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Fundamentals of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation & Air-Conditioning)

E.GO77

Additional
Notes

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Chapt.,

Introduction
We all appreciate the relief from discomfon afforded by a modern air-conditioning sysrem. Many gf our homgs and rlost otfices ans! commercial facilities would not be coJntbrtable without vear-round control of the indoor environmenl The "luxurv label". a_ttached to air-conditioning prior to World War II has given wav to an appreciation of its pracricaliw in makine our lives healthier and more productive. Along with that rapid development in improrrne humao comfoft cxm ploduced better. faster, and more economically in a properly cgntrolled environgent. In fact. many products of today could not be produced at all were the temperarure. humidity, and air quality not conrolled within very niurow limits. The development and industrialization of the United States. especially the Southern states. would never have been possible without year-round control of the indoor environment. One has only to look ior a manutacruring or printing plant. electronics laborarory. or other hightechnology facility and the vast office comple.res associated with our economy to l. understand the truth of that statement. hdegd. vl-nuallv eve indusrriul. und instirutional building in the United States. Canada. and o(her industrial countries of the world have controlled environments rhe vear round. llost systems installed prior to rhe t970s were designed with little attention to energy conservation since fuels were abundant and inexpensive. Escalating energy costs since that decede have caused increased interest in efficiency of operation. During the same penod the need for closely controlled environments in laboratories. hospitals. and industrial facilities conrinued ro grow. A rhird factor of exoanding awareness was the health and frerthrm;rnce. Practi,imfron;rnce of comfon :rnri inrlonr lir qrr:rlit)z on horh rioners of rhe arts and sciences of HVAC system design and simulation were challenged as they never had been betbre. Developments in electronics, controls. and computers have tlrnished the tools allowing HVAC to become a high-technology industry.

*,rt a.n";1"*f"n

Alrhough ro.cls gqd mgrhgdS have.chans.gd.

a.nd a bener

undersranding olthe parametsrs

of sood system desisn have not changed. These basic elements of HVAC system desien arglhe_erngballs of this rexr and lurnish a basis for presenting recent developments of imponance and procedures lor designing functional. well-controlled. and energy-elfiitv.

Chapter

Introduction

1.1 HISTORICAL

NOTES

'

Historically air conditiomng has implied cooling or otherwise improving the indc:or environment during the w:um months of the year. In modern times the term has takerr on a more literal merning that can be applied to year-round environmental siruations. That is, air conditioning refers to the control of temperarure. moisture content, cleanliness. air qualir_v, and air circulation as required by occupants. a process, or a product in the space. This definition was first proposed by Willis Carrier (l). There is evidence of the use of evaporative effects and ice for cooling in very early times: however, it was not unril the middle of the nineteenth cenrury that a practical refrigerating machine was built. By the end of the nineteenth century, the con(i':; central heating was fiirly well developed. and early in the rwentieth century cooling for comfort got is start. Carrier is credited with the first successful attempt in 1902 tr, reduce the humidiry of air and maintain it at a specified level ( I ). This marked the trirth of true environmental control as we know it today. Developments since tiat time have
been rapid. More detailed discussions of the history of heating, refrigeration, and air conditioning are given in articles by Willis R. Woolrich, John W. James, Walter A. Grant, and William L. McGrath (2). Because of the wide scope and diverse nanrre of the Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) field, litenlly thousands of engineers. their names too numerous to list, have developed the industry. The accomplishments of aii these unnamed persons are summarized in the ASHP,I.E* Handbook consisting of for;r' volumes entitled: Fundamentals, Refrigeration, HVAC Systems and Equipmenr, auei HVAC Applications. Research designed to improve the handbooks is sponsored by

ASHRAE and monitored by ASHRAE members. The principles presented in this


textbook follow the handbooks closely. At the beginning we will review the units and dimensions common to HVAC analysis and design.

UNITS AND DI]VIENSIONS


In HVAC computations
as in

all engineering work, consistent units must be employed.

characteristic in reference to a standard. Examples of a unit are the foot and the meter, which are used to measure the physical characteristic length. A physical characteristic. such as length. is called a

A anir is a specific quantitative measure of a physical

dimension. Other dimensions

of

interest

in HVAC

computations are force. time,

temperarure. and mass. In this text two svstems of units will be employed. The first is called the Englislr Engineering System and is most commonly used in HVAC work in the United States with some modification such as use of inches instead of feet. The system is sometimes refened to as the inch-pound or IP system. The second isrhe International Sysrem (or SI for Systeme International d'Unires), the system in use in engineering practice throushout most of the world and widely adopted in the United Sta(es. Equipment designed using U. S. conventional units will be opera(ional foryears and even decades. For the foreseeable future. then, it will be necessary for many engineers

' ASHRAE is an abbreviarion for rhe Amcrican Sociery Engineers. Incorponted.

of Heeting, Retrigerating and Air-Conditioning

Units and Dimensions


/------\-----t\-

Table

l-l

.f-)-

-\--------\
lnternational
Svstem

English Engineering
Dimensions
Mass Svstem

Leneth

pound mass (lbm) foot (fr)


second (sec) degrde Fahrenheit (F)

kilognm (kg)
meter (m)
second is) degree Kelvin (K)

Time
Temperature

to work in either system of unis and to be able to make colrversion lrom one system to another. The base SI units imponant in HVAC work are given in Table l-l with *re comparable English Engineerine units.

The SI system is described in several documenrs: (3), (4), and (5). The sysrem consists of seven base units (the tbur base units given in Table l-l plus units of electric currenl amount of substance. and luminous intensity). In addition there are two supplementary units for the plane anele (rad), the solid anele (r), and a list of derived units. The derived units in the SI system that are flrequentl.v.. .rsed in HVAC are given in
Table l-2.
Because there is only one unit lor each dimension in the SI system. there is a carefully defined set of multiple and submultiple prefixes ro avoid the use of, a large number of

Table
Dimension Acceleration. angular Acceleration, linear
Area Densiry Energy
Force

l-2

Derived Units Frequently Used in HVAC Special SI Name


SI

&

Svmbol

English Unit
rad/secr tVsecr

rad/s:
m./sr

k9.'
N-m (kg-m t/s:
l/s
.

m'

joule (J)
newron (N) hertz (Hz) watt (W)
pascal (Pa)

ft: lbm/ftl Btu, it-lb lbf


l/sec hp psi

) ) )

\
S

Frequency Power
Pressure

l/s N/mr
J/(kg-C)

-s
I

Specific hext capacity


S

Btu/(lbm-F)
psi

tress

Thermal conductivity Therrnal flux density Velociry, angular Velocity, linear Viscosity, dynamic Viscosiry, kinemaric Volume

N/mr W/(m-C) W/m:


rad/s m/s

Btu/(hr-ft-F)

Btu/(hr-tt:;
ra<i./sec

tVsec

(N-s)/m:
m/s:

lbt'-sec/ft:
tVsecr

ml

ftr

APPEI{DIXF

Symbols

Table F-l Symbols Used in Control System Schematics


-ffF

@
-Nl--

centrifugalfan

Globe valve

@
Check valve

Humidstat. room

Coil ior solenoid valve

r
tr

Humidstat. ciucr

Prooortion rng control ler. sol id-siate

Contac:or cr moior starter: controller

f$lc
I

r-l
control valve. three-way
NO

@
@

Pump

Receiver-ccntrol ler

contrcl 7atve, two-way

-E@
Damper motor

tr
@

Relay

Reversing.elav

@
@
\ \

ivlotor siarter

tr
E

Sequenclng ccnlroller

Motor

Smoke detector

Parallel-blade damper (for two-position


control
)

Static pressure control ler

o-H"
729

730

Symbols

Table F-l Symbols Used in Control System Schematics (Conrinued\

\./

control)

Opposed-blade damper (for

modulating -t

Thermal expansion valve. thermosiatic expansion valve

a
+
tr tr
E

Pressure gauge

Thermomeier. remote-bulb or insertroir :ype


Pressure regulator (pressure-reducing

-F
Thermostat or temperature sensor. insertion

varve)

type

Pressure switch or sensor

Thermostat or temperature sensor, remotebulb, duct or pipe. or insertion type

Diiferential pressure sensor or controller

Thermostat. room

Electric -pneumatic relay

tr tr

Fire safety switch

tr

Variable-speed ccntroiler

Flow switch

- -_"{
coNVEisroN IASG
iLowRAia

.\:-v

VOLUtvl:

.. t
LI

=
ivl::i..1
.. j..

0.5336

I
1

.US
r/q

C:M

iAES
L

iCF\1
rc?r,1

=
= =

atob-c-1.2c5

-i

uSca.rr

l
I

tlsclira
2.1 19

C:M

-l ,t

5.::9 28-31 7 J.5.r6


O QA 2

tcAL

I
1

LliiEs LtIiEs
tNl

I
:

t23

DrsiJJ\c:

{h3{
i\,tM

:::;
,vr:f rE
\/=::a

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=:
-

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:d 1t i

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-1

M:
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tu.,
f4:.

5
I

FT'
o

rNcS:
ACRE

MNI-

MIL:
NA U.),1IL:

= =

l.5o.o3lr
C.3Oc8

-.,f

INS
K.V

o.:o5

KM

:'
PCE:SURE
l

:NE3GV/PCwE,3Avo

RK

t-:
KW KCAUH

;T.
1

)sl
?si

rVG

= = =
='=

0.2c9
2-:19

KPfu-.
i(P,q..

tsl
I

o_o703 o ,1Fqt

3Afr

. r?L r.r' KG/C:,!^. - ' 3Afi -. - .PSl' K?4,


.

3T!/H
ci tru

'"P

KCAL'H
K'/1./

?.30:.
I

Ol .:?5

KP.{ <PA

i:},1P:IA;UR!

!1ISC:I-!.ANE.]US .

ig:!+t:

C:noensrcg.sarer rlowrare ilCpVl a5rilea aarer.lowrarc ilGAMj


.

= =

i/C,rare-.:o

rals

:3oact/

(i

C:noerornq wa(er :lowrate x nrnrhr r 0. l5rtOO


l t /6 tn

ions or 3erngerari6n (T?l x l. j lGpM/Ta ions oi 3eingerztron {iRl x 2-J tcPlll/Ta

'

iF x no-,,rours ooeranon iie. ii) x iC


i

r>a---.--j

--

"\,?
T',/

l.'r-,. -' ::

\ n^ ltuo r/
:c
-9

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8 Lor

i' zJ

1,lal a /-/
't.

-'
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rY1

/ !,4 a -*--.'
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t

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To 0hr;rirr

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......

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in
L.C.

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3n-I,

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ti
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l'lii

(lorouc or :r:orrrc:rt)_..........1.j6

r;... .-.....

ti it/(rrori).....
b7,/nrin (oorvc:)....-....

N.n
W
t l.

l.j6 j
02:5
'

4tu 1i./n-:t'-'!

.1.-l
. t) i-:_

3ru'iru(ir.li'.'fr (tl;c;:rri :onitrc:rviw, t)

'V,(nr.K) K) '.!','f;n-'C) t,V(rn

..........0

,3:ilon iUS, 2l I inr) .: ., ..


'.1tnl

:-o

,?itll/ion :cli; gc::ticn

........006it

L's

ltJru:
\v,.il1-

(over: ite:r i;lns c3ctT. 0) ithe::aai crncuc:;nc:. e

,j,j3

,virn;rK) .'il/(.lit.'C) ^-l \s


-

3rurlb

... ...

.rrr

.l:...r in-1arlc:::tr..(60"ij :. _...j ji ":l.l::,:(,jo:1 . , .: :fe


'^^i.

5crsc:orrc: (boiic:-). ... . , .........r.j t k,V hcrsc:cucr i,i-r0 ti-1b7,,5) , ....0.;,td


:<W

C.0l;9 ;rrLJ

.......

ntnr.

kp:

ll)t) lj. lirc:rr:r ,....:rns,on-.,.1;1.

r:
_:.rulvrn

k',Irir.-.....

.'J;11'g'K)

...._

i.

.j5rl r) 00

,,ltj

-.;i(kg.'C)
::lcr;e, 3,r:tn... .-. .. _. ... ...-......

1,,

lg

i:cs;. j tc: jcurr: il00;o:i)...,)

c:icr':c. siicgr-:nr: li;icc:ior:c _: g .. .


:OB ]/ lll-

Irtc. r:rrtrc:i'1-:
l;l]l'
-

...1.6i
.,.....,..............1,i:

.1,
knr k;n

-:v

. i0 i

i.ii
,..
:

<nvir
irus
<lJ3

:/:u

ICrl irC:ia l{ .\.:lC:

.....-.............J
" ' -

r-r
ri.r ;

!,k1 !itv
, ..P
it:
nl, rt

vlli 0

:c!nc
.0 iillassi
Ib7
'l

(fcr:: cr ll:njsr

kq

:I/S
lr

tbrir. . l"'-'.
i00.

.. .._r_..,.,' " " "5 or jic:m


-',

brfr (unrr-onlr lo;o)...-.

) ...-.,.._.....

._.r..r

:c- lrour a

l::":

I ..lt -..-.....!,15

\r ke/rl

;i,.r;r.-:

:il/

.113r
.-r 33

..:

ivitie

560

TrcFl N/Cu\

FFERFNCE

--t

Pressur-e Equ;ltiolls
PNESSURE COI.I\,/EFISIOT{ FACTCRS

r . y. r r x
(
:4

.i361

; 'a

9.;t335
i).Cr_r.i .l

i).C i.l2 (,t..t9 12

l).0 i 03 u. !:.i
t't 1z

l-12{l , /llrll cl #.Ll ' ;;n of H-C ; 'r ol Hg : ':rnr ,:f HC : Cr.l Ci l-rg
I

.6 .ri It cf

ll^r)

-- :

= = =: =
=

'

I)Si

gsr

csi ils,
fJsi Dsi
OSi OSI

x ,r ., r /.

td.50
J.01 J5

5ar

^9tc:n'

t .15.x iOr o':'t5o


i.r 396

. :

:l1i-.ar Pasctlr (iicDa.s'.:;irs iln':

=
= = -=

psi
pSl

pii
o-qt

pst

x x x ;.: x x :< ,< x x x x .r

2;.;:
2.31
TrJS

:t
I

ir).3

2.03

5;:!
5.77l
Ct.0;C3

0 0889

63.35
r-3-o5

6.895 0 llES

AIR PFESSURE, FLOW


P'.

FORfulUL;S

i.
i

/VlrE:re: V

:.

\ r

\,.0r/'
)r - ;:.

.tr!
FS

'./elOc:tv (feet rar' rtrin(lle) Velocity Pressurq linches ivate' cclurlr':r Tcta: Fressure iinches water colurrn) ' ,t , Siatic Fressure lihches watr cclun,tt

_-.

'P.r ;:lav :e ,:sir;rininec 'cv


HE,qD PFiESSU}iE
ps,

Fltct Ttibe.
:

FORINUL.AS =
Fett

i;eiri

x Sr;ecilic (-iravitr

!rqcriic Gravilv

PRESSUFE DETI}{ITIONS

:\csciute Pressurr!
AtnicsDheric Press ure

iire :unr ,:f Eaugelpressure Jllc atriospherrc press\Jre. iire ?ressure existing at ihe sudace ci the earth cat,seC bv ihe 'verqlll ci

''

: i
,'-----v'-h.
rf

Suce ?resstlre

:ournln ,;l aii abo,le. ll'le pcrnt Df neasur!!nnl. Allrlr-ls.r)lleric Pressure .,ar!,i3 ,virll ettilrjcg ilt:'] '^e-l(lter ccn.i:lio-s. x'-;1't.t 5?6 psra is cgrrersll'.' tcce!ted excaDt ;r1 ilicn ai:ltu'J4 lccgtrons.

\ cr.:;:iitrq reacrtto.il:o'.'e,\llttcsolrQrrc ?:e:3tlr',' ivlcsi i:l!ii:ulnetrls

ca'-i

Frtol i,rbe Presstrre irarrsdtj;er S nubber


Statrc Pressure

_:atl(ie tt qsitirc. ;\. rrri:r: tltal ,s anselle.J rn :t.:jUCi iO llteasure ir.Cllr :Ctal pigsstjte ;rr.13;-t;c. ail(J r'las t"9a(3le ():nnec:lotls !o'lllat eac;1 OressJl'e
3ell':'-1C

atlc si;lii.:
fnirv ;e

i,)tai Fressilre '.'.riocrty Pressurl

I l-.e:ressurg exgrted l:v lhe':elocrt"'ct a llt:ld. !elcciLy Flrgssi.rre 's -iol.:l ?:955ure and Slatic Pressure at"i 'tr:elai! ., ^';;i3rnecl b'/ rneasr;rtnc 'qr.ji.:ii,ici:::rj ilre Sitiic P'es-.ute iror:'l -ctal 9resgute. Tlle 'qtrrain(:er r-"
';.'C::1.., ?..tSStir?

A'.je'.,rcE.h,il cc;treris 2 tltsS:-,Ic rrlollt.trlo arl electlicel slcnal A jr:'.'rcg i.rs?,-j lo rj;'rtnDc!l cur:,ati(-:lls tq Dlessuie irrsirtJrllenls Il\e jtl,,.!'.i(aj cu:;il oi a fitrrrJ.rg2tr:si llle w;lils t{ g cC:.l3irre:'. iir,.: a,urrr ot -clatic F:e5:;ure arti \/?icc:lv P:essue
.

'<-'il+',,3*tFl

r S{l 1 -*192'

:nl'

A:..

1-?..

-|7 i-713i

-;--.}...:+-:=.'

CHAPTER 56

CODES AND STANDARDS


tl-HE Codes rnd Standirds iisted here represent prilctices. methods. or scandards published by the oryanizetions indicated. Thev are I usetul guides lor the pmcricing cngineer in determining test methods, ratings, perfbrmance requirements. and limits of HVAC&R equipment. Copies of the standards can be obtained trom most ot'the organizations Iisted in the Publisher column. hom Global Engineering DocuJnents rt global.ihs.com, or trom CSSINFO rt cssinfo.com. Addresses of the olganizarions are given at the end of rhe chaprcr. .1. comprehensive database with over 150.000 indusu-.v. goverrrnenl and international standards is at www.nssn.org.

Selected Codes and Standards Published bv Various Societies and .{ssociations


Subject

Title
Commerciai Appiicerrons. Svstems.:rnd Equipment lst ed. Residennal Equrpment Selection. 2nd ed. .Vethods olTesnng tor Rating Ducted Arr Terminal Unia Ducted fur{ondinoners and Air-ro-Air Heat Pumps-Tesring end R.ati.ng for
Perlormance

Publisher

Reference

.lir Condirionen

.{cc.{
ACC.{,

.\SHR.{E
ISO ISO

ACCA Manual CS ACCA Manual S ANSUASHRAE IJO-I996 ISO 13253:1995


ISO i15l:1994 SMACNA 1998

Cenn-rl

Cas Fired

Non-Ducted Air Condinoners and Heat Pumps-Testing and Raring for Pertbrmance Guidelines for Roof Mounted Outdoor.\ir-Conditioner lrstallanons Heeting rnd Cooling Equipment (1995) Pertbrmance Stindard lor Split-System Centnl Air{onditiorren and Heat Pumps Pertbrmafice Standrrd lbr Single Package Centrrl Air{ondirioners and Heat Pumps Penbrmuce Stindird lor Rating Lrrge Air Condinoners and Heet Pumps He:ring and Coolinq Equipment (199i) Cas-Fired Heet .\crivated Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances Cas-Fired Work .\crivared ,{ir Conditioning rnd Heat Pump Appliances llnrernal
Combusnon
A pp I ianccs
t

Slv{r\CNA

ULCSA
CSA CSA CSA LTLCSA
CSA CSA CSA

1995jC22.2 No. 216-M95


(

ctu\/csA4273.3-M9l (R?001 )
cAN/csA,c656-M92
R I 998)

c.\\/csA-c746-98 ANSviJL r 995- I 998/C:t.t 136-95

.\\SI

22 I.10. l - t996,CGA i.9 l -\196


1..10.2I

.,\NSI Zt

996/CCA 2.91-M96

Pedbrmrnce Testrnu rnd Rating ot'Cas-Fired .{rr Conditionrng rnd Heet Pump Prckrged
Tcrmrnai Room
Rcxrm

ANSr Zl t.-t0.+ l996/CGA 1.9.1-\196 ANSyAzu ll0/i80-91/ CSA C?44-93 (R:000) ANSVAIiAT\I R-{ C- I - 1992 T.NSYASHR-1,E l6- l98l (RA99) TNSVASHRAE J8. I 986 ( R.\99
I

Peckrged Termrnri .\rr-Conditroners rnd Hear Pumps

,{RI/'CSA

.{ir

Condiuoners
Peckaged Termrnal

AHAIV

\:zriruo or lesnng for Raring Room .{rr Conditioners and Packaged Temrnal
Conditione rs

lrr

.{SHL{E
ASHfu{E .\SHLAE
CSA CSA

\lerhod oiTestrng lbr R]nn{ Room .\ir Condittoner rnd Condinoner Hernnr Clpacrtv \lcrhod ot Tesring tbr Rating Fen-Cori .\rr Conditioners Pefibmuce Standrd tbr Room ..\ir Conditiones
Room Room

Air

.\rr Conditroncrs

.\ir

Conditroners

l'l9l)
ARI Azu ARI

nlr:r./

.\ppiicanon oiSound Ratrng Lcveis - Outdoor Untta4r Equroment Commercral rnd lndustnal Unitarv ,{rr-Conditioning anu Heet fumo Equroment Sound l{:rtrnq ol'Outdoor Unrtarv Equroment Unrrarv -\ir-Conditrontng rnd .\ir-Source Heat Pump Equipment \leuhod oiTestrnt ibr Rating Computer rnd Dau Processrng Room Unttan' .{tr ( onditrones

.{NSyASHR-\E 79-:002 (R9 I ) C.\NiCSr\-Ci68. l-v190 ( R:00 I ) Cll.l No. II7-1970 (Rl99U) .\NSVUL {8.1 ARI li5-97
.\RJ i.10i 360-2000 ,.\RI 170-95

,{NSVARI : IO/:40-9]

ASHR\E
.\SHR-TE

ANSVASHRT.E I];-]OOI

\lerhod oiRrnng Unrulv Spot


Hear Pump Equrpment -[esnng

.A.ir Condittoners

\lcrhqis of Tesrrng tor Ratrng Heat-Opemted Uniur.v Arr{onciitroning

and

'{SHRAE

ASHRAE I]8.2OOI ANSV,{SHRAE .IO.]OO2


ANSUASHfuA,E 37-I988

tbr Rrtrng Uniury Air-Condiuonrng ard Heat Pump Equipment ASHRAE Vedro.is of ASHL.\E \{er}rods oiTestrng lor R.rtrng Seasonal Efficienry of Unrur-v Air Conditroncrs and
Heat Pumps Ships
Speci
fi

ANSVASHRAE II6.I995 ASTM FI4]3-97 ACCA ACCA ACCA ACCA ACCA


Manual RS Manual CS Manual H Manual N Manual J

cation for Mechanically Retri gented Shipboard Air Conditioner

ASTM

Air Conditioning Comfort. Air Qualiry end Efhciency by Desigrr


Commercial Applications Systems and Equipment lst cd. Hart Pump Systcms: Pnnciples and Applications, 2nd ed Commerciai Load Calculation. "lth ed. Residential Load Ceiculation. 8th ed. Envrronmental Systems Technology, 2nd ed. Installation of Arr Condilioning and Venrilating Systems
Sr-aLrdrrd

aaar
Acc.{.
ACCA ACCA ACCA
NEBB
NFPA

NEBB NFPA 90A.99

of Punw ior Use in Mobiie Air-Conditioning Systems

SAE

sAE Jl99t-1999

56. r

56.1

2003

ASIIR\E Applicetions Handbook (Se

Selected Codes end Standards Published by V'erious Socieries and .{ssociarions (Conrinued) Subjea
Tit.le

Publisher
SN{ACNA

Reference

{ircnn

HVAC Sysrems.\pplicerions. lst ed LIVAC Systems-Ducr Design. 3rd ed. He:trng ud Cooling Equipmcnt { 1995) .{ir Condirioning oi.\ircnft Cargo .\ir Condinoning Systeros for Subsonic .\irplenes Aircrrri Fuel Weight Penelr-v Due Io Air Conditionine

SMACNA

Siv{.\CNA 1987 SMACNA I99O

ULCSA
SAE SAE

UL l995iC::.: No. ll6-9j (R1999)


SAE .\IRSO6B.I997 SAE -{RP35E.I99I

SAI
SAE

sAE.\lRrl68,',3-r989
sAE .{s.r?62.\- 1997 sAE rs.$7t-2000

{utomouve

f
Shios
lir
Cunuins

SAE SAE SAE SAE SAE SAE SAE SAE Desrgn C'-ldelines tor Arr Conditioning Systems tor OtI-Road Opentor Enciosurcs SAE Recor.crv rnd Recvcle Equipment for Vobile Automorive .{ir-Condirioning Systems SAE Guide io rlre .{ppiicenon end Use ol Pesse nger Cer .{r-Conditioning Compressor SAE Frce Scels SAE lnfomarion Relanng to Dury Cyclcs and Avenge Power Requircmenrs of Truck enri Bus Eneine -\ccessories SAE Raong .\ir Conditioner Evaporator.{ir Deliver-v rnd Cooling Capacities SAE. Service Hose for Automorive Air Conditionrng SAE Tcst Verhod lor Vesuring Power Consumprion of Air Condirioning end Breke Compressors for Trucks and Buses .{SHRAE !{echanicel Rernqerarion urd Air{ondirioning lnstalletions Aboard Ship -\STM Pncrrce lbr \lcchanical Svmbols. Shipboard Herring. Venrilarion- and Air Conditroning {H!.'\C}

Connecrion Air Cvcle .{ir Condirioning Systems tbr Milirary Air Vehiclcs Cono-ol oiE.rc:ss Humidit-v in Avionics Cooling Engine Bteed .\ir Sysems tbr Aircnli Curdc tbr Quejific:tion Tesnng of AircnR .\ir Vdves Lrvrronmencal Cono-ol Sysrcms Termrnology Tesnng of -\irplane lnsrdlcd Environmentel Conrml Svsrems (ECS) Reliigerrnt ll .{utomoove.{ir-Conditioning Hose RllJa Rcrrigerant Automotive Air{ondirioning Hosc
.{ircntl Cround Air Condirioning Servics

s.\E .\RP987A- 1997


SAE SAE SAE SAE

sAE _{RPr79&1987 ARP986C.I997

ARPI{;E.]OOI ARP2I;D.I999

J5I.I998 sAE J20il- 1999 sAEJl69-1985 sAE J1990-1999 sAE Jt95+2000 sAE Jl-r.lj-2000 sAE Jlr87-r985 sAE J2 ! 96- l 997 sAE Jli40- 1996 ANSUASHLqE :6- I996

^{sT}t F356-97

.\rr Cunarns ior Enrr:ncervays in Fmd rntj Food Sen tcs Esreblishments Tesr \lcthods tbr .lir Cunein Unirs .\rr Temrnrls llcthod ul-Tcstrnq tbr Rrnng the Peflbmrltce ot'.\ir Outlcts :nd Inle ts Stendrci llethods tbr Lrbontoru .\irllow \1e:surement R:rrn g t}c Pertbrmence of ResidentreMechanicrl Vcntrltrting Equipment

1ir Dilfutioa

.\ir Disrnbution

Besics for Residcnriel cnd Smell Commercial Buildines. lst ed-

Tesi C'ocje for Cnlles. Regrsrers and Drthr:'ers

\lcrhod ot'Tcsrinr: lor Rrnng the Penbmance !le:hod oiTcsrrns for Room Air Ditfusron 1ir Filten

oi-lir

Ourle rs

rnd lnies

NSF.;ANSI J7.]OO2 }JSF AllcA ll0-91 Allc.\ .\RI 380-98 .\Rt ASHR,\E fu\SVASHRAE]O.I99I ,\SHR{E .\NSI/ASHR\E ] I ].I987 (R.-\92) c.r"i\ics.\-c:60-M90 {R1997) csA ACCA Menuai T ACC.\ .lDC 1062:CRD-8a .{DC .{SHR,\E ANSUASHL{E;O.I99I .{sHRl .\NSU.TSHR\-E lll-1990

Corntbn. .\rr Qualirv. :nd Efficrencv by Desrgn

\CC,\
},

\CC.\ ltanual
.{CGIH

RS

lndustnei Venrrl:rtron: .\ \lanual of Rccommcndcd Prrcttc:. lJlh cd. {1001 Sclcc:ron tri.\rr Filrnrron Equipmcnt !lerhod flor \{euunng Pertbrmancc ot Pon]bie tlouschold Elecrncel Cord
Connected Room

ACCIH

.{NSI/AHAI,{ rc.{Rt
ARt

l-

1988

.\ir

C)caners

Cornmcrc:al rnci Indusrnal .\ir Filter Equrpment Rcsrdentral .{ir Filter Equipmenr
.-\5me

.{RI 3J0-9i
ARI 6E0.9]
.r,NSr,',ASAE S515- l. l - 1998

ultuni C:bs-Environmcntai Arr Qurliw: Prn l: Delinitions. Tcst \{ethods

.\SAE

rn,1 SaGry Pncrrces Pen l: Pestic:de Vapor Fillers-Proccdure rnd Penbrmanc: Critena

Cmvrmernc end Dusr-Spot Protedures lbr Tesring lir-Cleanrng Devicss Used in Ceneral Vennlatron lor Removing Penrculate \{aner \lelhotl ol Tesring Gcnenl Ventiletron .\rr-Clerning Devices lor ggrnqval EiJlciencv by P:nicle Size Test Method for Air Cleuing Pertbrmance of a High-Efficiency Prniculate Air

.\SAE ASHRAE
ASHRAE
.{STM ASTM
,q.STM

.\NSUAS.\ES52-5.2.I99E .{NSLASIIfu\E J2.I-I992


..\NSIIASHR-r,E 52-2-1999

ASTM Fr47l-91 (200t) ASTM Fto4o-az (:oot) ASTM Fl79l -00


BS 1928:1969 BS EN 779:1993

Filter System
Specificarion for Filter Unis. Air Conditioning: Viscous-lmpingement:nd Dry Types. Replaceable Specificetion for Filters Used in Air or Nirogen Systems Merhod lor Sodium Flame Test lor Air Filters Panruulate Air Filren for Cenenl Ventrl:tion-Requinments. Testing, lv{arkirg

