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Contention 1 is Inherency
Venezuela is currently undergoing revolution, Maduro's sovereignty is under attack
Drew Katchen, 14 I have been a web producer for Morning Joe since Feb. of 2011, building the show's web presence from the ground up through the first incarnation of
the show's blog, twitter, flic r and Faceboo pages. I often cover the show's goings!on for the site, and additionall" I report on #$%& issues for 'rior to msnbc I wor ed for ()*+, ,-# and the )ew *or .ail" )ews. I graduated from the /niversit" of 0outh +arolina. http122www.msnbc.com2msnbc2what! now!right!now!about!vene3uela

But another poltical crisis has been roiling in Caracas, Venezuela, where protesters are calling for President Nicolas aduro to step down. , demonstrator raises his arms toward the %olivarian )ational 'olice 6%)'7 firing
&he world4s attention has turned this wee to 5iev, / raine, which is now reportedl" in the hands of demonstrators . tear gas and a water canon in the ,ltamira neighborhood of +aracas, 8ene3uela, on Feb. 19, 201:. view slideshow,t least si; people have been illed in clashes between protesters and securit" forces, according to <euters. &he unrest, which started as a student demonstration against Marduro, has centered on frustration over the countr"4s high crime rate, inflation and a shortage of basic household items. =ere are five things to now about what4s happening right now in 8ene3uela1

!ppposition leader "eopoldo "opez is currentl# $ailed in %a&o Verde prison, in Caracas. 'e is calling for his supporters to continue de&onstrating peacefull# against Venezuelan President Nicolas aduro. ()*& fine, ) as+ #ou not to gi,e up, ) won*t,- he said in a note fro& $ail, according to %euters. 'e added, (.o the police, soldiers, prosecutors and $udges/ do not obe# un$ust orders, do not beco&e the face of repression. .o the #outh, to the protesters, ) as+ #ou to sta# fir& against ,iolence, and to sta# organized and disciplined. .his is e,er#one*s struggle.- .espite
accusing the /nited 0tates of inciting unrest, 'resident Maduro is calling on 'resident -bama to begin tal s. >,ccept the challenge and we will start a high!level dialogue and put the truth on the table,> Maduro said at a press conference Frida". Journalists are receiving mi;ed messages from Maduro. , +)) team was told the" would be removed from the countr" if the" didn4t ?rectif"> how the" were covering the protests. Maduro later reversed his decision, telling the @ournalists the" could sta" and cover the protests in a ?balanced wa".> &he +ommittee to 'rotect Journalists has called on the 8ene3uelan government to ensure safe press access in the countr". More than a do3en reporters have been in@ured covering the protests, according to the group, and several @ournalists have been arrested. 0ome 8ene3uelans are reportedl" without Internet, and some are e;periencing bloc ed sites, according to the ,ssociated 'ress. ,uthorities have cut service to towns li e 0an +ristobal. ,ccording to /.0.!based mobile app compan" Aello, 8ene3uela4s state!run telecom compan" +,)&8 has bloc ed access to a wal ie! tal ie app that demonstrators have used to help organi3e protests. 'rotestors remain divided over their ob@ectives, with man" not bac ing #eopoldo #ope3 or other

Can an opposition with ,ar#ing goals force the current go,ern&ent fro& power0 1nd will that go,ern&ent step down before the ,iolence worsens0 Center for 2cono&ic and Polic# %esearch co3director ar+ 4eisbrot told the Christian 5cience onitor/ -)s there a go,ern&ent in the world that would step down $ust because there are a lot of people calling for change0 No, it doesn*t happen. .he# don*t $ust resign. .here has to be ,iolence.politicians.

Kerry Says US should intervene – But no action has ha
$is%eth &unter, March 1, '(1)

ened !ro" the U#S#
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In +aracas, 8ene3uela, over B0 people have died as a result of the anti!government protests of the past several wee s. &he widespread protests began over a

1nd 6ohn Kerr#, 7.5. 5ecretar# of 5tate, has now spo+en out on the &atter, sa#ing that it will be near i&possible for Venezuela to find peace without e8ternal help. 5err" has also said that he thin s the wa" to a solution involves
violent police response to college campus incident in response to a se;ual assault. dialogue, not violence against 8ene3uela4s "oung people. In hopes of Cuelling the unrest, 8ene3uelan 'resident )icolas Maduro announced that wee long public holida" +arnival would begin earl". %ut his plan hasn4t helped, with protesters pressing on to find @ustice. 0tudent leaders sa" the"4ll march no matter what to tr" to

. 1nti3go,ern&ent &arches ha,e reached a fe,er pitch in Caracas as the 7.5. Congress deter&ines whether the#*ll be able to sanction Venezuela o,er the wa# the go,ern&ent and &ilitar# responded to protesters.
free those who have been detained ,ccording to 8ene3uelan authorities, nearl" D0 cases of human rights abuse stemming from police are now being investigated. ?(e are wor ing closel" with

+olombia and other countries to tr" to see how some ind of mediation might be able to ta e place,> 5err" told reporters. ?%ecause it4s obviousl" alread" proven ver" difficult for the two sides to bring themselves together b" themselves.>

that he had begun proceedings to ta e +)) off the airwaves in 8ene3uela. &he Maduro government has blamed opposition leaders for the violence.Plan .hrw. according to news reports. -n (ednesda". .#'-0& +-)&<I%/&-< http122www. &uzzling the &edia. 5&o+e fro& protesters* s&oldering barricades and gas bo&bs as well as the police*s tear gas seep into neighboring apart&ents and upscale bars ser. $ailing its opponents. ?@1? societ#.iolent cri&e rates.1.ern&ent securit# forces ha.anco. 1t least three de&onstrators ha.e been shot dead. targeted advocac" build intense pressure for action and raise the cost of human rights abuse.e turned this once posh plaza into a wasteland.org2news2201: =*'E<#I)5 Fhttps122www. and inti&idating ci.he Venezuelan go. the" prompted mobs of counter!protesters to ta e to the streets as the" had done before.e used e8cessi. 92B%71%: .<14 anarch"!rages!little!direction!nB1JIJ $#-%. -ur rigorous. hu"an rights 0ill still %e violated >)%)5' >7P.org2news2201:2022212vene3uela!violence!against! protesters!@ournalistsF2022212vene3uela!violence!against!protesters!@ournalists Venezuelan securit# forces ha. 'resident )icolGs Maduro announced on Februar" 20. https122www..n arrest warrant has also been issued for +arlos 8ecchio. Journalists and human rights (. . For more than D0 "ears. but it could well cement his presidenc" if the opposition continues to falter.e been in$ured since 9ebruar# 1.nbcnews.e and unlawful force against protesters on &ultiple occasions since 9ebruar# 1. another leader of #Hpe34s political part".com2stor"line2vene3uela!crisis2vene3uela!protest! Putrid re&nants of the nightl# bouts between rioters and go. de&onstrators ha.<14 =uman <ights (atch is one of the world4s leading independent organi3ations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights. &he government has censored the news media. &he crisis is the biggest test "et for 'resident )icolas Maduro. in a show of support for the leftist government. Maduro sho0s no signs in slo0ing do0n.United States . 9or an entire &onth.ederal /overn"ent should su%stantially increase it's econo"ic engage"ent to0ards the Venezuelan eo le to oust Maduro# Contention '. who called the assailants Fterrorist delinCuents.F &hat raised the death toll to at least 2B. and scores ha. and a press wor ers union reported on Februar" 21 that the government had cancelled the credentials of +))4s +aracas correspondent. 1&ericas director at 'u&an %ights 4atch.said 6os= iguel Vi..s man" as three people were reported illed in (ednesda"'s protests. according to collated government and opposition numbers.. one of the most prominent opposition figures.&u"an 1ights &u"an 1ights a%uses in Venezuela are revalent right no0 '%4. . and a @udge ordered his pretrial detention on Februar" 20. -ne barricade!buster was a +hilean middle!aged woman who became the first nown foreigner illed in 8ene3uela4s grinding crisis. %" focusing international attention where human rights are violated. according to the state's governor. bloc ing transmission of a &8 channel and threatening to prosecute news outlets for their coverage of the violence. ob@ective investigations and strategic.e8t *$+.1.hrw.ern&ent has openl# e&braced the classic tactics of an authoritarian regi&e. #eopoldo #Hpe3. Februar" 1I. =uman <ights (atch has wor ed tenaciousl" to la" the legal and moral groundwor for deep!rooted change and has fought to bring greater @ustice and securit" to people around the world. . 'rotest!related deaths are mounting on both sides of the political divide. was arrested on defenders have reported being sub@ect to acts of violence and intimidation b" government agents or supporters. 'u&an %ights 4atch said toda#. we give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes. 201:. including a )ational $uard captain who died from gunshot in the northern state of +arabobo. . including shortages of basic goods and so&e of the world*s highest inflation and .ing A?< coc+tails.. including beating detainees and shooting at crowds of unar&ed people.e co&e out b# the tens of thousands across Venezuela to rail against econo&ic and social proble&s.<14. and both sides appear to see to inflate figures. 'revious victims include a motorc"clist who was decapitated b" wire strung across a road and numerous people attempting to clear barricades from the streets. a0 well a0 a legal o7ligation to prote.E.h *oney a per0on ha0 5or 2oe0 not have>1 whether that per0onB0 . "eaning that each erson ossesses certain hu"an rights %y the "ere !act o! this erson4s hu"anity# @hat 2oe0 not *atter A or at lea0t what 0houl2 not *atter A i0 where a per0on live01 how *u.o*pletely 3aile2 to re.ono*i.h . sought to achieve. /either o3 the0e propo0ition0 happen0 to 7e true. &his is the only way that the notion o3 hu*an right0 *ake0 any 0en0e.ting hu*an right0 within it0 own 2o*e0ti.ono*i.hoo0e one eDa*ple>1 thi0 not only .learly 0een in the language o3 the Fnternational Covenant on ?.h 0tate ha0 the pri*ary re0pon0i7ility 3or prote.on0titutes a human rights violation on the part of the rest of the international communit".e in 8ort $enning1 &eorgia1 or &uantana*o $ay1 Cu7a1 or at the A7u &hrai7 pri0on in FraH. .ular international hu*an right0 treatie01 an2 0o on.ation 5to .on0titute0 a violation o3 hu*an right0 7y the territorial 0tate A 7ut thi0 al0o .ountry i0 that A* govern*ent o33i.alle2 Fnternational $ill o3 +ight01 where7y ea.ognize are the 0e.itie01 the territorial approa.ial0 are o3 the *in2 that 4.hi0 i0 not to 0ugge0t that :territory= 2oe0 not *atter at all or that 0tate0 have the 0a*e hu*an right0 o7ligation0 out0i2e their 7or2er0 a0 they 2o 2o*e0ti.a7le to a.tion an2 .onteDt o3 prote.et1 notwith0tan2ing thi0 in.E.tion were 0o*ething that in2ivi2ual 0tate0 .t the e.ial an2 Cultural +ight01 one o3 the 0o-. we live in a world where an average o! 5(.orture Convention an2 the Covenant on Fnternational Civil an2 'oliti. &hus. F3 hu*an right0 .hi0 0a*e kin2 o3 rationale i0 7ehin2 the poli.h to hu*an right01 the 4. #oo ing at violations of economic rights alone.ooperation= *eanC @hat it *ean0 i0 that when . notwithstanding nearuniver0al 2e.a*e a party to any parti. .y o3 :eDtraor2inary ren2ition.t the hu*an right0 o3 all other people. <owever1 thi0 ha0 0tarte2 to . Again1 the argu*ent i0 that A*eri.e to 0tarving .hil2ren in a parti.oul2 5an2 woul2> 2o in2ivi2ually1 there woul2 7e no nee2 3or any international .ooperation. Ea2ly enough1 our ina7ility to re.1 Eo. 6o0t people 0ee* to 7elieve that torture i0 illegal whether it take0 pla.ting <u*an +ight0=1 http://glo7alejournal.h 0tate party to the Covenant ha0 5legally> o7ligate2 it0el3 to prote. An2 what al0o ha0 to 7e 0ai2 i0 that thi0 i0 not 0i*ply a *oral o7ligation A woul2nBt it 7e a ni. @ho ha0 the re0pon0i7ility 3or *eeting the0e :univer0al= right0C .ting hu*an right0 within it0 own 7or2er0 A 7ut that no 0tate ha0 hu*an right0 o7ligation0 that eDten2 out0i2e o3 it0 own territorial @urisdiction.e an2 .ognize2 that territorial considerations should not %e used in this "anner to de"arcate 0here a country4s hu"an rights o%ligations %egin – 7ut1 *ore i*portantly1 where they en2.ation in thi0 .onvention0. not nearl" o7ligation0 un2er international law are only appli.hange an2 it ha0 .hil2ren in 0o*e other lan2 A rather1 it i0 a legal o7ligation.hallenge2. 4n2er thi0 5territorial> approa.= . Fn that way1 the :war on terror= ha0 helpe2 u0 0ee that territorial .laration0 o3 the :univer0ality= o3 hu*an right01 the re0pon0i7ility 3or prote.hat i01 they have re.on0titute2 the greate0t hu*an right0 3ailure o3 all. 7or2er0.ognize the eDtent o3 our own hu*an right0 o7ligation0 ha0 .ountry i0 re0pon0i7le 3or prote.o 0tate *atter0 7luntly1 the rea0on why :ene*y . (hat has this territorial approach to human rights given usK /nfortunatel".an authoritie0. o7ligation0 un2er international law 2o not eDten2 out0i2e the territorial 7oun2arie0 o3 the 4nite2 Etate0.hi0 i0 *o0t .((( eo le die every single day due to reventa%le causes # .= @hat 2oe0 :international a00i0tan. %ut what if a countr" is not able or is not willing to protect the human rights of its citi3ensK -r what if human rights are being violated. and all of the other international human rights treaties.e0: the :war on terror. .ountry 3or :interrogation= purpo0e0 A al7eit at the 7ehe0t o31 an2 un2er the 2ire.on0i2eration0 o3tenti*e0 *ake little 0en0e in the .h the 4.h one o3 the0e treatie0 repre0ent0 i0 nothing le00 than thi0: that everyone ha0 an>//?6 &u"an rights are universal.E.tion0 within the 4nite2 Etate0.he 5univer0al> re0pon0e o3 0tate0 ha0 7een that ea.on2ary re0pon0i7ilitie0 that the re0t o3 the international . ha0 not 2one anything wrong or unlaw3ul when in2ivi2ual0 out0i2e the 4nite2 Etate0 are 7eing ki2nappe2 an2 0ent to 0o*e thir2 .o*7atant0= are 7eing hel2 at &uantana*o $ay1 Cu7a an2 not in 0o*e lo.ting hu*an right0.ting hu*an right0 ha0 7een 7a0e2 al*o0t eD.lu0ively on territorial . &his is what the framers of the International %ill of <ights. which has pledged to protect those rights.o*e 3ro* the *o0t unlikely o3 0our. but so are the duties and responsibilities to meet those rights.ountry are 7eing 2enie2 an e2u. <owever1 what we have . Etrippe2 to their 7are0t e00ential01 what ea.ular . in large part due to the actions of outside statesK It is here that the silence of the international communit" has been deafening.tion. right0 o3 :everyone= 7y *ean0 o3 :international a00i0tan. i0 a party to> when it i0 operating out0i2e the territorial 7or2er0 o3 the 4nite2 Etate0.he i2ea i0 that the 4.e ge0ture i3 we provi2e2 0o*e a00i0tan.ountry ha0 5or ha0 not> 7e. &he point is that human rights are universal. govern*ent i0 not 7oun2 7y the .o**unity ha0 when the territorial 0tate ha0 not 7een willing or a7le to o33er hu*an right0 prote.h to hu*an right0 ha0 e00entially gone un. .= .&u"an rights are universal20e have a "oral i" erative to rotect our !ello0 citizens o! the 0orld /i%ney1 3 $elk %i0tingui0he2 'ro3e00or at the 4niver0ity o3 /orth Carolina-A0heville 56ark &i7ney1 8e7ruary 29981 :+e0pon0i7ilitie0 3or 'rote. +ather1 +ight0 57oth o3 whi.re2i7le level o3 hu*an right0 atro.e an2 .ontrol o31 A*eri. 8ortunately1 *o0t people have 7een a7le to 0ee 7ehin2 thi0 3aGa2e.

