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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF REPIRATION

Basic Principle I. Relationship b/n chest and lungs II. III. IV. Muscles of respiration Respiratory pressures oyle!s la" 6erratus posterior superior #uscle :uadrates lu#boru# 6ternocleido#astoid

DR. MONTENEGRO

4nterior and #edial scalene %7nd rib$ by posterior scalene Raises the sternu# %increases 45 dia#eter$buc8et li8e Ele+ates 7 to 9th rib ;le&es -7th rib and e&tends +ertebral colu#n. increase 45 dia#eter of thoracic ca+ity ;ound in psoas #uscle

Relationship b n chest an! l"n#s Diaphrag#$ do#e shaped sheet of #uscle %if chest e&pands' lung follo"s ( chest collapses' lung collapses )resist separation*

If #uscles of inspiration contracts' chest "all and lung e&pand' al+eoli e&pand, decrease pressure , air enters lung , positi+e - ).-*

End of inspiration Muscle rela&es' chest collapse' lung co#pressed' al+eolus co#pressed, increase pressure, air #o+es out of lung, negati+e - )$-*

M"scles o$ E'piration(Accessor% ) during e&ercise and se+ere breathing 6erratus posterior Depresses the < to -7th inferior #uscle rib Trans+erse thoracis Depresses the 7nd to 1th costal cartilages during e&piration 4bdo#inal #uscles 5ushes abd!l content a. E&t obli=ue up"ard and in"ard > b. Int obli=ue inc +ertical dia#eter c. Trans+erse abdo#inis d. Rectus abdo#inis Internal intercostal Depresses rib do"n"ard and stiffens thoracic ca+ity pre+enting bulging of lung during straining Respirator% press"res $ In relation to at#ospheric pressure "hich is 012##3g

a. $- , 09< Ends at /ero Respiratory pressure is al"ays in relationship "ith at#ospheric pressure. 012##3g , 2 M"scles o$ Inspiration Increases +ertical dia#eter E&ternal Intercostal Increases 45 dia#eter and lateral dia#eter of thoracic ca+ity Accessor% &"scles 6calene #uscle Ele+ates -st 7 ribs %-st rib$ ele+ated by Diaphrag# b. .-, 01$ $ $ Bo%le*s la+ Relationship of +olu#e and pressure is in+ersed Increase +olu#e, decrease pressure decrease +olu#e, Increase pressure

% ?hen the #uscles of inspiration contracts' there is increase thoracic ca+ity. If the lungs increase li8e"ise' the al+eoli increase

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF REPIRATION


$co#part#ent "/ volume of air inside that +olu#e of air "ill create pressure $decrease co#part#ent @ its si/e , pressure increases 7& $increase co#part#ent 7& its si/e , pressure decreases by @ $at the end of nor#al e&piration' there is no #o+e#ent of air in and out of the lungs )012 ##3g outside , /ero( 012 ##3g inside )lungs* , /ero* $"hen the #uscles of respiration contracts' the lungs also increases /ero pressure decreases to $- )lo"er than at#ospheric pressure* air goes inside the lungs pressure in lungs e+entually return to /ero END O; IN65IR4TORA 5346E $#uscles of inspiration tries to rela&' depress thoracic ca+ity 2 pressure beco#es .- release so#e of its pressure to the outside return to /ero )012 ##3g* again $accessory #uscles co#e into play #ore air going inside the lungs REPIRATORY ,ONTROL I. ,ENTRAL ,HEMORE,EPTORS > pons and #edulla' #ediates 02B of response to increase le+els of hydrogen decrease in p3 and increase in le+els of CO7. D2 B co#es fro# peripheral che#oreceptors $$E bifurcation of carotid and arch of aorta > increase in 3 ion and CO7' and decrease in 5O7. II-

DR. MONTENEGRO

MED.LLARY RESPIRATORY ,ENTERS a. DRG$ located at dorsal part near CN root < and -2 i. Nor#al reathing ii. ;ound in nucleus solitaries$ sti#ulate diaphrag# and e&t intercostals #uscle +ia phrenic ner+e iii. Inspiratory center i+. Continuous unless inhibited b- /RG i. Nucleus a#biguous rostrally ii. Nucleus retroa#biguus caudally iii. 6ti#ulates accessory #uscles of inspiration and e&piration( upon strong signalFforceful respiration

III-

PONTINE RESPIRATORY ,ENTERS a. 4pneustic center$ source of inspiratory dri+e(DRG b. 5neu#ota&ic center$ send inhibitory c. Central$sti#ulates 02B of respond to carrying CO7' 3' 5O7 d. D2B$peripheral che#oreceptors

IV.

,ORTI,AL ,ENTERS$+oluntary f&n' bypasses respi center( sleeping HYPOTHALAMI, ,ENTERS$ be able to hold breath. 4ffects the rate and depth of breathing/ alteration in RR.

V.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF REPIRATION


,ORTI,AL ,EREBRAL MOTOR ,ORTE0$ Voluntary control or direct sti#ulation of #uscles of respiration bypassing the respiratory center. 1,O2 is the &ost i&portant sti&"l"s to breathDro"ning presence$ of "ater $E 3yper+entilating$ flushes CO7 $E ?hen CO7 is flushed out$ passing out after hyper+entilation $E CO7 is a +asodilator )potent*. Vasoconstriction causes fainting. H%po'ic !ri3e$E "hen 5O7 beco#es belo" 12 ##3G' central che#oreceptors beco#es unresponsi+e "hile peripheral beco#es responsi+e to the lo" 5O7 O'%#en sat"ration$ o&ygen bound to hae#oglobin O'%#en press"re$ dissol+ed in plas#a. PERIPHERAL ,HEMORE,EPTORS $Ghalf asleepH "hen there is high O7 tension $Gfully a"a8eH "hen there is lo" 5O7 EEE sti#ulates respiration ,ENTRAL ,HEMORE,EPTORS $Gfully a"a8eH "hen there is high O7 tension $Ghalf asleepH "hen there is lo" 5O7 pO7 > dissol+ed in plas#a O7 sat > o&ygen bound to rbc %pressure > al"ays dissol+ed' e+en pCO7 VI.

DR. MONTENEGRO