BSI
BSI
LTL

Ele.trosnric Air Cleaners (20O0)


.fficiensy, Paniculate. Air Filto Units (1996t .1.,: ,'iiir:r Units (199.1) i:i r,.,r:,t Hoods lor Commcrcial Cookrng Equipmcnt ( 1995)
,

rrrlr

L'L

UL UL

ANSLUL 367 UL 586 ANSYUL 9OO UL 7IO

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and Associations (Contizued)
Subjcct
Gceese Filters tbr Erhaust Ducts (2000)

56J

Publisher
UL ACCA ARI
Commercial .{pplicadons Systems and Equipment lst ed. Ccnr-al Stadon Air-Handling Unis Non-Recirculating Dirct Gas-Fired Indusrial .A,ir llcaten

Rcference

uL

1046
CS

Air-Handliag
Ulra

ACCA Manual

ANSYARI 43G99
ANSI ZJ3.+ I 99/CSA-1.7-M99

csA
ASHRAE ASHRAE ASTM ASTM

Air Lcakage

Air Leakage Pertbrmance for Detached Singlc-Family Residenrial Buildings llcthod of Dctcrmining.{ir Changc Ratcs in Derached Dwellings Standard Practices tbr.\ir Leakage Site Detcction in Building Ervelopes rnd.{.ir
Renrder Systems Tcst Method for Dctermining Air Changg in a Singlc Zonc by Means of a
Gas Dilurion Tcst Mcthod for Determining
Test Methods for Dccmrining Test

ANSyASHRAE ASTM EI I86-98 ASTM E74I4O

t9-t988 (RA94)

tu\syAsHRAE t3Gt993 (RAot)

Traccr

Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization ASTM Airtightrcss of Buildings Using an Orifice Blowcr Door ASTM Method for Determining the Ratc of Air Leakagc Through Exrcrior Windows, ASTM

Air

ASTM E779-99 ASTM E1827-96 (2002) ASTM E14249l (2000)

Curtain WaUs. and Doors Under Specified Prcssure and Temperature Differences
Across the Specimen

Tkougb Extcrior Windows, ASTM Curain Walls. rnd Doors Under Specified Pressurc Differences Acmss the Specimen Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakagc Through lrualled Exterior ASTM
Test Mcthod for Determining the Rare of .{,ir Leakage

ASTM 8283-9t (t999) ASTM E783-93 (2002)

Window and Doors


Packeged Boiler Engineering Manual A Guidc to Clean and Efficient Operation of Coal Stoker-Fircd Boilers Boiler Water Limits and Achierrable Steam Purity for Watertube Boilers

Borlcr Water Requiremens and Associated Steam Purity-Commercial Boilers Fluidized Bed Combustion Guidelines Cuidelines for Industrial Boiler Perlormancc lmprovement Opcnrion and Maintenance Sat'ery Manual Recommended Desisr Cuidelines for Stoker Firing of Biruminous Coals
(SclecIed) Codes and Shndards ofthe Boiler Indusr-v Combustion Conrol Cuidelines Commercral .{pplications Systems and Equipment. lst ed. !{ethods of Testing for Annual Fuel Utilization Efficienry of Residential Central Fumaies and Boiien Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (200 I )

ABMA ABMA ABMA ABMA ASMA ASMA ABMA ABMA ABMA .{BMA ACC.\ ASHRAE ,,\SME CSA FTYDI

ASMA ABMA ABMA ABMA ABMA .{BMA ABMA ABMA .\BMA


ABMA ACCA Manual
CS

ANSYASI{R-AE IO]-I993 ASME CSA 85I.97

Boiler. Pressure Vessel. and Prcssure Piping Code Tesring Standard lor Commercial Boilers Tesnng and Rating Sundard for Heating Boilen ( 1989)
Prevennon of Fumace LrplosionVlmplosions in Multiple Burner Boilers Heating, Water Suppiy, and Power Boilers-Electric ( 1995) Cas-Fired Low-Pressure Steam end Hot Water Boilers Gas Utrlization Equipment in Large Boilers Connol and Safety Devices lor Automarically Fired Boilers lndusrnal and Commercial Cas-Fired Package Boilers Oil-Fired Steam and Hot-Water Boilers for Residential Use Oil-Fired SIeam and Hot-Warer Boilers for Commerciai and lndustrial Use Prcventron of Fumace Erplosionvlmplosions in Multiple Bumer Borlers Srngle Bumer Boiler Opentions Commerciai-[ndustrial Gas Heating Equipment ( 1999)

Oil-Fired Boiler Asscmbiies ( 1995)


Standards and TJoical Specificarions lor

Tny Tlpe Deaerators. 7th

ed. (2003)

Handbook of Power Utrliry and Boiler Terms and Phrases

rryDI NFPA UL CSA csA ASME csA csA csA \trP.q. I.IFPA UL UL HEI ABMA
ASTM BOCA ICC

HYDI iBR

BTS.2OOO

ANSI /NFP.{ 8502.99 ANSYLiL 3].1 ANSI 22 I . I3i CSA {.9-2OOO ANSI 283.1-1971 (R1995) ASII{E CSD_ I.2OO2

cANr-l. r-77 (Rl00l)


8t.10.7.1-1976 (R:001)

Bt1o.7 2-t967 (R:001)


ANSUN-FPA 3502-99

ANSI/NFP,\ UL 795 UL126


HEI

35O

I-97

ABMA
ASTM
BOC.A

'od6

ASTM StandarG Used in Building Codes


BOCA National Building Code, l4th ed ( 1999) Intemational Property Maintenance Code (2003) lnternatlonal Burlding Code (2003) lnternational Performance Code (2003) National Building Codc ofCarnda (1995) International Residcndai Code (2003 ) lnemadnnal Energy Consenation Code (2003) Intcmational Existing Building Code (2003) Uniform Building Code, thft volumes (1997)

ICC ICC NRCC ICC ICC ICC ICBO


NCSBCS

IPMC rBC IPC NRCC IRC IECC

iEBC
ICBO NCSBCS (elL-ctonic only) ANSYNFPA 5OOO.2OO2

Direaory of Bulding Codes and Regulations, State and City Volumes (annual) Building Construclion and Safety Code

NFPA

56.4
Selected Codes snd Standards Published by
Subject

2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (Se !arious


Socieries and .{ssociations (Continaedl
Publisher Referencr SBCCI ANSV.{,SME A17.l-1996

Title
Snndard Building Code (1999) Sat'ery Codc lor Elevators and Escalators Naorai Gas Instailadon Code Propane Installadon Code Uniform Mcchanicel Code ( 1997)
SDandffd Gas Code ( 1999)

Mechanical

SBCCI ASME SBCCI lcc ICC SBCCI


AAMA
CSA

CSA CAN/CGA-B r49.1-M95 CSA CAN/CGA-B r 49.2-M9 r ICBO/IAPMO ICBO/I,APMO SBCCI

Intemarionai Mechanicai Code (2003 ) lntemanonal Fuel Gas Code (2003) Sandard Mechanical Code ( 1997)

lMc
IFGC SBCCI

Burnen

Cuidelincs for Bumer .{djusmens of Comrnercial Oil-Fircd Boilen Domestic Gas Convenion Bumers lnstalladon of Domestic Gas Conversion Bumers Gcnenl Requircrnens ior Oil Burning Equipment Installadon Code for Oil Buming Equipment

ABMA
ANSI 2 l. I 7- r 998/CSA 2.7-M98 ANSI Z: 1.3- 1994 (R2000) c.{NicsA-B l 40.0-M87 (R:00 I )

csA
CSA

csA
CSA CSA CSA

c.{N/csA-B

139-00

Oil Bumen: Atomizing-Type


Pressure Aromizing

Oil Bumer Nozzles

cANicsA-B l 40.2. t -M90 (R?000) 8r40.1.2-r97r (R2001)


B 140.2.3-M 198

Replacement Bumers and Replacement Combustion Heads tbr Residential Oil Burners

(R1998)

Vapouriang-Type Oil Bumers CommcrciaVlndusrial Gas and/or Oil-Bumrng.{ssemblies with Emission Reducnon
Equipment (1999) Commercial- Indusu-ial Gas Hearin g
E

csA

tL
UL L'L UL

BH0.r-r966 (R200r) .\\SYIJ'I- 1096

quipment

999)

uL

795

Oil Bumen (1994) Wasre Oil-Buming .{ir-Headng Appliances

.r\sl/ul

296

( I 995)

fu\SI/UL 296A
fu\SYASHRAESO-I995
ACC.-\ Manuat CS

Chillen

Medrod of Tesdng Liquid-Chilling Packages Comrnercial .{pplicarions Systems and Equipment , lst ed .{bsorption Water-Chilling and Water Hearing Packages Cenmfi.rgal and Rorarv Screw

Warer{hilling

Packages

Posirrve Displacement Compressor Water-Chilling Packages Perlbrmance Standsd tbr Rating Packaged Water Chillen

ACC..l, Azu .{RI Azu csA


AST}I
.{STV

.\SHR{E

.{RI 560-2000

.{RI i50-98
Azu 590.98 c743-93 (R:000)
i

Chimneys

Specrfication for lndusrral Chimney Lining Brick Cuide lor Design and Consmrction of Brick Liners lor Indusrnel Chrmnevs Curde [or Desigrr. Febncetion. end Erectton ofFibeqlass Rcrntbrced Plasric Chrmney Liners with Coal-Fircd Units Soecifrcation lor Clav Flue Liners Pncrice lor lnstalling Clay Flue Lining Design and Construcnon of Masonry Chimneys and Fireplaces Chimneys. Fireplaces. Vents. lnd Solid Fuel-Buming Appliances lledrurn Heat .{ppliance Factory-Built Chrmneys (200 I ) Facrory-Burlt Chimneys lor Residential Type and Burlding Heating .{ppliance (2001 )
Procedural Standards for Cemfied Testing ofCleanrooms. lnd ed. ( 1996r Standrd Pracdce for Cootinuous Sizing and Counrrng oiAirbome Panicles rn DustControlled Areas and Clem Rooms Using lnsmrmenrs Capable of Detecnng Singie

AsTlt c980-83

(200 l )

AST}I
.\ST}1 ASTM
CSA \-FP.{

AsT!{ c1298-9i (2001) .\sTM D5164-93 (2002)


ASTM C3 I5.02 ASTM CI]83.02 cAN/csA-A'1o5-1vI87 ( R:000)

I\SI/NFP.{

l-96

tiL
UL NEBB

ANSYUL 959 ANSI/L L IO3


NEBB

AST}I

,{ST}1 F50-92 (2000)

e I

Sub-Micromene end Lerser Panicles Tcst Medrod lor Sizng and Counting Airbome Paniculete Connrninanon in Cleen Rooms and Other Dtst-Controlled .{reas Desrened tbr Electronrc rnd Simrlu

ASTM

AsTlt

Fl_s-68 (1999)

i;2licadons
Pncnce lor Design and Consm.rction of Aerospace Cleanrooms and Conramtnation Controlled .{rers Pracuce lor Cleaning and Maintaining Controlled.{rcas and Clean Rooms Coils

AST!{
ASTM ARI
ASHRAE

ASTM E]2I742 AST\4 E2042.99


Azu

Forced{irculation Arr-Cooling and Ak-Heating Corls Verhods of Testing Forced Circulation Air Cooling and Air Heating Corls
Tfueshold Limit Values for Physical Agents (updated annually.l Thennal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Ergonomics-Determrnation of Metabol ic Heat Production Comfoq Air Qualiry and Efficienry by Desigr Ergonomics of the Thermal Envii-onment-Estinration of rhe T}ennal Insulatton
and Evaporarive Resistance of a Clo*ring Ensemble

ll0-200

ASHLAE l3-2000 ACOIH fu\SYASHRAE


ISO

Comfo.a ..-.
Conditions

ACGIH
ASHRA.E

ISO ACCA ISO


ISO ISO

8996:1990 j ACCA Manual RS t ISO 9920:1995 ! :';


ISO 7243:1989 ISO 7710: I 994

55-IW.

of the Hear Stress on Working llan. Based on the WBGT Index (Wet Bulb Globe Tempcrarure) N{odcnte T}rermal Environments-Daermination olttrc PMV and PPD lndiccs ald Specifica.tion of the Conditions for Thermal Comfon
Hot Environments-Estimarion

.t

:]

56.4
Selected Codes iubject

2003 ASHR{.E Applications Handbook (SI)


rnd Standards Published by Various Societies and .{ssociations (Continued)
Publisher
Reference

Title
Standard

Bulding Codc (1999)

SBCCI

SBCCI

lv{echanicel

Code for Elerztors and Escalators Narural Gas Installation Code Pmpane Installarion Code Uniform Mechanical Code ( 1997) Standffd Gas Code (1999) Lotemanonal Mechanical Code (2003) lnternarionai Fuel Cas Code (2003)
Sat'et-v

csA csA
SBCCI ICC ICC SBCCI
.{BMA
CSA CSA CSA CSA CSA

.{SlvlE

tu\suAsME At7.l-t996
c.\N/cGA-B
149.

r-M95

ctu\/ccA-Br49.2-M9l
SBCCI

ICBO/IAPMOICBO/tAPMO

llvlc
IFGC SBCC,
ABlvf ,\

Standard Mechanicrl Code ( I 997)

Burners

Guidelines lor Bumer .{djusrmens of Comrnercial Oil-Fircd Boilen Domcsric Gas Conversion Burners lnsrallation of Domestic Cas Conversion Bumers Cereral Requircmens for Oil Buming Eqtupment Installuion Code for Oil Burning Equipment Oil Bumen: Atomizing-Type Pressurc Atomizing Oil Bumer Nozles Replaccment Burners and Replacement Combusrion Heads tbr Residential

.{,NSi Z: t. I 7- 1998/CSA 2.7-M98

ANS, Zl.S-1994 (R:ooo) C.{N, CSA-B t.10 0-M87 (R:00 I ) c.{f ' :sA-B li9-00 C.Lirz'JSA-B I 40.2. l -M90 (R:000)

csA
CSA

Bll4:.:-1971 (R:00t)
Br10 1.3-Ml98l (R1998) BIJ{r 1-1966 (R2001)

Oil Bumers
Vapouriang-Type Oil Bumers CommcrciaVtndustriai Gas end/or Oil-Buming .{,ssemblies rvith Emission Reducnon
Equipment ( 1999)

csA
UA

.\\s'

JL :096

Commercial-lndustrial Gas Heating Equipment ( 1999)

Oil Bumers (1994)


Waste Oil-Buming Air-Hearing Appliances ( 1995)

L'L UL

LrL 795

LL

.\\slruL .{\S'UL

296

296A

Chillen

Merhod of Tesring Liquid-Chilling Packages Commercial Applicarions Systems and Equipment . lst ed. Absorptron Warer-Chilling and Water Heanng Pcckages Centntugal and Ron{v Screrv Water-Chilling Packages Positive Drsplacement Compressor Water-Chilling Packaqes Penbrmance Standard lbr Ranng Peckaged WaIer Chrllers Specificetron lbr Industnal Chimney Lining Bnck Cuide lbr Design and Consmrction of Bnck Liners lor lndustnal Chtmnevs Cuidc tor Desigl. Febncetron. rnd Erectton ot'Fiberglass Reintbrced Plasric Clumney Liners wrth Coal-Fired Units Soeciiicatron lor CIay FIue Linen Prrcticc ior fnstalline Clay Flue Lining Design and Consmrcnon of Masonry Chimneys f,nd FireDlaces Chimnevs. Fircpiaces. \tnts. end Solid Fuel-Surning Appliarc:s \ledium l'leat Appliance Factorv-Built Chrmnevs (1001 ) Facton-Built Chrmnevs [or Resrdential Type end Burloing Heating Applimce (1001)

ACC.{ .{RI ARt ARI csA


.\sTiv1

.{SHR{E

.\\SUASHL{EJO-I995 .\CC.\ Manual CS


.nRI i60-2000

.\RI i50-98
ARI 590.98 c74j-93 (R:000)

Chimnq,s

AsTv c98o-s3

200 r )

..\sTll
ASTII
.{sT!1
ASTtr,I CSA
\FP.A,

ASTM C1298-ej (1001) .-\ST\,1 Dil6a-()l (1002) ASTM CJ I5-O] ASTM CI:3-I-02

c.\NicsA-A-105-N{37 .\NSYNFPA ] I I.96


ANSUU-L 9i9 -\NSI/LL iO]

R:000)

{rL UL

NEBB Procedunl Sondards ror Cenrfied Testing ofClernrooms. lnd ed. ( Standa-d Pncrice for Continuous Sizing and Counttng oi.\imome Panlcles rn Dust- AST!{ Controlled .{rees and Clean Rooms Using Insu-umenls CrDabic of Derecting Singie Sub-\licromere and L.uger Panicles
Test llerhod for Sizrng rnd Countrng .A.irborne Prnrcuirte Contamination in Rooms rnd Other Dust-Connoiled .\rcas Destsned ior Elecn'onrc ;rnd Simrlar

1996)

\EBB
.\ST;vt F50-92 {1000) el

Cle:n .\STy
,\STM
ASTM ARI
ASHR.AE

.{ST!t Fl5-r)8 {1999)

pp

rcrtrons

Pracnce lor Desrgn and Consmrctron of Aerosoace Clernrooms md Contamrnation Ccntmiled Arcas Pnctrcs for Clerning and Vainrarnrng Conroiled Areas and Clean Rooms

\STM
As'i \1 El0r2-99

Coils

Forc:d-Circulation Arr-Cooling and Arr-He:ung Corls MerhoG of Testing Forced Circulation Air Cooling and

ARr-ll0-2001

Air

Heetrng Corls

ASHR{E ll-2000
'\CCIH ,RAE 55.I9J

Comfon
Conditions

TtLreshold Limit Values for Physrcal Agens (updrted annuaily; Thermai Environmentai Conditions for Human Occupancy Ergonomics-Determination of Metabolic Heat Production

ACCIH ISO ISO


ISO ISO

.,\SHRAE AN'iI '1

Comfor( Air Quaiiry and Efficiency by Dcsign Eryonomrcs of rhe Thermal Environment-Estirnstion of the Thermal Insulation and Eraporativc ResGnncc of a Clothing Ensemble Hot Environments-Estimation of the Heat Stress on Working Man, Based on the WBCT lndex (Wet Bulb Clobe Tempenrure) I{odcrae Thermal Envimnmenc-Determination of thc PMV and PPD lndices o:rd Specificauon of the Conditions for Thcrmal Comton

AccA

ISO 899r, ,990 rual RS .{cc,t. ISO


l:,
9cr

:995
l

989 994

ISC)

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and .\ssociatio ns (Continued)
Subject
Compressors

50.5

Tide
Test Code on Compressors and L(hausters Displacement Compressors. Vacuum Pumps and Blowers
Sat'ery Sundard tbr

Publisher

Reference

Air Compressor Systems

Sat'ery Snndard for Compressors for Process lndusu-ies

Compressed

.\ir

and Grs Handbook. 6th

ed (2003)

Rekigcrant

Ammonia Compressor Units

Ilethod tbr Prcsenrarion of Compressor Pertbrmance Data


Positive Displacement Condensing Units Merhods of Tcsting lor Rating Posirive Displacement Retrigemrt Compressors rnd Condcnsing Unis Sat'ery Standard tbr Rerrigeration Systems Testing oi Refri gerant Compressors Retrigeranr Compressors-Prcsentanon of Performance Data Hermeric Refr gerant Moror-Compressors ( I 996) Computen Condensen Method of Raring Computer and Data Processing Room Unitar,v Air Conditioners Protecrion of Electronic ComputerrData Processing Equipment Commercial Applicadons Sysrems and Equipment. lst ed. Remote Mechanical-Draft Air-Cooled Refrigerant Condensers Remote !lechanicel Drrft Evaporative Retrigennt Condensers Water-Cooled Retri gerant Condenssrs, Remote Type Method of Testing for R.rdng Remote Mechanical-Draft Air{ooled Refrigerrnt
Condensers

ASME ASME ASME .\SME CAGI Azu ARI ARI


ASHRAE
.ASHRAE

ASME PTC iO,I,N97 ASME PTC 9.i'\;U (RA97)

ASME Br9.r-1995
ASME CAGI

8I9.3.I99I

ANSVARI JIO.93 Azu 540-99 ARI 520.97 ANSUASHRAE23-I99] ANSVASHRAEI5.2OOI


ISO 917:1989 ISO 9109:1989

ISO ISO UL'CSA


NFPA

UL 984/C2:.2 No.140.2-96 (R:001) ANSUASHRAEI2T.2OOI


NFP.1.75.99

ASHRAE

ACCA ARI ARI ARI


ASHR{,E ASHRAE ASHRAE

ACC.{, Manual CS

ARI ]60.2000 ARI ]90-98 ARI 150.99


ANSUASHRAE2O-T997

!lethods of Tesnng Remorc Mechanical-Dnft Enporarive Retngerant Condensers VethoG of Testing tbr Rating Water{ooled Refrigerant Condensers Sarer,v Code for Remgenrion Systems Sterm Surrice Condensers Stand:rds tbr Steam Surtace Condensers. 9th ed.. addendum I Standards l-or Direcr Conract Baromeric and Low Levei Condensers. 6rh ed.

ASHRAI

fu\SUASHRATU-1995 fu\SVASHRAEZ2.I992
ANSYASHRAE I5.2OOI
ASME PTC IZ.2-1998

ASME HEI HEI


ACC.{
ARI

HEI

]OO2

HEI I99J
.{CCA Manual CS ARI i6i-94

ndensing C'ar'rs Commercral .\pplic:rrons Systems and Equrpmenr Commercral and Inciusmai Unitary Air-Condirroning Condensing i:nrts \lerhotls oiTestrng tbr R:uing Positive Drsplecement Retii!:ennr Compressors Condcnsrng [:nits Hcrrrnq rnd Coolint Euurpment ( 1995) tlatnen

rnd

ASHfu{E
UL, CSA

.{NSli.\sHR{E tiUL l995,Cll.l


ISO 6ti8: 1995
N-o.

1993

216-t5

Senes I Fre:ght Conrarnen-{lassrticatrons. Dtmcnsrons. rnd Rarings Senq; I Frcrght Connrnen-Specrfications rnd Testrng; Pan l: Thermal Contarnes .{.nrmai Envrronmenr rn Carqo Comoartments

ISO ISO SAE

ISO la96-2:1996 SAE AIRI6004.I997


Natronal Stendards. Ch

rtrols

Temoenturc Control Systems (1002) Energl !lanreemcnt Connol Systems Insrrumcntation B.'\Cnc:-{ Data Communrcation Protocol ibr Building .\uromatron and Controi Nenrorks Pcdbrrnance R.cqurrements ior Elccrnc Hertrng Line-\'oltage Wall Tlermostats Tempennrre-[ndrcrring rnd Regularrng Equipment Control C:nters for Changing llessage Type Elecrnc Sigrals { 1996) Limrt Connols {I99.1) Pnman Sat'e w Conrrols lor Cas- and Oil-Fired .\ppliances ( 19941 Solid State Controls tor.\ppliances ( 1994) Tempenrure-lnciicrting rnd -Regulating Equroment ( I 99.1) Tesrs tor Saterv-Relateo Controls Emplovrnc Solid-Strre Drvrces { 199 j ) Froccss Connol Equroment {1002) .{utomarrc Elecmcal Controls lbr Household rnd Similar Use. Prn l: Gcnenl P,ecuirements t1002) rnercial eld lndustnal Conrol ard Svstems: Cenerai Requrrements lusnr a I Industnal Control ;rnd Svstems, Controllers. Contactors. rnd Overload Relavs Rared Not More t}ran 2000 Volts AC or 750 Vols DC lndustnal Conrrol and Sysrems: [nsmrcrions lor rhe Handling, lnstallation. Ope:ation and Vaintenance olMotor Control Ccnten Rarrt Not More tlpn 600 Vols Cuideline lor the lntegration of Boilers ard Automated Control Systems in Heatrng Applications Guicielines for Boiler Conrrol Systems Prwe ntive !{aintenance of Industnal Connoi and Systems Equrpment lndustnai Controi Equipment ( I 999) rttia I .{utomalic Gas lgnition Systcms and Componcnts Gas Appliance Pressure Rc'gulators Gas Appliance Thmostats

.{ABC ASHR,IE .\SHRIE


CSA CSA UL UL UL UL
l:l

ll

ANS[/ASHR.{E ANSI/ASHR-.\E

iI+I986
I35-2OO I

c271.+M I 973 ( R I g(.rli ) C22.1 No. :4-93 ( R I 999

uL r-1ti
\NSI/LL

i5l

ANSI,'UL J7: ANSITUL l+^rA

UL UL UL

UL 37] UL 99I

uL 6i0l0c-l uL 60710- I A
NEMA ICS I-20()I NEMA ICS 2.2OOO NEMA ICS 2.3.I996

\E!{,\ NEMA NEMA


ABMA

ABMA ABMA NEMA tCS l.l-1986 (R20ol)

.{BMA
NEMA
fr'I-

uL

508

CSA

aqa

csA

ANSi 221.20-2000 ANSI 22 L l 8-2000/CSA 6.1-2000 ANSI 22l.2l-2000

56.6

2003

ASHR{E Appticarions Handbook (St)

Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and Associatio ns (Continuel)
Subject
TitJe

Publisher CSA CSA

Reference

Manually Operated Gas Vaives for Appliances. Appliancc Connector Valves rnd
Hose End Valves

ANSI Z: l. I 5-1997/CcA 9. l-M97 .{NSI

Manuaily4perated Piczo-Electric Spark Gas lgnition Systenrs rnd Componens Hot-'*'ater lmmersion Conrols Line-\bltage tntegra.lly Mounted Thermostac for Electric Heaters Residential Controls-Elecu-ical Wail-Mounted Room Thermostars Residendal Conaols-Surhce Type Controls lor Electric Storage Water Heaters
Residentia.l Controls-Tempenurc Limit Controls t-or Electric Baseboard Heaters Residential Connols-Class I Tnrsformers Satery Guidelines lbr dre

Zzl.t-195/CCA

63

(Rt999)

NEMA NEMA NEMA NEMA


NEIVIA

Aopliotion, Insallarion. and Maintenance of,Solid


( 1995)

Srate

NElvtA NEN{A

NEMA DC t2-1965 (R1997) NEMA DC t3-1979 (Rt997) NEMA DC l-r989 (Rt996) \{EMA DC 5-t989 (R1996) NEMA DC l0-1983 (R1999) NEMA DC 20-1992 (Rt998) NEMA ICS r l-I984 (R1998) ANSI/IJL ]
(R l 999) IO

Controls Electricel Quick{onnect Terminals

UL
CSA

Coolen

Refrigemtion Equipment Unit Coolen for Refrigenrion MethoG of Testing Forced Convedion and Narural Convection .{ir Coolen for Retrigention Self-Contained Mechanically-Refri gerated Drinkin g-Water Coolers Vethods of Tesring tbr Rating Drinking-Water Coolers with Self-Contained Mechanical Refri genrion Svstems Drink-rng-Water Coolen ( I 991)

CAI{/CSA{tt.2 No.

120-M9 I

ARI
ASHRAE

Air
Drinking Water

ARI 120-2000 ANSYASHRAI ]5.2OOI

ARI
ASHzu{E

ARI l0t0-94 ANSUASHRAE r8-1987 (RA97)


ANSI4JL ]99 NSFitu\SI 6 l -2002 .A.NSyASHR{I 32. I - | 997 ANSVASHRAE 32.2-1997
L'I_ 541

UL
NSF

Dnnking Water System Componens-Health Effeca

+:

nd

Methods of Testing for R-ating Bonlcd and Canned Bwerage Vending Machines Methods of Testing for Rering Prc-Mix and Post-Mix Soft Drini< Vending rnd

ASHRAE ASHRAE

Liquid

Dispcnsing Equipment Retrigerated Vending Vachines (1995) !{anual Food and Beverage Dispcnsing Equipment Commercial Bulk Milk Dispensing Equipmenr Terminoloey tbr Miiking Machines. Milk C,rcling:nd Bulk -\lilk Handling Retrigerant-Cooled Liquid Coolers, Remote Type VethoG of Tcsting for Rating Liquid Coolen Lrqurd Cooling Systems

UL
NSF NSF ASAE

NSFitu\SI r8-1996a
NSFltu\SI 20-2000 AsAE si00.3-200 r

Equipment

ARI

.\RI r80-95
.{NSVASHRAE 24-2000
SAE AIRISI IA-I997 National Standards. Ch ACC,{ Manual CS .,\CCIH

.{SHL{E
SAE

Cooling Towen

Cooling lower lestrng t2001) Commercirl .\pplications. Svstems, rnd Equipmenr. lst ed. Bioaerosols: Assessmenr and Control t I 999) .l,rmosphenc W.rter Cooling Equipment Water-Cooling lowers .\ccepnnce Test Code lor Spny Cooling Sysrems (1985) .{ccepunce T*t Code for Warer Cooling To*rrs: llmhanicd Dmrt }iarural DraR Frn .-\ssrsred Types. Eraluanon of Resuls. and Themal Testtng oiWevDry Cooling Towers Cenifrcetron Standard for Commercial Warer Cooling Towers ( 1996) Code ror ller,suemenr oI Sound lmm Water Cooiing Towers i 19136) Fiberglass-Reintorced Plasnc Panels for Aopiicruon on lndusrnrl Warer-Cool inq Towers ( I 9116) \omencjanre lor Indusmai Water-Cooiing Towers ( 1997) Recommended Practrce lor Arrllow Testin-e oiCooiing Towen t1994)
Consrructron and Rating ot'Equipmenr tbr Dr_ving Ferm Crops Cubes. Pellers. and Crumbles-Detlnrtrons rnd Vethods tbr Derermining Densrqv. Dunbrlirv, imd )4olsture C9ntent Densrw. Spec:frc Gravrw. end \{ass-!loisrure R.eiationshrps oiGmrn lbr Stonge

AABC
ACC,\ ACGIH ASME
NFP.A.

li

.\sNlE PTC li-r9lJ6 (RA97)

CTI CTI CTI CTI CTI CTI CTI ASAE ASAE .{SAE ASAE ASAE
.,\SAE

ll4-00 cTl ATC-lr3 (85)


).lFP.{

CTL\TC-105 (00)
L-TI Sm-201 (96) CTI .{TC-I]8 (86) cTl sTD-li l (36)

cTr NCL-109 (97) cTI PFM-1.11 (94)


..\sAE s2.l8.l-2002

t1g

,{sAE 169 l-2001


.{NSL,,\SAE D21 I.]. I 998

Dreletmc Propenies of Crarn and Secd Energ,v Effic;enqr Test Proc:dure lor Tobacco Cunng Smrcrures
Voisrure !{eesuement-Fonges Voi srure Measurement- Praluls M or srure Measurement-Tobacco

.{sAE D29i.l-

1999

AsAE s.116-1997 {s.r.E sl58.l- 1999

\{oisrure Measurement-UnEound Crain end

Seeds

Morsrure Relatronships of Plant-Based Agnculrural Products Resistance to Airflow of Grains, Sceds. Other Apriculrural Products, and Perlbrated Meul Shees
Temperature Sensor Locations for Seed-Conon Drying Systems

ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE


AC{C

{sAE

s.l I 0. l- 1997
1997

AsAE s487- l 997


AsAE s152.:-

AsAE D2.15.5-2002 AsAE D27?.3-?001


AsAE s530-200
I

Thin-Layer Dryrng ol Agriculn:ral Crops

ASAE s448.1-2001 ASAE 241..1-2i\r


I

Tlermai Propenics of Gnin and Grain Producr Dehumidif

ASAE

en

Commercia.l Appilcarions, Sysrcms. aad Equrpmenr, lst ed Bioaerosois: Assessmen! and Control ( I 999)

ACCA ACCIH

ACCA Mr.oug] CS ACGIH

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and ..l,ssociations (Continued)
Subject

5()- /

fide
Dehumidifiers Method of Testing tor Ranng Dcsiccant Dehumidifiers Unliang Heet tbr ttre Regeneration Process Dehumidifiers Dehumidificrs ( 1993)

Publisher

Reference

AHAM
ASHRAE
CSA

.{NSVAHAM DH-I.1992
ANSVASHRAE I39.1998

Cll.2

No. 92-197 1 (R1999)

UL

ANSYUL 174
.{,SHRAE Guideline 11993

Desiccans

Vethod of Tesnng Desiccanrs lor Refrigennt Drying


Preparation

.{,SHRAE ANSVASHRAES5-I992

Docamentation
Driers

oiOpennng rnd Maintenance Documentation tbr Building

Systems ASHRAE

Method ofTesting Liqurd Line Refrigerant Driers

Liquid-Line Dners

ARI
ed.
UL

ASHRAE

ANSy.{SHRAE 63.1-1995 (RA 0t) ANSVAzu 710.86

Duct ond. Fitings


Consruction

Hose.

