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Global Pressure Distribution for a Water Covered Earth (For simplicity, consider Earth uniformly covered by water) Due to differential heating of earth's surface, the atmospheric air is heated by conduction within the equatorial zone and cooled within the polar e tremities! "hus the air within the troposphere resembles a huge heat engine! "here is a large scale motion both vertical and horizontal within the whole of the troposphere! #ir in the equatorial zone becomes warm, e pands and rises, then moves towards polar e tremities! $ome of the air, however, when sufficiently cooled, subsides at appro imately %&o north and south! "he cold air subsides also over the polar e tremities!

Global Pressure Distribution for a Water Covered Earth

(a) 'ater (overed Earth (b) Earth $howing )and *asses

"he motion of air creates zones of divergence and convergence at the surface! $urface convergence is associated with low pressure at the surface, whereas surface divergence is associated with high pressure at the surface! Due to the change in the sun's declination throughout the year, the zones of high and low pressure are replaced seasonally, roughly following the migration of the sun with a lag of a few wee+s!

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"he total effect of the motion of air e plained is the establishment of permanent zones of high and low pressure over the oceanic areas ('ater (overed Earth)! "he boundary between the cold polar air and warm sub,tropical air is called the -olar Front, which stretches throughout the troposphere! .t moves seasonally north and south and it is important to note that along this front the occurrence of mid,latitude, warm sector, frontal depressions ta+es place! "he zone of surface convergence in the Equatorial region, which also moves seasonally is called the Doldrums or .nter,"ropical (onvergence /one (."(/), characterised by light, mainly easterly winds! "he zones of surface divergence in appro imate latitudes of %& o north and south are zones of predominate calms or light variable winds! "hose are referred to as the 0orse )atitudes (1!#tlantic only)! "hese zones are also +nown as 2ceanic #nti,(yclones! "he zones of "rade 'inds are the broad belts between )atitudes %3 o and 3o north and south (varying seasonally) where the permanent winds blow over oceanic regions with average speeds of 4%,43 +nots! 1ame implies the trac+s of sailing ships between say, Europe and 1!#merica!

Weather in Cli ati! "ones

#$ Doldru s %ITC" - Inter Tro&i!al Conver'en!e "one(

"he doldrums is a zone of light and variable winds but heavy rain and thunderstorms can occur! "he doldrums lie between the equator and 45 &1, the position varying with longitude
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and season! "he doldrums were well +nown in the days of sailing vessels! "he term '."(/' is a relatively modern term and is defined as the 6meeting place of air from the two hemispheres6! "his is usually the meeting place of the 1E and $E trades! )$ Trade Winds

"hese winds are found over most seas e cept for the #rabian $ea, 7ay of 7engal and (hina $eas! "hey blow more or less constantly throughout the year from )atitude %& & towards the equator! .n each case they e tend furthest from the equator on the east side of the high pressure area and blow round the sub,tropical high towards the equator! Fine weather prevails in the poleward and eastern section of the belts! "owards the equator and in the western ocean the weather is more showery! "rade winds tend to move north and south following the sun! .n general, trade wind speeds are higher in the northern hemisphere! "he trades in each hemisphere are strongest towards the end of the winter! *$ O!eani! +nti!,!lones

"hese are also +nown as the 'horse latitudes' and the 'sub,tropical high pressure belts'! "hey are zones of light and variable winds and fine, clear weather! "heir main positions are about %&,%3&1 and $! "he oceanic anticyclone of the 1orth #tlantic is an important factor in the climate of the *editerranean! -$ Te &erate .atitudes

2n the poleward side of the sub,tropical anticyclone there is a predominance of westerly winds! .n the southern hemisphere these winds are +nown as the '8oaring Forties'! .n the northern hemisphere the prevailing westerlies are very variable! /$ Polar 0ront

"his is the name given to the zone separating cold polar air from warm tropical air in mid, latitudes! "his boundary zone covers thousands of miles and it is on this front that depressions form! 1$ Polar Easterlies

"he winds of the polar areas have not been studied in detail! .n northern polar regions the winter winds are variable in force and direction! .n general the winds are lighter in the summer! .n #ntarctica, southeasterly winds predominate! #n important feature in these latitudes is the occurrence of '9atabatic 'inds' e!g! #delie )and in the #ntarctica and the east coast of :reenland!

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Weather in Cli ati! "ones

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*onsoon is a derivation of an #rabic word which means season! "he simple pattern of belts of pressure and associated prevailing winds does not occur over the continental land masses! "his continental effect is most mar+ed over #sia, the world;s largest land mass! .n this area a seasonal reversal of wind direction is observed! "his variation from the single pattern is associated with a fluctuation in the surface temperature! )and surfaces become hot in summer and cold in winter, while the sea temperature changes very little! "here are several reasons for this! 1. )and has a lower specific heat capacity (this means that it requires more heat energy to raise the temperature of a given mass of water by 4 ( than that needed to raise the temperature of the same mass of land by 4()! 5! )and is a poor conductor of heat! "his means that if the land surface becomes warm the heat will not be easily lost by conduction to the air above and to lower layers of roc+, soil etc! %! Depth of penetration of radiation! .nsulation can only affect the top few centimetres of soil, but the transparency of water allows the insulation to e tend to greater depths! <! "urbulence! "urbulence only affects water, and will cause water which has been warmed at the surface to be mi ed downwards through a layer which may be 4&&m deep! =nder the influence of summer heating an area of low pressure develops over the land surface and similarly under the influence of winter cooling an area of high pressure develop!

