansa Consulting GmbH
Project: Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Contact: Marlene Hollwurtel, Manager Public Relations Von-Gablenz-Strasse 2-6 D-50679 Köln Germany Tel: +49 221 826-8101 Fax +49 221 826-8263 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.lhconsulting.com
KSP Jürgen Engel Architekten GmbH
Project: The Mosque in Algiers Contact: Sebastian Tokarz, PR Hanauer Landstrasse 287-289 D-60314 Frankfurt/Main Germany Tel: +49 69 944394 0 Fax: +49 69 944394-38 E-mail: email@example.com www.ksp-architekten.de
MAURER Söhne GmbH & Co. KG
Project: German Maurer Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Contact: Raad Hamood, Sales Director Middle East Frankfurter Ring 193 D-80807 München Germany Tel: +49 89 323 94-354 Fax: +49 89 323 94-306 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.maurer-soehne.de
com www.-Ing.outotec. Manfred Beilstein.Outotec GmbH.goeppert@sbp. Head of Middle East Market Region Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 21 D-61440 Oberursel Germany Tel: +49 617 19693-0 E-mail: steffen.outotec.de Papadopoulos Associates GmbH Project: Design and Construction Contact: Dipl. Oberursel Project: Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Contact: Steffen Dietzig.com www. Managing Director Arnulfstrasse 124 D-80636 München Germany Tel: +49 89 540184-0 Fax: +49 89 540184-18 E-mail: email@example.com@outotec. Managing Director Hohenzollernstrasse 1 D-70178 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 6487134 Fax: +49 711 487166 E-mail: k. Knut Göppert. Köln Project: Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMAL’s Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Contact: Dipl.passavant-roediger.com Passavant-Roediger GmbH Project: Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Contact: Mazen Bachir. Paste Plants Albin-Köbis-Strasse 8 D-51147 Köln Germany Tel: +49 2203 9921-0 Fax +49 2203 9921-333 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.-Ing. Vice President Sales and Process Aluminium Technologies.de Outotec GmbH.-Ing. PhD. Jürgen Papadopoulos. Director Sales & Marketing.de www.sbp. Managing Director Kinzigheimer Weg 104-106 D-63450 Hanau Germany Tel: +49 6181 309-250 Fax: +49 6181 309-320 E-mail: mazen.de email@example.com schlaich bergermann und partner.structural consulting engineers Project: Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Contact: Dipl.com .papadopoulos-group.
Marketing & Public Relations Krefelder Strasse 147 D-52070 Aachen Germany Tel: +49 241 9134-0 Fax: +49 241 9134-400 E-mail: mailbox@tilke. Al Sadd District P. Office No.de . Doha Qatar Tel: +974 434 1950/1 Fax: +974 434 1949 E-mail: Christian.dubai@wacker. Stefano Iannacone.com www. Dubai Silicon Oasis 0001 Dubai United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 4 709-9999 Fax: +971 4 709-9911 E-mail: info.siemens. Head of Business Development Complete Transportation Mozartstrasse 33b D-91053 Erlangen Germany Tel: +49 9131 726134 Fax: +49 9131 725170 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Special Topics 118 / 119 Siemens AG Project: The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit Contact: Hans-Juergen Schweer. Branch Manager Dubai. Country Manager 1st Floor.O.O.com www.de www. Khalifa Bin Jassim Building. Baxter.com Tilke GmbH & Co KG Project: An Oasis in the Desert – Bahrain International Circuit Contact: N. Box 341071. Box email@example.com ThyssenKrupp Elevator Project: Qatar’s Fastest Elevators – The Qipco ‘Tornado’ Tower – Doha Contact: Christian Kozma.com Wacker AG Project: Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Contact: Dr.com www.wacker. 104 Shk. Wacker Chemicals Middle East P.
de Kindly supported by Coordination Rafaela Rahmig.Special Topics 120 / 121 Editor Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry Garnisonkirchplatz 1 D-10178 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 278907-0 Fax: +49 30 278907-49 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Photos Cover picture: © Jeanet Dijkstra – Fotolia. President Abdulaziz Al-Mihlafi. Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry Kerstin Schneider.com Other pictures: Kindly provided by the contributing companies and the Economic and Commercial Office of the Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Dorsch Holding GmbH © May 2010 Editorial Ofﬁce Tanja Reindel Lektorat & Redaktion Nordendstrasse 19 D-60318 Frankfurt/M. Thomas Bach.de Dr. Germany Tel: +49 69 449140 Mobile: +49 173 3413118 E-mail: tanja. Secretary General Olaf Hoffmann.de www. .ghorfa.reindel@t-online. Chairman of the working group ‘infrastructure and construction’ Producer Marktforschung und Kommunikation GmbH Friedrichstrasse 187 D-10117 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 2061343 Fax: +49 30 2061344 E-mail: info@marktkomm.