a series of targets for reducing social and economic ills.> 1 hu&an rights approach to development is essential.he deadliest for& of . and so on. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. 0tructural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three ma@or respects. 1< 6/). 'illa" noted that po.cademic .ed if de. a senior /nited )ations official said toda". capital punishment.gainst *outh 8iolence. economic development and human rights have been considered b" governments as separate issues to be tac led separatel". "ou are forced to recogni3e the truth in $andhi4s observation that the deadliest form of violence is povert". O0tructural violence operates more or less independentl" of individual actsP independent of individuals and groups 6politicians.perience of men in ma. ?/) official stresses the importance of human rights in overcoming povert">.un.irector of the +enter for the 0tud" of 8iolence.ert# 7N. warned that ?the interrelation between freedom from want and freedom from fear> must be central to the discussions of world leaders on how to achieve the Millennium ./eM<d9#8+0o722EM : .$s7 b" their target date of 201B. &hose e. wars. participation and accountabilit" and the rule of law are instrumental for development to ta e firm root and be both eCuitable and sustainable. suicide.ert# re&ains stubbornl# high in too &an# regions of the world.ecutions. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the societ". $lobal leaders are scheduled to gather at /) =eadCuarters in )ew *or ne.dvisor" +ouncil of the )ational +ampaign .perienced b" those who are above them. 191!19J7 OOO(e do not endorse the use of =olocaust rhetoric .evelopment $oals 6M. O&he lethal effects of structural violence operate continuousl". 'illa" said.he econo&ic e&power&ent of the world*s poorest people will not happen unless their hu&an rights are also considered. Ms.ert#.eadl" Epidemic and its +auses>. =earing about their lives. Ms. as ?it puts people in control of their own li.LDBBDJM.'u&an rights are +e# to reducing po. ?8iolence1 -ur .$s.org2apps2news2stor". . e. that evolves from the e. and where future efforts should be directed. ?=uman rights principles such as eCualit". rather than sporadicall".iolence is po.elop&ent policies are pursued in a hu&an rights . &hese are not acts of $od.n" theor" of violence. particularl" sub!0aharan .treme povert" and discrimination that characteri3es their lives. the /) =igh +ommissioner for =uman <ights.imum securit" prisons and hospitals for the criminall" insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are onl" microcosms. or human. and disabilit" suffered b" those who occup" the bottom rungs of societ". especiall" a ps"chological theor". *ou cannot wor for one da" with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminall" insane without being forcible and constantl" reminded of the e.> For too long. standpoint. urging governments around the world not to separate development and basic rights when devising polic". Member N . )avi 'illa".n" approach to a theor" of violence needs to begin with a loo at the structural violence in this countr".amining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. .aspK)ewsI. ?(e cannot afford to eep disappointing the hopes of those who live at the margins of their own societies N let alone the global communit". with development treated as the overriding concern. (2&power&ent cannot be achie.> b" which I mean the non!natural deaths and in@uries that are caused b" specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. secure and @ust world in larger freedom.ugust 2010 N .sia.iolence ine. http122www. 'rofessor of 's"chiatr" N =arvard Medical 0chool. whereas murders.frica and parts of . the =igh +ommissioner emphasi3ed.cess deaths 6or at least a demonstrabl" large proportion of them7 are a function of class structureP and that structure is itself a product of societ"4s collective human choices. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. Focusing merel" on those relativel" few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from e.acuu&B Economic growth strategies can be a powerful tool to help us reali3e the /) +harter4s vision of a more eCual. &he" are not where the ma@or violence in our societ" ta es place.itable 333 outweighs nuclear war >illigan CD 6James.- I2:210. In an op!ed column that was published in )epal4s <epublica and other newspapers. as contrasted with the relativel" lower death rates e. ?&heir disenfranchisement ma" carr" a higher cost than investing resources and political will in their empowerment. such as the deaths we attribute to homicide. soldiers in warfare. and about their families and friends. .t month to assess the progress so far towards the M. )ot a da" goes b" without reali3ing that tr"ing to understand them and their violent behavior in purel" individual terms is impossible and wrong!headed. suicides.> she wrote. political parties. pg.ert# &a+es . I am contrasting ?structural> with ?behavioral violence. . %" ?structural violence> I mean the increased rates of death.