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+sian 2onsoons
NE Monsoon
"he season for the 1E monsoon is from 2ctober to *arch! #s the land cools an intense cold anticyclone becomes established over #sia! "his anticyclone is centred over *ongolia! "he anticyclone controls the winds of the 1orth .ndian 2cean and the (hina $eas! "he 1E monsoon winds are cold and dry as they originate over the continent!


Bay of Bengal. "he prevailing winds are 1orth Easterly and Force <! "he weather is generally fine and cloud amounts are small! .n the e treme $' of the 7ay it is cloudy! "here is considerable rainfall on the eastern coast of southern .ndia and the eastern coast of $ri )an+a! >isibility is generally good, but in the northern part of the 7ay it may be reduced by smo+e!

2. Arabian Sea. "he prevailing winds are 1orth Easterly, Force <! "he weather is generally fine and clear, with cloudiness and rainfall increasing towards the south and east! >isibility is generally good, but it may be reduced by dust and haze in the north and east! 3. China Sea. -revailing winds are 1 to 1E and reach Force 3 to Force ? at the height of the season! "he weather is generally fine and clear e cept near the coasts of $outh (hina and >ietnam where spells of overcast drizzly weather with poor visibility occur between February and #pril! "his is +nown locally as crachin!

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SW 2onsoon
"he season for the $' monsoon lasts from *ay to $eptember! #s #sia becomes heated a large area of low pressure becomes established, centred over 1' .ndia! "he $E trades of the $outhern .ndian 2cean and 'estern $outh -acific are drawn across the equator and deflected to the right by (oriolis Force! "hey then @oin the circulation around the monsoon low! "he air stream has crossed thousands of miles of ocean and therefore has a high absolute humidity! .ts progress over southern .ndia at the start of the season is called the Aburst; of the monsoon! $qually rain and thunder accompany the arrival f the $' monsoon! E cessively heavy rainfall occurs where the air meets high ground, such as the western :hats, the mountains of 1E .ndia and -a+istan and the 'est coast of 7urma! "he mountains of southern .ndia split the summer winds! "he western arm of the monsoon is deflected northwards, by the western :hats, to 7ombay and then on to -a+istan! "he eastern arm travels up through the 7ay of 7engal to (alcutta and #ssam, and is deflected north,westwards by the 0imalayas! 2n average, the winds arrive in southern .ndia about si wee+s before they arrive in north,west .ndia!

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1. Bay of Bengal. 'inds are $' moderate to fresh, Force < to 3! "he weather is generally cloudy and unsettled with less cloud and rainfall near the eastern coasts of .ndia and $ri )an+a! 2. Arabian Sea. 'inds are $'! 2ver most of the #rabian $ea winds are Force < to Force 3, but in the western part the average is Force ? and may reach Force B! "he weather is cloudy and unsettled with heavy rainfall on the western coasts of .ndia and 7urma! 3. China Seas. 'inds are Force % to Force <! Fog may occur on the coast of (hina, due to the warm moist air travelling over water previously cooled by the 1E monsoon winds! #way from the land weather is generally fair, about half of the s+y is covered and rainfall are pronounced on e posed coasts!

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West +fri!an 2onsoon

"his is +nown as the CdryD season! 1E winds are produced by the pressure gradient between the sub,tropical anticyclone and the equatorial low pressure areas! "he ."(/ is @ust north of the equator and the 1E winds blow over almost the entire region! "he 1E wind is +nown locally as the C0armattanD! "he average strength is Force % to <! "he wind becomes cooler and more moist as it gets further away from the coast! (loud cover is about % o+tas on average with low rainfall and humidity! >isibility is frequently reduced by haze which is due to the dust carried by the wind!

.n the northern summer the 'est #frican land mass heats more rapidly than the ad@acent sea, producing an area of surface low pressure over the land! "he ."(/ moves further north reaching about 431 in Euly! "he $E trade winds cross the equator, are deflected by (oriolis Force and become $' winds! "his C$' *onsoonD produces a mar+ed contrast with the winter weather! "he length of the $' monsoon season is greatest in the south! "he wind has an average strength of Force %, but may increase to Force ? during thundery squalls! (loud amounts are high and thunderstorms are particularly common in the south! )atitudes between 3 1 and 451 have torrential rain almost throughout the $' monsoon, the amount of rainfall is less in the north! #verage ma imum temperature is @ust below %& in most parts, only slightly lower than during the CdryD season! 0umidity is high, especially in Euly at the pea+ of the season!

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East Bra3ilian Coast

"he $E "rade 'inds blow between the sub,tropical anticyclone and the equatorial low pressure area! "he winds have an average strength of Force < to 3 in the north and Force % to < in the south! "he northern area is cloudy, but there is little cloud and rain in the south! #verage daily ma imum is 53(!



"he 7razilian land mass heats more rapidly than the ad@acent ocean! "he sub,tropical anticyclone moves southwards and an area of surface low pressure develops over 7razil! "he pressure gradient causes the $E trades to change direction! "hey become Easterly and then 1E;ly as they approach the coast and @oin in the circulation around the low over 7razil! .n the north, the 1E trades cross the equator! .n the $ the 1E monsoon winds are less constant than the winter $E winds! (loud cover is 5 to % o+tas at 43 $ increasing southwards! 8ainfall is very heavy on the coast!

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