in "act.n our "irst ro!. i" you did it ri+ht# ?ou can then do the Chi/Square (or any) test li3e you !ould’2e )e"ore# -. )ro!n M Ms# So. 14)ro!n. *4yello!.8 &6> !ith a *. let’s say you count some (1851) plain M Ms. !e need to enter our data into SPSS# 1otice that . oran+e. a !hole )unch o" ro!s# . SPSS !ill pretend that the 2aria)le 7color8 has 51. 7Consider each ro! to really mean this many ro!s#8 1o!.SPSS: Chi Squared Tests So. SPSS typically thin3s o" each ro! as an indi2idual# There"ore. la)eled the columns. etc# This !ill )e in the )ottom ri+ht corner o" your screen. it is not too hard to type in the "ormulas "or the Chi/ Squared tests. notice that the in"ormation "rom the M M%Mars Corp# is that &'( o" plain M Ms are )ro!n. !e !ould need to enter 1851 ro!s o" data9 To +et around this. etc# on any printouts)# 5o!e2er. !e use a command called :ei+ht Cases# :ei+ht Cases This "eature is a !ay o" tellin+ SPSS to pretend that a sin+le ro! o" data is. ro!s !ill act li3e it is 1851 ro!s# Pa+e 1 o" > . loo3 "or the menu item: <ata: :ei+ht Cases :hen you do. also typed in the 2alue la)els on the 2aria)le 2ie! screen (so. )ut +oin+ in order ma3es the most sense)# . *'( each yello! and red. could’2e used any num)ers.cept no!. the si. i" !e ran our analysis no!. not 1851# To run our test the 7normal8 !ay. !e !ant to tell SPSS that !e ha2e 51. and 1'( each o" )lue. ro!s !ith a 71. and here’s !hat you "ind# $lso. and ar)itrarily assi+ned num)ers to the colors (. )ut you can also do it in SPSS# 0irst. you +et this pop/up !indo!: The <e"ault settin+ is 7<o not !ei+ht cases8 Puttin+ a =aria)le in here means. and +reen# . it !ould thin3 !e had 6 M Ms.cel.n -.

153 brown y ellow red blue orange green Total Observ ed N 519 364 363 !! 1 193 1"51 #$%ected N 555&3 3'!& 3'!& 1"5&1 1"5&1 1"5&1 Residual (36&3 (6& ('& 14&9 6&9 '&9 a.pected 2alues# So. our 1ull 5ypothesis !ill )e that the pro)a)ilities +i2en to us )y the corporation are correct: 5': Plain M Ms are &'( )ro!n. and it also has a little "ootnote a)out the assumptions you made# Pa+e * o" > .cept that it isn’t the one listed in 5 ')# 1o!. clic3 on the radio )utton "or -. COLOR 8. not the computed e.pect 2alues# This is actually easier than -. 0 cells . or include it# Clic3 DF.0!" ha# e e$pec%ed f reque&cies less %ha& 5. the de+rees o" "reedom. and +reen# 51: Plain M Ms ha2e a di""erent distri)ution than that# This is not a 2ery speci"ic 5ypothesis# . Since the p/2alue is not less than #'5. and you +et the "ollo!in+ output: COLOR Test Statistics Chi-Square a df Asy mp. you clic3 on $nalyBe: 1on/Parametric: Chi/Square 1o!. oran+e.SPSS: Chi Squared Tests Chi/Squared Test o" @oodness o" 0it So. your test 2aria)le is color# Ce sure to 1DT use Count (that !ould )e sayin+ that you had 51.pected =alues: =alues# Then. enter in your si. Sig. 'he mi&imum e$pec%ed cell f reque&cy is 185.cel. relati2e pro)a)ilities "rom the null hypothesis.063 5 . notice that i" you reAect the null hypothesis. M MS o" type 51. you ha2e no idea !hat distri)ution you do ha2e (e. clic3in+ on $dd a"ter you type each one# :hen "inished it should loo3 li3e this: Color is our Test =aria)le These correspond to our 5' pro)a)ilities# ?ou can lea2e out the decimal.n particular. )ecause you only need the pro)a)ilities. E Dops)# Then. *'( each yello! and red. and 1'( each )lue.1. !e "ail to reAect# Dur M Ms do "ollo! the distri)ution !e speci"ied# 1otice that it +i2es the sum. you need to enter in your e.


put your data in ho! you’d li3e it in the chart. ma3e 14 male and * 4 "emaleK "or hometo!n. &4Dther Hr)an. * 4 Fansas City. li3e this: @ender and hometo!n are the t!o 2aria)les to e. so you can la)el the 2alues o" each 2aria)le (0or +ender. rather than loo3in+ li3e a t!o/!ay ta)le. so +o to the menu "or: $nalyBe: <escripti2e Statistics: Crossta)s The purpose o" Crossta)s is to ma3e a t!o/!ay contin+ency ta)le out o" )i+ hun3s o" data# ?ou could ima+ine that i" you hadn’t !ei+hted cases. 14St# Gouis. )y 7people#8 The Command you’ll !ant "or this 3ind o" Chi/Square is a little )it hidden.*'158 To enter it into SPSS.t should loo3 li3e this# ?ou can see that. it +i2es a 2aria)le description o" each cell# $+ain. you’d li3e to +et such a t!o/!ay ta)le# To +et these. you ha2e to really s!itch it around# .SPSS: Chi Squared Tests Crossta)s and the Chi/Squared Test o" . this time.ndependence The other Chi/squared test deals !ith t!o cate+orical 2aria)les# The hypotheses are: 5': 5ometo!n and @ender are independent# 51: 5ometo!n and @ender are related# 1otice these are also not 2ery speci"ic hypotheses Get’s say !e ha2e the "ollo!in+ data. and >4Iural)# $+ain. )ut entered the data in the lon+ !ay. detailin+ the +ender and hometo!n o" a +roup o" students: Dther StG FC Hr)an Iural Sum M*5*&111>J& 0>1*'18685 Sum66>&*. you mi+ht !ant to +o into the 2aria)le 2ie!. you’ll !ant to :ei+ht Cases.amine# They can +o either place# Clic3in+ on this is !here you !ill "ind Chi/Square Pa+e & o" > .


SPSS: Chi Squared Tests Dnce you clic3 on Statistics.0.0... "or Chi/Square# .-.003.-13 3.3-2 . 0 cells .O-#TO.053 5ears(& Chi-Square Li6elih((d Ra%i( Li&ear-7y -Li&ear Ass(cia%i(& + (f 4alid Cases ?ou +et output that loo3s li3e this: This loo3s li3e your ori+inal data chart# 5ere is the p/2alue# Since the p/2alue is less than #'5 ()arely).636 158 a.0!" ha# e e$pec%ed c(u&% less %ha& 5. df 3 3 1 Asy mp.N Crosstabul ation C(u&% 1.00 )*+. Sig.00 -5 .t’s that easy# )#N*#R + .1 66 /O0*'O1+ -.00 -. --sided" .00 1. ...113a 8.*R '(%al 1. !e can reAect the null hypothesis. you can chec3 the )o. 6 -0 '(%al 33 85 158 C/i(S0uare Tests 4alue 8.00 -311 -018 . 'he mi&imum e$pec%ed c(u&% is 2. and say that +ender and hometo!n are related# Pa+e > o" > .

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