Air Duct Flexiblc Nonmetallic.

Aircraft
Systerns, 2nd

Ducted Electric Hcat Guide for

Air Handling

SAE SMACNA .{,CGIH ASME .{WS

sAE Asl50lc-1994
SMACNA 1994
IJrL 18l

a-!rt bE' ':j

lndusmal

lnsullation

Matcnrl
Specr ricetrons

Frctory-Made Air Ducs and Air Connectors ( 1996) Industrial Venrilanon: A Vanual of Recommended Practicc. 24th ed (200 I ) Preterred Meeic Sizes lor Flat Metal Producs Sheet Metal Welding Code Fibrous Glass Duct Consn-ucrion Sundards. 3rd ed Fibrous Class Ducr Construcnon with I-l/2" Duct Boards Fibrous Class Residennal Duct Construction Standards Accepred Industr-v Practices tbr Sheet Metal Lagging, lst ed Fibrors Class Duct Construcrion Standards. 6th ed HVAC Duct Construction Standards. Mctal and Flexible, 2nd ed. Recangular [ndustrial Duct Consm.rction Standards, I st ed. Round Industrial Duct Construcdon Sundards. lnd ed T}crmoolasnc Ducr (PVC) Consrn:ction Manual, 2nd edRectangular lndustnal Duct Construction Sondards, lst ed. Round lndusmal Ducr Consrrucrron Stan&rds. 2nd ed. Flexrble Duct Performance and Installation Standards. ird ed. {1996) Installation of .{ir Conditronrng rnd \tntrlating Systems lnstallatron of Warm Air Herting end Air-Conditioning Systcms Specrficrnon lor General Requrrements tor Flat-Rolled Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate. Sheet:nd Smo Specrficrrion tbr Cencnl Reourrcmcnrs tbr Stecl. Sh*t- Cerbon- rnd High-StrengrhLow-Allov. Hot-Rolled ud Cold-Rolled Spcciticrrron tor Ccnerai RequrremenLs tbr Sleel Shert. Meuilic-Coated by the HotDro Process

ACGIH ASME 832-3M- 1984 (RA94)


ANSVAWS D9.I.2OOO

NAIMA
NAItvtA

NAIMAAHI I6
NAIMA AHI20 NAIMA AHI I9
SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA
2OO2

NAIMA
SMACNA
Sivf,ACNA

I992
I995
I98O

SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA


.{,DC NFPA

I999 I995
I98O

I999

.\DC-9r
NFP.{ 90A-99 NFPA 908.99

NFPA

ASTM ASTV

.{sTM A480/A480M-02
.{STM .\568/A568 lvt-02 .{STM A924/A924M-99 ASTM A t0l l/A l0 I I tvt-02

ASTIl

Specrric.:rron tor Steel. Shetr anu Srnp. .lot-Rolled. Ca6on. Strucrural. Hig"n-Strengh ASTM Low-.{lloy md High-Srrengrh Low-Alioy wirh lmproved Formabilir.v Specifrcanon tor Steel. Sheet:nd Srnp. Cold-Rolled Carbon. Structural. StrenEh Low-Ailoy urd High-StrenEh Low-.{lloy with Impmved Formabiliry Specrflcctron lbr Stecl Sheet. Zinc-Coated (Calvani:ed) or Zinc-lron Coatcd tCaivannerled) bv lhe Hot-Dipped Process Commercrai Low Pressure. Low ltlocrry Duct System Design. lst ed. Instailatron Technrques lor Penmeter Heattng and Cooling, I lth ed.
Re

Higlt-

AST!1

.\sTivl

.1

00tt/A I 008M-02e

Allov-

.{STM

ASTM A6jj/A651-02 ACCA Manual Q .{CCA Manual 4

System

Desrgn

Acc.\
ACC..\

srdenrral Duct Systems

Closurc S;-stems ior Use wrth R.igrd Arr Ducts rnd .1r Connectors {199'1) Closure Svstems ior Use wrth Flexrble ..\ir Ducts and {ir Connectors ( l99i)
Tesrrng Ducr L:rxage Tesring t l0Q2 ) Flex:ble .\rr Duct Tcst Code

.{CC,{ trL
UL ,I,ABC ADC
.{SHR-AE

ACC.\ Manual D UL I8IA UL II]IB


\arronal SondarG. Ch i ADC FD-12 (R 1979) ANSVASHRAE I20.I999

llcthod oiTcstrng to Delerrnrne Flow Resrstance rn HVAC Ducs and Finings


Tesr

\lcrhod lor Mersunnq .\coustrcal and Airflow Pedbrmmce of Duct L:ner \{ltenals :nd Prefabncatctt Si iencqs HV{C \ir Duct Leakaqe -rrst \lanual. lst ed.

AST}I
Si!{ACNA SMACNA

AsTIl

E477-99

HVAC Duct Svstems lnsocctron Guide. lnd ed. 'ectrical


Tesr l{ e*rod for Bond Smng:rh

SMACNA I985 SMACNA 2OOO ANSI C84.1-200t ASTM D25I942 Azu 780/790-97

.4.NSI Elecmcel Power Systems md Equipment-Voltaqe Ratings oi Elrcmcai lruuiaong V'amishes by the Helical Coil Test ASTM ARI Defrnrre Purpose and Lrmrted Dury Definite furpose Magnetic Contaciors Canadian Elecrncal Code. Part I ( I9th ed.) CSA CSA Canadian Elecrncal Code. P:n ll--{eneral Requiremens ICC ICC Elecrical Code (?001) Applicarion Guide lor Croud Fault Protective Devrces for Equrpmenr Enclosures lor Elecrncal Equtpment ( 1000 Vols Marimum,; NEMA lndustnal Conrol and Sy$ems: Enclosures NEMA Ceneral Color Requremenr for Winng Devices NE\{.rr Low \blb.'sc Cenndqe Fuses \E}{A

c22.t-2002
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No.0-M9 I (R200 I ) ICCEC

ANSt/NEMA PB 2.2-t999 ANSI,NEMA 250-1997 ANSYNEIV{A tCS 6-1993 (Rl00l)


NEI\,{A WD l-t999 NEN{A FU I.I986 (RI996)

----

s6.8

2003

ASIIRAE Appticarions Handbook (Sf)

Selected Codes and Standards Published by V'arious Societies and .{ssociations (Conrinued)

Subject

Title

Publisher
C.rse

Reference

llolded

Circuit Brerkers and Molded Case Switches

Indusa-ral Conrrol and Svstems: Terminal

Block

Naoonal Elecu-icel Co<le National Fire Alarm Code Comparibiliry oiElecmcd Connectors and Wiring
Ener-gt

Air Conditioning rnd Retiigeraring Equipment Nameplate \toltrges Comtbrr .{ir Qualiry rnd Etlciency by Design Energy Strndard lor Buildhgs E.rcept Low-fusc Residenrial Buildings Enersy-Efficient Desisn of Low-Rise Residential Buildings Enerel' Consen'acion in Eristing Buildings Standard Vethods oiNlersuring and Exprcssing Building Energy Pertbrmance
lntemarional Energy Conservarion Code 11b03) Unilom Soler Energy Code (2000) !{odel Energv Code. Thermal Envelope Compliance Cuide Enerw Van:gement Cuide for Selection and Llse of Fixed Frcquenc-v Medium AC Squirrel-Cage Polyphase lnduction llotors Energ.v Vanagement Cuide for Selection and Use of Single-Phase Motors Energy Systems Analvsis and Management. lst ed. HVAC Systems Commrssioning Manual. lst ed. Burlding Systems Analysrs rnd Reno6t Manual. lst ed.

NEMA NEMA NFP.C, NFP.C, SAE .-l,zu ACC.\


ASHRAE .{SHRAE ASHRAE ASHRAE

NE\,{A AB I.I999 NE]!{A ICS +2OOO


NFPA 7O-O2 NFPA 72-99 SAE AIRIJ29A.1988 .{.RI I 10-2002

ACC.\ Manua.l RS

{\SV.{SHR{,EIESNA90.I.2OOI
.{SHR\E90.].2OOI
ANSUASHRAE IOO.I995

ANSVASHRAE 105-1984 (RA99)


IECC TAPVO

ICC IAPMO NAIMA NEMA NEMA


SMACNA SMACNA SMACNA

N.,\IMA BI4O7 NElvfq,.\{G l0-2001 NEI1A lIG I l - I 977 (R?001) SMACNA 1997 SMACNA 1994 SMACNA 1995 ANSI/UL 916
Narional Sbndards. Ch l0

l^l

;\

Ener_py Vana-uement Equrpment

1I

998)

UL

.:

ust Systcms Frn Svstems: Supplyr Rerurrv RelietTE-rhaust 11002) Commercial -{oplicarions. Systems. and Equipment- Ist ed. Indusrnal \tnrilarion: .{ Manual of Recomrnended Pracrice. l4th ed. Rec:rculatron oi.\rr lrom Indusrrial Process Exhaust Svstems Funrjamentels Governing rhe Design and Opention oiLocel Exhaust
Svstems

AABC ACC.\ ACGIH tl00l) {IHA Ventilation .{lHA NIH.A AIHA AIHA ASHRAE AS|VIE CSA
NFP.{

.\CC.\.Vanual CS ACGIH ANSVAIHA 79.7.1998


ANSV.CJH-{. 29.7-2001

Lrborrtoru !'entriatron Satiry Code tbr Desiqn. Consrrucrron. and Ventilation of Spray Finishing Operrtions {brrsrve Blasnng Operatrons-Ventilatron .rnd Saf'e Practices \'lcrhod ot' Testr n g Penbnnence r-r t' LeboraIory Fume Hoods Tcst Code 0n Comoressors Jnd Erhuustcn; \lcchanretl Fluc-Crs E:haustcn !rhrust Svstcms tbr \rr Convcvrng rrt'!upon;. CJscs. Vlists. md \oncombusttblc Prnrcuirrc Soiids

ANSYAIHA 29.5-1992 .{NSVAIHA 29.3-1991 ANSUAIHA 29.+1997

ANSYASHL{E I IO-I995
ASII{E PTC IO-1997

C.\N3-825i-i\{8 I{R1000}
.\NS[li.]FPA 9l-99

Drrti Equrpment tl9QJi


ExDunsion l,ir/rer fhemo:trttc Rclngennt
Expansron

IJL

UL

];8
1998

Vrlves Vaires Practice.:.{th !'d. ll00l)

llethoti ot'Testrng Croacrw ot Thcrmostatic Rcrngemnt Expansion

Fan-Ctil L'nits

Iniiusrnai \tnrrlarron: .\ \hnuel ot Rccommcnded Room F:n-t-'orls rnd Lnrr ltntrlatoni llcthods ot Tcstrng ,,or Rerrng Room Frn-Curl .{ir Conditioners

ARI ARI 750-9.1 ASHR-{E ANSVASHL{E l7ACGIH ACGIH

i{c:trn,.r:n,l Coolinu Er:urpment { l99j)

-::5vnr

Cummercral Low Pressure. Low lelocitv Duct Svstem Design- lst ed, R.e:rdentrrl Duct Srstem> t1995) indu>mal \cnrrl;rrron: .\ \lenuai ot Rccommcnded Practicc.24th cd- tl0()l) Dcsrgnrtron,)l R.o(ruon.rnd Dischrrgc r.t'Ccntnfrrgal Fans Dnrc .\rnnpe-cnts lbr Cintntu{rl Frns Dnr.' lmnrerncnrs tbr iuoularCentnrugal Flns R:clmnrendcd Srler Pncrrces lbr Users:rnd Installers oilndusrnal end Comrnrrc;ai Frns \lotor Po5rtrons ibr Belt or Charn Dnve Ccnrnrugal Fans indu:rnal P:oc:srPorrcr (lcncratron Fens: Site Performrnce Test Standarti

.\RI l,l0-98 .lRl ASHRAE ANSI/ASHRAE:9-]OO2 UL.CSA UL i99i,C:l.l No 116-95 ACC.q. ACCA N{anual Q ACC.{ r{anuai D AcC.{ ACCIH ACCIH A,\tC.\ A-\lC.\ 99-:.106-98 ANIC.{ .{}lC.\ 99-l{0.1-9lJ A,\1C.1 99-:1 l0-9lt AllC.{ .{NICA Jl0-96 Aivlc,\

St:n.i:ros !{mdbook
Frns

t1998)

lnd

8lo*en

\{trhods ior Ihe \lees urement o i No ise Em ined by Small Air-Moving Devices Lrboratory \lerhods ol Testrng Frns for Aerodynamic Performance Rating
Laborrrorv Vethod uiTest:ng to Determine the Sound Power in a

AllC.{ AMCA AMCA .C,RI ASA ASHRAE fuVC.A. AMCA ASHRAE ASME CSr\ CSA
ASHRAE/

A,\{CA 9s-1147-9E .{NIC.{ 30l-96

A.!lC.\ 99-36
ARI 670-96 ANS I S I 2. I l - 1987 (R 1997) ANSVASHR-{E 5I - I999 ANSYAMCA 2IO-99 ANSVASHRiE 68-199'l ANSYAMCA ]J0.97 ANSVASHRAE 87.1-1997 ASME PTC ll-1984 (ru{95)
C21.2 No. I

Duct Speeds

!{et}roG oiTesring Fan librarion-Blade Vibntions and Critical

Fans
Fms end

\tnuiatDrs Equipment

li-M198'{

(R1999)

R:rinq rhe Pgricrmarce of Rcsidenrial llechanic:l Ventilating

C.\N/CSA{260-M90 {Rt$D

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes aud Standards Fublished by Various Societies and.{ssociations (Conanred}
Subject

s6.9

Tide Acoustics-Method tbr the Measureme-nt of .\irbome Noise Emined by Small AuMoving Deviccs Elect-ic Fans (1999) Powsr Ventilators

Publisher
ISO

Reference

ISO 10302:1996 UL 507

UL
U'L

tu\syul-

705-t994

Fencstration

Spccific-ation for Classification of the Durabiliry of Sealed Insulating Glass Unis st:lndard Pracdce for celculation ofPhotomer'ic Tnnsminance and Retlecnnce of

ASTM

ASTM E77,L97

ASTM
ASTM ASTM

ASTM E971-88(1996)el ASTM EI]OO{2 ASTM E2I I2{I ASTM E2I9O42 ASTM GI59-98 ASTM 8773-0I
ASTM 8903-96a

Materials to Solar Radiadon Prrcnce for Dctermining the Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings Practice for lrsallation of Exterior Windows. Doors ud Skylighs Spccificadon for l-nsulating Glass Unit Pertbrmance and Evaluation Tables for References Solar Specu-al Imdiance at Air Mass 1.5: Direct Normal and Hernispheric for a 17" Tilted Surhce Test Method for Accelerated Weathering of Sealed Insularing Glass Units Tesr Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance and Transminance of Materials Using

,\STM
ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM
.,T,STM

lnregnring Sphercs
Test Medrod for Solar Photomeric Transmittance of Sbec Materials Using Sunlight Test Merhod for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Shea Materials Using Sunlight

ASTM E972-96 (2002)


ASTM El08+860996) .{sTM 82 t89-02

Tcst Method for Tesring Resistance to Fogging Insularing Glass Tesr Merhod for lnsuladng Glass Unit Performance Energy Performance Eraluation

Unis

ASTM ASTM
CSA

ASTM E2I88{2
A453-95 (R2000)

of Swinging Doon

Mndows
Energy Performance Era.luation of Windows and Other Fenestradon Systems Window and Door lrstallation

CSA
CSA CSA

A440S
A4.10.2-98

A440.+98
ANSUARI 730.86

Filtcr-Dien

Flow{apaciry Radng and Application of Suction-Line Filters and Filter Dners Method olTesring Flow Capacity ofsuction Line Filters and Filter Driers
Method of Testing Liquid Line Filter-Drier Filtration Capabiliry Fectory-Built Fireplaces
Fireplace Stoves ( 1996)
( 1996)

ARI
ASHRAE ASHRAE
llI

.{,NSyASHRAE78_t985 (RA97) ANSYASHRAE63,2.I996

Fireptaca
Ftr? Prolection

UL

wt27 w73'l

Standrrd Test Methods for Fire Test of Building Consmrction rnd Materials standard Test Method for surt'ace Burning characteristics of Building Materials BOC.{ National Fire Prevention Code. I lth ed. ( 1999) Unitorm Fire Code lnrcmationai Fire Code il00l) inrcrnational Mechanicel Code (1001) lnrematronal Urban-Wildland Intert'ace Code (1001) Fire-Resrsrance Tesrs-Elements of Building Construction: P:: l: Ceneral Requiremens
Fi re-Resistance Tests-Doors and Shuner Assembl ies Rerction to Fire Tests-lgniubiliry of Building Products Using a Radiant Heat So

ASTM IFCI
ICC

ASTM El 1940a ASTlvf/NFP.{ .{STM E3+0 I /N F pA 25 i -rx} BOCA BOCA IFCI


IFC
1997

rcc
ICC
ISO

IMC IUWIC
iSO 814: I 999 ISO 1008:1976 ISO i657: I 997 tSO 6944: l9t{5

rso tso

urce

Fire-Resisunce Tess-V'entilating Ducs Interconnection Circuitry of Noncoded Remote-stetion Protective Signailing


q v

ISO NEMA NFPA NFPA )IFPA NFPA ).{FPA \FPA \FPA \FPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA SBCCI
SMACNA

NEMA SB

J- I969 { R I ()(/A,

Systems

Protecnon lbr Laborarones Using Chemicals Fire Protecrion Handbook l8th cd- ( 1996) Flammable aad Combustible Liqurds Code Heeith Care Fccriitres Insailatron of Sprinkler Systems

Fire Fire Firc Fire

Doors and Fire Windows Protecrion Guide to Hazardous Materiais


Preventron Code

NFPA 80.99 NFPA HAZ.OI

\FPA I.()()
)]FPA .I5.IX)
NFPA

\FPA ](}.{}{)
NFPA 99.II2

)IFPA I]-1999
NFPA IOI-{X) NFPA 72.99
NFPA NFPA 252.99 SBCCI SMACNA,2O(,I2

Life Satbry Code


National Fire Alarm Code National Fire Codes (issued annually) Methods of Fire Tess of Door Assemblies Standrrd Fire Prcvention Code ( 1999) Fire, Smoke and Radianon Damper lnstallation Cuide lor HVAC Systcms' 5th ed Firc Dampcn (1999) Firc Tesa of Building Consmrction and Materials (1997)
Fire Tess of Door Assemblies ( I 997) Fire Tests of Througi-Penetration F ircstops ( I 994) Heat Responsive LinJ<s lor Fire-Protecrion Service ( I 993
)

UL UL UL UL UL

UL 555

ru.*Slfu-l ]61 UL iI]

ANSI
ANSYUL

1479

]]

56.10

2003 ASHR TE Applications Handbook (Sf)


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and Associatio ns (Conrinued\

Subject Smoke
Muagement

Tide
Commissioning Smoke Managcrnent
Recommcnded

Publisher

Reference

Systcms Pncticc for Smoke Ccnrol Sysems Arcrs (1999)


of Houchold Refrigerators.

ASHRAE

ASHRAE Cuideline 5-1994 (R{:001)


NFP.c,92A-00

Guide tbr Smoke Management Systems in Malls" .\aia- and Large Ceiling Dampen (1996)
Smokc Dampea

NiP.q, NFP.{ UL IrL

NFP.q,928{0

UL 555C UL 55iS
Ci00-00
C327-98

Frtesn

Energ.v Pertbrmance and Capaciry

Refrigemtor- CSA Freezers CSA


CSA

Freezers, and Freczcrs Encrgr Performance Standard for Food Service Refrigerators and

Reiiigcration Equipmcnt

C.\N/CSA-C21.2 No. t20-M9l


(

R 1999)

Commercial

Dispensing Freczets Ice Cream Makels (1993) Commercial ReFigcnors and Frcczers (1995) Commcrcial Refrigcnors and Freezcrs Ice Makcrs (1995) Household Refrigcrators Combination Refrigeraror-Freezers and Household Fre'ezers Household Refrigerators and Frcezers (1993)

Household Fuek

NSFiANSI 6-I996 NSF .\NSVIJL 62I LIL .\\SYL'L 47I UL NSF/ANSI 7.2OOI NSF .\\SLUL 56] UL AHAM ANSVAHAM HRF-I-2001 UL'CSA ANSI/UL 25O/C22.2 No.6i-93
(R1999)

Ttreshold Limit

Values for Chemical Subsonces (updared

annually)

Strndard Classification of Coals by R:nk Soecificarion for Diesel Fuel Oils Spccificarion for Fuel Oils Specific*ion for Gas Turbine Fuel Oils
Specifr

crrion lor Keroscne Pracricc for Receipc Storage and Handling of Fuels Reponing of Fuel Propcnies when Testing Diesel Engines with Altemacive Derived from Biological Materials

Fuels ASAE

ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM


ACC.\ .{CC.{ ASHRAE

ACGIH ASTM ASTII

ACGIH
.{NSU.C.STM D383-99e .\\SVASTM D975-02 .\NSVASTM D396.02
I

,\NSVASTM

D238O.OO

ASTV D3699-02

{sT}t

D4,118-00

.\SAE 8P552-2001 .{CCA Manuai .\CCA }lanual


CS
S

Furnaces

Commcrcial Applicarions. Systems. end Equipmenl lst ed. Residenrial Equipment Selection. 2nd edVethodofTesring lorAnnual Fuel Utilizarion Efficiencyof Resrdential Ccnrral Fumaces and Boilers Prcvcnrion of Fumace Explosionvlmpiosions in Multiplc Bumcr Boilcns Standerd Mechanical Codc ( 1997) llertrng md Cooling Equipment ( 1995)
Rcstdcntral Gas Deteclors Singlcan<1 Multrple Sotion Carbon Monoxide

.\NSL'ASHL{E 103-l99l

(2000)

Alams

(1996)

Cas

Grs-FircdCcnrrlFumaces

Cas Unit Hearers ar<i Gas-Fired Duct

Furnaces Fumaces lnrernarron;rl Fuel Cas Code (2001) Stendard Cas Code t 1999) Commenal-lndusrrial Cas Heating Equipment ( 1999)
Indusmal rndCommercial Gas-Fired Package

.t;l

Uel Oil Land,lrd Specrtlcrtron tor Fuel tof luel f Orls UllS Snnderd 5LXnOjIrO Specrtlcatron for )pecltlcatlon Tcsr llerhod for Smoke Densiry in Flue Cases from Buming Distillate Oii Burning Stoves md Water Heaters Oil-Fired Wam Arr Fumaces Insrallatron of O;l-Bumrng Equipment Ori-Fired Central Fumaces ( 1994)

Fuels

Solid

Fuel

Oii-Fired Floor Fumaces ( 1994) Oil-Fired Wail Fumaces (1994) Standard Classificatron ofCoals by Rark
insrallarion Code lor Solid-Fuel-Burnrng .{ppliances and Equipment Soiid-Fuel-Fired Central Heating Appiiances Solid-Fuel and Combination-Fuel Central and Supplemenary Fumaces

199i)

\FP.{ 3501-99 \FP.{ SBCCI SBCCI UL CSA l- L 199 jic:l.l \o. l-16-95 .\NSI;UL t'13't UL t,L UL l0l'l \NSiZll l7-1998/CSA2'i-:00i CSA ,\.\Sl ZS].S- i996,'CCA-1.6-\196 CSA CCA i.:-1976 lRl99q) CSA IFCC ICC SBCCI SBCCI LL ;95 UL A\SI/ASTNI D]96.{)2A .1r \STV r.vr .\NSI/ASTNI D2156-9'1 { 1999) .\STV I l-r0 i- 96: ( R:00 I CSA B -r0 +- l97r i R:00 l CSA \FP\ j l_0 \FPA i, L \.L ;1i \NSI/UL -]9 UL {NSI/UL 7-:O UL {NSI/ASTM D975.{)2 .{ST\I BJ6J-O CSA CAN,CSA-BI66 l-M9 I (R:00()) CSA ANSVUL i9l UL
I ) I )
I

Heslen

Gas-Fired High-tntensiry fnfrared Healers Gas-Fired Low- lntensiry lnfrarcd Heaters Threshold Limit Values for Chemica.l Substances (updated annually) lndustrial Venrilarion: A Manual of Recommended Practice, ?4th edThermal Performance Testing of Solar Ambient Air Heaters

csA csA
(2001)

.{NSI ZSi.l9-2001/CSA 2.15-2001

.{,\sl 281.20-200lics.\
.\CCIH

2.14-2001

Air Heaters
Guide lor Consruction of Soli Fuel Buming Masonry Heaters Non-Recirculating Direct Gas-Fired Industrial Air Hearers
Elecn-ic Duct Heaters

ASAE ASME ASTM csA CSA

ACGIH ACGIH

.{Cclti
ASAE 9123.200I

,\sME

PTC 1.1-1968

(RA9l)

EI602-1]I '\STM ANSI 233..1-1999/CSA-3.7-M99 C22.1 No l55-Mi986 (R1999)

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published bv Various Socieries and .{ssociatio ns (Continued)
Subject

56.1

Tide
Portable Kerosene-Fircd Heaters

Publisher

Reference CAN3-B 140.9.1 M86 (R:001) HEI

csA
( 1998)

Slandids for Closed Fccdwater Heaters, 6th ed. Elecric Dry Bath Hcatm (2000) Elecric Headng Appliances ( 1997) Elecu-ic Oil Heercrs ( t996)

HEI

UL UL
UL UL

UL 875

uL.r99
UL 574 ANSYUL 89G1997
UL 73] sAEJl3l0-1993

Engine

Oil-Burnin g Stoves ( 1993 ) Oil-Fired Air Hearers urd Direct-Fircd Hearers ( 199i) Elecoc Engine Prcheeters and Banelv Warmers lor Diesel Engines
Fuel Warmer-Dicscl Engines Selectioo and.{pplicedon Guidelines lor Diesel. Casoline. and kopanc Fired Liquid Cooled Engine Fre-Heates

UL
SAE
SAE

sAE J1422-1996
sAE J1350-1988

SA

Nonresidenrial

RecirnrJari.ng Direc Gas-Fired Industrial Cas-Fired Consruction Hearcrs Ponable Indrstrial Oil-Fired Heaters

Air Hearets

Fucl-Fircd Heatcn-Au Heating-for Consmrcrion and Industriat !{achinery Commercial-lndustnal Cas Heating Equipment ( I 999)

Elecric Heaters for Use in Hazardous {Classified) Locations t 1995) Instailanon of Elecric Inliarcd Brooding Equipment
Pool Gas-Fircd Pool Heatcrs

csA csA csA SAE UL UL .{sAE csA csA ASTM csA csA csA
I.J

.{\SI

233.13-2000
2.