the eFui. or lethal is moot.theguardian. =e has previousl" been posted in Johannesburg and in Jerusalem.iolence> to which the citi3ens of all the other nations were being sub@ected. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramaticall" and alarmingl". with award!winning wor spanning +entral . the centre of the demonstrations. G # fellow citizens.0.fter 1I da"s of mass protest.0. to ubara+ was standing down and handing power Millitary +id to 1e%els is results in the ushing out o! regi"e !orces 6effer# 4hite. waving flags.uring the past c>real and 6ac+ 5hen+er. . for the" are ine. It had the least ineCuit" in income and living standards. as man" people die because of relative povert" as would be illed b" the )a3i genocide of the Jews over a si. O0tructural violence is normall" invisible. 11 (hen it finall" came.tricabl" related to each other. in the difficult circu&stances our countr# is e8periencing. Ma" $od guide our steps.G 5ulei&an read.iolence. 19B:!19RD7.cess deaths caused b" socioeconomic ineCuities on a worldwide basis. in effect. such as (orld (ar II 6an estimated :9 million militar" and civilian deaths. as cause to effect. holding up hastil" written signs declaring victor". and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life e. dangerous. .org2polic"!anal"sis2view2arms!for!s"rias!rebels!shaping!the!wars!outcome Jeffre" (hite is a defense fellow at &he (ashington Institute. the" found that 1E &illion deaths a #ear could be attributed to the ?structural . in fact accelerating.!"ear period. the Indonesian massacre of 19JB!JJ 6perhaps BRB. on the average.<. +omparing this freCuenc" of deaths from structural violence to the freCuenc" of those caused b" ma@or militar" and political violence. &he finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this countr". and his coverage of the Eg"ptian revolution won the . ever" fifteen "ears. 19D9!19:B7. . . In 200I he became Eg"pt correspondent for the $uardian. the 8ietnam war 6possibl" two million. it too @ust over D0 seconds for Eg"pt's vice!president announce that President 'osni to the &ilitar#. it was clear that even war cannot begin to co&pare with structural . wept and chanted.change between the /. .pectanc"P and the highest overall life e. &he Cuestion as to which of the two forms of violenceQstructural or behavioralQis more important. 'rotesters fell to their nees and pra"ed.his is. Mc$real is a former %%+ @ournalist in +entral .alent of an ongoing. 62D2 million7. (hen the" compared the life e. e" irics rove8 Chris http122www. because it ma" appear to have had other 6natural or violent7 causes.voters7 whose decisions ma" nevertheless have lethal conseCuences for others. Jac 0hen er is a #ondon!born writer who has reported from across the globe.<<< deaths per #ear fro& ar&ed conflict. President uha&&ad 'osni ubara+ has decided to gi.sia. which continues #ear after #ear.0007 deaths7.e up the office of the president of the republic and instructed the supre&e council of the ar&ed forces to &anage the affairs of the countr#. or genocide.lcoc attempted to arrive at the number of e. 1? https122www. and the /. Violence is e!!ective in to ling a%usive regi"es 6as sho0n 0ith the '(11 7gy tian 1evolution. ther&onuclear war.merica and merchant seaman. =e is currentl" based in #ondon and +airo ! @ac shen er. unending. and embracing soldiers.com2world220112feb2112hosni!mubara !resigns!eg"pt!cairo +hris Mc$real is the $uardian's (ashington correspondent. =undreds of thousands of people pac ed into &ahrir 0Cuare. &he 1: to 1I million deaths a "ear caused b" structural violence co&pare with about 1<<. the Indian subcontinent. perpetrated on the wea and poor ever" "ear of ever" decade.F Moments later a deafening roar swept central +airo. and even a h"pothetical nuclear e.pectanc" in the world. the end was swift.0. speciali3ing in the militar" and securit" affairs of the #evant and Iran. G)n the na&e of 1llah the &ost gracious the &ost &erciful.mnest" International $ab" <ado pri3e for e. 5ohler and . including those b" genocideQor about eight million per "ear. 0tructural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a sociall" and epidemiologicall" significant scale 6from homicide and suicide to war and genocide7.washingtoninstitute. In other words. $a3a and the Mediterranean.pectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic s"stems against 0weden.cellence in human rights @ournalism. 0weden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. throughout the world. !&ar 5ulei&an.

liberties and rights of an# people or an# nation are threatened b# elected officials or leaders who are gi.ssociated 'ress notes a full audit Fwould have included not @ust comparing votes electronicall" registered b" machines with the paper ballot receipts the" emitted.pril 1Dth presidential elections. but also comparing those with the poll station registries that contain voter Cha. de"ocracy and civil li%erties Colonial 4ilia&sberg.Ca italis" aduro go. causing dail" losses of personnel and armored vehicles and losses of combat aircraft ever" few da"s.7 Contention :. Violent revolution is 9usti!ied. .ceeding the regime's abilit" to replace losses in men and eCuipment Increasing the regime's reliance on less capable weapons s"stems. installations.e &ore rese&bled those of a Cuban strong&an than a de&ocraticall#3 elected official. loc+s the& in socialist practices and under&ines Venezuelan institutions Christ# D@1? 6'atric +hrist". and presentation of 1Ith!centur" (illiamsburg and the stud".com2opinion2blogs2world!report2201D20J21D2us!overtures! to!chave3!successor!maduro!hurt!vene3uelas!opposition7 5ince the death of Venezuelan strong&an 'ugo Cha. without $ustifiable cause. Solves !or !reedo".es to preser.ez in arch. First. Militar" assistance to the rebels could push regime forces to the brea ing point b"1 Increasing the rate of attrition of regime air and armored forces. intelligence. 201D ?/.ez3era appointees lo#al to the current go. June 1D. in such cases that would be @ustifiable. .olution is onl# $ustified when the freedo&s.emocratic -pposition> http122www. %e.ilitar# assistance will be &ost useful to the rebels if it per&its the& to fight in accordance with their preferred wa# of war.s the .e his power and discredit his critics in recent &onths. -vertures to Maduro =urt 8ene3uela4s .usnews. aduroHs actions ha. ilitar# assistance 33 in training. http122connect.en the power to represent and who would onl# see+ to abuse their office and unleash a t#rannical rule upon its own people. formations.nal"st the Foreign 'olic" Institute.ez*s dictatorial practices. interpretation. thus wea ening their capabilit" E.0.org2post2Is!revolution!ever! @ustifiedFon!ever!@ustified -ur mission is to be a center for histor" and citi3enship. such as seizing airfields and other &a$or sites.merica's founding democratic principles. restoration. encouraging national and international audiences to learn from the past through the preservation.he larger actions. then the onl# course of action is war. planning.org2post2Is!revoluti =*'E<#I)5 Fhttp122connect. and police and intelligence facilities. it is not @ustifiable to ta e such liberties awa". and use of indirect3fire weapons 33 could shorten the ti&e necessar# to ta+e these facilities and reduce casualties for the rebels. &he rebels have hammered awa" at regime forces. because . Indeed. 6Justifiable cause could be set to the tone of criminals who commit punishable offenses and thus have been @ustifiable stripped of certain rights.ern&ent will uphold Cha. /0 )ews. their is no @ust cause in such a case. and troops <educing the willingness of regime forces to fight &he rebels have wor ed continuousl" to reduce the regime's presence in the provinces b" attac ing chec points. liberties and rights. 1. 0enior 'olic" . as opposition presidential candidate =enriCue +apriles had reCuested. (hereas it falls upon the law abiding citi3en. often reFuire e8tended sieges and can result in substantial rebel casualties.histor".histor". the Maduro regime is refusing to allow a full audit of the fraudulent .ern&ent do&inate VenezuelaHs National 2lection Council and 5upre&e Court N the two government institutions able to challenge election results I it is unli+el# either will signatures and with digitall" recorded fingerprints.F =owever. and teaching of . but if the represented beco&e stripped of their freedo&s. 4ar in itself is a last resort. he has ta+en drastic &o.

eficit different signals. S0ee a collection of political cartoons on defense spending. .erage of the regi&e.itable I Venezuela is prepared for perfect as#&etrical war against 75 influence and de&ocrac# in "atin 1&erica now I the goal is instabilit# anwaring 1.arious public scandals I especiall" those related to institutional corruption N could further erode public opposition will be detrimental to bilateral ties with the /nited 0tates. if the 7nited 5tates grants or is percei. . that could gi. opposition lawma ers led b" MarUa +orina Machado. 0ecretar" 5err" declined even to mention 8ene3uela directl" during his near D0!minute address to the plenar" session of the -rgani3ation of . a shameful move reminiscent of Fidel +astro's pla"boo .e further co. 1 socialist regi&e &eans that Boli.mil2pubs2download. pro3 aduro law&a+ers ph#sicall# attac+ed opposition legislators on the floor of VenezuelaHs National 1sse&bl#. in 0ecretar" 5err"'s words. one of 8ene3uela's last remaining independent news channels.G In light of all this.0. the -bama administration's overall trac record in the region gives reason for concern.ision co.ed to grant legiti&ac# to the aduro go. Indeed. $lobovision. -ther power during his wee long trip to the region in 2011. )ews . a representative from the )ational . the regime arrested a former militar" general who was critical of +uba's growing influence on 8ene3uela's armed forces. was sold to a group of investors with close ties to Maduro. S0ee a collection of political cartoons on the econom". #ast month. aduroHs go. #ast month. aduro e.i.merican 0tates in $uatemala last wee . have held meetings in capitals around the region to educate foreign leaders about Maduro's illegitimate hold on power.ssembl" of 8ene3uela. For 8ene3uela's opposition. . aduroHs popularit# is plu&&eting. the compan"'s new ownership has banned live video coverage of opposition leader =enriCue +apriles and man" of the station's prominent @ournalists have been fired or have resigned. /nder +have3.T 0econd.olution is ine.T (hile 0ecretar" 5err" said that his meeting with his 8ene3uelan counterpart included discussion of human rights and democrac" issues.e relations with aduro is a punch to the gut. Pro3 aduro legislators in the National 1sse&bl# ha. &he -bama administration's overtures to Maduro's government come as the region is increasingl" s eptical of the +have3 successor's reign.nd while outspo en critics of the regime face criminal charges. continuing dialogue at a high level between the 0tate .id %e +utKT <ather than accept Maduro's strongman tactics.accept the oppositionHs de&ands for a full election recount.porter of :th generation warfare instabilit">P 0trategic 0tudies Institute. and .rm" (ar +ollege.nd in recent wee s.cfmKCL11D97 II) . S<ead the /.arian %e. $. 'resident -bama failed to mention 8ene3uela or +have3's abuse of !ba&a refused at first to ac+nowledge the 1pril election results. it is clear that the bogus charges of espionage against &rac" were used as leverage in tal s with the /nited 0tates. (hat's worse. the 5tate Depart&ent has since sent . More recentl". =owever. &o no one's surprise. /. +hile's 0enate unanimousl" passed a resolution urging a total audit of all polling stations. &hird. it remains unclear wh" the -bama administration see s.arm".merican filmma er &imoth" &rac" is welcome and long overdue. 0hould Foreign .a"s prior. Fan ongoing. 6Ma. . the regime and its allies are using fear and intimidation to silence the opposition. &o be sure. the !ba&a ad&inistrationHs eagerness to re. +apriles met with +olombian 'resident Juan Manuel 0antos in %ogota. !n 1pril ?< to the regi&e as it s#ste&aticall# under&ines VenezuelaHs re&aining institutions.e banned opposition law&a+ers fro& co&&ittee hearings and spea+ing on the asse&bl# floor. the independent broadcasting station faced "ears of pressure as government authorities freCuentl" threatened to arrest the group's owners and @ournalists.ern&ent is ta+ing steps to do&inate radio and tele.epartment and the S8ene3uelanT Foreign Ministr"F N let alone believe that such engagement will lead to an" substantive change in Maduro's behavior.arian ilitias of 4or+ersG to Gdefend the so.0.ern&ent. the -bama administration should ta e a firm stand and ma e clear to +aracas that an" steps to undermine the countr"'s constitution or threaten the 4ashington holds all the cards. VenezuelaHs econo&# is in a free3fall.ereignt# of the ho&eland. ! 'rofessor of Militar" 0trateg"P ?8ene3uela as an e. and government officials repeatedl" vilif" and slander +apriles.en called for the creation of GBoli. +aracas's recent release of @ailed .ebate1 $iven &he +urrent . 2012P http122www. &he fact is that confidence in the current government.

