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GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS Presidential system - is a republican system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads

an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. The executive is elected and often titled "president" and is not responsible to the legislature and cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss it. The legislature may have the right, in extreme cases, to dismiss the executive, often through impeachment. However, such dismissals are seen as so rare (only two United States presidents were impeached, and neither case led to removal) as not to contradict a central tenet of presidentialism, that in normal circumstances using normal means the legislature cannot dismiss the executive.

Parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a different person from the head of government. This is in contrast to a presidential system in a democracy, where the head of state often is also the head of government, and most importantly: the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature.

The semi-presidential system (referred to as semi-presidentialism) is a system of government in which a popularly elected fixed term president exists alongside a prime minister and Cabinet who are responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

NEOLIBERAL POPULISM Populism is a political doctrine in which one sides with "the people" against "the elite". Populist sentiment contributed to the American Revolutionary War, and continued to shape the young United States afterward. While for much of the twentieth century populism was considered to be a political phenomenon mostly in Latin America. Definition (reading 03): Economic definitions of populism emphasize expansionary economic policies and programs that distribute benefits to the poor without taxing the rich, thus undermining budget equilibrium and fueling inflation. However since such "irresponsible" measure shave been adopted by a wide range of presidents, from the nationalist Juan Peron to the socialist Salvador Allende and the conservative Jose Sarney, this economic definition is of limited use in analyzing the politics of populism. A political definition, which leaves the association of populist politics with socioeconomic structures or economic policies open for empirical investigation, is clearly preferable.

Examples: Presidents Alberto Fujimori in Peru Carlos Menem in Argentina Fernando Collor in Brazil Carlos Andres Perez in Venezuela Neoliberalism is a political philosophy whose advocates support economic liberalizations, free trade and open markets, privatization, deregulation, and enhancing the role of the private sector in modern society. Sources of compatibility: Political populism and economic liberalism are indeed compatible. They can but do not necessarily coexist. Their compatibility rests on shared visions and goals. Both contemporary populism and liberalism see individuals, not groups. They share an adversarial relationship to organized civil society, condemn established politicians and government bureaucrats as serving "special interests," and accuse these "rent seekers" of undermining the collective good for the sake of particularistic benefits (as manifested in the collaboration of: Domingo Cavallo and Alvaro Alsogaray with Menem, of Carlos Bolofia with Fujimori, of Miguel Rodriguez with Perez, and of Yegor Gaidar and Anatoly Chubais with Yeltsin). This alliance between populist leaders and neoliberal reformers, whose core group are neoclassical economists influenced by international financial institutions, is more than a marriage of convenience but less than true love. After taking office, populist leaders have a distant, if not adversarial, relationship to parties. Besides weakening opposition parties, they often refuse to join and strengthen the organizations that helped them win power and support their government. The main reason is populists' desire to retain wide personal latitude

Peronism (Spanish: Peronismo), or Justicialism (Justicialismo), is an Argentine political movement based on the legacy of former President Juan Domingo Pern and his second wife, Eva Pern. The pillars of the Peronist ideal, known as the "three flags", are social justice, economic independence, and political sovereignty. Peronism can be described as a third position ideology, as it rejects the extremes of capitalism and communism. Peronism espouses corporatism and thus aims to mediate tensions between the classes of society, with the state responsible for negotiating compromise in conflicts between managers and workers. Import Substitution Industrialization Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production. ISI is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. Arguments for ISI: o Primary of commodities prices o Terms of trade if the prices are stable the prices of manufactured goods are still higher, another argument is that resources are not always the same. o Resource endowments o Infant industry o Linkages (spillover effect)

ISI differed from protectionism in industrialized countries. ISI was adopted as an economy-wide strategy and protectionism has been typically aimed at helping specific industries. The main tools to implement an ISI strategy are: import licensing, tariffs, over evaluated exchange rates, direct government investment in key industries. Consequences of ISI: 1. Protectionism led to overvalued exchange rates and hence to slow export growth. 2. In sectoral terms, import substitution policies exaggerated industrial growth at the expense of agriculture. Relatively capital-intensive manufactures absorbed only a fraction of the labor force, which grew with urban migration, placing pressure on government to serve as an employer of last resort. 3. As revenues from primary export taxes failed to increase, subsidies to industrial investment and growing government responsibilities put pressure on the budget, Monetization deficit led to persistent inflation. ISI policies had also positive effects. They did indeed stimulate industrialization in LA, reducing the share of the labor force employed in agriculture. The counterpart of this phenomenon was the increasing relative importance of manufacturing.