ANSI 2S3.7-2000/CSA Br40.g-1967 (R2001)


SAE JIO2+I989 UL 795 ANSYLIL 823 ASAE EP258.3-1998

t+2000

llethod oiTesnng:nd R*ing Pool Heatcrs Oil-Fired Service Water Hearers and Swimming Pool Hearers Spccifrcarion ior Room Heaters, Pellet Fuel Buming Tlpe
Vented Gas-Fircd Space Headng Appliances Gas-Fired Room Heeters. Vol. II. Unvented Room Hearers

,{SHRAE

ANSI 221.5G1998/CSA 1.7-M98 fu\SVASHRAE 146.1998 Bl40.l2-1976 (R20Ot) .{STM Et509-95 (2000) ANSI22!.86-2000/CSA2.32-2000
ANSI 22 r. I l .2-2000 ANSI Z?1.76-2000

Gas-Fircd Unvenred Ceralltic Room Hearers tor Use wirh Liqueried Peroleum

Trrnspon

Unrt

{LP) Gases Fired and Locarion-Dedicated Electric Room Heate:s ( I 997) !{or:ble rnd Wall- or Cciling-Hung Elecmc Room Heerers t1000) Room Heerers. Soiid Fuel-Tyoe ( I 996) LnlEnred K-eroscne-Fired Room Heeters and Ponable Hertcrs r | 991 t Hc:ter- .\irs;ati Internal Combusrion Hcet Exchanger Tvpe Hcrler. -\rrpiane. Engine Exhaust Cas to .1ir Heer Exchanuer ivpe lnsuilatron- Heatcrs. Airplane. lnternal Cumbusrron Hr:ater Exchanue Tvpe llotor \eilcle Herter Test Procedure Cas Unrt !'{erters rnd Cas-Fired Duct Furnaccs Orl-Fireo Lntt l{erres tl9a5)

uL

102 I

UL UL UL
SAE

uL

r278
t-181

.{NSVUL
UL 647

S'\E S'\E
SAE CSA
LrL

SAE AS8O4OA. I996 SAE ARP86A. I 996 SAE ARP]66-I996 sAE J6i8- 1998 ANSt 283.3- r996iCGA

l 5-!196

ANS'UL

73 I

eat

Exc h u nge

Remore \lecharrcel- Drali Evaporrtive Reft gennt Conciensers !le:hod oiTestins .1rr-ro-Air Heat Exchangen Sunciard \{e'.:rocG oiTest for Ratrng the Penbrmancc oi'rleor-Rrcove:. Venrilarors Snntiaro: ior Power Plant Heat Exchangers. ird.d. I 1998) Stano:rds,ri Tubular Exch.an ger M anu ticturers A ssocran on. 3 r h ed. r I 9()g ) Commerc:ar .{pplrcJnons. Systems. and Equrpmenr. lsr cd.

ARI
ASHR-{E

ARI-I9O-98

ANSVASHR-{E34-I99I
CJJg.OO

CSA HEI
iEMA
ACCA ACC.\ ACC.\
CSA CSA CSA

HEI

TETl,{ ACC.{ Manual CS ACCA Manual RS ACC.{ iV{anual S C.{N,CSA-F130-V90


B 1.10.

Heuttng
::#

Comtorr

.\.rr Qualiry, rnd E{liciency by Desrgn Resroenuai EouiomEnt Selection. 2nd ed.

Dergrmrnros :he Requrred Capacir-v ot'Resldennai Soacc Hcerrng rnr.r Cooling

R I 948)

.\ppiimcss .\uromarc Flue-P:pe DamDc:s tbr Use wrth Ori-F:r:c .\opiiancss

Eir.;rm6 .{dranc:o ilyatlatron Cuide lLrght Commercral r :or Hrdronrc Hterrns Sr:ems
Hearer Heer Los; Crtculat:on Gurde lnsarlatron Desrpn oi Resrdential Heanng Svstems Raoia.nt

Cll.l

HYDI HYDI

1979 ( R:00 I ) No.7l-M1984 { R I 99(l) HYDI ]50

i+M

HYDI H-22 (1998)


HYDt Gurde 1000 HYDI l(]O
NEBB NFPA 8501-97 SAE AIR86OA.2OOO
s.AE Jt50l-1998

Foor

Heatrng

HYDI HYDI
NEBB
NFPA

Envrronrnerra.l Sysrems Technology, Znd ed.

Puirenzra F'.rcl Sysrrns

.drcran Eie*cai Heanng Systems


Per':brmane "rest for
F. opc
I

SAE
Heated. and Venrrlard Off-Road SelfSAE

Air{onditioned

lcd'*'ork

Machi nes

Heaing lalrr of Fucis IIVAC Svs&f,rs ,tpplications. lst ed. Electrrc Bascirodd Hearirg Equipment ( 1994)
Eleccric Drt t{calcrs ( 1996) Hearrng aod Cmling Equipment ( 1995)

SAE
SMACNA

SAE JI498-1998

UL

ur-

SMACNA 1987 ANSYL'L IO42

UUCSA W 1995tC22.2 No 236-M95

uL

1996

(q

56.t2

2003

ASHR{E Apptications Handbook (Sf)

i+

Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and Associations (Continued)
Subjett Tide
Commercial .Lpplications. Systems. and Equipmenr lst ed Ceothermai Heat Pump Tra.ining Cenification Program Heet Pumps Systems. Principles and .{pplications. lnd ed Residencial Equipment Selection, ?nd ed Indusu-ial Ventilation: .{ Manual of Recommerrded Pracnce. 24th edCommercial rnd Induscrial Uniury Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Ground Sourcc Closcd-Loop Heat Pumps Cround Water-Source Hot Pumps
Water-Source

Publisher

Reference

Hcu Puaps

ACC.\
ACCA
.A,CCA

ACC.\ lv{anual CS ACC.\ Training Manual .\CCA Manual H


ACCA Manuat
S

(2001) Equipment

Hat

fumps

ACC.\ ACGIH ARI Azu Azu Azu

Me$oits of Testing tbr Raring Unitary A.ir{onditioning and Hexr Pump Equipmenr .{,SHRAE Merhods of Tesnng tbr Raring Sr:asonal Efficiency of Unitar_v Air-Conditioners and ASHRAE
Heet furnps

ACGIH ARI i40/360-2000 ARI 130-98 ARI i25-98 ARt 12G,98 .{NSVASHRAE i7-1988 ANSVASHRAE I IGI995

Installation Requiremens lor Air-to-Air Hcat fumps Perlbrmance Standard lor Split-System Cenral fr-Conditioners and Heat Pumps Headng and Cooling Equipment (1995)
Cas Fired

CSA CSA
ULJ-CSA

cl7i.i-r980

(R1998)

Cas-Fired Heat.{,cdrated.{ir Conditioning and Heat fump Appliances Gas-Fired Work Activated Air Conditioning and Heat fump Appliances (lntemal
Combusnon)
Pertbrmance Tesung and Rrting of Gas-Fircd

CSA CSA CSA ASME


NSF

CAN/CSA{?73,3-M9 I (R2001) UL 199 5 t C22.2 No. 23GM95 tu\SI z: 1.40. l - t996/CCA 2.91-M96

d\st
tu\st

I _40_2-

996/CGA 2.92-M96

Air Condirioning and Heat Pump

22

1.10.+1996/ccA 2.9+M96

Appliances Heat

Recowry
'i,lien

Gas Turbine

Hert Recovcry Steam Cenerators

ASME PTC 4.+198r (RA92)

water Heate6. Hot Water Supply Boilen. and Heat Recovery Equipmenr Method tbr Measuring Pertbrmance of Appliance Humidifiers Comlon. Air Qualit-v, ud Efficiency by Desig Commercial Appliorions. Systems, rnd Equipment lst edBioacrosols: .{sscssment end Conrol ( 1999) Centnl System Humidifrers tor Residential Applicetions Commercral urd lndustnal Humidifi ers Sell-Contained Hmidifiers tbr Residential Applic:nons Humidifiers (1001)

NSF/Ar\SI

5-2OOO

AHAM

Acc.{
ACC.{ ACCIH ARI
Azu

ARI ULCSA

ANSUA}IAI"{ HU.I-I987 ACCA Manual RS ACCA Manual CS ACCIH ANSYARI 6I0.96 ANSUARI 640.96 ANSUARI 620.96 UL 998/ C?2.2 No- I 0rl-93 ARI
8IO.2OOO

[ce.Vakzn

.{utomrtrc Commercral lce Makers


Ice Stomse Bins
N4cthods

of Tcsring.\utomltic lcc lvlekcrs Rctn,lcntron Equipment

ARI ARL.\RI ASHRAE CSA csA NSF UL


ASME NFP,{

320-2000

ANSI/ASHRAE:9-r988(&i99) CAN/CSA-C21.2 No. IlO-ivt9l


(RI999) cl.{2-98
NSFJANSI I2.I992

Pcrtbmlncc ()t .\utomf,ttc lce-Makcrs and lce Sromge Bins


.{utomatrc lce Making Equipment
Ice

\leken

t 1995)

ANSLUL 56]
ASME PTC

Incincralun

Lrrle lncrnerrrors
Incjnenros and
Waste

]]-

I973

L{9I

rnd Linen Handling Systems and Equrpment


{

Rcsidentiai Incinerators

l99l}

UL

\FP.q 3:-99 UL 79I


I

Indoor

lir

Quulia'

Vcntilatron ior .\cceprablc lndoor Air Qualiw Bioaerosols: \ssessment rnd Control ( 1999) Pr:rctrce tor Continuous Sizrng and Counting of Arrbome Panicies in DustConcrolled .{rers rnd Clean R.ooms Using lnsm:menrs Cloable of Detecrnrl Single Sub-Micromerrc rnd [.rryer Pantcles Pmctrce tor Relcrencrnq Suprathreshold Odor lnrensrrv Curde lbr Using lndoor Cvbon Dioxide Concentranons Io Evaluate lndoor .{rr

.C.SHP-{E ANSUASHP-{E 62-2OO

,C.CGIH ASTII
AST}1
.{J l,!t

ACCIH ASTM F50-92(2001 )eI

ASTM E5.14.99

AsTv

D62.15-98 (2002)

Qualiw md'\ennlatron Guide for Selectins Instmmenr end !lerhods lor Veasunng .\rr Qualiry in .{ircnn
C.tbrns

.\ST!1

.{STV D6199-99a

Tcst !{ethod for Determrnatron of Volatrle Organic Chemrcals rn .{tmospheres ( C;rnrster Sampling Methodology )

AST!I
ASTM

AsT)l

D5.166-01

Cuide for Usine Probabrlirv Sampling llet]rods in Sn:dies of Indoor Air Qualiry in Buildings Cuide for Placement md Use of Diffusion Conrrolled Passive Monitors lor Caseous Pollutants in lndoor,{ir .{.mbrent Air-Determination of Mass Concentration of Nirogen DioxideModrfi ed Gness-Salanan Method

AST!{ D5;91-95 (1001)

ISO

ISO 6768: I 998

Air Qualiry-E.rchangc of Data


Environmental Tobacco Smoks-Estrmarion of
Suspended Pamcles

ISO

ISO 7168:1999

Is

Contnbution to Respirable

ISO ISO

ISO I 5593:200

Indoor

Air-Part J: Determinanon of Formaidehyde and O&er Carbonyl Compomds-Aarve Sampling Method

ISO l@00-3:2001

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published bv Various Societies and Associatio ns (Continued)
Subject

56.13

Tide
Workptace Air Qualir-v-Sampling and.{nalysis of lblxdls Oqanic Compounds by Solvent DesorptiowCas Chmmatography-Pan l: Pumped Sampling Method Pan 2: Diffi:sive Sampling Method Workplace Air Qnliry-Dererminarion oiTonl Isocvanate Croup in Air Using 2{ l-Methoxyphenyl) Piperazine and Liquid Chromuognphy Comtbrq.{,ir Qualit_v, and Efficiency by Desip Indoor.\r Qualiw-.{, Systems Approach. 3rd ed. IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construcnon- lst ed. Guide tor Selecring lnsrumens and Merhods for MuLsuring Air Qualiry in Aircnft
Cebins

Publisher
ISO ISO ISO

Refereuce tSO 16200-l:2001 ISO 16200-2:2000 ISO 16702-l:2001

Aircnft
Insulsrion

ACCA SMACNA SMACNA ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM AST}{ ASTV
ASTM

ACCA Manual RS SMACNA I998


sM.A.cNA 1995 ASTM D6i99-99a

Classificerion lor R:ting Sound Insulati,on Classificetion of Potenrial Health and Safery Concems.tssociared with Thermal lnsulanon Mrterials rnd Accessones Practice lor Prctlbncation and Field Fabricarion oiThermal [nsularing Fining Covers tbr NPS Piprng Vessel Lagging, and Dished Head Segmens Practice lor lnstallarion and Use olRrdia!( Barrier Systems (RBS) in Buiiding Consm:crion Guide lbr Selecting Jackenng Materials lor Thermal Insulation Guide ior Meesuring rnd Estimating Quanrides of lnsuiared Piping and Componens Tesr Method for Characterizing the Effect of Exposure to Environmenul Cycling on Thermal Penbrmance of lnsulation Products Specificrrion tbr Cellulosic Fiber Stabilized Thermal lnsulation Specificroon for Polyrmide flexible Cellular Thermal rnd Soud Absorbing lnsularion Specifiedon for Pretbrmed Flexible Cellular Pololenn Thermal Insulation tn Sheer rnd Tubular Form Specificanon for Cellular Meiamine Tlrermal urd Sound -{bsorbrng lnsularion Specificetion tor Flexrble Polvmenc Foam Sheet insulation Used as r Thernal and Sound Absorbing Liner tor Duct Svstems Specrficerron tor Perpcndicularly Onented !linemi Fiber Roll enti Sheer Thernal Insulatron tor Pipes rld Trnks Specriicrrion lor .\dhcsrves lbr Duct Thermal lnsuirtion Specificerron tor Fibrous Glass Duct Linrnc ln:ulatron tThcm:rl lnti Sound Absorbrng !latenal ) Specrticetron tbr Prctbmcd Flcxrblc Ehstomctnc C:llulrr Thtmrl lnsulelron in Shcet uo Tabulrr Fr:rm Specrticetron tor Cclluler CIass Tlrermri lnsulation Spccificrtron for Rigiri. C:llulrr Poly-swrcne Ihermri In:uiatron .Ihcrmal Specrficrtron tor Unlacccj Prctbrmed Rigrd Cellular Poivr:ocr anur:te
I

ASTM E4ll-870999) ASTM C930-99 ASTM C150{2 ASTM Cl158-01 ASTM Cl42l-98
.A,sTM C1409-98

ASTM CI5I2-OI ASTM C14974let AsTMC 1482-02 ASTM C1427-99a ASTM CI4IO.98 ASTM CI5J+02 ASTM Cli9i-00a

AST}{
ASTM

AST}I
ASTM
.AST11

.1STV

{STV
\.JTV

ASTI{

C9 l6-8(20{) I

1e I

AsT\t cl07l-0()
AST!1 C534-02 ASTM Ci52-00e
I

ASt,l
lSTV
\5T),t \ ST}I 1.S;\l
r.

AsT!1 C578-01
ASTI,1 C59I-OI

nsularion

Specificrtron tor Fec:d or Unfrccd Rigrd Cellular Pheroirc ihcmal Insulatron Stindard Pnctrcg lbr Determinlrion ot llmt Carn or Lors rnti :he Surlact TcmDenrure ilt' Insuiateci Pipe rnd Equrpment Svstcns rt rhc L ;e rri r Compurer Prognm Pncrrcc tbr Inner rnd Ourer Diameters oi Rigrd Tlcrm:ri in:ulairon ibr \omrnal Sizes oi Pipe rnd Tubrne t NPS Svstem t Precrice lor Tltemog:mohrc Inspectron rrt'Insulatton lnsutlatrons rn f nvelope C:vities of Frame Burldings Tcrmrnology Relatrng io Themal Insulaong \lrte nai: Tsst \lerhod ior Sterd. -Snte Hert Flux \lersuremenis rno Thtrrt:tl Trusmr:sron
Propenre s

AsTlt cli26-00
,-\STiU C680-89( l<)95)et t?()02)

!T\,1

.1Sr-a,1

.a.sTy c_i85-90(

1,r98

1.lll :.;;\{
1.:l-.{

ASTM Cl 060-90{ I (i()7)e

ASTI{

C I 68-02 C

.\sTll

ov \{e:ns ,rt'lhc Cuardtd-Hot-Plrtc .\pornru, Test Method .ibr Sterciv-State Hert Flux Vrlsurcmenrs rnii ]cmrl i-nn:mrssron .:)I.,1 Propenes by \leans of thc Hert F-low \leter \ppantu\ Tesr .llethod tor Steadr'-Snte Herr Tnnstr Propcnies oi ijcnzonrf,l ?r6rc insuirrron: i.:il,I Test \lethod tbr Steaov-jt:te md Thcrrral Pertbrmrnce'rl 3uridrnq.\ssernbiics cv .iiTll Veens of a Hot Box .lDpal-Jrus Accepted lndusry Pnorces tor Sheet Mctai Laggrng, I sr :o. sv,r.c.\-A A \-: F Gurdeiines lor Use of Themal Insulation rn ALlncultuni 3uridin::s Tlrermal Insularion-Maen al s. Producs. ard Svstm- !bc: bu larv 19t Natronal Commercral and lndusrrial Insulation Stand-ards. :rh eC. ),,il(_A
Louvers Laboratory Met-hods of Testrng Louvers for Raring Laboratory Methods of Testlng Dampers lor R-atrng
Merhods oiTestrng the

l;;-e7

.{sT\1 C5 t8-r)2
ASTV C]]J-95

.{sTr{ cli63-97
SMACNA 2OO2 AsAE s40 1.2-200{l
ISO 9229: I 99
I

MICA

1999

A,YCA AVCA
,LJHRAE

AMCA 5OO.L-99

.{MCA 500.D.98
ANSYASHRAE 8G.t994 (RAlt ANSVASTM D2422-9'7 (ZqZl ASTM D2503-92 QC()2t
)

Lubricans

floc

Point of Rerngerarron Gnlle Orls

Classificatron ofIndustnal Fluid Lubncana by Vscosuv Svstem Test Metiod for Molrcuiar Werehr (Rciatrve lvlolecular Vrsl of I{ydrocarbons bv Tlemoe lectnc \{easurcment of Vapcr P;essurc

A5TV A5'Tll

56.14

2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SD


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and Associations (Continued)

Subject

fide
Test Method tbr Pour Point ofPetroleum Producs

Publisher
ASTiv{ ISO

Referrnce

ASTM D97-902
ISO ll6O:t998 .ACGIH

Pcnoleum Producs-Corrosiveness to Copper--{oppcr Strip Test .VeasuremenB

Indusrial Ventilarion: .\ Mrnual of Recommended Pracrice. :4th ed (2001 ) Engineerin g Analysis of Experimental Data Method of Mcesuring Solar0ptical Propcrties of Materials Standard Method for Me..urcment of Proponion of Lubricant in Liquid Reliigcrant Standard Method for Meesurement of Moist Air Propenies Sbndad Methods of Meesuring and Erpressing Building Energy Performance
Measuremenr of Indusrial Msasurcment Uncena.inry

ACCIH

ASHR{E ASHR{E
ASHRAE ASHR{.E
.c.SHRt E ASlv(E

.{SHRAE Gtide li ne 2- 1986 (RA96) ANSVASHRAE 7+I988 .\NSVASHRAE 4I.+I996 ANSUASHRAE l1.6- I994 (RAot) 105- 1984 (RA99) ASME PTC 3G1985 (RA98) ASME rrc t9.r-1998 ASME MFC.IOM.2OOI ASTM E23O-02

.\NSyASHRAE

Sound Flowmete'rs

ASME ASME Spccificadon for Temperature-Electromotive Forcc (EMF) Tables lbr Standardized ASTM
Merhod for Establishing lnstallation Effecs on

Thermocouples Standfid Practice for Continuous Sizing and Counring of.{,irbome Frrdcles in DustConoolled Areas and Clean Rooms Using Insrumens Cepable of Detecting Single SutsMicromem and Larger Frnicles Standrrd lor Use ofttre lntcrnational System ofUnia (SI): The Modern

ASTM

ASTM F50-92(?001)el

IEEE/ASTM IEEEASTM-SI. ASTM


.{,STM 895-00e1 ISO 8996:1990 ISO 9920:1995 ISO 7726: I 998

IO

Meric System
Test Methods lor Water Vapor Transmission of Matcrials

Fluid Flow

Ergonomics-Determination ol Metabolic Hef,t Production Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment-Esnmation of the Thermal lnsulanon and Evaporative Resisrance of a Clothing Ensemble Ergonomics of tie Thermal Environment-lnstnnncnts for Measuring Physical Qurnnes Stand.xrd i\lerhods oilter-surcment of Flow-of Liquids in Pipes Using Orifice
Flowmerers

tso
rso

tso
ASHRAE

ANSUASHRAT ]I.3-I989
ANSVASHR-C,E J I.9-2OOO

Crlonmeter Tesr Vethods lbr Vass Flow lleasuremens of Volarile Refrigerants Applicetion of Fluid !leters Flurd Flow in Closed Condurts: Connections lor Pmsure Signel Transmissions Beu-een Pnmw md Secondarv Devices (ilossar_v ot'Tcrms Usrd in the Vccsurcmcnt ot'Fluitl Flow in Pipes \lcasuru-mrnt ol'Flurd Flow by Mcans ol Conolis $lass Flowmctcs !1c:-surcmcnt of Flurd Flow in Pipcs Usrnu Onficc. \ozzlc. rnd Vcntun Mc:surcmcnt ol Flurd Flow in Pipes Usrng Voncr Fiow \lctcrs Mcrsurcmcnt ot Fluitl Fluw Using Srn:rll Borc Prccision Onlice llctcn llcesurcrnent oi Lrquitj Flow in Closetl Contluis by Wcightrng llerhod !{cesuremcnt ot-Liqurd FIo* in Closed Conduits Using Tnnsit-Time Ulrrasonic
Flou
me

ASHR.{E ASME
ASNIE

.\sivlE PTC t9.5-t972


As\,{E }lFc-S1!1-2001
a.SivlE MFC-I M-t99I (tu\97) .{sME MFC- I I M- I 989 ( R.{94) \SME !{FC-llvl- I989 (RA95)

ASME
ASivlE ASNIE .\SNIE

\SivlE MFC-6N1-l99rt
.-\SlvlE !1FC- I {M-200
t

,\SlvlE
,LSil1E

ASNIE
.q.s

ASNIE \lFC-9lvl- 1988 ( R..\0 I ) ASiUE !{FC-5N{- I 985 ( R-A.0 I )


.{ NSI/ASivlE yFC-2|vlI

ters

\lcesurement Unccn:rnrv tbr FIurd Florv rn Closed Conduits Vcrsurement ot'Flurd Fiow in Closed Conduits-\tlociw .{ree Method Usrng
Pitot Statrc Tubcs

illE

983 ( RAO

t)

rso
.1.s

tSO 1966:1977

(lrs

Fiow

Stand,:rd \lethods lbr L:rborarorv

Aidlow lleasurement

t1tu\E

.{NSl/ASHR \E +l.t-I987 (R,\92)


ANSI/ASHR.AE r l. 7- I 98.1 ( R-.\00) .-\Sivl E MFC-7ill- I 987 ( tu\0 I ) ..\NSI/ASivlE !1FC{lvt- I 986 ( RA97) .{)rs L'.{sHR.\E .l I.l- l 9lt9 ..\sNIE 840. I00-l998 .A.Sill8 PTC l9.l-1987 (R.{98) ,\NSIiASHRAE ] I. I- I 986 {R-{O I ) AsN4E PTC r9.i-197.1 (R-\98) sA E As793.\-200 I ANSIi AST.lR1.E I:5.I992 (RAOO) ASTiv{ Cl 155-q5(2001)

-:-,ufC

\lcrhod of Test lbr llrrsurement ol'Flow ot'C:r:; Vclsurement ot Gas Flow bv N'leans ot'Cntrcal Flow Vtnrun ),{ozzlcs !lcrsurement ot'Cas Flow by Turbine Veters St:ndard llerhod lbr Prcssure N{easurem!'nt
Pressure Cauges end Cauqe .\tlachments

AStJR,{E ASivtE

ASilIE AStIfu{E
-A,SN,{E

Tcmpcnrure

!lesurcment Stano.:rd \lcthod lor T('mperf,run: Veuuremen(


Pressure

.{SivtE

.{sl i R-\e
ASNlE SAE

Thennal

TemDtnrurc \leuureme nt Totri Tempcrrrure lfe:sunnq Instruments (Turbrne Powered Subsonrc .\ircrrti) \lerhod oiTesirng Tlcrmal Eneryy lleters for Lrquio Stre-rms rn HVAC
Svstems

ASIIRAE
ASTIvI

Stlnderd Pcrctrce lor Determrnrng Thermal Rcsistrnce oi Building Envelope Cr;mponens fiom ln-Siru Data Stan&rd Prrcrice tbr ln-Siru Measurement of Heat flux and Tempcranrrc on Building Em'elope Componens Test Method lor Steady-State Heat Flur Measuremencs and Thermal Transmission Pmperties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Appanrus Tq;t Me$od for Steady-State Heat Flux MeasurBments and Thermal Transmission Pmpcrries by \{c:rs of the Heat'Flow Meter .{ppanrus Test Mahod lor Ttermal Performance of Buiiding Assembiies by Meens of a Calibrated Hot Box

ASTM ASTM ASTM


ASTIv{

ASTM Cr046-e5(2001)
ASTIv{
CI

77-97

ASTM

C5

l8-02

ASTM C976-90( 1996)e I

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and .A,ssociations (Continuedl
Subject .Vobile Homa and Rectrotional Vehic!a Residential Load Calculatioru 8th ed Retreational Vehic!e Cooking Cas Appliances Publisher Refertnce ACCA Manual
J

56.1s

Acc.\
CSA

Mobile Homes

csA

.\NSI Z? l .57-2001 C.\N/CSA-Z:40 MH Series-92 (R:001)

Oil-Fircd Warm Air Heating Appliances for lvtobile Housing and Recreationai VehiclesCSA
Rccrcarional Vehiclcs Gas Supply Comectos for Manufactured Homes Manufacnrrcd Housing Consmrction and Sat'er.v Standards Recrcetional Vehicles Manufacrured Housing Plr.rrnbing Systcm Componens lor Manufacrured Homes and Recreadonal Vehicles Gas Burning Hadng.{ppliances lor M'anuncnred Homes and Recrcational Vehicles ( l 995) Gas-Fircd Cooking..\,ppliances lor Recreafionai Vehicles (1993)

Br40-l&r974 (R2001)
C.{N/CSA-2240 RV Series-99 L{PMO TS 9-97 ICC/ANSI 2.0-t998
NFP.{ I192-99
NFPA 50r-00 (ANSI .{,119.2) NSF/ANSI 24-I988 UL ]O7B

csA
TAPMO

ICC/ANSI
NFP.{ NFPA
NSF

tJ'L'

tIL

Liquid Fucl-Buming Heating Appliances for Manufacturcd Homes and Recreational UL Vthiclcs ( I 99J) f sw Voltige Lighnng Fixrurcs lor Use in Recreadonal Vehicles ( 1994) UL ,Voton and
Gencrators Testing of Nuclcar .{ir-Trearnent Systems Nuclear Powcr Plant .{,ir Clcaning Unis and Components Tcst Methods for Film-lnsulated Magnet Wire Encrgy Efficienry Test Methods for Three-Phase lnductron Motors Motors and Geaerators Eoergy Management Guide for Selection and Use of Fixed Frequenry Medium AC

L,L 1075 ANSI/UL 3O7A


ANSYTJL 234

ASME ASME ASTM

ASME N5l0-r989 (RA95) ASME N509-r989 (RA96)

csA
CSA

ASTM DI67642 cl9G.98 C12.2 No. 100-95 (R20o0)

NEMA NEMA NEMA NEMA


LiL

NEMAMG IO.2OOI
NEMA MC l l-1977 (R2001) NEMA ICS 16.200 NEMA MC I-I998
1

Squirrel{ege Polyphasc lndustial Moton


Energy Managemcnt Guide for Selection and Use of Single-Phase Motors Motroru?osition Conrol Motors, Conrols. and Fcedback Devices Nlotors end Cenerators Elecric Motors ( 1994) Electnc Votors and Genentors for Use in Division ! Hazardous lClassified) Locenons t l9$l) Overhef,nng Protecnon for Motors ( 1997) Stand:rd Tcst Procedure tbr Polyphase Induclron Nlotors rnd Cenerators Pipc. Tuhing, Finings

tL

t00:l

UL UL
tEEE ASiVIE ASiVIE

ANSI/UL 674

uL2llt
tEEE I l2-1996 .\Siv{E B3 1.3-1999 AsME 83 I .9- 1996 ASME B t.20. l- 1983 { RAo AsME 83 t. l- t998 .\sME 83 l.i-200 r ANSUASME A I J. I. I996

rnrl

Proccss Prprng

Burlding Serviccs Piprns Prpe Thrcrcis. Cenerel Purpose ( lnch I Pcwer Piprng S.cliigentron Piprng md Heat Transter Comoonents Scheme lor the fdennfication of P:ping Sysrems Srandlrd Prrctice lbr Oboinrng Hydrosnric or Pressure Design Basis fior "Fiberyiess'' {Glass-Fiber-Re inlbrced Thermosenrng-Resinl Pipe rnd Finings Standards oithe Expansion Jornt Manulacnrren Assocration. Inc., 7th ed. ( 1998) Cuideline lor Qualiw Piprng lnstallatron { I996) P:pe Hangen and Suppons-Matenals. Desrgl and Vanutacn:re Pipe Hangers and Suopons-Selection md .{pplication \\'eldi ng Procedurc Spci fr cetrons Elecrncrl )'lonmetallrc Tubin g 1 ENT)

ASME ASME ASME


ASiVIE

I)

.{STM
EJMA MC.1A
MSS MSS

ASTM D2992.0I
EJiVIA

MCAA
MSS SP-s8- r 991

vss

NCPWB

sP-69- l9e6 NCPWB

NEMA
AGATNFP.-\ SAE

)IEVA TC ti-:000
.\NSl 2i23. l -2002/.{NSI;NFP{
sAE
J5 I

\atronal Fuel Cas Code Rc tri qeratron Tubc Fini nes-Ceneral

ir

Spcc: li cattons

l-

999
OO

Sersmrc Restrant Vanual-Curdelines tbr \lccnenicel Systems, 2nd ed. Tube Finrngs for Flammable end Combustrble Fluids. Rerngenrion Service. and

SMACNA
UL

.{NSUSMACNA

I-2OOO

UL

IO9

Vanne

Use { 199?)