mericas.B . . and +hina7 have sha en the conventional wisdom that capitalism and liberal democrac" are superior to the alternatives. In this scenario.V =ugo +have34s %olivarian strategic! level dream depends on five enabling concepts.irect . to ta e power. however. B7 ma. +ongress. regime legitimac" is e" to the conflict.!dominated capitalism of the new global era are total failures.V In these terms. interprets their needs. the worldwide financial crisis and the rise of the %<I+ nations 6%ra3il. sovereignt" was shifted from the ing to the nation!state.merica nowQas in the 19J0s and 19R0sQappears to be a revolutionar"4s dream.pectations along with a popular consciousness of none. national legislatures. &hese failures must now be replaced b" ?participator" democrac".V Five Enabling +oncepts. there are deep flaws in the democratic political s"stems throughout the (estern =emisphere. . and ?popular> 6direct7 democrac" in 8ene3uela that would sooner or later e.ivine <ight> and the state en@o"s absolute power 6de facto sovereignt"7Qthrough the enforcement of <ousseau4s $eneral (illQas an essential right. power has opened the possibilit" of a new global geopolitical order. however. but the theor" remains valid. &he relative popular dissatisfaction stems from deep!rooted socio!economic ineCualities. .penditure> to guarantee the legitimate needs and desires of the peopleP 27 elections. and the courts will provide formal democrac" and international legitimac" 6de @ure sovereignt"7.espite the fact that the possible use of militar" force is never completel" separated from the #eninist . and emphasi3es ?social e. a of the revolutionar" effort. &hus.!#eninist political!economic models made mista es. <epresentative democrac" and capitalism serve onl" elitesQnot the common people.+have34s political thought.J &hus. +have34s vision comes at a time when.merica are not doing what is right for the people and that the socialist %olivarian philosoph" and leadership will. &he abbreviated concept is to destro" the old foreign!dominated 6/.tend throughout the .0.porting instabilit" and generating public opinion in favor of the ?revolution> and against the bourgeois s"stem.mericas. &hat overall s"stem of power is intended to ensure internal peace and societal harmon" in 8ene3uela that willQin timeQprovide the foundations for a =emisphere!wide regional power bloc. the individual surrenders his rights and personal interests to the state in return for the enforcement of social harmon" and the $eneral (ill. 11V &he main tenets of direct democrac" in contemporar" 8ene3uela dictate that1 17 the new authorit" in the state must be a ma. &here are also rising popular e. 10V . 'rior to the French <evolution. It becomes evident.!dominated7 political and economic s"stems in the . :7 were sovereign.> ?direct democrac".merican ?Empire> and its bourgeois political friends in #atin . despite general economic progress.imum leader who communicates directl" with the people. &hat long!term effort is aimed at e. 27 promoting a socialist economic s"stem as two parts of a five!part overarching political! economic model for #atin . &he idea is that representative democrac" and the /.lmost no one seems to understand the Mar.t the same time.> In these terms. and political parties. in his general vision of the %olivarian <evolution. India.emocrac" and the 0ocialist Economic 0"stem.> or what some detractors have called ?radical> or ?neo!populism.merica. distrust and lac of confidence in the police. +have3 is1 17 re! elaborating a <ousseauan concept of ?direct> or ?totalitarian> democrac"P and. and it is public opinion that is the main target militar" war of maneuver and attrition.0. +have34s revolutionar" vision will not be achieved through a conventional ?new societ"> will be created onl" b" a gradual and s"stematic application of agitation and propaganda.0.ccording to 8ladimir #enin and +have3.9 &he other three parts of the model include1 D7 a new securit" scheme for 8ene3ualaP :7 social programs to strengthen ?direct democrac"> and its internal power baseP!#eninist foundations of =ugo concept of destro"ing bourgeois opposition.I #atin . (ith the revolution. the contemporar" as"mmetric revolutionar" warfare challenge is rooted in the concept that the )orth . but will have no real role in governance or the econom"P D7 the state will control or own the ma@or means of national economic production and distributionP and. <ussia. and to create a socialistic.imum communications support to the regime.istent rights. &he current concept of 8ene3uelan democrac" has its roots firml" in the French <evolution and subseCuent perversions of the <ousseauan notion of ?total> 6totalitarian7 democrac". It begins with the premise that traditional post!(orld (ar II socialist and Mar. andV socioeconomic and political integration. or a traditional insurgenc". ings ruled b" ?.R &he apparent waning of /.

this ind of conflict is intended to resist. &his t"pe of conflict is not won b" sei3ing specific territor" militaril" or destro"ing specific industrial or nuclear capabilities. 'resident +have3 has also created an independent national police force.s"mmetric (ar of . the 8ene3uelan +onstitution of 1999 provides political and institutional autonom" for the armed forces.>1D +have34s concept of as"mmetric war ma es e. and political! militar" support of radical populist and 21st!centur" social movements. 'resident +have3 and his followers now that as"mmetric conflict is a logical means of e. and interviews are being broadcast throughout 8ene3uela.1IV &he intent of the communications and informational efforts is to generate strong and favorable public opinion.>1B &he militar" reserve and the paramilitar" 6militia7 organi3ations are charged to1 17 protect the countr" from a /. of unconventional methods that authoritativel" integrates a nation!state4s political. and housing for the poor.imi3e one4s own advantages. agrarian reform programs.1RV 0ocial 'rograms and +ommunications. It can have both ps"chological as well as ph"sical dimensions.V . . clinics.rms7.12V &he 0ecurit" 0cheme. and to inculcate the notion that opposition to the regime eCuates to betra"al of the countr".dditionall".000 +uban doctors to help ta e care of the medical needs of the 8ene3uelan underclass. using the multidimensional instruments of national and international 6alliances and partnerships7 power that it has at its disposal.isting government or s"mbol of powerQand bring about radical political change. attain the initiative. informational.the national and regional political!economic integration function will be performed b" the supreme leader b" means of his regional financial.imum media 6radio. but the centrali3ation of those institutions under the control of the 'resident ensures his absolute control of securit" and ?social harmon"> in 8ene3uelaQand elsewhere. a methodolog" of the wea against the strong. It is won b" altering the political!ps"chological!economic!social factors that are most relevant in a targeted culture. anti!opposition militiasP and. #ac ing the conventional power to challenge the /nited 0tates or most of 8ene3uela4s immediate neighbors. and militar" instruments of power. oppose. &8.ll this reCuires a complete unit" of effort b" the state. the 'resident is developing education and literac" outreach programs. and generate electoral successes.0. . and wor ers4 cooperatives.pression and self!assertion. roads. develop mass consensus. 'resident +have34s personal involvement in the communications effort is also clear and strong.rm" of the 'eople in . &he primar" characteristic of as"mmetric conflict is the use of disparit" between contending parties to gain advantage.V . outside the traditional control of the armed forces. he has established ME<+. 0trategic as"mmetr" has been defined as ?acting. the +aribbean %asin. informational.ll the 'eople. %ut.plicit the need to generate a mi.19V +onclusions.ploit real and imagined fears of the population. &hus. and large parts of +entral and 0outh . &o strengthen his personal position and internal power base.1J &he institutional separation of the various securit" organi3ations ensures that no one securit" institution can control the others. li e all others. ideas.ploit an opponent4s wea nesses. e. da" nurseries.1:V &hus.merica.t the same time. .ll these programs together .dditionall". efforts have gone forward to establish a one million!person militar" reserve and two additional paramilitar" organi3ationsQthe Frente %olivariano de #iberacion 6%olivarian #iberation Front7 and the E@ercito del 'ueblo en . &he armed forces and the police perform traditional national defense and internal securit" missions within the conte. +have3 has also imported 1J. economic.t of preparing for what 'resident +have3 has called a ?:th $eneration . or gain greater freedom of action and movement.t the same time. . gain control of. or +olombian invasion with an IraCi!st"le insurgenc"P 27 act internall" as armed. organi3ing. a state compan" that provides subsidi3ed foodstuffs to the poor. .mple evidence e. under the absolute control of the 'resident and commander in chief. these social programs offer tangible benefits to the mass of voting 8ene3uelans who were generall" ignored or neglected b" previous governments. %olivarianismo reCuires ma. material.ists that speeches. +learl". and thin ing differentl" than opponents in order to ma. or overthrow an e. 'resident +have3 is spending large amounts of mone" on an amorphous 'lan %olivar 2000 for the building and renovation of schools. 0tatements.rmas 6. social!moral. to e. It is a concept as old as war itself. and newspapers2maga3ines7 support to purve" +have3!controlled media are using emotional arguments to gain attention. Iranian &8 6=ispan &87 is now broadcasting in 0panish 2: hours a da" throughout all of #atin .merica ever" da" on the state!owned &elevision del 0ur.#. to create outside enemies as scapegoats for internal failures. which is directl" responsible to the 'resident. D7 act internationall" as armed anti!bourgeois militias.

mericas. rather than traditional governmental hierarch".arm". socialist propaganda.s"mmetric (ar.org2stor"229I2 . /. partners. .ilization. &hus. independent of m" personal destin".> or even a ?dead man> immersed in ?political theater. to facilitate the processes of state failure. ?Ever"thing *ou #ove *ou -we to +apitalism>.merican. Boli. Instabilit" is the starting point from which to understand the second!. . 6Ma.provide the President of VenezuelaJwhoe.mil2pubs2download. ! 'rofessor of Militar" 0trateg"P ?8ene3uela as an e. according to +have3. =e has provided a seductive #eninist blueprint for a utopian future. In addition to .merican and other interested observers around the world. +have3 is also developing the capabilit" to destabili3e and force a radical restructuring of specific bourgeois political!economic s"stems over large parts of the .strategicstudiesinstitute. and to ?destro" in order to build> in true revolutionar" fashion. and militar" assets to friendl" governments. +have3 calls this t"pe of conflict :th $eneration (ar 6:$(7.>: 5ocialis& is a road to death. Most importantl". and nothing and no one can stop it.20 %ut.0. +hairman N #udwig von Mises Institute. http122mises. instabilit" is onl" a s"mptom. =ugo +have3 has encouraged and continues to encourage his 8ene3uelan.rm" (ar +ollege. #atin .0. the rhetoric of an astute warrior who understands as"mmetric war and who is performing the traditional and universal #eninist!Maoist function of providing a strategic vision and operational plan for a successful revolutionar" conflict. %oc+well. %ussia.merica into a single %olivarian 60ocialist7 state. and fourth!level effects that shape the #atin . and insurgents all over the =emisphere. not the threat. economic. =e or his successor can easil" e. and allies to destabili3e. B!1I!20<E.> &his is. 2012P http122www. adapt it for his own use.n"one can ta e it.D Moreover. oil mone". radical groups.porter of :th generation warfare instabilit">P 0trategic 0tudies Institute. and Iranian partners to support an undeclared as"mmetric war paradigm designed to put an end to /. In these terms. #lewell"n =. and social change. Instabilit" also defines the ultimate securit" threat for now and the futureQthat is. it appears that +have3 is prepared to help friends.> a ?clown. . allows the 'resident a vastl" more effective and efficient means through which to pursue his political!strategic %olivarian ob@ectives. .t a minimum.2 (hether or not +have3 can deliver on his three!front 21st!centur" transition program is reall" not all that important. . and use it an"where in the world to bring about radical political.arian super3state is the new t#pe of socialis& that will displaces 75 influence in 4estern 'e&isphere I "atin 1&erica. $. and )ran anwaring 1. !nl# capitalis& pre. +have34s model centers on a three!front as"mmetric war that is1 17 ps"chological!politicalP 27 uses combinations of as"mmetric wa"s and means to achieve its endsP and. the threat that no one li es to tal aboutQthe e. . <ussian. third!.ents this. =ugo +have3 has created the elements that can ma e 8ene3uela a regional power. =e states straightforwardl" that ?.port of economic and political instabilit" to foment the state failure process. =ugo +have34s %olivarian dream has stirred the imaginations of man" #atin .cfmKCL11D97 II) 0ince his election as the 'resident of 8ene3uela in 199I. political and economic influence in the (estern =emisphere and to transform the whole of #atin . &his is not because this is the rhetoric of a ?nut case. . this revolution . importantl". D7 is deliberatel" protracted. suffering and the collapse of ci. &hat unif"ing structure.merican securit" environment now and for the future.port direct democrac". it does not matter whether or not he will be able to continue to direct that effort. has gotten its he &ight beQwith the architecture to generate a unit" of effort among the various political!ps"chological!socioeconomic! informational!militar" instruments of state power.