Criticism: o Uneven protection measured by the effective rate of protection (ERP). o Overcapacity building industries, the demand was low (example of cars: in 1960s LA had 19 firms producing 600.000 cars with an output of just 6700 cars) o Damage to agriculture the investments were focused from public to industrialization o Budget deficits was set by governments policy by providing credits to private firms. o Underemployment o Economic nationalism (FDI) workers gained high technological skills, ban on exports for foreign investors

ISI positive side: industrialization development, building a better infrastructure, economy growth, access to water and electricity, skill improvements. WASHINGTON CONSENSUS Washington Consensus John Williamson (1990) recommendations: o Fiscal deficits increase the income on taxes o Public expenditure priorities end of subsidies in oil business o Tax reform taxes not to high, not to low o Interest rate cost of keeping interest rate: o Trade policy opened economy, liberalized trade so you can get more profit. o FDI because of nationalization, FDI was restricted which Washington disapproved. o Privatization state should take some money from privatization to pay some debts, this sector was more connected to bureaucracy and corruption o Deregulation discriminates small and medium size business, higher reaches of the bureaucracy. o Property rights in US is very important, in LA a very insecure DEMOCRACY AND NON-DEMOCRACY IN LATIN AMERICA Democracy - The democratic method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions which realizes the common good by making people itself decide issues through the election of individuals who are to assemble in order to carry out its will (J. A. Schumpeter, 1942) Minimal democracy Principles: participation, competition, accountability Means: o universal suffrage (both male and female); o free, competitive, recurrent and fair elections; o more than one party; o different and alternative media sources;

Authorian regime 1. limited pluralism (vs. unlimited pluralism of democracies and monism of totalitarian regime) 2. limited political participation (de-politicization) and neither an extensive nor an intensive mobilization; 3. in contrast to totalitarianism there is no legitimation of the system through a common and dominating ideology Democracy Authoritarian regime Totalitarism Hybrid Regimes A set of institutions that have been persistent, be they stable or unstable, for about a decade, have been preceded by an authoritarianism, a traditional regime (possibly with colonial characteristics), or even a minimal democracy and are characterized by the break-up of limited pluralism and forms of independent, autonomous paticipation, but the absence of at least one of the four aspects of minimal democracy. (L. Morlino, 2010) Conditions of democracy S. M. Lipset: From Aristotle down to the present, men have argued that only in a wealthy society in which relatively few citizens lived at the level of real poverty could there be a situation in which the mass of the population intelligently participate in politics and develop the self-restraint necessary to avoid succumbing to the appeals of irresponsible demagogues (in Political Man, 1963). G. Almond, S. Verba: The Civic Culture (1965): Patterns of authorities in such institution like school, family, volunteer neighborhood associations etc. Attitudes, believes, practical experience from everyday life. D. Rustow: Transition to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model (1970): Democracy as a process of accommodation, conflict resolution National unity background (necessary) condition Dynamic model: o Preparatory phase o Decision phase o Habituation phase Democracy vs. populism Populism as a style Populism as a strategy Populism as an idea

Political parties in Latin America 19th century: elite parties Conservatives vs. liberals (e.g. Colorados vs. Blancos) Centre vs. periphery (e.g. costa vs. sierra) Limited suffrage (property based, exclusion of women and illiterate) o Argentina 1912 male over 18 years o Uruguay 1918 illiterate people o Ecuador 1929 women 20th century Import of ideologies from Europe, rising working class Ideology/class based parties (socialism, communism, pan-Americanism) Populism Mass parties, their transformation to catch-all parties (since 1980s) Ethnic parties (Ecuador, Bolivia), green parties 21st century: universal suffrage (in most of the countries voting is compulsory) Leftist electoral victories (1998 Venezuela, 2000 Chile, 2002 Brazil, 2003 Argentina, 2004 Uruguay, 2005 Bolivia, 2006 Nicaragua, Ecuador, 2007 Guatemala, 2008 Paraguay, 2009 El Salvador...) 21st century socialism

POLITICAL CONTEXT OF LA REGIONAL INTEGRATION What defines a region? Space (territory) Society (links) Community (communications, values) Institutions (structure, decision-making, actor capability)

Colonial inheritance Common language Common history Primitive infra-structure Lack of formal intra-regional linkages Borders Illegal trade routes Isolation developed feeling of belonging to the region (patria chica, patria grande) Idea of unification was part of the liberation struggles (Miranda, Bolvar) despite the regional disintegration.

Integration vs. Cooperation Integration: cession of sovereignty, institutions with supranational powers Cooperation: collective decision-making In Latin America: o Localism (caudillo, coronel) o Nationalism o Regionalism

Hispano Americanism/Latino Americanism 1826 Congress of Panama (Bolivar) o Monroe Doctrine 1823: With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintained it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States. 1847/1848 Conference in Lima o US Mexico War 18461848 1864 II. Conference in Lima

Pan-Americanism 1889/1890 Pan-American Conference in Washington 1948 Organization of American States o Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (1956) o Alliance for Progress (1961) o Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1979) o Cuba suspended membership 1962-2009 o Honduras suspended membership 2009-2011

Ibero-Americanism Ibero-American Summits (1991) o Organization of Ibero-American States open regionalism

Latin American economic integration Central American Common Market (MCCA - 1960) Latin American Free Trade Association (ALALC / 1960) o Latin American Integration Association (ALADI - 1980) Andean Pact (1969) o Andean Community of Nations (CAN - 1996) Mercosur (1991)

1990s Regional integration connected with democratization Proliferation of integration initiatives, especially of FTAs (neoliberalism) Inspiration and support by the EU

21st Century

Shift from economic to political cooperation Regional polygamy South-Americanism Importance of security issues Disputes between states (Ecuador vs. Peru, Bolivia vs. Chile, Colombia vs. Venezuela, Argentina vs. Uruguay...) Conflict between leftist and rightist governments