Specrficetron for.{crylonrtnle-Butadicne-St-vrc'ne (ABS) Plastic Pipe. Schedules

ASTM .{STM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM

.{NSUASTM DI527.99 ANSU.{STM


F44

l0

rnd

80

1'

Specrfication for Chlorinated Poly (!invi Chlonde; (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules lO and 30 Specrficatron for Plastic lnsen Finings for Polyburylene (PB) Tubing Specificaqon for Polyburylene (PB) Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distnbmtion Systems Spccification lor Polybutylene (PB) Plaslic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Conrrolled lnside Diametcr Specification lor Polybutylene (PB) Plasric Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Outside

liF44 l M-02

ANSYASTM F845.96 ANSUASTM D3309-96a (?002 ANSVASTM D2667-96a ANSVASTM D3000-95ae ANSYASTM D2666-96a ANSUASTM D2IM4I
ANSYASTI!,i D 1785-99
I

l
I

Diamaer
Specrfication lor Polyburylene (PB) Plastic Tubrng Spccification for Polycthylene (PE) Plastic Pipc, Schedule .10 Spccification for Poly (linyt Ch.loridel lPVC) Plasric Pipc. Schedules.lO, 80, and 120

j,

56.16

2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook


Selected Codes gnd Standards Published by Yarious Societies and Associations (Continuedl

(SI;

Subjcct

fide
Tst

Publisber

Reference

Me6od tor Obnining Hy&osatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materiais Electricel Polyvinyl Chloridc (PVC) Tubing and Conduit Fittings for PVC Plasdc Utilities Duct for Undergmund Instailation PVC Plastic Utilitics Duct for Underground Insrzllation

Smooth-Wall Coi lablc Polyethyleae Elcctrical Plastic Duct Plastics Piping Systcrn Componens and Related Materials Rubbcr Gasketed Fittings for Firc-Protection Sewice (2@l) Welded and Seamless Wrought Stcel Pipe Specification lor Pipe. Steel, Black and Hot-Dippe4 Zinc{oated Welded and
Seemless

ASTM NEMA NEMA NEMA NEMA


NSF

UL
ASME

ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM


AWWA

ANSYASTM D2337{let NEMA TC 2.1998 NEMA TC 9.1999 Nh\.{A TC 6 and 3- 1999 NEMA TC 7.2OOO NSF/ANSI I+2002 uL 2r3 ASivtE 836.l0M-2000 fu\SVASTM A5J/5JM.O2 ANSYASTM AI06{2 ANSUASTM 842.02 ANSYASTM 875.9o2 Au\SYASTM Bi60-01 ASTM 8280.902 ANSUASTM 888.902 ANSYASTM 8640.00 ANSVAWWA C I 50/A2 l.i0-96 NEMA FB I.2OOI NEMA RN I.I998 IAPMO
ICPC
TPSDC j

Specificadon for Seemless Carbon Steel Pipc for High-Tcmperature Service Spccificetion for Scamless Copper Pipe,'Standard Sizes ! Spccifietion lm Smlss Copper Tube Spccification lor Hand-Drawn Copper Capillary Tube for Restrioor Applicarions Spcc'ification for Searnless Coppcr Tubc for Air Conditioning and Refrgendon Field
Servicc

Spccification for Seamlcss Copper Water Tube Spec.ificeuon for Wclded Coppe'r Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigemtion Service Thickness Dcsi gn of Ductilc-lron Pipe Finingl Cas Meal Boxes. and Conduit Bodies for Conduit and Cable Asrmblies Polyvinyl{hloride (PVC) Extcrnally Coated Galvanizcd Rigid Steel Conduit and lnermediate Metal Conduit
Dtng

NEMA NEMA

Uniform Plumbing Codc (2000) (with LAPMO Installation Standards) . lntermtional Plumbing Code (2001) lnternariona.l Prirztc Sewage Disposal Code (?003) Nationai Standard Plumbing Code (NSPC) Studard Plumbing Code ( 1997) Centrifugal Pumps
Displacement Compressors. Vacuum Pumps and Blowers

LAPMO ICC ICC PHCC SBCCI


ASME ASME CSA HEI
HI

:'
'.1

,i
2OOO

NSPC

SBCCI

I :{

Pumps

Liquid Pumps Perlormuce Standrrd lor Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps. lnd ed. 11000)
Ccnmfugal Pumps Ccntrifugai Pumps - Horizontal Bueplate Design

ASME PTC 3.2-I990 ASME PTC 9-1970 (RA97) CAN/CSA-C.22.1 No. 108-01
HEI

HI
HI HI

ANSt/HI i.l-1.5 (1000) ,{NSriHI r.l..l (2000)


.\NSVHI l.

Vcnrcri Pumps Ronry Pumps


Scelless Rotary Pumps

l-1.i

(2000)

Se:lless

Cnmfuq:l

Pumps

Rcrcrproceting Pumps

HI Ht HI
HI

ANSr/Ht l.r-1.5 (2000) ANSI/Hl .1. l-r.6 (2000) ANSvHI 5.1-5.6 (2000) ANSUHI 6.r-6 5 (1000)
ANSL',tit 7. t-7.5 (:002) .\NSIiHI 3. I -8.i i l(XX)) ANSUI{l 9. I-9.i (100()) ANSIi HI 9.6. j (1000) ANSI/HI 9.3 (200{)) HI NSF;ANSI 5O-:OO
I

Conroiled Volume Metering Pumps Dirrct Acting (Stff ) Pumps Pumos--Ccnenl Guideline C:nrrifugai end Venical Pumps-NPSH Margin Cenrnfugal and Venical Pumps-Allowable Operrting Region Pumo Intale Design
Engineenng Data Book. 2nd ed. ( I 990) Circulatron System Components and Re l3(ed Matenals lor Swimmrng Pools SpaVHot Tubs !wimming Pool Pumps. Fillgrs and Chlorinators (1997)

HI
UI

HI
FiI

ANSUHI96Ic000)

HI HI
NSF

UL

uL r08l
UL 773 ANSLfuL J43
IBR IBR

\{oror{)pmred Water Pmps ( 1996)


fumps tor Oil-Bumrng Appliances Rsdiaton
( 1997)

UL UL HYDI HYDI
ARI

Tsnng and R-ating Standard for Baseboard Radiation. 6th cd. ( 1990) Testrng and Rating Standrrd tbr Finned-Tube (Commercial) Radiation ( 1990)
Refrrgennt Liquid Recervers Threshcld Limit Values lor Chcmical Subsrances (updated annually) Retn gerrnt Recovery/Recycling Equipment Specifications for Fluorocarbon and other Refrigerants Format lor lnformation on Refrigennts Metiod of Tcting Flow Capaciry of Refrigcrant Capillary Tubes Desipation and Safety Classification of Refrigerana Reduc:ng Emission of Fully Halogenated Refrigerants in Refrigerat.ion and AirCondiuoning Equipment and Systems Rrfii geration Oil Dcscription

Rreivzn
Refrigcnnts

ARI 195-99
ACGIH

ACCIH ARI ARI


ASHRAE ASHRAE

ARI 740-98 Azu 700-99 ASHRAE Guideline 6-1996 ANSYASHRAE 28-I996 (RAO2) Guideline 3-1996

ASHRAE,A.NSYASHRAE]4-2OOI

ASHRAE ASHME ASHRAE

ASHRAE 99-1987

Codes and Standards


Selected Codes and Standards Published bv Various Societies and .{ssociatio ns (Co ntin ued)
Subject

s6.17

Tide
Sealed Glass Tube Method to Test the Chemiql Stabiliw of iv{arerial lor Use Within Retrigeranr Sysrems Test Method tbr .\cid Number of Peroleum Producs bv Porenriomeric
Test Method tbr Conceatradon

Publisher
ASHRAE

Reference

ANSy.{SHR{E 97- 1999


ANSYASTM D6*OI ASTM E68I-OI
C21.2 No. 140.1-M1987 (Rt999)

Tiu-arion
and

ASTM
CSA
IJ'I-

Limis of Flamrnabiliry of chernical (vipon


.A.ccessories. Non-Electrical

cases) AsrM

Retrigennt-Connining Components for Use in Elecu-icd

Refrigerant{onaining Componenrs and

Equipment (1001)

Refrigerans-Number Designarion Recommended Sen'ice Procedure lor the Containment of HFC- 13.{a RecoveryrRec'cling Equipment lor Mobile Air{onditioning Systems CFC-13 (R-l:) Retrigerant Recovery Equipment tbr Mobile Auromonve AirConditioning Svstems HFC- t 34a (R- Iila) Service Hose Finings lor Automorive .{ir-Condirioning Service Equipment Standard of Puriry ior Rerycled HFC- t i4a for Use in Mobile Air-Conditioning
Systems Recommended Service Procedure for rhe Containment of CFCI

ANSYUL 207
ISO 817:197-1

ISO SAE SAE

sAE J22l l-1998

s.{E J2210-1999
sAE J2209-1999 sAE J2197-1997 sAE J2099-t999 sAE J1989-1998 sAE Jl66r-1998

SAE
SAE

SAf
SAE SAE

R- I 2)

Procedurc Rerofirdng CFC-12 (Rl2) lv{obile Air-Condirionine Sysrems to

HFC-ll.la (Rlila)

.
Refrigeration

Field ConversioruRerofit of Products to Change ro an .{lternative Consm:cnon and Operarion ( 1993) Field ConversioruRerofit of Producs ro Change ro an .{lternative lnsulating Vaterial and Retrigerant Comparibiliry (1993) Field ConvenioruRerofit of Products ro Change ro ur Alternadve Procedures ard Verhods ( I993) Reft-igemnt RecovenrRecycling Equipment (1995)

RefrigeranrRefigenntRemgennt-

UL UL
. L.L

ANSI r'I-:170
ANSYUL 2I7I ^{NSIrtiL I I72

L1
L1_

uL

1963

Refrgerans { 1991)
Satery Code tbr Rerigeration Systems !lechanical Rerriqerarion Code Retri gerarron Equrpment

uL2r82
I

csA
CSA
iIAR
UL .\SME
ISO

..\SHR.T,E .{NSL/ASHR{E Bi:-99

5-:00

CAN/CSA.C]]. I No. ll0-vt9l lRl999)

Equipment. Desisn f,nd lnstallarron of .{mmonir !lech:urical R..tiiqerrring Svsrems Rctrigerrred \1cdic:l Equipmenr ( i99i)
R

l.NSYIIAR:.I999
{NSI/UL 1I6 As\,tE PTC 1.1-1976 iR-{31) rso 916-1968
HEI

tliigerarion
S-lsleu.r

Ejcctors
Tcstrng rri Rciriuc'mring Standards lbr Srcem Jet lhcuurn Sysrems. 5rh cd.

Svsrcms

Tmnspon

llcchanical Tr:rnsoon Rcthgerrrion

Unrrs

tl0{)0) lor

HEI

.\RI
ASHfu{E
SAE

,{RI llr0-2001
,]'NS YASHR{E 26. I 996 SAE ARPJ] I B- I 997

\lechanicel,q.cirsentronrnd.\ir-Conditioninglnsrrllarions.lboardShio
General Requirements lor Applicetion of laporCvcle Retrigeratron Sysrems

Aircraft
Sarery end Contarnmcnt ot'Retiigemnt tbr !1er:hanrcri Vapor Comoressron Used tbr \looiic .1rr-Conditionins Svstems

Svsrems SAE
.r,SHR,\E

sAE J6i9- r 999 \NSyASHR-r.E 7t- I998 -\NSI/ASHfu1E I I7-]OO] C5j7-95(R2001) cs27-98 .{NSI Z3l.l I- l996,CGA I lt-vt96 NSF,',r,NSti9-2002

Refrigeraton
':-.-J

Commercral

\{ethod oiTesnng Open Retnrerators Merhods oiTestrng Closed Retngeraton Energy Pertbmance Standard tor Commercial Retli!:erated Displav C.rbrncs \lcrchandise
Energy Penbrmmcc Srandrrd tbr Food Service Retn3cnrors md Cas Food Servrce Equipmenr Mobrle Fooo Crns Food Equipmenr Commercial R.etngerators lnd Freezers

.\SHRAE

end

CS.\ CSA
CS.A

Frc:zes

\SF
\SF

\sFiANSt l-t002
}SF,'ANSI 7-2OO I ,{NSI/UL 17I ANSIi UL ]2] ANSYUL { I ] ANSI 22 r. l9-i 990 (R1999)

Household

Commercial Reriser:ton:nd Frrezen tl99j j Rerngeratrng Unrs {1994) Remgerarion Unit Coolen (1991) Retriserators Usrng Cas Fuel Household Rerngerarors, Combinarion Refiigentor-Freezers and Household Freezes Energy Performance end Capactr.v of Househoid Refnserarors, Relrisemror-Freezers. ard Freezgff Househoid Refngeratoa and Freezea (1993)

\SF
UL UL UL CSA

AHAV
CSA UL'CSA

ANSI/AHAM HRF-I.2OOI
CAN/CSA
CJOO-OO

ANSULjL 250-199'7tC22.2 No. 6i-93

Retrofmng
Buiiding

Refrigennt

Buiiding Systems Analysis.and Rerotit Manual. lsr ed. Procedure lor Reuofinrng CFC-12 (Rl2) Mobiie Air Condirioning Sysrems to HFC- li4a ( R I l4a ) Field ConversiorvRetrotir of Producrs to Change to an Altei-narive RctngemntConstrucdon and Operation ( I 993)

SMACNA

sAE UL

SMACNA

1995

SAE Jl66l-1998

ANSIAJL 2I7O

t
3.

L-.

_.

(?)

56.1E

2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (Sf)


Selected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies snd Associations(Continuedl

Subject

Tide Ficld ConvcniorvRemfit of Products to Change to an Alternativc Retiigerentlnsulating Material and Refrige.ant Compatibility ( l99l) Field ConvcrsioryResotit of Producs to Change to rn Altenative RetrigerantProcedurcs and Mcrftods (1993)

Publisher
UL UL

Referrnce

ANSI/UL

]I7I

ANSI/UL I l7?
ACC.{, Manual Q 70s

Roof

Ventiluorc

Comrnercial Low Pressure. Low Velociry Duct System Dcsign. I st ed Power Ventilarors ( I994)
Bursting Discs rnd

.{,cc.\
UL

.\\syul

Salety Dcvica

Disc Devices

tso
ASHRAE

Solat Equipment Method oiMeasuring Solar4ptical Propenies of Materials


Methods of Testing to Determine the Thermal Pertbrmance olFlat-Plate Solar Collecrors Containing r Boiling Liquid Methods of Tesdng to Determine the Thermal Pertbrmancc of Solar Collectors Methods of Testing to Determine the Thermal Pertbrmancc of Solar Domestic Waer Headng Systems

ASHR{E
ASHRAE ASHRAE
.{SHRc,E

ANSUASHRAE 7+I988 .A,NSUASHRAI 109- I 986 (R{,96) ANSUASHR{.E 93-1986 (RAgl ) ASHR_{E 95-1987

of Unglazed Flat-Plate Liquid-Type Solar Collectors Pnctice for Installation and Service of Solar Space Herting Systems for One and Two Family Dwellings Pnctice lor lnsqlladon and Service of Solar Domesric Water Hearing Systems lor One rnd Two Family Dwellings Practice tbr Evaluadng Thermal Insularion Matenals tor Use in Soiar Collectors Ret-cre-nce Solar Specu-a.l lrradiance at the Ground at Different Receiving CondidonsPan l: Direct Normal and Hemispherical Solar lrradiance tbr .{ir Mass l.i Solar Energy-{alibnrion of a Pyranometer Using a lnheliometer Solar Heating-Domesdc Water Heating Systems-Part l: Outdoor Teg Me&ods for Systcm Performance Characterization and Yearly Pertbrmance Prcdicrion of SolarOnly Systems Solar Heatlng-Swimming Pool Heating Systems-Dimensions. Design and lnsailation Guidelines Solar Water Heaters-Elasromeric Materials for Absorbers. Connecting Pipes rnd Finings-Method of Assessment Test Methods tbr Solor Collectors-Pan l: Thermal Penbrmance of Glazed Liquid Herting Collectors Including Pressure Drop Test Methods fbr Solar Collectors-Pen 1: Qu:rlification Tcst Procedues Tc;t \{etfiods ior Solar Collectors-Pen l: T}ermal Pedbrmance of Unglazed Liquid Heating Collectors (Sensible Heet Transter Only) lncluding Pressure DmD
N{ethods of Testing to Determine the Thermal Performancc

tu\suAsHR \.E 9GI980 (R{89)

ASTM ASTM
,{STN{ ISO ISO ISO

AsT]l

E683-9 I (200 I )

AsT].t 81056-85 (100t)

.{sT}{

E36 l-9.1 (100 I )

ISO98a5-l:1992
tSO 98a6: I 993 ISO 9ai9-2:1995

ISO ISO

ISO 11596:

t99i

ISO 9808: I 990

tso
ISO ISO ASAE

ISO9806-l:199a
ISO 91t06-2: I 995 ISO 9ti06-l:
I

99i
I

Thermal Pertbrmance Testing of Solar Ambient

Air

Heaters

ANSU,\SAE S.I2J.]OO ARI 760-100r

Solenoid Sound

I'itlvs

Solenord Valves for Use rvith Vblatile Retngerants

AR] .{CGIH ,{SA .{SA


.\

,Vetturzment

Thrcshold Limit Values tbr Physical Agents (upd.ared ennually) Method for the Calibmnon of Microphones Specification tbr Sound Level iv{eters Specification tor Ocnve-Band and Frrctional-Octave-Band Analoe rnd Digul Filters Tesr Method lbr lleasunng .{cousticrl and Airtlow Pertbmrance of Duct Liner Matenals end Prciabricated Silencers Sound and Vbntion Desrgn and Analysis { 1994) Vethods for Crlculatrng Fan Sound Rarings ttom Labontory Test Dan Rryerberant Room ivlethod ibr Sound Tcsting oI Fans Baiance Qualiry md Vlbratron Levels for Frns Laboratory Vethods oiTesring ,{ir Circulator Fens tor Rrting Metho<is lor tie Me:.surement of Noise Emined b;" Small Air-\toring Devtccs Laborator-v llethod of Testrng to Determine the Sound Power rn a Ducl

s.\

ACCII{ ANSI Sl.l0-1966 (R:001 ) .1\Sl Sl l-l98l {Rl00 l) \).lsl Sl. I l- 1986 ( R 1998)

,STTl
)'JEBts

.\ST){ E-r?7-99e I

\EBB
{NlC.\ i0l -90

..\!1C.{

AIlC,\
.\,\1C.\

.\Irc..\ i()0-96
{NlC.\ 10{-,)6 .\\1C.\ I0-99 \\SI Sl:.l l-l93? {R1997)
,.\ N S

{N{c..\
.{SA
.{SHR-A.E,'

.r.MC.\

Acousncs-!{ethod for rhc !{easuremen( oiAirbome Noise Emrned bv Small .{irOther


Equipment

ISO

.{MC.{ ji0-97 ISO l0l0l:1995


ARr :75-97 ARI 575-9.1 ARt i30-95 ARI i00-2000

I,'AS HRA E 68- 199,1

Voving Devrces ARI Application of Sound Raung Levels of Outdoor Unitary Equipment ARI Metiod of Measuring Machinery Sound Within Equipment Space ARI Metiod of Measuring Sound and Vibration of Refrigerant Compressors ARI Sound Raring and Sound Trarxmission Loss of Packaged Terminal Equipment Sound Raring of Large Outdoor Reftgenting and Air-Condinoning Equipment ARI ARI Sound Rating of Non-Ducted Indoor Air-Condirioning Equipment Scud Rating of Outdoor Urunry'Equipment Azu Statistical Me6ods for Determining end Venfying Statcd Noisc Emissron Values of ASr\
Macfunery and Equipment Sound Lcvel Prediction for [nstal]ed Rotating Elecrncal \'fachines
-\ E.\1, \

.{Rt 170-2001
ARt i50-2000 Azu 270-95
.A,NSI

Slz.l-

1985 (R]00 t )

NEN{A

\{C l-197.1 (R:000)

Codes and Strndards


Selected Codes and Standards Published bv Various Societies and .{ssociatio ns (Continuetrl
Subject
Techniques

56.19

Tide
Methods for Me-esurement of Sound Emined bv Machinery rnd Equipment at Workstations and Odrer Specified Posinons Metho<is for Calculation of Sound Emined by Machinery and Equipment ar Wbrkstations and Other Specified Positions from Sound Power Level Criteria for Evaluacing Room Noise Engineering Metiod lor the Determination of Sound Power Levels olNoise Sources Using Sound lntensiry Engneering Medrods lor rhe Dererminadon of Sound Power Levels oiNoise Sources for Esscntially Free-Field Conditions over a Retlecdng Plane Guidclincs t-or rhc Use of Sound Power Standards and tor rhe Prepandon oiNoise
Test Codcs Measurement ofSound Pressure Levels in

Publisher
ANSI ANSI ASA

Reference

ANSI St2.1l-1997 ANSI S12..1,1-t997


-{.NSr
.{,NSr
S S

l2.l- l99s (R1999)


l2- t2- 1992 (R1997)

.{SA
ASA
.{,SA

.{NSr S12.34- 1988 (Rt997)

.\\sr
ANSI

s 12.i0_ r990 (R1997)


S

Air

ASA

Medtods lor Dcternrinadon of Inserdon Loss of Ourdoor Noise Barrien Methods forthe Derermination of Sound Power Levels oiNoise Sormes in a Spccial
Reverberation Test Room

.{SA
ASA ASA

l. l3- I 995 (R1999) s12.3-1998 .{.NSr S 12.i3- I 990 (Rt997)

tu\st

Precision Methods for the Determinarion of Sourd Power Levels of Broad-Band Noise Sources in Reverbrarion Rooms Precision Metlrods tbr the Determinarion oiSound Power Levels of DiscrcteFrcquency and Narrow-Band Noise Sources in Reverberarion Rooms Precision Methods lor the Determrnanon of Sound Power Levels ofNoise Sources in .irnechoic :nd Hemi-Anechoic Rooms Prcferrcd Frcquencies. Frequency Levels. and Band Numbers tbr Acousrical Measurcmens Procedure lor rhe Computation ofLoudness ofNoise Procedures tbr Outdoor Measurcment of Sound Pressure Lavel Ret'ercsce Quanriries for .{,coustical Levels Survev Methods tbr rhe Determinanon of Sound Pow.er Levels of Noise Sources Measurc:nent of Iodustnal Sound Test Method tor Evaluating Masking Sound in Open Otfices Usrng A-werehted and One-Thrrd Ocale Band Sound Pressure Levels Test Vethod tor lle:surement ot Sound rn Rcsitientiel Spaces Test Medrod for Meesurcmcnt of .{irbome Sound Insuiarron rn Buildin_rs Tcst \lcriod for Sound,\bsorption lnd Sound..\bsorprion CoetTicjenrs bv rhe

ANSI

l2.l

r-

1990 (R2001)
)

.{SA
ASA ASA .{SA ASA ASA ASA ASME

.\NSI S t2-32- I 990 (R?001


ANSI
S

12.i5- t990 (R:00 I )

ANSI Sl.6-1984 (R2001) ANSI Si.+t980 (R1997)

.{r\SI

12. I 8-

t994 (R1999)

ANSI Sl.3-1989 (R2001)

.\\st s t2.jG 1990 (R 1997)


ASi!,lE PTC i6-1985 (RA98)

ASTV -\STV

.{sTM El57i-02

.{sT\{

E 157.1-98

.{ST\I
.{STM

Rclcrkratron Room Vcrhod Tcst rllethod tbr lmpedencc rnd,\bsorltron ol .\coustlcf,l \larenals by

\sTV Elt6-97 \sT\r c-123-02


\sT\1
C18.1-93
E

thc

.\ST}I
.{ST),1 ISO

ImoeCoce Tubc \lcthod Tcst \'lethod tbr lmpcdance lnd .\bsorprron ot.\cousrrcel \larenais Usrng r Tube. Two Nlicroohones end a Drgital Frequencv Analysrs Svstem Acousncs-\'lersuemcnr ot'Sound lnsulatron rn Buildrnes urd oi Building Elements: Pan I: Requiremens tbr Leborrtorv Tesr Faciliries tvrth Suopressed Flanking

{sT}{

i050-9rl

ISO 110-l:1997

Tmsm

rssron

Prn J: Freid lleuuremcnts ot-Airbome Sound lnsuiarron Benreen Rooms Pan 5: Fieid \{cesuremcnts ot Airbome Sound Insularron ol'Frcatie Elemenrs and
Facede

ISO ISO ISO

ISO IJO-l: 1998 ISO il0-i:1998 ISO I-t0-6: 1998 iSO lr0-7:1998 ISO i.l0-8: 1997
iSO

Part 6: Laboralory \leasurements ol'Impact Sound Insuiarron of Fioors Pan 7: Fieid lleesuremenrs ot'lmpact Sound Insuiarron oi Floors

P:n 3: Laboratorv Vcasuremcnts of the Rcduction of Transmrned lmoacr \orse bv

lso lso
ISO ISO ISO

floor Covenngs on a Solid Standard Floor


.\coustrcs-Determinatron ol'Sound Powe;- L:vels of \orse Sources Using Sound Intensiry. Pen l: \{ersuremcnt rt Discrete Pornrs Acoustics-Detemlnatlon ol'Sound Power Levcls ot'\orse Sources Using Sound lnrenslry; Prn l: Veasurcment bv Scamrng

96lJ-l:l9ql

iSO',16lr-2:1996
ISO
B

Acorstics-\lethod [or Calcu


Termrnology Acousti

latrn g Loudress Lc.;ei P.Dcdlzl Sirndffds tbr lleasuremenr and -{ssessrnent oiSound md \abnuon { 199.t)

il2:

9?5

\E3
.{SA

cri

Term inolo g.v

EBB ..\NSI 5r t-r99.1 {R1999)

Terminology Reiaring Io Environmenul Acousrrcs


Space Heaten

ASTV

ASTM C 6-14.02 ANSI/ASHRAE


I2.1.

Methods of Tesnng lor Ratrng Combination Space-Hearrne rnd Water-Heatrng Appliances Fixed and Losron-Dedicated Electric Room Heaters { 1997) Morable and Wall- or Ceriing-Hung Elecmc Room Hearen (1000) Vented Cas-Fired Space Heating Appliances Gas-Fired Room Heaters. Vo[. [I. Unvented Room Hearers Graphic Elecrical/Elccronic Symbols lor Arr{onditioning and Retrigenrion Equipment Graphic Symbols for Heating, V'entilatrng, ancl .{ir ConditronLng

ASHR{E
UL UL C5A
CSA

I99I

uL

2021

uL

tz78
Z2

ANSt
ANSr

r 86-2000/csA 2,32_2000

22l.t t,2-2000

Synbols

ARI
ASiv{E

Azu I]0.88
ASME Y12.2.+ 1949 (RA98)

56.20

2003 ASHRAE Apptications Handbook (SI)


Selected Codes and Standards Published by larious Societies and.{ssociations {Continuedl

Subjett

Tide

Publisher
used in .{rchitecrure and

Referruce

Gnphicd Symbols tbr Pipe Fittings. Valves and Piping Gmphiol Symbols for Plumbing Fixnrres for Diagrems

ASME ASME ASME ASTM

Asi\.{E

ASME Y32.t.l- r949 (RA99) Yi2-+r977 (RA99)

Building Construction Symbols lor iv{echanic.el and Acoustical Elemens as Used in Schematic Diagnms Pracnce for Mechanicrl Symbols. Shipboard Heeting, V'ennlation, rnd.A.ir Conditioning (HVAC) Strndffd Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondesmrcdve Examinarion Graphic Symbols lor Elecricel and Electronic Diagnms Recommendcd Pracdce for the Prepararion and Usc ofSymbols
Standard Lener Symbols lor Quantities Used in Elecrrical Science end

ASME Y32. l8- 1972 (RA98)


.A,STM F856-97

.\ws
IEEE IEEE IEEE IEEE

Aws A2-1
ANSL4EEE I l 5- 1975 IEEE 167-r966

(Rt99l)

Elecricrl

IEEE 130-1985 (Rl9e7) IEEE 99l-1986 (R1994)

Enerncering Stxndffd tbr Logic Circuit Diagrams Standird tbr Use of the lnternational System of Units (SI): The Modem

IEEg
ASTM ASME .{SME NEMA

IEEE/ASTM.SI.IO ASME Yl4.i8- 1999 ASME Y r4. 100-2000 ANSI/NEMA 2535.I.I998 ANSYUL ]IO
ANSL,IJL 186E ANSI/UL 486C

Vetric System
Abbreviarions and Acronyms Engineenng Drawing Pracdces
Sat'ew Cotor Code

Terminals,

Il?nzg Electrical Quick-Connect Terminals

1995)
{

UL UL UL
UL

Equipment Wiring Terminais tbr Use with Numinum and/or Copper Conductors ( 1994) UL

Splicing Wirc Connectors 11O00) Wire Connectors and Soldering Lugs for Use with Copper Conductors Wire Connectors for Use with Aluminum Conductors ( 1997)

1997)

ANSIAJL486A
LIL 4868
.C.ABC

ttd -ltuncmg

.{ABC Commissioning

Guidelrne Standard
Heatins.

I.\,BC
fuVCA
.{SHR.\E
.r,SHR.{E HI HI HI HI HI

Industrial ProcessPo*'er Generaring Fans: Site Pertbrmance Test


The L|VAC Commissioning

.{rvc.q,803-96
ASHRA,E Gutdeline l-1996 ANSVASHR-{E I I I-I988

Process

Precices lor t{eesuremenr. Iesting, Adjustrng, rnd Balancing oi Building !'entilation. .\ir-Conditionrng, and Relri geration Svstems Cenmfugai Pump Test \ienrcal Pumo Tess

ANStt{t

r.6 (2000)

Roulv Pump

Tests

Rmiproatrng Pump Tcsts Pumps--Ceneni Guidelincs (lncluding "Mcesurcmcnt ol .\irbome Suuntj") Proccduml Srandards lbr Ccnrlled Tcstrng oi Clcanroorns. lnd ed. i I ()()b l Proccduni Standards lbr Tcsting, Atijustrng, Baianctnq i)r' Envrronmen(Ji Svstcms

ANSI/HI 1.6 (2000) ANSVHI 1.6 (2000) ANSI/H16.6 r1000) HI 9.1-9.6 (1000)
NEBB NEBts

\EBB \EBB
ASAE

r,(h dd. { lgor], Curdelrncs lbr Measunng and Rcponrng Envrronmenral P"rrnr.,"r, tbr Ptant Exoenmen6 rn Crowth Chambers HVAC Svstems Tcsting, .\djusting rnd Balancing, jrd cd.