The savings. On the 4eft. socialism always means overriding the free decisions of individuals and replacing that capacity for decision making with an overarching plan by the state. You can study roomfuls of data. And yet. a failure to connect causes with effects. . . That was socialism in name only. might have assumed it to be !lysium. or plot international 2/3 figures on a graph for a living. That is to say. at once competing with others for profit and cooperating with millions upon millions of people in an ever) e'panding global network of the division of labor. Nor is any form of socialism capable of providing for the needs of the world*s si' billion people.t was thrilling. Not even fifty years ago would this have been imaginable. we owe this scene to centuries of capital accumulation at the hands of free people who have put capital to work on behalf of economic innovations. that these societies were actually doing &uite well and would eventually pass the #nited +tates and (estern !urope in prosperity. by some measures. And yet that struggle has been abolished. it was widely believed. the most gilded palace of the richest industrialist re&uired a vast staff and immense trouble to come anywhere near appro'imating it. "edieval man con ured up such scenes only in visions of #topia.t might be as simple as the desire to put a cap on the salaries of . /o the people sitting across the table really wish for this0 . if socialism does mean anything at all today. you know. investments. no one would e'press casual support for it in polite company. These were the years that most of us remember as the time when socialism collapsed in !astern !urope and 7ussia. that they were already better off than us. plutocrat. or what is left of it. leisure. risks. and. . lord. to see how states themselves can dissolve. (e owe this scene to capitalism. To put it differently. and even marriage. 1nowledge of cause and effect does not come to us by merely looking around a room. and these persons would probably be &uick to say that they do not mean the +oviet #nion or anything like that. the wish for socialism is a wish for unparalleled human evil.ertainly not. it imagines that there can be some social improvement resulting from the political movement to take capital out of private hands and put it into the hands of the state. And yet it collapsed. or pope — in almost all of the history of the world. from a libertarian point of view. you have to be serious about ending freedom and creativity too. see the merit of the market but rather wish for something that is a proven disaster0 (hat we have here is a failure of understanding. has a greater variety of food at a cheaper price than that which was available to any living person — king. You are surrounded by the blessings of capitalism. thanks to the ever)remarkable capacity for a society developing under conditions of liberty to achieve the highest aspirations of the society*s members. Taken far enough. or observing statistics. which you and your lunch partners only had to walk into a building to find. read a thousand treatises on history. en oying all the fruits of capitalism every minute of life. this mode of thought won*t ust spell an end to opulent lunches. sitting on the other side of the table are well)educated people who imagine that the way to end the world*s woes is through socialism.On one hand there is nothing to say. The ancients. because if you are serious about ending private ownership of the means of production. This is a wholly abstract idea. duke. . and work of hundreds of years and uncountable numbers of free people have gone into making this scene possible. . You might still be tempted by the notion of socialism as savior. Now. You will have to make the whole of society. living in a certain kind of society. They may have all the guns and all . peering into this scene. would be told. people*s definitions of socialism differ.n short. !ven the 8erlin (all. 4et me take you back to the years $%5% and $%%6.t was not only glorious to see socialism collapse. !ven in the late $%th century. All of history has been defined by the struggle for food.t would plunge us back to a primitive state of e'istence. even in those times. !vents of that time flew in the face of all predictions on the 7ight that these were permanent regimes that would never change unless they were bombed back to the +tone Age. not ust for the rich but for everyone living in developed economies. so the population would shrink dramatically and &uickly and in a manner that would make every human horror ever known seem mild by comparison. +o what has gone wrong here0 (hy can these people not see what is obvious0 (hy can*t people sitting amidst market)created plenty. really. The buffet table. You still might miss the point that it is capitalism that gives rise to prosperity and freedom. . .t would be like saying. money. or it could be as e'treme as the desire to abolish all private property. there is really something to be said for malaria and typhoid and dropping atom bombs on millions of innocents. music. . or charity. .!Os. Other tendencies of socialism include the desire to see labor organi-ed along class lines and given some sort of coercive power over how their employers* property is used.f we really understood this.t will mean the end of what we all know as civili-ation itself. (hatever the specifics of the case in &uestion. into a prison. living off hunting and gathering in a world with little art. was torn down by the people themselves. that symbol of oppression and slavery. Nor is it possible to divorce socialism from totalitarianism. And yet. and yet the truth about cause and effect can still be evasive.

The people were unhealthy. ?&he &otalitarian &hreat>. and the people have none of those.his outweighs e8tinction and general dehu&anization Kclarified in the .nd so the Juggernaut of the modernist welfare state trundles Jac Douglas. built on the logic of totalitarian collectivism1 when the goal of the state becomes that of pursuing the common welfare. truth. without basic constraints of custom. There will be no love.t eventually collapses amid a society)wide refusal to believe its lies any longer. ?&he M"th of the (elfare 0tate>. . triumph and self)abasement. $oogle 'rint &he modernist welfare state is ultimatel". e'cept for the laugh of triumph over a defeated enemy. 19C1. There will be no distinction between beauty and ugliness. ="argolin $%%%b> 8ut perhaps an eternity of totalitarianism would be worse than e'tinction. p. Ours is founded upon hatred. 3roperty was polluted. 20<M. !verything else we shall destroy @ everything.nd +enter for 0tud" of 'ublic +hoice N $eorge Mason /. N /+ 0an . when the people themselves decide that they will no longer be governed. or constitutional law. :2!:D. . . honesty. slowl" but relentlessl" crushing beneath its bureaucratic powers our ancient freedoms one after another!!to serve the common welfare of all. Econ. &he opposite of the logic of .doc 9inally. then. . no science. :. http122www. a world which will grow not less but more merciless as it refines itself. and yet.< of the population remained alive after three years of rule by the 1hmer 7ouge. a world of trampling and being trampled upon. the state has few options left. it is tempting to minimi-e the harm of a social disaster like totalitarianism. There will be no art. A world of fear and treachery and torment. the gas producers.the power. no en oyment of the process of life. and so the cultural infrastructure that we take for granted was not secure. -ctober. The technology was backwards and broken.1CL %r"an Caplan. (hen these closed societies suddenly became open. . the totalitarian regime with the highest death rate per)capita. Emeritus 0oc. if un nowingl". The medical care was abysmal. There will be no curiosity. . &hus.. 3rogress in our world will be progress towards more pain. !ven in . then the welfare of an" individual or subgroup rapidl" approaches 3ero. because it would probably not lead to human e'tinction. +uch notions as trust. "any generations had been raised under a system built on power and lies. There will be no loyalty.t is hard to read Orwell and not to wonder? /o you begin to see.n our world there will be no emotions e'cept fear. . All competing pleasures will be destroyed.. rage.ept.t was also striking to see what had happened to the culture under socialism.. moral principle. e'cept the love of 8ig 8rother. the conclusion <ousseau and socialist revolutionaries in Europe reached two centuries ago1 the eCual welfare of all demands that the individual welfares of ever"one be totall" sacrificed to the state that is rhetoricall" committed to the common welfare. (hen we are omnipotent we shall have no more need of science.ambodia.edu2departments2economics2bcaplan2total:.gmu. what kind of world we are creating0 . of course.he aff is necessar# to challenge the logic of totalitarian collecti. 'rof. what did we see0 (e saw lands that time forgot.t is the e'act opposite of the stupid hedonistic #topias that the old reformers imagined. and the steel ma ersP tomorrow the doctorsP then the parentsP and someda" the entire world. The old civili-ations claimed that they were founded on love or ustice. no literature. There will be no laughter. &oda" the businesspeople. promise. e'cept loyalty towards the 3arty. =$%5A? BB6> .iego. and planning for the future — all pillars of commercial culture — had become distorted and confused by the ubi&uity and persistence of the statist curse. 9ra&ewor+/ . we eventuall" arrive at the logical conclusion of the egalitarian welfare state. The food was scarce and disgusting.

and our posterit". That is wrong. Australia. And the regions the imperialist countries sub ugated grew faster after becoming colonies than they had previously. Dong 1ong. The critics make it sound as though the poor are poor because the rich are rich. income distribution. &hus it was that when &ocCueville visited . that is. were colonies themselves. specific. he found a remar able FabsenceF of government and an eCuall" remar able high level of general welfare!!a land of freedom and. +everal of the world*s richest countries )) such as +wit-erland and the +candinavian countries )) never had any colonies of importance.phpK pubWidLD2:B Twenty percent of the world*s population =we often hear> consumes more than 56 percent of the earth*s resources.mericans and that against the domestic oppression of crime and rebellion. &he logic of collectivism computes the individual welfare.merica in the earl" 1ID0s. ?.uthor of ?In . On the other hand. &he logic of individualist freedom does the opposite. .t is this latter problem we ought to . It is we alone who can most truthfull" define our own welfare. and e. 4iberia.plicitl" bounded forms of general welfare1 that of defense against foreign powers that wanted to impose absolutist t"rann" on .org2pubWdispla".merican government was founded to promote the general welfare.ritics of globali-ation never tire of reminding us of this in ustice. for e'ample )) have never been colonies. in terms of aggregates li e gross national product. and Nepal. New Cealand. if at all. http122www. above all distributive @ustice!!eCualit".efense of $lobal +apitalism>. several of the world*s least developed countries )) Afghanistan. 9ar less often do we hear a proper analysis of the reason for this state of affairs. as if the richest B6 percent had somehow stolen those resources from the other 56 percent.anada. and +ingapore. &he . that is. in terms of the collective welfare. thus. 9!22!20<?. relative povert". &he . who can now in our hearts what is right and good for us and our loved ones. most . it computes the general welfare in terms of all the individuals' welfare as defined and e.cato. Others.istribution N of +apitalism>.merican statists toda". of peace and plent". )neFualit# is due re$ection of capitalis&. The 56 percent consume only B6 percent because they produce only B6 percent of resources. #ibert" was both the greatest blessing in itself and the fount from which would spring all others b" enabling individuals to use all their potentiall" vast spiritual energ" and creativit". 2&bracing capitalis& creates inco&e for all. &hus it was that the" discovered that revolutionar" idea of individual freedom1 minimi3ing the power of government will optimi3e the welfare of all. but to the eighteenth!centur" classic liberals that meant the e. such as the #nited +tates. %ut it is we alone.totalitarian collectivism is the logic of individual freedom within the 0"stem of )atural #ibert". Johan Norberg.mericans intended the government to promote the general welfare b" remaining as small and wea as it could while serving the two obviousl".act opposite of what the common welfare means to the . and. in communion with their own consciences and with the embodiments of their consciences in the constitutionP for we human beings are profoundl" loving beings who identif" with our ancestors. . while the other 56 percent consume less than B6 percent. our communities.ctivist and .perienced b" the individuals.n /neCual . . +ertainl" the individuals define their welfare in good part in terms derived from their famil" and communit" ties. acting as individuals. . The affluent world has grown fastest since losing its colonies. %ecause the" assumed that welfare could onl" be defined individuall". The main reason for that B6 percent consuming 56 percent of the resources is that they produce 56 percent of resources.merican +onstitution was built upon the logic of individual freedom.