ANSI/ASAE

EP4 I I -].]OO2

SIVIACNA SMACNA l00Z

Thermul Storaqe

!lcrhod rriTcsrrng.\ctrve Sensrble Themal Enegy Storrue Derrcgs Bascd fherrnal Pcrlbrmance lletirod oiTestrng.\cnve Latent-Heat Stomuc Devices Based on Themrll Penbmanc: !lethod ot'Tesrrng Tlermal Storage Devices with Eiecmcel lnput rnd

on

.\SHR.\E \SHR-\E {sHR{E ,{SHL,\E


AS i!1 E

ANSI/ASHRAE 9:1.i-1986(R-{02)
ANSI/'ASHR*\E 94. I-2002

ANSI/ASHR{E 94.:-t98 I ANSI/ASHR{E III.I988


ASME PTC 6.
ASivtE PTC
1996
I

(R-^\.02)

Tlemel Ourpur

Based on Thermal Pertbrmancc

Pnctices lor \{ersurement. Testing, Adjustinu. anti Balancinq or'Burlding Heatinq Ventiiat:on. .\ir-Conditionrnq, :nd Rctiigerrtion Svs(ems
Turhi
n

cs

Steam Turbrncs

Wind Turbines Sprcillcetron tor Cas Turbine Fuel Oils L:nd ilased Steem Turbrne Generaror Se:s Sterm Turbrnes ior \lechanrcal Drive Service

\SN,1E

.12-

933 { RA98

{STV

\EMA \E\4A
.\SME ASME ASME
ASlvlE CSA

ANSI/ASTM D2330J)O NElv{A SM 14-t99 I (R1997) )'lEMA SM tl-r991 (Rt997)

l,'alra

Frce-ro-Face md End-to-End Dimensions ot'Vaives Pressure Rei ief Devices Valves-Flanged. Thrcaded and Welding End Manuaily Opented Meullic Cas Valves tor Use in House Pioing S.'"stems Reiief Valves for Hot Water Supply

AsME Br6. l0-2000


.A.SN{E PTC ]5.2OOI

ASME Bl614-r996

AsME 816.4..{-t995
ANSI 221.22- 1999/CSA.{.+M99 ANSylsA-s75.02- 1996 ANSL4SA-S75 0 l - l 985 (Rl 995)
tSO 521 l-l:200t ISO 5752:1982 ISO .112G l: 199 t

Connol Valve Capacrw Test Procedu.res Flow Equations for Sizing Conrol Valves [-ndustriai Valves-Pan-Turn Actu.ator Anachments N{eul Valves for Use in Flanged Pipe Systems-Face-to-Face and Centre-to-Face
Dimensions

ISA
ISA

tso
ISO ISO SAE

l: Gencrai Requirements Oxygen System FilUCheck Valve


Safery Valves, Part

sAE ASt225A-1997

Codes and Standards


Setected Codes and Standards Published by Various Societies and Associetio ns (Continuedl

56.21

Subject

Tide
Elecrrca.lly Operatcd Valves
(

Publisher

Reference

Gas

tll UL Safery Relief Valves for Anhydrous -A.mmonia and LP-Gas ( 1997) UL Valves for .Anhydmus Ammonia and LP-Cas (Other Than Safet-v Relie0 ( 1997) UL Valvcs for Flammable Fluids (1997) UL Automaric Valves for Gas Appliances CSA Combinadon Gas Controls for Gas Appliances CSA Manuaily Opentcd Gas Valves for Applirnces. Appliance Connection Valves. ond CSA
LP{as
Regu.laton

1999)

(1999)

UL 429 UL 144 UL 132 UL 125

uL

842

ANSI 221.2 I -2000/CGA 6.5-2000


ANSI 221.78-2000/CGA 6.20-2000

ANSI 22l.l5- t 991/CCA

9. I -M97

Hose End Valves Lerge Meallic Valves for Gas Distniburion (Manually Operated NPS-2 t/2 ro 125 psig Maxunum)

12. ASME ASME ASME

ASME 816.38-1985 (RA94)

Manu:Jly Opcnted Meollic Gas Valves for Usc in Gas Piping Systems up to l5 psig (Sizcs t/2 through 2) Manually Operatcd Thcrmoplastic Cas Shutoffs and Vaives in Gas Dismburion
Systems

ASME ASME

16.33-2002

B 16.40-2002

(L{94)

Refrgerant

Refrigerant Acccs Valves and Hosc Connectors


Refri gerant Prcssurc Regulating Valves

Solenoid Valves tbr Use with Volatile Refrigenns Thermosuric Refrigerant Expansion Valves l/apor

Raarden

Pracrice tbr Selection ofVapor Retarders lor Thermal Insuladon Pracuce for Dactmuring the Propenies of Jacketing Materia.ls for Thermal

lnsulation ASTM ANSUASTM C92142 Spccificanon for Flexible. Low Permeance lhpor Reurders for Thermal lnsulation .ASTM ANSVASTM Cl136-02 Test Method lor Water Vapor Transmission Rate of Flexible Barrier Vaterials Using .A,STM ASTM F372-99
an [nirared Detecnon Technique
Vending .Vachines Vethods of Tesnng lor R:ting Bonled and Canned Bevenge Vcnding Vethods of Tesring lor Rating Prc-llix and Post-Mix Soft Drink Vending Dispensing Equipment

ARI ARI ARI ARI ASTM

ARI 720.97
ARI 77O.2OOI ARI 760.200I ARI 750.94 ASTM C755.02

Machines ..\SHR.\E and ASHRAE CSA NSF UL UL

ANSVASHRAE 32.1-1997 ANSVASHRAE 32.2-1997


C22-2 No.l28-95 (R1999)

Vending

\lachrncs Beverages {199j) ed-

V'ending llachines for Food rnd

NSF/ANSI 25-2002
ANSUUL 75 I

\ending llachines { 1995) Retngented !'ending Machines


I'ent

UL

i4l
6.

Dompen

Auromatrc Venr Damper Dcvrccs tbr Use rvirh Cas-Fired .\ppliances Vcnt or Chrmnev Connector Dampers tbr Oil-Fired Appliances ( 199-l) Commercral Low Pressurc. Low ltlocrrv Duct Svsre;n Design. lst Comtbn. .\ir Quelrw. rnd Etlicrency by Desrg Commercial Apoiicrtions. Systems. md Equroment. lst.d. Cuide lbr Testrng ltntilatron Svstems ( l99l)

csA UL
ACC.{ ACCA ACCA ACGIH ACGIH
ASHRAE

ANSI 221.66-l996/CSA

i+M96

UL

17

l/enrilorion

ACCA Manual Q ACCA iv{anual RS ACC.{ Manual CS


ACGIH ACGIH

lndusmal Ventrlalron: A .Vlanual of Rccommended Practice- l4th ed. (2001) Ventrlation for.{cceotable Indoor.{rr Quliry llethod ol'Testrng tor Room Arr Diflusion

ASHR.{E

ASHRAE 62-2001 ANSUASHRAE I li-1990


129-1997

pwellings Design of Ventrlauon Systems tbr Poulrrv and Livesto:k Shelters Desrgn Valucs ior Emergency !'enrrlarron and Care of Lrvestock rnd Poultry Unrform Terminology.for Livesrock Productron Facrlitres - Gurdelines for Selectron ot'Energ-v Eflicrent Agnculnrnl Ventiianon Fans Hcetrng, Vennlatrng rnd Cooling Creenhouses Residentral \lahanrcai Ventrlatron Svstems Insullanon of Arr Conditronrng md Ventilanng Systems Puking Smrcrures ltnulanon Conrol rnd Fire Protecrron of Commercial Cooking Ooentions Food Eourpment Class II (Larnrnar Flowl Biosatet-v Cebrneqv Test Procedure for Banery Flame Retardant Venting Systems Hearer. Arrplanc, Engrne Exiaust Gas to Air Heat Exchanger Type Aerothemodlnamic Systems Engineering aad Design Venring
Commercral Applications. Systems. and Equipment. lst ed.

tleasunng.{ir Change Effectrveness llethod of Determrning .{rr Change Rates in Derached

ASHRAE ANSI/ASHLAE

(fu{02)

ASHR{E ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE ASAE CSA NFPA NFP'\ NFPA NSF NSF SAE SAE SAE

ANSUASHRAE 136-1991 (R-AOl) ASAE EPl70.5-2001


AS..{E EP282.2-2000

ASAE S50l-2001 ASAE 8P566-2001 ASAE EP406.l-1998

CAN/CSA F326-M9l (R1998)


NFPA 90A-99 NFPA 38A-98 NFPA 9641 NSF/ANSI 2-2002 NSFiANSI -+9-2002 SAE Jt495-1998 SAE ARP36A-1996 SAE AiRl168/3-1989
.ACCA Manuat CS

Dnft

Hoods
Co<ie

ACCA csA

Natronal Fuel Cas

ANSI 22r.l2-1990 (R2000) AGtuNFPA ANSI 7r,r. l-2m2lAi\SI/tttTPA 5+02 AMCA 20+96
NFPA ]I I-OO NFPA 69.97

Baiance Quaiiry and Vibratron Levels for Fans Cfurnnqrs, Firrplaces, v'cnts and Solid Fuel-Buming Appliances Explosron Prg! sntron Systcms

AMC.C, NFPA NFPA

f.

:ll.

s622

2003

ASHR ,E Applications Handbook (Sf)

Slected Coder and Standsrds Published by Various Societies end Associatio ns (Continue[)

Subject

Tide
Smoke rnd Hcat

Publisher

Reference NFPA 204-02

Venting

Guidc lor Stccl Stack Constuction, 2nd

Dnff
Gas

Equiprnent(l993) Vens(1996)

ed
(

NFP.{ UL UL tJL for ASA


SMACNA

Type L Lor,-Tempcrrorc Vcnting Systcms

1995) Data

SMACNA 1996 UL 373 UL {41 ANSUUL 6.tl ANSI 52.10-1984 (R:001) ANSI 52.10- t97l (R:001) ANSI 52. I l- 1969 (R2001 )

Vrbration

Mechanical Vrbration of Rotating and Rcciprocating Machincry-Requiremens Instrumcns for Mcasuring Vibratioo Scvcriry Medtods for Analysis and hesentarion of Shock and Vibrarion
Selection of Cdibntions and Tess for Electrical Transduccrs Used for Shock and Vibration Techniqucs of Machinery Vibration

Measuring

ASA ASA ASA ASA

Measurement

Vibradons of Buildingt-Guidelines for fie Measurement of Vibrations Evaluation ofThcir Effects on Buildings Ernluadon of Human Exposrrc to Wholc-Body Mbntion: Part 2: Continuous Shock-lnduccd Mbntions in Burldings ( I to 80 Hz)

and

tu\SI

52. l7- 1980 (R:001) ANSI 52.47-t990 (R2001) ISO 263 l -2:1989 ISO 5897:1984

and ISO

Guidclinc forthe Erraluation ofthc Responsc ofOccupans ofFixed


Morior (0.063 to I Hz)

Structures, ISO
(

Especially Buildings rnd Off.Shorc Swcrures. to Low-Frcquency Horizonol

t994) NEBB NEBB Watd Hcatcrs Gas Watcr Heaters. Vol. I. Storage Water Heaters with Input Radngs of 75,000 Bru CSA pcr Hour or Lcss ,;ir ;'e Gas Watcr Hcaters. Vol. tll Storagc, wirh Input Ratings.{bovc 75,000 Btu per Hour. bS,l
hocednal Sundards for Mcasrrcnrent ard Assessrnetrt of Sound ard Vib'ration Sound and Vibration Dcsign and Analysis

(1994)

NEBB NEBB

ANSI 22l.l0.l-1998/CSA 4.1-M98 ANSI Zll.l0.l-1998/CSA 4.3-M98 ARI 470-95 ANSVASHRAE I 18. l - 1993 ANSUASHRAE II8.2.1993 ANSVASHRAE 137- 1995 (RAOl ASHRAE 951987 199 I

Circulating and lnstantancous Water Heaters DenrperhcatetVater Hcaters Method of Testing lor Raring Commercial Gas. Electric. and Oil Water Heaters ASHRAE ASHRAE Method of Testing for Rating Residential Water H:aters Methods olTesring lor Efficiency of Space{onditioningWater-Heanng Appliances ASHR \E That Include a Desupcrheater Water Heater Methods of Testing to Determine the Thermal Perlormance of Solar Domestic Water ASHR{E

ARI

Hearing Systems

llerhods of Testing for Rating Combination Spac*Heating and

Water-Hertrng ASHRAE Sewice CSA CSA NSF

ANSVASHRAE t 24-

Appliaaccs Cdnstruction and Test oiElectric Stonge-Tank Watqr Heaters Perlbrmance of Electnc Storage Tank Water Hcaters lor Houschoid Oil Buming Stoves end Water Heaten

CAN/CSA-C22.1 No. ll0-9a (R1999)

C19l-00

Oil-Fired Servicc Water Herters and Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heaters. Hot Water Supply Boilers. and Heat Rrcovery Commercial-lndustrial Gas Hcating Equipment ( 1999)

Equipment

CSA csA UL UL UL UL ASAE


ACGIH ASTM ASTM CSA CSA NFPA NSF

Bl10.l-1962 (Rf00l ) Bl40.l2-r976 (R:001


NSFiANSI i-2000e UL 795

Elecrnc Booster and Commcrcial Storrge Tank Water Heaters ( 1995) Household Elecnc Storage Tank Water Heaters ( 1996) Oil-Fired Storage Tank Water Heaters ( 1995) Sat'ery ior Electncaily Heated Livestock Waterers

UL I45J .{NSI/UL

I7.1

ANSVUL 7J2 ASAE EP]42.]-1999 ACCIH ASTM E1602-01 .{STM EI509-95


CAN/CSA-8165-01

331 -tiances

.lVood-Euminq

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Subsunces (updated annu:ily) Cuide rbrConsm:crion of Solid Fuel Buming Masonry Herrers Specification for Room Heatcrs. Pellet Fuel Burning Type Installatron Code lor Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances and Equipment Solid-Fuel-Fired Cenu-ai Heating Appliances Chrmne-vs. Fireplaces. Vents. and Solid Fuel-Buming Appliancrs Commercral Cooking. Rethermaiization 6d p6wered Hot Food Holding and Tcrnspon Equipment

CAN/CSA-8366. l-M9 I (R:000) ANSI/NFPA 2ll-00 NSFIANSIf -l-2000e

Codes and Standards

56.23

.{BBR.E!]ATIONS, A.DDRESSES. TELEPHONE N{IVTBERS. AND WEB ADDRESSES


.{bbrev.
.{.ABC

Orgenizetion
Associated

Addrss
Balance Council

Telephone
503

http://wvw.
aabchq.com

.\ir

t5l8 K Sucet NW. Suite


Washingron. D.C.20005

(:02) 737-0202 (70i) 522-7350


1703) 57s-1117

ABMA ACCA ACGIH


ADC ACA AHAM

.\mericanBoileriV{anutacrurersAssociation Air Condirioning Conractors of America .\mericrn Conierence of Covemmental Industrial Hygieniss
.A,ir

-1001 Nonh 9th Streer. Suite 116

Arlin$orr. VA r't:01-

abma.com

1900

2800 Shirlington Road Suite ArlinEon. VA 23106 1330 Krmper Merdow Drive Cincinnari. OH +5240

i00

acca.org

(5

ri)

742-2020

acgih.org flexibleduct.org
aga-org

Diffision Council

1000 E. Wbodfield Road Suite 102 Schaunburg, IL 60 t7l-592 I

(847) 706-6750 (302) 82+7000 (102) 87:-5955 (703) 849-88S8 (847) 394-0150
(2O2) 293-8020

American Cas Associarion Association of Homc Appliance Manutbcrurers

{00 }t. Capitol Sreet NW


Washingon. D.C.20001
I I I l9rh Suect NW Suite 402 Washingron. D.C.20036

aham.org

AIHA
AMC..\

.{mericm Industrial

H-vgiene .{ssociation

3700 Prosperiqv Avenue, Suite 150 Fainax. VA 2203 I

aiha.org
amca.org

.{ir }lovement end Connol Association


lntemarional .{merican National Standards Institute Air-Conditioning and Refri geration Institute .{coustical Sociery of .\merica Amencen Socier.v of Agriculrural Engineers
Socrctv

# b
ANSI

i0 West Universirv Drive .{rlingron Heights, lL 6000+1893


I 819 L Strcet NW. 6th Floor Washingron. D.C.30036

anst.ory
ari.rrrg

ARI

.1100 ),ionh Fairrax Drive. Suire 200

(703) 524-8800 (516) 576-2360

.{rlineron- VA 22103

.{SA ASAE

!lelville- YY

Huntingron Quadrangle
I 17.17-.1502

i!\a.a, p.org
dsac trrg

1950 )Jiles Road St. Joseoh. MI -19085-9659

(6i6).129-0100
(JoJ) 616-340() (971) 341-r761

ASHR,\E .\mcrrcen

ol'llcrttng. Rct'rigcratingend

l19l Tullic Circle.


.{tlrnu. CA i0129

NE

arhrts

rlpg

.\ir-Conditionrng Enginccn

,\SI,lE ASTII AWS AWW,\ BOC.\


SI

.{SiVlElntcrnatronal

i Prrk .lvenue \er lbrk. \Y


I

a:m c. ( )r,i

10016-i990
(6

.{ST}l lntcrnetional
.lmcncm Wciding
Socrery

0() Ban Harbor Dnve. PO. Box C700

t0) si2-9585

1\tm. ( /f3 J',' \ : tf\

West Conshohocken. P.{ 19428-2959

j50 \.w, LeJeune


\liamr. FL

Road

llll6

(i05)

J{l-9i5i
79.1-77 I
I

.lmencan \later Wbriis .{ssociation Building Otilcials


Intcrn:rttonal

666fi W. Quinc.,, Avenue Denrer. CO 30215

(i0l)

:tk
lrt

p.r.t,r,1

"na

Coa" Adminisrrtors

.{)5i 1 Flossmoor Road Counrrv Club Hills. IL 60a73


'esr

(708) 799-210()

x-:| I I'4

Bnrish Standards Insrirution


Comoressed

i89 Chrswrck High Road London Wl.lAL. UK

#(0)20-8996-9(J()r, b\r-lJ.,bai cOni

c.\cl
CSA

\ir

rnd Gas Instirurc

lj()(, iumner Avenue Cie'.eiand. OH -l{ I l5-2851


|

{:16) 241-7jil
(-l

t:M'|t,.i
': ,2

Crnaciian Sundards .{ssociation lntemational

1lJ R.crdaie Boulevard

.{lso araiiable lrom CSA Intemltronal

O\ !l9W l*n. C.rnacia 8501 ilst Plecsant Valley Road


Ioronro. Clneiand- OH

l6) 747--l0r-1
i23-8 I 0l

.:L

(1 I 6)

14lil-i575
(23 l )
(9

cn
EJMA

Cooling Technology Instirute


E.'<pansion Joint Manufacnrers Association

P.O. Box 73383 Houston. TX 77213-3383

58i-{087

'it

a'2.

25 Sonh Bmadway Tarr.vtown. )IY 1059t


1300 Sumner Avenue

l1) i32-004()

qmz.t/tz

HEI

Heat Exchange lnsdrute

(2t6) 74t-7333
(973\ 267 -9701)

hanrhznge.org
lxunptJtt-4

Clczelard OH 441 l5-2815


HI

Hydnulic Instrrute

9 Syhzn Way Parsrppany, NJ 07054

56.24

2003 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (Sf)


.{BBREVIAIIONS, .{DDRESSES, TELEPHONE NUIVIBERS, .{ND WEB ADDRESSES (Coanaued)

Abbrev.

Organizetion
Hydmnics Insntute lnremrdonai .{.ssociation of Plumbing and
Ir{echamcal Otficials

Addrtss

rryDI
IAPMO
ICBO

i5

Russo Place. P.O-

Box 213

Berkclry Heights. NJ 0792:{21 20{01 E Walnut Drivc South Walnr, CR 91189-2875


5360 Worisnan Mill Road whitticr, CA 9060 l-2298 5203 Lrcsburg Pike, Suite 600 Falls Chucir. VA 22041
-15 Hocs Lane

Telephone (908){6f8200

http://www.
garrurnet.org

(909)i95-81-19 iapmo.com (-162)6990541 icbo.org

lntemarional Conference of Building Officials Intemational Code Council


Insnrute of Elecu-ic-al and Elecconics Engineers

rcc
IEEE IESNA IFCI

(701)931-r513
(?i2) 981{060 (212)1.18-5000
(562) (703)

intlcode.org
ieee.org

Piscataway, NJ 0885+ I 33 I

Illuminating Engineering Sociery of North Amdrice


Inrcmarional Firc Code Insnrute lnternanonal Insdrute of Ammonia The Instrumentarion. Systems. and Automarion Society lnternarional Organization lor Scandardization Mechanical Conractors Associanon of

120 Wall

Srecr Floor l7

iesna.org

New YorL

NY

10005

5360 Worknan Mill Road Whinicr. CA 90601-2398

699{541
i I2J200

ifci.org
iiar.org
isa.org

IIAR
ISA
ISO

Refrigerarion

I I l0l.{onh Glebc Road. Suite 250 tulingtor\ VA 22201 67 .{lcxander Drivc, P.O. Box l2'li7 Rescarch Triangle Park NC 27709

(919) 549-841

ts:_.

&

t, rue dc Varcmb6. Case postaie 56 CH-l2l I Gener.? 20. Switzerland


1385 Piccard Drive Rockville, MD 20850
20 l7 South I l9th Circle OmahaNE 68144-2149

{l-22-749{ll I (i0l)369-5800

iso.org
mcaa.org

America

MICA VSS
NAIIVIA NCPWB
NCSBCS

M idrvest Insulation Contracton .\ssociadon

(800)7-176lll

miceinsularion.org mss-hq.com

!{anuticrurers Standardization Sociery ofthe


and Firdngs Indusrr.v

Valvc

l?7 Park StreeL N.E. Venna- VA 22180-.1602


14 Crnal Center Plaza. Suite

(703)13l{6ll
i
I

){onh Amencan Insulation Manufacrurers


Assmiation
)Jarional Cenified Pipe Welding Bureau Natronal Conterence ofStates on Burlding and Stardards

(703)68.1J)084 naima.org

Alexandna, VA :23 t4

ll85 Piccard Drive Rockville. MD 20850J1.10

(l0l)369-i800
(;03)-137-0100
(

mcaa.org/ncpwb
ncsbcs.org

Codes

i05 Hunrnar Park Drive. Suile I l0


Hemdon. VA 1.0170 8575 Gruvemont Circle Cairheabug, MD 20877
I

NEBB

Nanonal Environmental Balancing Bureeu Natronal Elecmcel !,Ianufacrurers Association

l0 I ) 977-i698 nebb.orq

NEMA

i00 North I 7th Streel Suite


Banerymarch Park

8.17

{703)S-+l-1200 nema.org
(

Rosslyn. VA 12109

NFPl
NRCC
d. i:j

\atrunal Fire Protectton Associrtron

7) 770-i000 nipa.org

PO.

Box9l0l. Quincy, MA

01169-9101

Narional Rcsearch Council oiCrnada- Publication l,{-20. 1200 Monmal Road Ottawa- 0N KIA 0R6. Canada Sales, lnstrrute tor Research in Construction

l3i1)

6i2-26i2 l0

nrc.ca

f{SF lntemational
PHCC

P.O-

Bor

ll0l40,
.18

789 N. Dixboro Road


I

(71.1) 769-80

nst-.org

Ann .Arbor- M I Plumbrng-Herting-Cooling Conrnctors


.{ssocratron

l3-0

140

Narronal

180 S. Washingron Srreet. P.O. Box oaot Falls Church. VA 22040

(l0l) ll7-8100

phccweb.org

SAE SBCCI
SM.^1.CNA

Stxiery oi Automotrve

En

gineers lnternational

J00 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale. P,4, I 5096-000

(71,1)776-+8.11 sa..org
I

Southem Burlding Code Congress lntemational


Sheet

900 Montclair Road Birmingham. AL 152I3- I206


420
1

(:0-<)

j9l-1851
30i-2980

sbcci.org smacna.org tema.org ul-com

lleni and Air Conditronrng Contrrctors Narional Association

Chartilly, VA

Lafayene Center Drive 20 t5 l- I 209

(703)
(9 1.1)

TEMA UL

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association UnderwritEn Laboratories

25 Nonh Broadway Tarrytowq NY 10591 333 Pfing:ten Road Nonlrbrook" lL ffiO 62-209 6

ii2-0040
272-8800

(847)

4]ii, r,lli
lOl J25 IPJ

,tq
-\

ASHFIAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NC NORMAL TEMPERATURE SEA LEVEL


AAROVETRIC PRESSURE

t^ra\ -; / '^ldl. \8,/

E la
a

AMIt]tcAN SOCtETy OF rAIrRG, llEilr6LriAllHG ^riU Alll eoNDlIloNluo LhorN!!ris. lllc


I I

coPYlilottT l9ul

lD

sENSlaLE tte^I - Jrr Jtl TO]AL IIE I

r$ El
oa

fNTIIALP! IruMt0tIY nArlo - Jh Jiv

ud

c' r)"
oJ" o)

a('

-->--E

(n

,ir,,/
,1

:^_

r{
I G

o
'2.

2oi

iORY EUtB TEMPENATUI]E

o\

.c

50

ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO. I


NORMAL

Chart I a
(

,^noxrRrc'^"::::::-:,,,,::'"1'-o'
coPYRtchI 196l AHEntCIN SOCtIy Or It^TtNG, REfRtcERAIlNG
NTII^TPY Of WAIR 8IU PR L8 ORY

TMPERATURE

u'".,^' qp) \_r


./

/ a'

SEA LEVEL

AND AIR

CorornolllNG trlc[]tRs, rf/c.

2 .t .a .5 .5 .) .8 .9

LO

t.t

1.2

^IR
8

t=

\'

.021

i
o.om

3r -)

co I 5.ote lu

, +f' .i-----,-id
.-J1 ru^r,-----:i:: _ b> Lt' ',0/Ir RAIro -r
o"J
""*
.+a

ii,,,
-I

r,,r,",

c* o('

."o

o 5.0o"

40 50 60 70 wfI aura oa wAlt{ ItHPtAAIU! f

Qr

R
R t: t\ t:
'10

N t\

\ :\ \ \ \ \
l
ig

s=<s

i--\-i--::\

-:-:>:
ls
?5 ENTHALPT (h) arU ern pgu1o

or

Dny

Ati

CHAPTER 8. APPLILD ISYCHROMETRICS

L-149

ABBREVIATIONS
xdP

SYMEOLS

:lppar';r(rrs dersPni
l>ypass

nt

cf

n*

bvpassetl

cfman

air qtrarttitv arourrd aPl)arattls tlchrrmidifiecl ai r quantity

BF

factor

cfntn
mn Clm,.
cf

(Bn (o.{LH) (BO (oAsH) (BF)(OATH) Btu/hr


cfm (lb

air latent heet bypassed otrtdoor air scnsible heat bypassed out(loor air total heat llritish thermal units Per hotrr
bypassett otrttloor

outdoor air qulntitY rcrurn air quantitv srrpplv ;rir qtrantity slxcific enthalpv rl)parr(us clcrspoint errthalpy
effective srtrhce tem Per:Iture en thalPy cntering IiI enthalp,v

cubic fcet
tlr,v'btrllr tlcrvpoinc eftectisc cffective cftccrise effective

1rer

minute

h It na,
t,

,, h_
h,n

dp

fi.

ERLH
ERSH

ERTH
ESHF

room latent heat room sensible heac roont rotal heat


scnsible hcat factor

lcrsirrg:rir enthalpy rurirttrre oI outtloor and rettrrtr air enthalpv orrtdoor air enrhalpy loonr lir errch:rlpy strpplv air entlralpy
remPcra(rrre a ppart ttts dq\r'poirt t telnPerature cn(eri ng drv-bu lb temPerature

rPrlr

Fahlenheit deglees feet 1>er minttte


gallons per mirtute grairrs pel potrnct

nap

l.,rt
t

gPm Cr/ tb

effectite :trrface tenl


.,,

GSI{F

grand sensible heat lactor


granct

CTH
CTHS

grand

totil heec totil Ilelt

Derf, ture cnreling 1\':rte: iemPrlture cnteri nq rret'llr: ib temPera(ure

t,at
str

PPlement
1,.
n

O,\LH
O,\SH

outdoor,rir lrtent heec otrtdoor :ril serrsible [reat


orttdoor :rir tocal heet t'clative htrrniclitv
roorrt

leeli nq drr--brrib (em Per;rture lerr.ing 1\ ilIer lirnPerxtttre le:rvi ng rret-brr ib temPerxture mirture oI otrtdoor and retttrn air otrrdoor
drr'-bu ib telrl Perl[ure rir drr 'bulb temPeratul'c roorrt drr'-btr lb :em perature

OATH
rh

RLH
RLHS
RS't{

lltcril

lteat

t," n, lI' ,o
ll .n

srrpt;ir rit'

dr.

--trlb tetttperattrre

loont lrte:tr lteat .rroplentctlt


roorrr ,crtsrble llee t

RSHF
RSHS

RTH
Eff

|oonl iil:ible lteet lactor |ootrt .crtsiblc lreet'trpplclllell! roont tot:ti itert
\;lr i.lt :lrt()il efficieitc. oI s1rl.et.s

rllol)tttre aolt ti' I t ()r iPeci fi c lrttnridi rv ;rPD;il:1 (ui .lgr' loint ntoisture contenI ente: lrlq .tir ttl,-tt:t!tre content
cdecti*e strriic-' temperxture moiscure contcll(

llt ,,

ll'

5HF

scrrsilrlc ltctt t:tctor'

,n

lei\

rrrq :.ii- rttcr.tttfe contell(

fi',.
I

ilil\lln'e o[,)Ul :ool rltd return:rir


nroisture cor':ant otrtdoor ilit ttt, :rtttre cott!cn(
tOOlll llltrl:itll - -Ol)tellI

TLH
TSH
rr'lt

rot:rl l:ttcrti ite:tt


irtur[ .clrsririe lte:t
rr'ct.i>trlir
t

I'..
'"

ll'^
lV

strpnlr rtr rn()r.:tll.e cotltcllt

l.-150

P.{RT

I.

I..OAD ESTIMATTNG

PSYCHROMETRIC FORMUI-AS

A.

AIR MIXING EQUAIONS (Outdoor qnd Rehrrn Air)

hn=

(cfm*x t; + (cfmqx t^) cf m(cfm*x h*) + (cf m^ x ft-J


4mn (cfm*x W-) + (cf m^x W^)
cf

(r)
(2)

TSH = 1.08 xcfm*j x(t.c6-lrdr)" TLH - .68 x {mu! x (lv,n - W,n)" GTH =4.{5 x cfm"nlx(h,a- hb)"
C.
SNSIBT HEAT FACTOR EQUAIIONS

(2:)
(23) (24)

W.=

m;

(3)

RSHF

RSH
RSH + RLH
ERSH

RSH

RTH
ERSH

(25)

COOTING LOAD EQUANONS

ERSH = RSH + (BF) (OASH) + RSHS. ERLH - RLH + (BF) (O.{LH) + RLHS. 1RTH = ERLH + ERSH

(4)

ESHF = ERSH + GSHF =

(5) (6) (7) (8)


(9)

ERLH TSH TSH + TLH

ERTH TSH GTFr

(26)

(27)

rsH = RSH + O.\SH + RsHS. TLH = RLH + OALH + RLHS' GTH = TSH + TLH + GTHS' RSH = 1.08t x cf mn x ar- - t,o) RLH - .68t x cf m,o x 1ll'.- - rt"-) RTH = 4-45f x cfm,o x ih- - hn) RTH = RSH + RLH
OASH = I.08 x cf n*(too - :.^) OALH - .68x cfnoo(tt:--lV.^) OATH = -{.45 X cf m^(h* - h^) OATH - O.c.sH + O.\Li{
(BF) (O.\TH) = (BF) (O r.SFil

D.

BYPASS FACTOR EQUATIONS

(10)

,a11f =-

trac-t'ao.1l
tcat l,v to
I'V tnao

(l l)
(19) (13)
(14) (15) (16)

lry.do

,o

l+'.,d,

llf

'. Id

_h'.dalo
hoao

lt

h,o -

(li)
(ts)

E.

TEMPERAIURE EQUAIIONS
--

AI APPAR::J
(3

(BFr (OALH)
Ll"Lta+ ?

t)

ERSH ER.LH =

1.08 .68

x
x

cf
cf

nooi

\ .:-. - l"d?)(l tv

BF)

(ls)
BF)
(20)

rrao =
tcEo

toap

BF

(t,., - trrr)

(32)

m^l x ; rr'_ x , n- -

u) (l (l -

and lrEb correspond to ire celcui:::: 'reIues


A,o

of ft.o and
L

on rhe psychrome(ric ,:::::-(3

ERTH = {.*5 y

cf mooi

A-,,)

BF)
(2 r)

." =

(cf

'RSHS. RI:HS and CTHS :lre ruca!a:nenr:rn. loads rlrrc ro dtrct hcrt gain. duct leek:rge los-i. i:r :nd ptrr::r horsepor.6q grins. ctc. To sirnplify rhe r':r:o::::r.r.mpis. thesc strp.
piemenran-. loads hrvc rrof lrcen:::-: in rh: calcrrlations. Horr'cvcr, in :ctrtal prrctice. rltesc srrc:icmentan lords 5hould l:c rtscd rrltcre:pproPriatc. Ciral::- i -:r.es thc r.tltres for rhc tlriotr: supplcnrcn(3rv loads. Fi1. i l::;c(tr ,,. :ilusrn(G (llc merhod of Jccoun(ing for thcsc jr:::lanctttf,n loads on the air conclitioninq lo:rrl csrirnarc.

m,ox h*) + (cim."x h-^ clm'di

3)

hb

l,no,

BF iir ,o

!, rro)

3'r)

iEMPERAIURE EQUAIIONS :OR SUF:.

i,o

2 i,^ -

RSH
Log Cf ,,,

_)

(35)

lltcn H. page Iil. Sircs thc dcrir:rr:.rn -'i:ftesc :;r cons(an6. !lVlrcrt no rir iJ to lrc Plrrsrcrllr lr.;r1..a,1 lror:nd fhe conditioning rpp:ntus. clnr,,n = ct,n n

"l\1ten ,-. lt'", rnd,tr- rrc eqtrrl ro rhc cnte-- =nditioru ei thc coolinS rpprrr(uJ. ther ml| lrc srrt:rsu:;g lor l.dn.
tl-d
end /r.o respcctirclv.

CH.,\PTER 8.

.\I'I'LIED PSYCHROMETITI(5

t-[5r
cf

G.

AIR QUANNTY EQUAT]ONS

cfmu

ERSH
1.08

x (l -

BF)

(t- -

tnae)

(36)
(37)

('{5) =cfm,o - clnru Note: c/mn. rr,ill be less tharr c/m,n only when air is physicrllv bypasscd arotrn<t the conditioni ng rp pari (us.

nu

cff,ro =

ERLH
.68

cf

rn,. =cfn^ *

cftn,..

(46)

x (l x (l TSH

BF)

(W^ -

lV,ro)

DRIVANON OF AIR CONSTANTS

cf

flao

ERTH
{."t5 BF)

1.08= .2{{x
h"rr)
(38)

60
13.5

(h^ -

rvhere .2{4 -

cf

fidol =

/to\
lrdo)

specific hear o[ moist air at ?0 F db and 50;9o rh, Bru/(deg F) (lb dry air)
specific volume o[ moist ar 70 F db and 5070rh

1.08

ftrdr

60 = minihr
13.5

air

cf

fl4"1 =

68

TLH (W* - ll"o)


GTH (h." R5H

(40)

.bE=

cf maol

1-45

h,.,)

({

l)

60 X- 1076 13.5 7000 rvhere 60 = min/hr 13.5 - speci6c volume o[ moist air
rh rrerage removaI reheat = qtrired ro condense one pound o[ rvater vapor from ii: room air 7000 = gr':rins per pound
ar i0 F db and 5A!" 1076

cfnt,. =

1.08x/t,--r,")
RI-H

(-{?)

cfrttrn =

.68x(tl'.--Il',o)

(.rr)

+.+5 =

60
t 3.5

rvhere
RTH clrn rn = +.+5X'1r,,.,-/r.")
(-{+)

60 = nrin/hr I3.5 = soecific volumc of moist air


.-.:

li.) F db and

tUlorlr

Knox'n: Uninsulatetl pipe of prcscribetl tliuructcr., crrir: temperature in a roonr with fixed wall anrl itil t(:llll)critturcs

,lrttl

srrrfat:c

Note

I.intl:

Pipe lreat klss per unit lcngtlt, q, (W,/ril)

')

Schenutic:

tltu r)crature nray be expressed in two ways (i.e., in "C or K rrnits) wlrcn cvaluating lhc temperature dillbrencc for a convection (cn corrrlrrclion) lrcat transfcr rate. I lowcvcr, lentperatrlrc mtrst be explcssctl in kclvins (K) wlrcrr cvalrralilrg a radiation triltrsfcr rate. lri this situation the radiation antl couvection heat transfcr rates are conrparable because { is large c<lnrparcd to f ur antl thc coeflicient associaled with frce cclnvection is small. Frlr morc nrodcrate valrres of { and tlre larger values of ll associatetl with forcerl conveclion, the cflcct of radiation may often be ncglcctcil.'fhe radiation lreat transfer coeflicient nray bc con)putcd from Equation 1.9, and for the con<litions of this problenr its valtre is l,: ll W/rn2. K.

1.2.1 Ilelutionship to'fhernrotlynamics


At tlris poilit it is appropriate t() take note of tlre fundan.rcntal dillcrenccs that
exist between heat transfer arrd tlierrnodyrrarnics. Although tlrerrnotlynamics is concernetl with the heat interaction and the vital role it plays in the lirst and second laws, it considers neither the mechanisnrs that provirle f()r heat exchangc nor tlle rlrcthods that exist for conrprrting the rute of lieat exchange. 1'lrerrrrodynamics is coucerned with equilibrlllrl states of mattcr, where an cqrrilibriunr state ncccssarily precludes lhe cxistence of a lemperature gradient. Although tliermodynamics may be used to detcrmine the amount of energy requiretl in thc fornr of heat for a systenr to pass from one equilibrium state to another, it does n()t acknowledge that heat trunsfer is inherentl.v u nonequilibriutn prot'e.r:;. For heat transfer io occur, therc nrust be a temper4ture gradient,

,-l ssutttltt iorrs:

Steady-state contliti<trrs exist. surface enclcised within a nruch lirger. srrLfaec.

Radiatio'exchange bctwec'thc pipe arrtr trrc r-.t.r'l is bet*,ccn a srrrail

loss fronr tltc pipe is by convcctrt)u t() tllc r()()1r ail.alt.l try radiation exchange witrr the waLls. lrcucc, r'Ltl'r lit1.,ri.u r 10, witrr ..r nDl-,

Anull'5i5' Ileat

q: h(nDt.\(t - 4)

lience thermodynamic nonequilibrium. 'l'he discipline of heat transfer therefore seeks to do what thermodynamics is inlrerently unable to clo. It seeks to qrrantify the rute at which heat transfer occurs irr ternrs of the degree of tlrernral nonequilibriurtr. 'l'lris is done through the rate equations for the three nrotles, cxprcssed by liquations 1.1,1.3, and 1.7.

+ ,( nDt.\a(.r.,a

/:i.

The heat loss per unir lengrh of pipe is rltcn

1.3'ilrE
25).C.

coNSERVA'r'rON OF' ENERGY REQUTRnMENI'

:l:L

15

W/mz . K

(" x 0.07 m)(z0tt -

x l0 n W/rur. q' : 571Wlm +- 42t W/nt: 998 W/nr


0.07 m) S.6l

+0.8(r x

Ko

(qll{

_ 2981

) Kl

The subjects of tltermodynarnics and heat transfer are highly conrplernentary. For example, heat transfer is an extension of tlrermodynarnics in that it considers lhe rate at which energy is transported. Moreover, in many heat trarrsfer analyses the frsl lav of thermodynamics (the law ol consernation ol energt,) plays an intportant role. It is thercfore useful to consider general
statenrents for this law.

Natural or forced convection, Boiling or condensing

'p-3)t. t pRe

Forced convection Narural convecrion (for ideal gases) Unsteadl' srate conducrion Forced convection (small pr)
tJ.' '

P:
I

ugh

conduclance is the reciPro resismn cesin Paralle[' t

.9- n
pl3:.

Laminar conveclion

(l'lRr) = 0iR) =

(11R") -

mal resistance, these equarions combined give: 'mean ro ihe to the nmon
1'heat
l9-<9).
I

lrl and /s. are the warm and cold surface temperatures of the wall respecrively, and R,, R3, and R, are tire tnirmat resisiances. Since rhe same quanrity of hear flbws rhrough .act rherwhere

.onuection coeiiicient h, anc

resisli convection, the thermal

R..= l/(lt

(tt- t.)/q = (liUA) = Rr * R, + R, Table 2 Solutions for Some Steady-State


Thermal Conduction problems
R in Equation
Flat wall or curved wail if curvarure is small (rvall thickness less than 0.1 cf inside diamerer)

(4)

ihe

thermal resistance lor radiati convection: R.

= l: (h.

317p

erical ls and
CUi..

The term radiatron coefficient h. ha: i is useful in computations. It is a func:

r prO-

) and

rical:lplex

i..;adon pl'cperries, and geometrical a and the bodf in question. Analysis by the re:istance method ing heat transfer from air outside to t pipe. The temperaiure gradients anc
anaiysis are sho*'n ir: Figure

l.

:rmai rined

Since air is sensiL'li transparent t( Radial flou'rhrough a righr circular cylinder

fer occurs by both radiation and co tion surtace. The mechanisms act ir total transfer then passes through tht wail by thermal conduction. and the:

heat

effitota.l
I res.

rt

ol

; Buried cl,linder

R=
step ugh

ln [(a =
cosh ---:--'1-1. r -tal\L

,-Fl r:l;rl
ail^L

into the cold *,ate: srrcam. (Radiat water side as liquids are sensibll' op water transmits cnergv in the visible r' betrveen the insulatron and the pipr The heat transier ;-ate i'or a given thought ol as the sum oi the rates q parallel resistances R. and R,. assoc tion and conve:lion coeificients. T through the resisrance offered to ti: sulation R,, through ihe pipe w'ali

-l{azry

(L

))

2r1

lns-

sof
(3)

Radial flou.in hollou,sphere

tol
uld rrh

L.r,o
A-

h=

surface area, ml

thermal conductivirv (ar average marerial temperature), RZ(m.K) heat transier co-efficienr, \\,/(m. K)

'v1z\i Qrc R,

lr,

tsz
vv4 e,
F

Fig.

ThermalCircuit Diagram fr

al

trluonry Crrrty wJlls' Btd{hr-lt:-F}'

ol Trunrrnisrtorl U Tablc 5'7a Cwl lluicttt:

ot

Bldli *rlh

Curcs Fillcd

--l

tNcw ltctn -l rn col-

l)
Rcsi)lrncc
I

t
a

8)

Cororructton

Bttwcen Funing

Betw*n At Fum[E
r).17 0.J-r

2. o a

Funint
0. 17

At FumnB
t).17 t).+-l
{).

='

r Ou,r,,ja :urlrrc ( l5 mPh wind) t. Filc brrcl. -l ln. i i-.,".,"," . ;.;.,tt.


in' J. Cctltcttr rttonrr' l)5

().ll
r).-lJ
r).
t

0.ll
u.

= +

l()

o.lo

ll)

lo

blu\' unrlcr rggrc{utc' 3 rn F trrcrn: Jrr )Puee' 0 r'5 rn- t5t)


rorl bre

.17

1.11

':=
r).9J r.).r5

1..r9 2.11

l.r9
0.94

o lua-t,f 'n wrllboall' r) i in" ;. ;;il;


rlr) 8. ln:irlc su(lf,ce l5ltll

i{) J<g F tcmP<nturc 'Jilfcrcncet t x l-in v<ntcrl iuntng

rcr
R,

.r5

0.08

o.68

0.J5 () 68
6,

0'{5
t) 6ts

I T t, ", "'' V-,,,


r,

fi er

ilrurtt e I rt )

= 6.ll

p. =

.1.50

?.6o

R,

5.11

il,f, IOC', lrJtniilg ltlPicrl ')[ rllrl).lll) = 0l?l


t)

lu[lng oll l-rn' x f in. rcrllcll

corone rio r

-" , '*.;
d(^nl!'/

lf::.;"jr"'X ;
:l

:"f

l;Jllli

lrl) l7l)

t).

tl0

ililil** ld|;sct,

;"'"'

l;^:-ilH',')i^.-',

vuted. te1j

.5{:'*'

'fablt 5-70 C,E,tieicnts ofTrln:rnissron U ol Flur Burl-up Roors.' Blu,/thr-lt:.Ft" \Jd


RiguJ

Rurl Dcck ln:ulrttunCoostruclton

U.ll (/i =

UC) lNcw ltcrn

rn eol. 2)
Rcsrsturrcc I R)

tllcrt Flow

Up1

,,4 N-

'1\ >\

()utsrJc rurluc ( l5 mph wrnd, L Uurlt.up nxrhng, {).J75 rn. 3. Rigid rmt dcck rnsulrrton tnonc)

0 t7
t).J3 2.22

r).t7
().13

2.!2
o U

t 8t 6

frffiliii*r#**ffi***
s.3
2 r E. ltielrl lJthJBJlighrweighrrggrcgreplstu.0.T5in
9. ln:i& *rlxc (srill rrr)
Totol

t)

0
rl.9.l0..17

,rl.

o.9J'
o.17

0.6t

0.6l

Thcwl Ruilucc

(R)

-foorruIion No. l: U.,, = ltJ.73 = ,J2ll


Constulion No.

---J-::--:;-..----

-.- --.,--.- .

{,71

-.--89):
a

l 4,r =

l/8.'Xl

(1.I 12

-U< kjo u yJls \ben ,n TJblc 5-J 'prr tl J ilr.t ro lylrn: C bt bt J 61. 'U l@ tut E .m'd 'tutrrplyrot '7k. d hrts d u Etl'3rbL rn Elilrs ro (rrin! sa from i.Jlt&41 Hu^Ixa*- fodatu,'ilt J.grr: Arirptd bt Fmrs

o
=
Utrw. t9n

Qrl

71
In terms of volume flow rate of air. Eq. 7-9 becomes

Infiltration

)11

Qt=

o _ W,)ir, :(w,
.__.

(7-9b)

uo

It is easy to show, using Eqs. 7-8a and 7-9a- that infilration can eccount for a large ponion of the heating load.
Various methods are used in estimaring air infiltration in building structures (l). In rhis book two approaches to the problem will be discussed. In one method the estimare is based on the characteristics of the windows, walls. and doon and the pressure difference between inside and outside. This is kaown as the crack metlrod because of the cracks around window sash and doon. The other approach is the air-change merhod. which is based on an assumed number bf air changes per hour based on experience. The crack method is generally considered to be the most accurate when the crack and pressure characteristics crn be properly evaluated. However, the accuracy ofpredicting air infiltration is restricted by the limited information on the air lerkage characteristics of rhe many components that make up a structure (3). The pressure differences are also difficult to predict because of variable wind conditions and stack elfect in nll buildings.

Air-change llethod
E.rperience and judgment are required to obtain satistactory results with this method. Experienced en_qineers will often simply malie an assumption of the number of air changes per hour (ACH) that r building wiil experience based on their appraisal oi the building type. construction. and use. The range will usually be tiom 0.5 ACH (very low) ro 1.0 ACH 1very high). lvlodern office buildings mav experience intiltration rates as low as 0. I ,{CH- This approach is usually satistactor.v tbr design load calculation but not recommended tbr the beginner. The infiltration rate is related to ACH und space volume
as tbllows:

Q
rvhere

= ACH(t\/C

(7- l0)

0 = iniiltration rate. cfm or mj/s v = qross space volume. ftr or ml


C=
Crack )lethod
constant- 60 tbr Enelish units and

i600 lor

SI

Ourdoor air inhltrares the indoor spaci through cracks rround doors. windows. iighting d.rrures. and -;oinrs between walls and tloor and even throush the building material itsell. The rrnount depends on the total area of the cracks. the type of cnck. and the pressure difference across thc crack. The volume flow rate of infiltration mav be
represented by

0--scsr

(7-l l)

2X

Chapter

Space Heat Load

where A C

M =
n

effective leakage arer of the cracks flow coefficient, which depends on the rype of crack and the narure of the flow in the crack outside-inside pressure difference, Po - P, exponent that depends on the nature of the flow in &e crack. 0.-l < n < l-0.

Experimenml data are required to use Eq.7-ll directly: however. the relation is useful in understanding the problem. For e,rample, Fig. 7-3 shows the leakage rate for some windows and doors as a lunction of the pressure difference and the rvpe of crack. The curves clearly exhibit the behavior of Eq. 7-l lThe pressure difference of Eq. 7-l I results from three different effects:

:IP = AP.,
where

+ AP,+

APP

(7-r2)

M* = pressure difference
A,P,

LPo
.A,ll

= =

due to the wind pressure difference due to the stack et-fect pressure difference due to buildine pressurization

of the pressure differences are positive when each causes flow of air to the inside of the building.

JP.

Pasca ls

.,0
2.2
2.O

./l

3.5

r.8
LO

1.4 1.2

YI
,a{ /i

l,"Y

,1

3.0

2.3

2.O
1t.'a
I

:
t i 3

r.0
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0

1.f,

)1
ltt

//a

,---:-il

)-

-t

o5
I

0.04 0.08

Figure 7-3 Window and door intiltrauon characleristtcs. (Reonnted by permission irom ASH&{E Cooling and Heating Load C,tlcu' larion Manual. 2nd ed.. 1992.)

0.20 0. 16 o 12 lP. 'och6 of water : :t -

0.24

0.26
I

i j I rt t {
I

-g

74

Infilradon

,,,,o

The pressure difference due to the wind rcsults from an increrse or decrease in air veiociry and is described by

M_

fr.rt"

-v's

(7-13a)

where lP- has the unit of lbflfii or Pascals when consistent English or SI units are usedThe velocity 4 ir$" finai velocity of the wind at the building boundar-v. Note that AP* -4 is not is positive whin 7* > 7r, which gives an increase in pressure. The velociry known or easily predictable; thercfore, it is assumed equal to zero in this applicarion and a pressure coefficient, defined by

C,

A'P*/M*,

(7-14)

is used ro account for the fact that tz, is not zero. The pressure difference dP*, is the computed pressure difference when V, is zero. The pressure coelficient may be positive or negative. Finally, Eq. 7-l3a may be wrimen

APCP

P
/o -6c

r, r/: ),

(7-13b)

The pressure coefficient depends on the shape and orientaUon of the building with respecl to the wind. To sarisfu conditions of flow continuiry, the air velociry must increase as it flows around or over a buiiding; therefore. the pressure coetficient will change from a posirive to a negative value in going lrom the windward to the leeward
side. The pressure coefficients will also depend on whether the wind approaches normal to tJre side of the building or at an angle. Buildings are classifed as Low-Rise or HighRise. \.here high-rise is defined as those with height greater than ttree times the

crosswind width (H

3Vn. Figure 7J gives average wall pressure coeffrcients for lowrise buildings. The average roof pressure coefficient for a low-rise building with roof inclined less than 20 degrees is approximateiy 0.5. Figures 7-5 and 7-6 give average pressure coefficients for high-rise buildings. There is an increrse in pressure coefficient with height: however, the variation is well within the approximations ol the data in

>

general.

The srack etfecr occurs when rhe air densiry differs between the inside and outside of a building. On winter days, rhe lower outdoor temperature causes a higher pressure at warm inside air _eround level on the outside and consequent infiitration. Buoyancy of the and exfiltration ttre buildins. the top of leads ro upward flow, a higher inside pressure at ponion of the upper with in the infrlrration of air. [n rhe slrmmer, *re process revenes

burldine and exfiltration in tbe lower part. Considenng only tre stack effect. there is a level in ttre building where no pressure difference exiss. This is defined as the neutra.l pressure level- Theoretically, the neutral pressure level will be at the midheighr of the building rf the cracks and other openings

uniformly in the verrical direccion. When largeropenings predominate in the lower ponion of the building, the neutral pressure level wiil be lowered. Similarly' the neutral pressure level will be raised by larger operungs in the upper ponion of the
are disrnbured

230

Chapter

Space Heat Load

q
.O

.o

a o I
(u q)

-o.5 = o
3
qt oo

o
o o

.L
-1.0

20" 40" 60" 80" 100' 120. 140" 160'


I
Figure
wind angie

7-l

Variation of wall averaged pressure coefficients for a low-rise

building. (Reprinted by permission fromAS/1ME Handbook,


Fundamenrals Volume. 1989.)

because

building. Normally the larger openings will occur in the lower pan of the building of doors. The theoretical pressure difference with no internal separations is
by

gven

-]P,,

!1f - r\ - P,,h n,, s. \ j',, T,l

(7-rs)

where
D

T
T.

K"

= outside pressure. psia or Pascals = vertical distance from neutral pressure level, lt or m = outside temperature, R or K = inside temperarure, R or K = gas constant for air. (ft-lb0/(lbm-R) or J/(kg-K)

The ffoon in a convenrionai building offer resistance to venical air flow. Furthermore, this resistance varies depending on how stairwells and elevator shafts are sealed. When the resistance can be assumed equal lor each floor, a single correction, cailed the draft coetficient, can be used to relate rhe actual pressure difference iP, to the theoretical value JP,,:

'

LP.

lP,,

(7-16)

The flow of air from floor to floor causes a decrease in pressure at each floor; therefore'

,i)

71 tnfilration 231
0.75
o
.9

wind\o)\J_--lT

0-50 0.25 0

o o o o o o

Lii
100" 120. 140"
160"

o o

q) oo

4.25
-o.50 -o.75

Figure 7-5 Wall averaged pressure coefficients for a tall building. (Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Handboolc Fundamentals Volume. 1989.1

tLr
0.75

0.50
o o o o o
f

o.25

o o o a o o

-o.25

-o.50

4.75

FigureT-6 Average roof pressure coctficiens for

a tall building. (Reprinted by permission tiom ASHRAE Handbook. F undame nta ls Vo lume, 1989.)

232

Chapter

Space Heat Load and C, is less than one. Using the draft coetficient. Eq. 7-t5

J& will be less than JP'


becomes

J!'!r.

f!

S-^-u

'i

^L

y ' =CuP"hs-( t R*9. \ ?:,

i)

(7-r7)

Figure 7-7 is a plot of Eq. 7-t7 tbr an inside tempenrrure of 75 F or 24 C, sea level outside pressure. and winter temperatures: however. Fig. 7-7 can be used for summer stack effect with little loss in accuracy. The drati coetficient depends on the tightness of the doors in the stairwells and elevaror shatts. Values of C,, range from 1.0 tbr buildings with no doors in the stairwells and varies tiom about 0.65 ro 0.85 tbr modern otfice buildings. Pressurization of the indoor space is accomplished by introducing more makeup air than exhausr air and depends on the design of the air distribution system rather than

0istance from neutral pressure level, m

40

80

120

r00 (56)

90
gO

(50)

{a4t

70
250

{391

3 ;

1.0

:
i

0.9 o.e

60 50 40
30
20

(33)

200

6
9

4
r50

'.i ot

(281

0.6

l22l
{17}

05
t00
0.4

03
0.2

(1 1)

0l
0

Jr - l0

F{6 C)

0 50 t00 l5o 200 250 300 350

Oistance from nutral pressure Ievel,

400 450 500 ft

Figure 7-7 Pressure tlilference tjue to stack effect- (Reprinted bv permisston trom ASHRAE CRP li8. Cooling and Hearing Load Calculation Munuul.lnded.. I992.)

'4

i .!

EEri'

:
rz'o zx'o cz'o rz'o Lt'o sz'o
6Z'C

:\.-i\ - r.l,/A!3

\c^':.S\to)

qrl;. Fi:rcjlx3 noog Elrq pue 3prng 3WHS\'9961 rirag uotrstl!.:ed .)ir:rcuourruor-,oaru?TEqpuEx.uq3rEj_lo'urt,e^Eq'ur g,,Puezl '8sllEAl'!-ulriceqou.^Bqo?P.lsn''Pn(lm:'P'u! 9{91 'u! 9'tllug' ;;i;; n .,tr"':raga aiqr-trllau E r^Eq plnoa 0i'0Jo anpi ijurrsri:.r-lruoiiippt:qr 'joua:ra aqr oi parldde sr rell 1e:n:rru:c ro 3n?FJl'

zt l ZZ'O tc itto oc : pz'o :2. oi'o


s: ,t rZ lg'c

6Z I Ez'O sz 1 ez'c

I l'O 6 r'o 6 l'o ot'o

aro
oz'o

6 t'o 6 r'O

lxro I "t'o Ioro


I I I

et'o
9

ct'o

zz'o cz'o
tZ'O

ez'o

g!'o
r

9t'o
I

c'o

c'o

Et'o
5Z',O I E',O

9Z'O

EE'O

sz'o
oc-o

st'o

t'o

az'o
gE'o
6Z'A

Lt'a

rc'o
or'o
I

"t'O sE'o
sr'o
LE'O

EC'O EE'O

oo't
G9
l

(')Jr

9E'O 6E'O

cc'o

c'o

cio 1t/o
l
I

Le'O
E5'O

zL't ttl I t'l

l) ('9rv'.!i.'.l.l) ('xr r l) ('rr t) {'rrv utoxrt)


('N

r t)

(''rv'rr^vYs)

x:ore elrurxc:
:'Nr Z t) i.xr oil i'Nr P 1 x: I r:: Yi. 'El Or
(.N1 z r) l'rr or)

-j
I

Sf c

cg c

czc Fro lz'o

rto

cc'o
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'{'=DY | ('95v 'oxvs)l o*vs)
l

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1 Vt

t)NVJ.a I st!

tNOr:>nllsNC> DNrttnl HC'3n. 'Nr t/f oNY HIY't 'tY.lJ h

lOlrlrxt

'Srrd .N ?/I 9NIUUNJ NO 9Nltyn, NO'9r-1e gNy I .Sr-.tJ .Nl :/,1 'Nr t/r gNY l'Nr a/t) Hln xntal9 x.jnONy l'Nt !/r)xl fi 'OG "lntNi ogoa;
l

'xr t/t

'anj

xElxt,

totlllltNt

.r.ii uc

JrD

ryr ur)Aloq .rrusJ.du.i

uoe stJc ful>olt^ pur;.DrfJno uD uc Prsoq.rD puD '(3.pti oil vr .tu.Jagrp ro:6rp lrrrlur:ubJ)(rooj .JDnbr) (rnor{) Jad nlE ur p.tsardtt rJD rJur:>rp.c)

sllD/v\ l..ruosoyl p!loS

'to

(n) uorestturuDrl +o sluat)r+'eo)


I

C-F aldD

lvnNYW gNlNCtllONC) dtv 3NVur

3?0

TRANE AIR CONDITIONING MANUAL

Tcrblc

3-l

Corr{icjrnt: oro

Coefficientr of Trqnsmirrion (u) of concrete Floor-eiling constructionr (5ummcr Condition!, Downwcrd Flow)
rrpnrrrd
in 3tu per (hosr)

(rquorr foor) (Fohrrnhril degne diffrrucr in i.6p.rsturr ond orc bored on rtill oir (no winci) conditionr on borh ridu

b.t.r..n thr

oir on thr rro :rdrr),

t?rt ot ctlLtNc

TYr(

o/

oacx

.l;
(!r. 4)

'rr I v. t.rrlt.zs
O.tal

lt5t t?axcI

t
I

o,o6

varrrraL

l:

r-ol r'r. lr'^-o *, i -. l*r ,rr '-l *., lv.,*


o..a

tt

la

;
o.:9
O./aa

lululutululululuiu

l to.J7 ro. I 3

i"'-l

t.s
o,20

2.

ro

o.43 o.29

o.:!

a.2'7 o.22

:9

'1 o.20
r"l o.l7

2rl o,t9
r8l o.t7
I I

ccxcnrrd
(raHo

o.34

o,3J o.2a o.2t

o.23 o.23

(.

rx.) (6 rx.)

^cc.'l

o.r8

o.rrlo.relo.ra

ll

i*'"1"
I I

j
l

,"i o.r5
I

o.

'=l
i I

O.

la

wooO (i/. rx. ).......... -..