and inno. people ha. basic necessities. .ices. G4hat*s at sta+e here are two &odels. we are serious about closing the North) +outh divide.ances. The problem is that many people are poor. 'ower cuts have become freCuent and oil production down. told cheering supporters outside that it was a . Japan. Not to capitalism making certain groups poor.e o. Editorialist for the . then. letting suppl" and demand dictate what will be sold at what price. 1s a result of a free &ar+et econo&#. Ca italis" Solves. and the concept of a laissez3faire approach to co&&erce &a+es the en. Maduro &ates Ca italis". . The B6 economically most liberal countries in the world have a per capita 2/3 about B% times greater than the B6 economically least liberal. he's the inherent %arrier to a ca italistic Venezuala AleDan2er $e0ant1 291I http122www. those entrepreneurs that were willing to wor+ and ta+e the ris+s . . &edical brea+throughs.I" roves .tackle.he said. 2009. hate. which is capitalis&. we should hope with all our hearts that the +outh will also gain access to a free economy and open markets. F+apitalism 'romotes Freedom and -pportunit". =e is a recent graduate of +olumbia /niversit" 0chool of Journalism in )ew *or +it".f. but most of the gap can still be put down to certain countries having opted for liberali-ation and others for control. and the &odel of lo. are not getting investments and trade.pril's presidential elections.e.t is the really closed economies that.ation. technological ad.F -pposing 8iewpoints1 . i&pro. The critics are right to say that this ine&uality is due to capitalism )) but not for the reasons they think. which is capitalis&. /eveloping countries that have had openness in recent decades have not only grown faster than other developing countries )) they have grown faster than the affluent countries too. The uneven distribution of wealth in the world is due to the uneven distribution of capitalism.com2dispatch2news2regions2americas2vene3uela21D11202nicolas!maduro!vene3uela!leader!grante . impoverished agrarian societies. Ed. resulting in fantastic prosperity for their inhabitants. +anada.he &odel of hate. hoping to reap the benefits of their ris+. not that certain people are rich.merican .merican 8alues. but to its making its practitioners wealthy. . For in capitalis&.ictor# of lo. creation of $obs and e&plo#&ent and higher wages. a supporter of aduro.e&ents. -pposing 8iewpoints <esource +enter7 %0= Capitalis& allows for creation of wealth.avid M. and production have lagged behind. and the &odel of bourgeoisie traitors. trade. &oti. &he lac of central planning and control. goods in recent "ears. The difference is due to certain countries having taken the path of capitalism.ez and the people.ation.urtures Innovation %it*ar 299 6%ob.ander %esant is a $lobal'ost %rea ing )ews (riter and freelance @ournalist. The world*s ine&uality is due to capitalism. 0outh 5orea and even +hina would toda" be bac ward. goods and ser. eli&ination of hunger.le. while those choosing to impede ownership.uality o! li!e and . =e lives in &oronto. etc. . 9actors such as climate and natural disasters are not unimportant.ail".globalpost. Trade and investment flows in the past two decades have come to be more and more evenly distributed among the economies that are relatively open to the rest of the world. (.ation to ta+e ris+s.. hard wor+. which is socialis&N the &odel of Cha.he parlia&ent president. (ere it not for this s"stem. distribution of goods. .ance&ents in food production.iron&ent ripe for ad.8ene3uela is facing food shortages and shortages of other essential &he measures had been debated for three months before the vote and are a victor" for Maduro who onl" narrowl" won ..etroit1 $reenhaven 'ress. for obvious reasons.e &oti.ritics of capitalism point out that per capita 2/3 is more than A6 times greater in the world*s B6 richest countries than in the B6 poorest. which is socialis&.

e. In time.e on so&ething and in turn would ta+e the ris+s of starting their own businesses. the inco&e it generated afforded &an# &ore to get an education that otherwise &a# not ha. so&e of those benefactors of emplo"ment created b" the ris !ta ers would get ideas to i&pro. Because &ore people had $obs and.thri. .e inco&e. therefore. &his c"cle continues through the decades to the present da".ed and created $obs and opportunities for those who could not ta+e ris+s and otherwise would not ha.

hursda# 2R202 0R11: +E& http122www.sdrXbal . despite the oil boom. +)) updated 2112 'M E0&. which is stifling for an# de&ocrac#. the situation has worsened.guiar1 ?. 0hoichet. but with arms.guiar1 ?Nicolas aduro should not be in the office of the presidenc# N and ) sa# this on a strictl# legal basis.euronews. Mario .ez and the# si&pl# brought to power Nicolas aduro as planned.sdrXbal . ?(orst of all N over these "ears. Maduro has been repeating this in recent da"s.guiar for his insights into the situation in his countr".iting the people to celebrate the carni.pect from this meetingK> .ents show that in Venezuela the essential ele&ents of de&ocrac# ha.sdrXbal .guiar was 8ene3uela4s Interior Minister in 199I! 1999.lfaro.com2201:20222R2elements!of!democrac"!have!disappeared! vene3uela!s!former!interior!minister2 Euronews has spo en to 8ene3uelan @urist. (hat is "our evaluation of the government of his successor. . a trul" important number.> euronews1 ?&he anniversar" of +have34s death is coming up. MaduroK> . euronews1 ?*ou4ve sent a letter to the -rgani3ation of .B trillion dollars has been wasted N the entire private production sector has been destro"ed through confiscation and e.> euronews1 ?*ou have reCuested an urgent meeting of the -rgani3ation of . when I was Interior Minister N a ver" serious figure N to 2D. But )*& opti&istic because the circu&stances are so clear now and the regi&e can*t hide it.merican 0tates.ern&ent will fall under the wa.Contention ). First of all.B00 in 199I.000 homicides in 201D. of almost 100 people who4ve been mistreated N even tortured.propriation.he go. 'resident +have3 often said that this was a peaceful revolution.e disappeared.> euronews1 ?(hat was the spar that ignited the flameK> . %ut the +onstitutional +hamber of our 5upre&e +ourt N that is full" aligned with the revolution and is controlled b" @udges lo"al to the ruling part" N interpreted the +onstitution to fulfill the &andate of 'ugo Cha. (hen the government too office in 1999.e of protests %" +atherine E. the number of homicides increased from :. can "ou describe the situation now in 8ene3uelaand +aracas in particularK> .he latest e. . 0un Februar" 2D.merican 0tates.- VenezuelaHs socialist go.guiar1 ?(hat we have is a deplorable situation because 10 people have been illed.<e"ocracy De&ocrac# has disappeared in Venezuela I Past Venezuelan officials agree 2uronews . what do "ou e. ?0ince then what4s become clear is that over a period of 1B "ears 1.sdrXbal . condemning the events of Feruar" 12 N when a "outh and student rall" ended with three people dead and more than J0 wounded. politician and writer . 201: +))7 N .mong the governments in the region there4s been a ver" real wea ening of democrac". . )ow that 8ene3uela lives mainl" off imports there aren4t enough dollars available to meet national needs. two do3en wounded N and according to the 1CCC Venezuelan Constitution.sdrXbal . $iven the apparent division of opinion in the region.oiding its responsibilities in this area and instead it*s in.guiar1 ?4ithin that conte8t.ern&ent is a.

FIs capturing these people repressionK -r is it @usticeKF Maduro said after airing videos during a national broadcast that he said showed opposition attac s on government buildings.F .F +iccariello!Maher said. calling them fascists and comparing them to a disease that must be cured.ictor# last #ear was closer than supporters had hoped. with so man" factors in flu. then I thin it could weather this period.G 9ollow the &one# 9or &onths. it's clear that tensions are running high in 8ene3uela. and it's not going to disintegrate because a relativel" small number of students are protesting in relativel" middle class areas of the countr". and both sides show no sign of bac ing down. who felt marginali3ed b" previous governments.ern&ent. G1t best. FIf the government responds in some wa" and deals with the situation b" relieving some of the distress and tr"ing not to clamp down further.5tudent protesters pac+ the streets.F 0hifter said.ern&ent that is as . 1t worst.F said Michael 0hifter. the government could defuse the situation. it's difficult to guess what's ne. but he's seen as a relativel" faithful representative of what +have3 stood for. an assistant professor of political science at . variet" of scenarios could pla" out in the coming da"s.. a professor of political science at . FMaduro has a lot of support.ern&ent officials bla&e each other for the unrest. said .ern&ent de&onstrations are the biggest threat President Nicolas aduro has faced since his election last #ear.mherst +ollege. .ern&ent has wa#s to sur.e a &a$or cost for the go.nd. )o matter who "ou believe. (hile the populist platform of sharing 8ene3uela's vast oil wealth .iolence and leading the recent protests.ern&ent that cannot control its guns. 0ocial FmissionsF aimed at eradicating illiterac".he opposition sa#s thatHs one of &an# painful e8a&ples that show the go. the opposition politician accused b# the go. and e.t. 'eople's =istor" of the 8ene3uelan <evolution. e" challenge for the opposition is chipping awa" at +havistas' support for the government .. 0hifter said. his ambitious plan to turn 8ene3uela into a socialist state.merican countr"'s borders. . Violence surges. . =e tapped into their needs and frustrations !! often through confrontations with the 8ene3uelan elite.olution. +rime rates are high. president of the Inter!. Inflation topped BJY last "ear. is &uch bigger than Cha.eals a go. he's still better than the alternative.G =ere are some possible game!changers to eep an e"e on1 4h# aduro wants &edia out of Venezuela 4hatHs ne8t for VenezuelaHs opposition0 >o. F&he" perceive that there are parts of the opposition that want to go bac to pre! +have3 8ene3uela.el /niversit". )f the# can win o. Maduro has vowed to crac down on other opposition leaders li e him.merica. depending on the steps authorities and protesters ta e. who authored F(e +reated +have31 . and showing some fle.but at the sa&e ti&e. it can lose this battle. F&he" don't want to lose what the" thin the"'ve gained. a senior fellow at the (ashington -ffice on #atin . F&his is a real crisis on all fronts.eals a go. Even though Maduro is nowhere near as charismatic as +have3.F 0milde wrote in an anal"sis of the situation this wee .ern&entHs &ishandling of the countr#Hs finances.F said Javier +orrales. distributing staple foods and providing health care popped up across the countr".he re. .e left shel.nd inside and outside the 0outh .G -n the other hand. facing charges of arson and conspirac".e long clai&ed. . which basicall" ignored the concerns of the poor.ialogue thin tan . possibl# turning supporters at ho&e and abroad against it.he anti3 go.n"thing can happen now. &a$or goods shortages ha. Mc+ain1 8ene3uela fed up with socialism %ut the ne.he go.t election is "ears awa". F&he +havista government has been in power for more than 1: "ears and has won a larger number of elections than an" other government essentiall" on earth because the" mobili3ed the poor and have a strong support base among the poor. there's a ma@or Cuestion man" are as ing1 Could this be the beginning of the end for VenezuelaHs socialist go. +iccariello!Maher. !pposition leaders and go. &hrongs of Maduro's dedicated followers still call themselves +havistas in devotion to the former president. accusing protesters of violence.perts sa" it's li el" too soon to start ringing the death nell for =ugo +have3's revolution @ust "et. he 0earching for truth in 8ene3uela &he situation doesn't loo prett". but he still won.ibilit" and some willingness to engage in some dialogue and moderation.ez lo#alists. FIn contrast to 8ene3uela's serious problem with street crime.avid 0milde.e. is behind bars.ern&ent of inciting . F&his support base is not going an"where. that could tip the scales.F &he cornerstone of +have3's presidenc" was the %olivarian <evolution. &he government accuses distributors of orchestrating the shortagesas part of an Feconomic warF to fuel unrest..ez or aduro.merican . 'is narrow election . F=e's not +have3. =e's defended that approach in national television broadcasts. $oods shortages have left store shelves bar.F said $eorge +iccariello!Maher. for which the government does not traditionall" pa" a political price. and also a chun of the middle class. 0upport from +havistas &here's one ma@or reason anal"sts point to when the" sa" that 8ene3uela's socialist government isn't approaching an" sort of imminent collapse1 Man" people in the countr" are still behind the 'resident. it re. .i. vandalism and plotting a slow!motion bare in Venezuelan stores. F. &ear gas billows. for man". it re.F argues that's not li el". Maduro !! who +have3 tapped as his successor before he died !! has ta en a similar tac . . 1n# ratcheting up of repression could ha.ern&ent crac+downs on protesters "eopoldo "opez. +have3 was elected and re!elected in large part than s to support from the countr"'s poor.iolent as its opponents ha. for this ind of repression it will.

0milde said he's seen how much #ope3's impassioned speeches have fired up crowds. F-bama Must 0tand /p for . +orrales said.F (ho's protestingK . are essential to VenezuelaHs future standing in the he&isphere and the world. F%ut there seems to be little effort to reach out to disgruntled +havistas.t time 8ene3uelans head to the polls.usnews. Militar" might <ight now. 1B Mar. [http122www. F&his has been sort of a c"clical phenomenon of protests in 8ene3uela.F De&ocrac# +e# to Venezuelan stabilit# and standing in the world +hirst" 201D +hrist". .erifiable elections. /. fraud and inti&idation. %ut #ope3 and other opposition leaders have pushed for protests in the streets. %usiness. &hat wasn't the case in 2002.F 0milde said. it is important to remember that elections alone do not &a+e a de&ocrac#. =enriCue +apriles <adons i. Secretary of State ohn !erry should work with regional partners"including #but not limited to$ %razil. )ran and *ussia( + Venezuela insta%ility s ills over to $atin +"erica= they rely on Venezuela >he 7cono"ist.F 0hifter said. looming Cuestion is whether the opposition . that will onl" bac fire the ne. consolidated e8ecuti. (eb.)ews Z (orld <eport. he said. . &here have been other moments when there have been protests in 8ene3uela. and the" come and the" go. (?@(3@'(1: 6>he 7cono"ist. despite not &a+ing an# efforts to reach be#ond its traditional base. itHs not good for the go. De&and free.ert#. fair and . FIf this one goes and sort of dies down. F%ut I thin we're at a different point in the evolution of a situation. has been tr"ing to ta e a more moderate approach and build a broader support base. F%ehind the scenes. FIf the" are as ed to be repressive. anal"sts have said the economic picture loo s blea .e&ent could grow. htt -@@000#econo"ist#co"@ne0s@a"ericas@'15DE(?D=venezuelas=neigh%ours=studiously=ignore=crisis=un!olding=neFt=door= ostrich=di lo"acy8 .emocratic /nit" <oundtable !! which includes parties with a wide range of ideologies within its ran s !! can stic together for a common political goal. or broaden the message towards issues of eCualit" and povert" reduction that might mobili3e a broader coalition. critics ha.0. Colombia and &exico"to firmly encourage &aduro's interim government( A unified regional voice would send a powerful signal to Chavez's cronies in Caracas and longtime enablers in China. but also rifts within the opposition !! a disparate group of parties that banded together in an attempt to defeat +have3 at the polls and now hope Maduro's government will fall.ern&ent. his star ma" fade.e highlighted growing discontent with VenezuelaHs go.espite government efforts to stem inflation with price controls. the opposition is ver" much crac ing. If more militant members of the opposition attempt a coup.F 1nd if those proble&s worsen.O . Fthe" will face a difficult choice of whether to compl" or not. and this whole episode ma" pass. a leading opposition politician who lost his bid for the presidenc" last "ear.ern&ent.with the poor and disenfranchised has helped reduce po. >he 7cono"ist.properl# &onitored b# respected international election obser. @ust the shear economic desperation for man" people and the shortages and the rising inflation. Canada. a point where the economic situation is what's driving what's happening. !inance.e warned that flawed econo&ic policies 33 such as currenc# controls and e8propriation of pri. science and technology.he !ba&a ad&inistration should &a+e clear that free and fair elections.F &he toughest challenge the opposition faces might be eeping up the momentum the"'ve started.. anal"sts sa" the militar" seems to be sCuarel" behind Maduro.ez long e&braced the rhetoric of de&ocrac# as he.F he said.G 0milde said. Likewise. Although Venezuela announced that a special election to replace Chavez will be held next month. authoritative insight and o inion on international ne0s.F US News. e8perts sa#. 'atric . F&his movement is energi3ing the opposition base in a wa" the" haven't been in eight "ears.e power..ers. G)f Venezuela e8periences a serious econo&ic &eltdown. FIt's ver" hard to sustain protests.iousl# de&ocratic political s#ste& and altered the outco&es of election through corruption. ABstrich di lo"acyC. F&he militar" is much more +havista than it was in 2002. in realit#. under&ined VenezuelaHs pre. )ndeed.emocrac" in 'ost!+have3 8ene3uela.F 0hifter said. 02 Jul" 201D. the opposition &o.more than an"thing else. olitics. Cha. 201D. then I thin #ope3. %ut there could come a moment.com2opinion2blogs2world!report2201D20D21B2after!chave3!us!must! encourage!democratic!vene3uela\.ate co&panies 33 set the countr# on a crash course toward financial ruin.he recent protests ha.F +iccariello!Maher said. when the militar"'s lo"alties are challenged.F +iccariello!Maher said. when +have3 was briefl" ousted from power b" a militar" coup. It's no coincidence that tensions are running high while Venezuela faces significant econo&ic proble&s.

o*pro*i0e2 0tate0 to .ountrie0 in whi. yet the co"%ination o! their individual goal=directed actions roduces syste"ic e!!ects that could ulti"ately desta%ilize the region and undercut the %asis !or U#S# glo%al o0er# .e their own operation0 without relian. cri"inal organizations conduct o erations involving glo%al shi "ents o! narcotics and other goods.urity 0tu2ie01 *o2eling1 ga*ing1 an2 0i*ulation with the Center 3or <e* take pla.ro00 the region i0 putting pre0i2ent0 un2er pre00ure 3ro* their parlia*ent0 an2 .a*paign a. leveraging international %anking.0.tor01 in. o3 the . 7$. has so !ar %een used only to rotect residents 5including ChGvez> an2 to 7lu2geon puny Etate0 5-AE>1 who0e annual a00e*7ly 7egan on )une Jth in &uate*ala1 i0 7oun2 7y treaty to *onitor it0 *e*7er0B 2e*o.ri*inal a. an2 0o.h a0 <on2ura0 an2 'araguay.tivity .ter o3 the in0titution0 within their own .1pro3e00or o3 national 0e. group0 to 0upport 2e*o. Both cri"inal organizations and ar"ed grou s thus are nourished %y2and syste"atically destroy2 the socioecono"ic !a%ric o! the state in 0hich they gro0# +s the host state 0eakens.oul2 prove a 0hort-0ighte2 poli. .tivitie0. these organizations leverage the 0eakness o! the states in 0hich they o erate to survive and gro0 .he growing disorder in the nations o! the +ndean ridge highlights a dangerous ne0 heno"enon 0ith signi!icant national security i" lications !or the United States : Cri"inal organizations and ar"ed grou s in the region have !allen into ne0 !or"s o! colla%oration that allow the* to 3inan. $ut the B+S4s <e"ocratic Charter1 laun.y.e .otra33i. said the Aat"os hereC 0as not conducive to a discussion o! the Venezuelan crisisMa 2iplo*ati.ha0e :0pe.t key 0tage0 o3 their operation0M0u. and insurgent grou s2"ay not %e coordinated. .y1 a0 well a0 a 0ha*e3ul one.u0 on #atin A*eri.t o3 Fn0ta7ility in #atin A*eri.on2u.on.0 pro2u.aB0 relation0hip0 with eDternal a.h a0 drug cartels.h a0 *oney laun2ering an2 nar. 6r Fn0ulza hi*0el3 ha0 in the pa0t a2*itte2 that Kenezuela i0 in 7rea.tion.tivity 0u.he in2ivi2ual perpetrator0M0u. ?van.le to take on a .e an2 in3or*ation 3low0 an2 the .o** 3a7ri.e0/299I/pro.o*pro*i0e2 .iate2 0tring0.0 that ulti*ately .on3eren.a N1JO1 the current con!luence o! events is ne0 and di!!erent 0ith res ect to the 0ay in 0hich "ulti le heno"enon rein!orce each other to roduce a otential escalating s iral o! violence and econo"ic "alaise in the region .ono*i.ee2/'A'?+E/11 . the activities o! these organizations also in!ects and desta%ilizes neigh%oring states through 3low0 o3 guerilla0 an2 re3ugee01 an2 the violence and hu"an su!!ering associated 0ith the".he0e .he2 in 2991. +s illustrated %y the .ing a. Ee.retary-general1 )o0L Miguel Insulza.tion 3ro* the 0tate 5an2 3ro* rival0> 3or their la7or reHuire2 7y their operation0 an2 to provi2e prote. .iary an2 guarantee0 re.ietie01 . Charter.. 8or one thing1 the Kenezuelan oppo0itionB0 .on21 Venezuela4s olitical !ragility and 6r Maduro4s 0eakness threaten insta%ility 0hich the region "ay %e una%le to ignore# Ehutting the 2oor in 6r Caprile0B 3a.rati.y1 an2 0o. or si" ly disinclined to incur its 0rath.0y0te*2yna*i. @ithin their . the international trans ortation in!rastructure 1 an2 the a7ility to pur. +r"ed grou s on %oth the le!t and right serve the interests o! cri"inal enter rises %y hysically rotecting the" in eFchange !or revenue# >his loose artnershi %et0een cri"inal organizations and ar"ed olitical grou s thus generates ca a%ilities and ro"ulgates incidents that . Although a great 2eal ha0 7een written a7out nar.h ha0 the *u0.tivitie0 o3 group01 in turn1 .o*7ination o3 glo7al . %e3en0e Etu2ie01 with a re0ear.h are *aking 7illion0 3ro* tra2e with it0 northern neigh7our.oti. . and +UC in Colo"%ia.tivitie0 2epen2 on :0a3e haven0= that they have .ountrie0 0u.king1 the 0prea2 o3 in0urgen.reate0 2yna*i.ialize2 hu*an eDperti0e= 3or . terrorist cells.he -rgani0ation o3 A*eri.ountry.ri*inal organization0 have enor*ou0 *anpower nee201 7oth to per3or* the 2aily phy0i.e N1IO. pro7le*0 in #atin A*eri.h a roach "ay not 0ork !or ever.h 3o.lu2ing China1 +u00ia1 an2 Fran1 :. Ahea2 o3 the -AE *eeting it0 0e. In short.erne2 with prote.reate2 within . Kenezuela ha0 announ.ra.iopoliti. way o3 saying no one 0as re ared to ick u the hot otato.6o0t $atin +"erican and Cari%%ean govern"ents are either ideologically close to the chavista regi"e. A*ong other thing01 it reHuire0 an in2epen2ent ju2i.ri*inal enterpri0e01 in turn1 leverage a uniHue .h .ioe.h o3 the %e*o.+1C.hara.ono* $razil1 whi. >heir activities are !inanced1 in part1 %y taDing or 2ire.ontri7ute to the weakne00 o3 the 0tateMthu0 0u0taining the 0pa.ri*inal a.a=1 http://www. de endent on its oil=!uelled largesse. >he hu*an-right0 0y0te*.oul2 7reak 2own the e.h a0 narcotra!!icking1 e*7ezzle*ent1 an2 eDtortion N11O.ting it0 7u0ine00e01 whi.h they operate.e2 that it will a7an2on the 0y0te* later thi0 year.our0e to the inter-A*eri.tly engaging in .ertain operation0 on glo7al *arket0 N12O.he *ilitary an2 0el33inan. .e in whi.rati.ountry the 0ize o3 Kenezuela1 0ee*0 *ore .ivi.he F*pa.ri*inal a. '(() 5+.o*pro*i0e2 0o.e on out0i2e ai2 an2 it0 a00o. $atin +"erican insta%ility leads to "assive inter=state 0ar=they 0ill dra0 the US in 7llis.p23> . At the 0a*e ti*e1 the .

tional 0tate01 rogue 0tate01 .hi0e*ent1 poverty1 an2 0pawn 3urther hu*an right0 violation01 torture1 poverty1 0tarvation1 2i0ea0e1 the re.ilitate the pro.ra.orN when he had the noose around his nec+ he would wriggle.on2u.ie0.he0e .< percent.ri*inal anar.> he added.i2e1 an2 operational o7je.a an2 el0ewhere .ally on an2 p0y.Solvency Maduro "ust go.e00ary to e0ta7li0h #atin A*eri.i.entury.orruption1 2i0en3ran. .t 'ro3e00or o3 Fnternational 'oliti.ez was an e8cellent sur.hy.entive0.onteDt1 he un2er0tan20 that popular per.antage.tion0 are u0ually un.olonel an2 an A2jun. personal comments and remar s that are off point.tor0B 0trategi.h a govern*ent are real. and "assive interstate 0ars# Man0aring (5 5'ro3e00or o3 6ilitary Etrategy P 4. (e encourage livel". .orruption1 inti*i2ation1 an2 2e0tru.e00 lea2ing to 'eruB0 Een2ero #u*ino0o .o*e 2y03un.k o3 upwar2 *o7ility li*it the right an2 the a7ility o3 a given regi*e to .tive rate does not e8ceed .al .t the 7u0ine00 o3 the 0tate. eace. Kirtually anyone . 1ccording to the .tively1 in0ta7ility an2 the threat o3 0u7verting or 2e0troying 0u.hey . An21 o3 .ie0 per0i0t1 the *ore they an2 their a00o.> ?Maduro.his case is different.h an un0ta7le 0ituation.i.iate2 pro7le*0 endanger glo%al security. '4$628.= %rug .our0e1 the longer 2y03un.apa7ility in ter*0 o3 it0 a7ility an2 willingne00 to govern an2 2evelop it0 national territory an2 0o. at a &o&ent in which he faces large de&onstrations on the streets. Solves !or the survival o! the Venezualan econo"y 4)" 5. for ChP.65 Contention 5. and as that "ou refrain from profanit".ial inju0ti.king an2 proli3eration o3 .e to consult an#one to &a+e his twists. ':". Ar*y @ar College1 6aD &.onne. Fn .+FC @A+8A+?1 -.o0tate01 or new peopleB0 2e*o.ra.ri*inal1 an2 nar.eption0 o3 . <?.tive01 0tate an2 non0tate a.ie01 one .he ten2en.on0eHuen.14 http122www. ho0t :evil= network0 o3 all kin201 whether they involve .an govern*ent0B a7ility an2 right to govern.he F00ue o3 Etate 8ailure.ern&ent and the rest prefer not to answer.he argu*ent in general i0 that 3ailing an2 3aile2 0tate 0tatu0 i0 the 7ree2ing groun2 3or in0ta7ility1 .E.6J $ut 3ailing an2 3aile2 0tate0 0i*ply 2o not go away. percent of Venezuelans openl# re$ect his go.e00e0 o3 0tate 3ailure :ar*e2 propagan2a.6I .artel0 operating throughout the An2ean +i2ge o3 Eouth A*eri. . 4ntil a given popula.p23> state !ailure is the "ost dangerous long= ter" security challenge !acing the glo%al co""unity today.iety. At the 0a*e ti*e1 the0e a.o-tra33i.kin0on College1 K?/?Q4?#ABE <4&.62 .tion with the .tivitie0 that 3a.ez did not ha.on2ition0 7ree2 *a00ive hu*anitarian 2i0a0ter0 an2 *ajor re3ugee 3low0. 'is national appro. and con!lict.e1 3ailing an2 3aile2 0tate0 7e.miamiherald.u0 hi0 pri*ary atta.re2i7ility an2 .66?.all0 violent an2 2e0tru.. .ti.ri*inal 7u0ine00 enterpri0e1 nar.hu01 in a22ition to helping to provi2e wi2er latitu2e to 3urther their ta. (.an 0o.on2ition0 0pawn all kin20 o3 thing0 people in general 2o not like 0u.e 3airly an2 e33e.king1 or 0o*e 3or* o3 i2eologi.y i0 that the 7e0t *otivate2 an2 7e0t ar*e2 organization on the 0.= ChSvez . Fn that .e generally per. =e made his own decisions and ever"one obe"ed.the political consultant said.0 at %i. .1 an2 0o.ri*inal 0tate01 nar. 0ome of the comments ma" be reprinted elsewhere on the site or in the newspaper.king in wo*en an2 7o2y part01 tra33i.onventional weapon0 0y0te*0 an2 @6%1 geno.C<RK?Q1 $-#FKA+FA/ E-CFA#FE61 A/% AE. Ar*y .E. &han "ou for ta ing the time to offer "our thoughts. hate speech.all the0e a.tivitie0 :7u0ine00 in.ri*inality1 .ra.!N. (ChP.al1 e.to7er 29951 pg. aduro operates under a great disad.000 internal factors that don4t allow him to twist.hil2 0ol2ier01 tra33i.htmlMstor"lin Lcp" &he Miami =erald is pleased to provide this opportunit" to share information.o-0tate0 an2 peopleB0 2e*o.ene will . hu"an rights a%uses.iali0* 3or the 210t .on2ition0 ne.y1 regional .ru0a2e 0u.periences and observations about what's in the news..ion an2 per0ua0ion .'re0i2ent ChSvez al0o un2er0tan20 that the take a2vantage o3 0u.te2 #atin A* re0t a00ure2 that ChSvez an2 hi0 $olivarian populi0t allie0 will 7e availa7le to provi2e *oney1 ar*01 an2 lea2er0hip at any given opportunity.reation o3 new peopleB0 2e*o.eive0 that it0 govern*ent i0 2ealing with the0e an2 other 7a0i. organized cri"e.oer. however. before he ma es a decision he must confront :0.h a0 *ur2er1 ki2napping1 . open debate on the issues of the da". A0 a .ally1 the0e .ture. genocide.ruit*ent an2 u0e o3 .1. . i00ue0 o3 politi.k politi. ore than D. . :et those twists see& indispensable for his sur.tion0 to 7e 0tep0 that *u0t 7e taken to 7ring a7out the politi. 6ore 0pe.com2201:20D2122D9909RR2to!survive!maduro!must!dismantle.ontrol that in0ta7ility.tion o3 in3ra0tru.h a0 $olivariani0*o.on3li. and ros erity.lean0ing1 warlor2i0*1 an2 .on0i2er0 the0e a. ChSvezB0 intent i0 to 3o. e.ono*i.on3ine2 an2 0pill over into regional 0yn2ro*e0 o3 overty.he0e *ean0 o3 .t1 an2 terrori0*.hologi.tional1 rogue1 . 6anwaring 1 +etire2 4.>he insta%ility o! $atin +"erica 0ill s read starvation. e33ort0 are ai*e2 at progre00ively le00ening a targete2 regi*eB0 .

which economists attribute to more than 1: "ears of hostile business policies.> . QQ.E percent of Venezuelans ac+nowledge being affected b# the deterioration of the econo&#. while MQ. &o insist on deepening the ?21st as aduro had been doing until .er# recentl# with the i&ple&entation of his fair3price law. &he acute problem of scarcit". >uti=rrez and 1ssociatesL. centur" socialism.1 percent of those consulted sa"ing that the" can bu" all the" need in the supermar ets. Viera said fro& ontreal.E percent e8press fear that the# could end up losing their $obs. onl# leads to political suicide. with onl" 2.latest Venebaro&eter Kopinion poll perfor&ed b# the fir& Croes. is affecting virtuall" all 8ene3uelans.