.,"1"..1 o.r Iil o.,,


o.3

i
I

o.
f

o.!51

o.r.ilo. l6 1",.i. r4l


o.2

o- ,a]

o.:el
I

o .39

o.23 lo. zelo.

lo':z
o.:zl o .fa lo.,
---rcartE'
wooo aLccx (r:/r 1t.t.......,,.....
a
I

"

o.:J lo. t"Jo.


I
I

o.2 o.2

rx.) oN

o.30

aNo aCC. .N.) a.s o.72 rLoot oi tLtltalt

1o.... o.20 lo. 221o.


I

, , ,&.1 c.ao

rLYwooo rurtr-ooe (tt rx.L rtLt rLoot

l
I

^io rrud or LlNoLtux


)
.

I
I

'x.

......

-.. -... -

o.22 io.tz o.tal

r8lo.
I

o.'

il ll li
lo.
,

l"''i"'''

ll ll l"j
o.r5lo.r4
j

to.:rlo.rs lo.zci o.it t


l

c.r8r
I

'
I

ti o.16,3
I

l"'"1"'"

i i

woo ru trLoor (t!/:: rx.). /tL7 aFo HAAC'wooo (.Yt rx.)......-....-i t.72

o.

o.ra lo.r! o. la l" ,"io.

lo. r:t o.t2

ii

lo

''l

o.irl
.

tQ

t inclucies asphart, r.rbbcr, and pla:cc trlc (h i!.), clrrnic tile on ren-azo (1 in.).
ExL*rct^ed

' Ccnsere b

:ssu-ocd

have e ihcrcagl conductivity k ot'12.0.

*itb

2cruussion foom 1965 ASHRAE Cuide and Data Book.

REFERENCE TABLES

Toblc 3'32 U Vcrlues for Vcrrious Fenestrqtion (For 71/z mph Wind)
Etuh pcr (Squqra Foot) (Fohrenhoit 0egrec)

\i\eN\x A\

J3l

T'rPE OF

Ct.rlt
r.c6
o.64

SHAOI NC

ANY SINGLE GLASS

o.3t o.54
o..18

rNsuLAtl Nc curss-:/16 rN. ArR sPAcE t/4 rN. ArR sPAcE r/z rx. ArR SPAcE
PRTME WINOOW PLUS STORM WINOOW

o.6t
o.55

.AIR SPACE I IN. OR MORE

o.5a2
NO 3UPFLEIiENTARY
SHAOING

a <-2

OOUALE GI..AZING WITH EETWEEN.GL^s5

SHAOIN
LOUVERED SUN SCRSEN.IN CONTACT

WITH GLASS .SEPARAiED 8Y AIR


SPACE

VENETIAN ELINOS
GLASS ELOCK PANELSs TYPgS I ANO II TYPgS II. III, AND IIIA

Tsble 3-32A Multiplying Foc?or: for Vorious Types of Gloss


xORMAL O NC= TRAN 5r.t-ANC=r

MUL;I PLYI NC FACTO

Fl

3 r-OR

;YP= 'F:LAS5 SINGLE CCMMCN'/'INOOW llia" tHrcx) ,lEGUrlF 'iHtcK) CL,rSS

NCI

sc;,o*,
r.

sec;rcxz
l.oo

seciloNS
o.oo o.23

o.a7
o-7'f

oo

PL,Ai 31,.A55

o.37

SINGLE HE,AT AgSORSIXC

Pl-AIE GI-453

o.53

o.art rN 5HAO)

il :

r.ao

'
l

'.ao

:cuaLE cSvfoN

i/tNoow cLA35
o. do

CCUSLE IEULIR PI-^TE GLAs'

o.

t6

o.60
o.

o_55

(o.7t rN 5H^OZ) FEAr aA3CREtNC PL.AIE (OUTOOORS) ReGUL.^FI Pr-rr CL Ss (TNOOORS)


andard Glasr

o.3i

ao

rr" of Dercrrpnon oniy 't/aluer aoply to cightty


valua.

v"i.i ;ilii ; i.F.'r*it *tir ilrehc

closed Venerian

cliods, drapcna,.and rrollcr shadar.

ai. spr"o.-iir

t.il"gi p;inlin

"rnually

all rtoro unodows nrll' in efec'.. rncreasa

chis

'Valuer listcd lor T4t xTtl: x 3tlr iru block. For l11r in. biock, increasa tha l.i:td vaiue by 0.04.

ll.Yr x 3?r in. block. rtduca r-\e li:ted va.luc by 0.04' and for 57r x 59r

x 3',/r

Reprinted'flth prmiision lrom 1965 ASHnAt Guide and Daca Booic

CH.{PTER 5.

HL\T .{ND \\'.\TER V.\IIOR

FLOIV THRU S]'RUCTURES

l-73

IA8[E 29-TRANSMISSION COFflCtENf U-CElttNG AND FLOOR, (Heot Flow 3osed on Srilt Air Eoth Sidcr 8tu/(hr) (q fr) (des F rcrnp diff)
all e6b.d;n pqrenilrr.r icdicorr rcigl* pr rq ft ldol r.igia pr rq h ir rva ol <cilirq oad fls

Up)

MASoNIY Xrt Fwr{


THrCXN5S

CStUflC

tuaF6d.d
I
I I

c Fumd

(lachr

Acorclcd Tih 6urd

M-.1 tdh ?lcrrrd


Scad

Cypsua I
wo.dldh

l!*d Ftdr c
Plart-ad

liruloalnl

AGo{(l<.a l1l.
oa Furtlnc
q

llrrrGd

|''SredAgg

}{'Gyprua
'/t
Tih
tr )

CoxCtEtEl (lb pc Plcrrrl?l.d-l 5U!fLOOR| rq ftl

wscx
2 (rel

scnalurrvrl'A'
JO .63 .57 .52

rit.

Plan( (rt
.3r .10 .13

Uwi
Plorra

6'

PlotrlPlaa!8ord
,La I .38
.,a

'{-t't-l soa I uwr


.rl
.39 .37
.15

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Sod Agg u Wl Ass

lTel

l0 {9el

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: 2 (l5l 80lb/fr': .(2nl I 6 {rrl


2 (201

..8 i J9 I .rl .35 i J0 i .25 :;; I


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28

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Floor Tlh

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Pl,lvcod

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6 162l 3 (321 t0 {t02 2 ll9l 5 (..t

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aa .21

JO

.te I .22 .16 I .19 .lf .2.l .30 i0 .28 .19 .27 .19 .26 -18
.t8 .t7 .t7 .t6
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25

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.16 25 tl 1. .22 .19 .16

l i

2l l8
-2.t .23

l6 l1

tl

| i
Yt'Hatdwood 1*p" subllon 2'x 2' Slctea
S<nd

A9g I

? (2/l 1 {..a1

.23
1a .21

20

l9

-2a

tt

l0 ll0tl
6
2 (201 1 {lll
116l

6 [6rl 3 (E''|

l9
t8

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.22

.:r

.2r
.20 .20

lr

I t::.2.
.72

22
.21
-21

t7

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.20 .17

tJ wt A99 a0 ru/rP

2l
t8 t6

16 16 15 tJ 14 lr
12

.13
.13

.t2
.12

.l?

.ta
.16

:cior rr*0

FRAMC CON'TRUCTIOTi CEIUNC


Nd
A
<

Fvd.J
cg

llb
,A'

iti<.1

Glc.d

M.l6l Ldh ?lorltrd

5{rp.6dad t,r,'Gyptum q wood Lah ?lcrt-.d

or Fgcrd I lnrulalng i 3osd ?lcia c ] 'A' snd agg Plorlced


I

A<oe.rl<cl TTl. on Furing l{'6yp.un

Iilr
FLOOT
5U8FL OO R

Noar
qdoilr< '/l on I '4 Cro /t'Hoedvocd q !iaoltm - Plv*ocd X
rA

,a5

l0
20

.26
.18

l^-l l.' r. Y{ | 'hLJwr Sond ; Ll Wt I Sond otl er i Pto'ra , P!qrrcr I florter : (zJ i (:, I rs; o't 5r 59r .61 JI 't7 28 JI at l9 2al .20 , ,
Pt
1

,A' 9oord (2t


i2
:0
l6

Yr' lilc

(tt

ll
20

t5

tla qat
I

2l 19
tyo- wood l5l 2' w@d l7l
.2t

.19 .t/

.28 .20 .25 .18

.26 t9
23

j I

2.6

2r
I8

l9
23

Floot on

l9
t7
t5

l7
.28 .20

l7
20

l7

r,/t'Hctdbcotd }('larvlcriaq

- Linolrua or
oa Eoord

rt&''#@d (5) 2- w*d (81

.lr
t6
.17

t6

1958 ASHAE G!id.

quotrar: Heqt flo- vo. U(6dir@n"d rpoco bcio:: Hrot Goia, 6rgl* - (,t.<, rq hl X (U 'oluc) x (*rdry lcap - ;nrid. lcop - 5 Kildie^ ff borl< rrca b.lo- liaot Gdi^,8tu/ht - (Aro, rq fil x {U "ok*l lcdp - ;nid. l.dp - 15 F ro 25 Flx {oovol trao diff, *lds

F!.

3t

A!9S{DI](
EatE'/Li-StT T*FE!r\3LRE DIF.TBE'ICE (E1D) 3asd cn:

2 (C)

Table 20A p. l-53 of llar*cck of Ai: GrCit:cni:rg Sys--en Design (Car!--r)

C:nc!'-!cns:

ccgapidc lccation: 0'N latihCe

Grcccor Daa BrLb Tenp: 32.2'-C IrCmr DrY fuLb Tsto: 23.3'c DaiIY OtY BlJc Tery Rarge: 1.8'C ETD Corre*icn Fador: 2.8'C Deslgn Ti.me: 15u1C b.rs on a Juty Cay

Ncot I x.r/n(a) I
100 300 500

700
100 300 500 700

q? 10.5 13 .4

9.4

so I :Ol )(lo I rt' s


rOQ

t't) I \\'3
I v+
rs.?

:rO

3oO

ll.

9.9 9.3
2

+oO I

L2.6
10.9

]SE
l

!UU

100 500 700


100

9.3
6.2

i.1

100 500 700


>/.i

1A I e !w. )A o.t

100 100

1'l lJ.t

;00
700

tr.c L2.9

i00 loo

<nn 700 100 100 500 700 100 100 500

3.0
14
E

.5'.7-

5.9 5.1

9.4 7.2 4.4

700

).)
1'l

GLA55' TAsLE 6-PEAK SOL.tR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY r i'\SS :' w,/t* 8tu/(hrXq tu)

roltx tl !.

ixrotul!
MOX'H joly I Mry Ava I Atdl l.d I M.ttt OdIful x.v I J.i Od Isia JrlT I l{e7 Arl t APrll 3., I A{r.lr O.t t l.a Xrv t hr
O.a

xolrH L.rllluol

50utx NW I H..ir
r54 M OXTH Or<

Itl

i st I I

lrw

T.

.tl
?5

J9

::6
?TJ

rJl
lrl il8
71

l0
l0

;i0
2/s

X.v lj.n O<t I t.b l.ta I M.t.b Acr t lr''l

l0
1O

1:6

:0
l1
r0 r0
7 9

lrl

2rl
21,

t:o

lol
56

:lo
2!7

loo

2to

il0

Or H.r t J.i OdIfub lri I Mrrch Av1 I l2ll July I rr{ry


Oo<

lo'
t a

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lJ.

rt t lt rl t./ t M-li O.l I trl X.v I J..


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l9

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a

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71

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ltl

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lt7
r6l
t

1.0
rao

ill lj0
160

t5

l]t ilt

tJr
t7
26

:JO

i./

7tl

:0t
rao 170 :JO

It

14.
167 90

16.
167 ?o 100 16l

Xov t Jor O.t t lrb Jort t Mrerh Av1 3 lzeil Jsly A M.t O..
O<r I Frb

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Avt a Arrl J..f I Mor<i C<t ! trl


3

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t62 t19
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(r Ilil i 162 ,9 I l?5 | ljr l02 , trt j to2


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r< - ^J )U

l
I

O(l t Frb 5.or t Mat(^ Aug I Aoll

'
I ,

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o...,t--'-11

",';iX'-;l;-,'.1

'

IASTE 1I-5TORAGE LOAD FACTORS, 50LAT HEAT GAIN THRU GLA55


I

I liour Cperotion. C:nrtont


xttrtal txlol'

Sooco iernoerotr:r:

l'

tlll
rux

otatt ol rr:llx^r
.r'l{.ll.r

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l!0 I rvr It T
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l.rt0a

E t<t-lta a .vt IO !t lra

I .ri It
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lJl I r<
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L
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lta

.tl t.:tr .at t i-7t l.tr l.rtl.t!lJalJol-:.l.l.l:tr.rrl.:Jl.:rlJ.l.r.l,'ll.t4l.ltl.'al.lll..2 i.o i.:z l.:r i-:r i.rr i.,ti .vl -rrl .ro I -:r I i-z r.v 1:r l:: i.:t t-nl.s 1n1tt1.rti.ui.:r l..l0l.Jtt Jt1.rr1..171.15 iJt l.::l.rt | ..rl .rr .'i ... | .. i J] l.:r I ,:r I -:: l.:: l.r: l-, i ... it.t,t It l.:t i.;|.lJ '-tr I tr I-:o l..r I.rrl.ut.'l l..oi,. j ::i :: l.:o l.rz 1.r' i:r l.J.irol .&lrl..r I i.r'1.:ri.tr j.:: j.:ii::i.:r1.,.i.rrl.7rlrrl.:rl..ri '1.:ri.:ri.::1.:ri.:rl.::i t:l'rrl..l.t [.' l.Lf t.:r l.:r l.:t l.:r t...r i.:cl.:r l.gi .rt | -r: l.r:i .50 l.Jr i.r.;lt lJ. l-:r ;.:tl.:tl.ll I.trlJl l-t
I

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J7

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r

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lq{atirh Criiag faa, !ru/hr - ilror oior \.or zd;', Jrvllhri irq h}. iI:oJo lll x iW;aao- rrro, rq 5l

x lSltoar iodo., H6!. /cdd,.E. (C,\ooirr:Il ;< lStorcqo lqor, {obore iooio:r:rilrrd rr-ril
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tlateocl ilcn

rlrcdhq

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a7p. aJ lhod.'dorod with ao inrido raoding

eoidrrri 5orr gior fTLr l<vr cpct tl.i rcinroiainq c CCN5i NT lS,\4PttAIUft;' rh. rpo<.3ur'ag rh1 oF'orr^9:rriod.'#hor. rhr'earolsrr oilo-ri tc riag. rddiriorcl rtoeqge riil rrrvit Jvrrag p<r lad xr,oir. loirr ro ioii. iJ ior:aoriccoio rlo,ogr loco,riWr{aha lm lm

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,-

bJ - :i l'{.ia^r:l .rlq trro;^ id. c( | tr+rra. lter :nd Crriinq, il i


rrro ;^ lil. iq i

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I'x r'ed .i lnioe

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- i'#r'qar ai'i<.'bi
4* lco n la.

r
rq 1

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116

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bi

t.q 3scad. .ta i-ari69!, 5l@tol )l@tol .{afro..t C.tlitg!, llq..{roo, rq 5 Crdib.d lor ,aetonnt atla { o7 Wiir rue 6 f'lw- /r righr ol lloor Aald 5r aqrrrorird ty J..10 I .rgiirota W.r9^l! t.t rq ri c{ <mao lt9.r o/ 3drhso6 rr. .stci^.d ia ioirir 2l thru JJ.,:cgrr 5O IhN i6'

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| ^'-' rto
a.

FROM POPLE

clofrt ac;lvlrY

-t' ot

,1,
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tYztc.:t tttlCA rlOa.l

M... .5.|i. lrro

I i I I {rdgtt I uote I I E],u, i, |

rooM oaY-tutt ttMrtlaturt

1tr

lerl.a
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I llrrr, | 6rrJr lrhrrl


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rto

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W.lllili
iloeJlej rlorly

r.d.a
rolllel

Orui t).?t

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7t0
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l,r*lrr:olr:o

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i

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'Adlerr.d r.l.io!.4( lotr ir ie a.,obolk /olt to b.5o9il.d lo o nr.d ?.ar .l 2691. nlh o rytkol 9.t(..1 <s9oeti6 b.r.d 6 lom a. ldl-{ !.aooori< rrr., cdct l.-aia - L.lobdiia tolt. .dull rolo >< 0.tJ .rtl.rd5qk r!1., ald.6 - A.lcbcaa< t61.. cdvll nclr X 0,75

iit.rlaq.o^.-voleer lor rrir oool(drb iao/r 64 ltu t.t rt lo, Ido 9rr ,rdivr<iuol lJ0 llv rrnrrbir o^d lO !tu Jol.a' trol t.t \?1. s. ,.rt6 a4 6ilea r@oit :o-fi^g tnd orl c6.tt ilrliaq-Afivnr riFig, -.looork rdl. IOO ttu 9.r vt d tl6drnq. JJo !tu o.t ht.

24

P.\RT :. .\(R D(S.I'RtBUTION

TAETE 6_OUCT DIMENSIONS, SCTION AREA, CIRCULAR EQUIVATNT OIAMTER,' ANO DUCT CTA55i

2a
Sloe

Art rq fr

Dia
in.

Ad r{ fr

Diao it

lo
t2
lrr

t6

It
20

.!t E.t .r5 9-t .52 9.J 59 ro-a i

52.,a 9.E I .65 52J 1JO.7 I .n

n.---.-1.rj ; .et
t72
12.9 11.5

.til
.91 .9e l-08 l. t 6

2t
2a
7.6

IJ.I
rJ.6

\ .'A t3.l r.(x) r,t.2 l t-zt rjJ t.rs 6J t-6' t7J r.o2 tJJ 1.1/r r.--iht.I t--^ l.l5 !.5 1.6../)t6O 1.6: t7J t,t7 165 7.17. Ltl t9.5 2.14 1.26 t5-2 t-sr+16: 182 7-O' r.:r r59 t.69 t7.6 l-t9 t9.! 2.7' 1U..r L57 l9.8 2-1, ztJ t.7E t.50 16-6 1.83 tEJ Ll1
'I-9 I r2J
I :

tO.9

19.7

20.7
2

r./ 2.16
l.

22.9 23-9

1.17

22.6

t 3.t5
r

t.43

24.8 i

t.r\

26.1 27.1
28.O

2t
3('

f2 f4
36

fE
ao 12
LA

a6 /3t 50 52

.rJ tJ2 f .:tt t5.6 1.71r-^17 -7 LOi 19.6 L17 -- !E-J Llt m.1 7-6. r.0r t3.5 l.4r t6.l r.a2_; 136 20., 2.tt t.sf ta.o l..L I6J l.974ti 19) | 2-4e 2l.t .7.',r5 Lo7 l9J l.lt l1.a r.5r r7-0 I L0:l tr! L6l 2lJ | 3.ll 2-11 19-tt t.tt 11.7 r.As t7., lj:_ 15 15., t -7a t7.3 | L2S 20J " L76 225 | t.77 ir.rr rE.2 2.33 20.7 2.8t 23.0 3- t.86 t8.5 2-a3 2l-J 2-9i 23.1 J.57 2i.9 J-71 r-95 tg.g 2.52. 2I: l. r t r.(t 16.2 | Lot r9.: 2.61 2r-9 1.12 21J :-at 2.rt 12J f -35 21.3 ._(rl 19.5 t-.lt t6-5 ; LO9 :..9rt2-7 f-{6 2S-2 {-r5 19.9 2. 6
r

2r3 | 7.86 22' I l.06 22J :725 2tJ

22.?

23.7 24.1

3.43 25.1 3.63 Zt3 2.5 l-80 26.t 25.1 1.97 27.0 27 .5 )5.6 r.l5 {.:3 28.2 .t5.1 )6.i ...at 28.7 4.65 29.2 27.2 :7 6 t.s4l2s.3
5-0(l

t.a9 4.oe 4-to ...52


{.tr {.9O s,lo 5.3o 5.51
s.i2
5.90
6.0rt

r.60 75-7 l.!9 26.7 ..1 ? 27.5 1.J7 2EJ '76.7 )t.t {.5r 29.O a.t4 29.8 28.1 ?8.J | 5.ot los
21.t
29
JO.O

5.
56

5t
60 61
6g

2-{r 2-50 7,&

21.1

1I.J
22.0

,6
80 84 68 92

2.91 L9t 1.09 l.l9 3.27 J.Ja l-53 1.33 r09

:J.J 7J.!

3-57 J.7t 1J.3 1.83 1.1.f 7.91 2JJ 4.06 25.2 .-7.1 ....19 25.3 :6i 1.71 a7t -1 9t
5.1

25.51 43{!
26.,t 76.5

L--]o.J
30.8

I {..3 | 1.55

269
273
?,7.9

..6! 1.s4 5.to


5-J7 5.69 5.J6

5.1/ J.3l 2E.9 29-] I 5.{S ..9.a | 5.65 10.6 I 5.91


t3.J

3t-2 11./
32.2

6.26 6-50
7.14

JJ.r
J3.9 J4.e

6.a7
/.51
/ _95

28.7 29.J
JO_o

;1.. |
J2.3
t

6.26
6.a1

J2J | 6.&

j I 5.ll 32.3 J1.2 33.5 r I 5.i5 J1-9 34.1 125 6.J7 30.6 I 5-f6 Jr.: | 5.e7 jJ.t 6.6ra 3a.9 35-5 33.; 6.87 Jr.3 | 6.le t.11 36.0 it.i J2.J 6.1t 7.76 J6.d 6.6. J1.9 32-9 1.62 J7.t JJi 33.3 6.a7 7.t7 l8.O J6.O J3.9 | 7.06 38.6 36i a. t 2 3J5l/i6 39.7 ss; I t .r't 37.6 8.5 9 rO.7 9.03 e- r2 38.6 3-50 J9.J 9.52 tt.3
4.90
.14.

,a.oo ..77 .J5 ,..tr 5.O' 5.77 5.62 s.35 6. 2

2E.9

29.7 30.5
J

r.1

J2.l

35.! J6.J
37.2 J8.0
38.6 39.2

t2.3
41.3

J.6

/.22

I J2.0
J2-6

5.41
6.

5.58

oa

1.5 | 7.5/. )/, I t.!7

96

5-79 5.90

6.tl
/ .11 / .!o

JJ.o

loo
lota

395

lo6

ll2
tl6
r20
124

7.& 7 90 3.t0

J7.t
JJ.O

iE s

l2a
132

9.80 12.t to.o 12.8 tJ.s ro.l 10-6 u.)

to.4 1.29 )9 0 9.11i----{-l a.55 J9.5 9 7J:- I?,J t0.3 lt2 8.9. !4: lo.r vj.l 13.8 9.19 J 1.5 lo.J 9.70 t2.: r0.3 u.5 15,5 9-go /:.5 il I !6.2 I l-0 to.f, !3.: l t .5 I0.5 u.o 12.C J7 0 I l.{ 17.i I 1.3 | 1-l t0.9 u: t1.5 .rJ.t I r..J ^15 rr r .rc.t I rrr il.5.
I t.9 J5

1t.5 J5.J !6.J !7.6

J38
J9.6
50.J
5

t.J

:l rlr

5r-5
52-1

Je.6
5O.t
5O.9 51.6

lr5o

lf6
tao laa
'C.@is {d<tld &6.rd
(d-). Cokslotcd {ro' 3-

rz.r 12.5 r2.3

JZ j I 13.3 r;)lrrt lE.j I r4.5

5J.i
5J.? 51.5
I

l].0
_!d9.6h;^ robl. da dsl <b!r.

s.J I r1./ Jg Ji tt.1

52n
52.9

6.5

5.0

16.8

J5.6

H.\I'TER

:. .\IR DUCI' DESICN


DUCI.IOCITIES FOR tOW VELCCITY 5Y5TEM5
CONTROTTING FACIOR

4-)

TAELE 7-RECO|IIMENDO MAXTMUM

(FPM)

APPIICANON lc:idcncer

CONTR,OLUNG FAC'OR NOISE GENERANON Mcin Ogctr


600
I

-OUCI

FRICTION

Mcin Occr
Supply to00
I

6rq|rch Oq(tr

ldqrn
800
r

5opplv
600
I 200

clgrn
600

Agd.fnmtr
Horcl Bcdrooar Horpitol Ecdroornr
Privcto Of6<er

000

500

300

tooo

Oiredoc Roomr
Ubrcricr
Thactrcr

200

2000

500

'rdoo

200

Auditoriuar

800

300

I 100

'lofi)

800

Gaercl
Hioh

CF6<er
I JOO

Clos Raaosontt CIorr Stscr

2000

500

'I

600

200

Av*cgc Slorcr
Cqfetcriqt
lndu$riol

800

2000

r500
I 800

t 60c,

200 500

2500

tfi,{,

2200

TABLE 8-VELOCITY PREssUREs


/to clTY
.E

VETOOTY

'R' (i"

(F.l/Minl
r00
565 695 800 895 980
r

VETO clTY PRE5SURE

vELOclTY

(Fr/Min)
?r50 2l 90
2270 7260
2300
23 30

YELOOTY PI,5SUR

VELOClTY

VETOOTY
PR5SUR,E

VELOCITY

(R/Min)
l0 50 3 r00

(Fr/ M in
4510
,(600

.ct
.02
.03 .04

(in. wg)
-

(in. wq)
.sa ,60 .52
-54 1.28

.29 .30
.31
.J/ .JJ

r.32
I

lr50
3

.36

1670
4730

?00
3C0

l.rl0
I .,14

.66 .68 .70 .71


-76 .7E .E0

12,(0
3

,.800 1870
1930

.06 .a7

'.09
_10

.0t
.t

ltlo
r

060
200

.31 .35 .36


-37

t.{E
1.52 l -56
I

2370
2

13 50 13 90

r00

2.to
2t70
2500 2510 2560 2590 2620
2

3t/0
I r90
t

.60
68

1770

-38

1.5.a

5000 5060 5l 20 5l 90 5250


5310

-t?
.13

.la
.15

330 I leo r 4ro


r

.t6
.17

.llt
_19

.20

t600 650 1700 tTto 1790


I

r50o Lrz 550 I


I I I | I

I I I

.39

5l0

-ro

1<On

..t

.82 .84
.86

3620

76
80 84

7670
J71A
37 50

.n:
.{4

5370 5130

650

tt
90 92 91 96

l.tr
t.92
I .96 2.00

5r90
5550 5600 5660
57

..s

.r, ..!
.49 .50

.ro

2680 2710
77

J790

l8r0
18 80

t0

27-70

I 9?0

40.
z0t!
7.12

t0

.2t
.2X

.24 .25 .16 .28

810 I 880 1920 r 960


r

.5r .s2
.53 .51 .55 .s6
Fl

2800 ?830 2860 2880

.94 I .00
1.04

1960

tn0
5830 5880

r000 r080

2.r6

1000

2010

29r0 29.0
7970 2990

l.0t l.I2 l.t6


1.20
1.2,t

rt6u
r 210 13

L20 L21

59.0
5990
60,4u

l0

?080

r380
I 160

2t20

OI5' t. Dcro for rtcndord air {29.92 in. H9 ond /0 2. Doto derfued from rh. fallowiao 'dt'^'i^-'

,+7

.TUR

:. .\IR DUC'T' DESIGN

213

TAELE I2-FRICTION OF ;TECTANGULAR EIEOWS


RADTUS EI.SOW
UCT

NO VANs

RADTUS ELSOW-WITH VANESI

SQUARE

aSOwSl

iNstoNs

Iin-l

trl \
' ..v\' t'

i-l l'-i\
'--J,-r
I

-.;
Rt - 6(Rrconrncndcd)

\t:'\

'.Y!
(Accr6cUr)

Fr tr
It-3'
Oorrblr fhickno: Turning Vcnc Siaglo Thickncrr

Rqdiur lctio

lrlo -

1.25

luenieg Vcner

AOOtnONAI EQurv^tEt{t ttNGTH OF STIAIGHT OUCT


Vcnc
.E
36
30

(m

Vcnrr
r3 3l
38 29 25
3 3

3r t<

7n

t9

l6
8 a

,.5 362 3l 33r 28


La2 332 282 29
l8

2 2
I

t t

10 30

60

{5
37 30 25 60 15

25
20

rl
29 33
I
I

3
3 2 1

35
29 25

36 30 21 20

37
30

l6
t2
4rl 35

23r
rl lr a<
17r ta
16

25

2l

t9

l8

,
t,7

l6
r5
39

2
I t J ., 1 a I I

l5
tt
11

u
20

l5
60

7 2 t
I I

t1 9

77

27
tl

.5
,<
30 70

lo
21 20

3l
26

20
l1

I
1

l6
12

2l r5

rl
l0
29

l4

r5

96'

4t
36 30

r5 :6
20

353
JJ

24 20

t8 r5

l6

lr
1l

26 tt 21 19 15

31

60

It

tl

t
r
r

28

7l

37
30

l8 t7

ll

l5
t7

t<

20

9
E

l3

il
10
1 2

l0
q

r5 It

l0
53

42 36
30

tl
17

:1
tt

I
1

2a 20

l5
r3

l6
l2

ll
9

18 l{

l0
8

I
77

763 21 267 t9 16 13 13 l0 8l
t9
1''
1a

21
3

22 20

{5
37 30 25 20

2 2 2

l6 l.
l2
9

|
I

r5

I
6

t2

l0
{5
J7

72.
36

l
1 1 l I l
1

r9

1.,

20

30 24 20

l6
l1 tt

l9
?0

)
I
1
I I I

t8
r5

l0
25
20

l5 l2

t0
9 s

t7 l3

r5

t3

l?
r2
9
E

ll

lo
8

l5
t',

I
6

t0 r0
37

32
30

t/
16
l/

21
20

t1

l6

l2
l0
E

l0
8

19 18 19 i5 12

2
2
I
1

l6
al

I
1 2
1

17

t7
r5 t2

/
6

l7 l1 l2 l?
9

l0
20

t< l5
t2

I
I

ll I

7 6

l0

j-t6

PART J. PIPIN(; DESICN

sPCIA! SERVICE VALVES


-f'l1cl'q ere )cvet':tl t!l)c:i ()t v:tlve: c()ttltlr()llly [ts(t

VALVE

AND FITTING

PRESSURE IOSSES
svstertr

1'o prolrcrly desi$t atlv tvl)e of piping

irr rlilfcrerrt l)il)irls :ll)l)lic:ltiorls (lr;lt (lo llot ncccs' rarilv talI into tlte classificatiort oI scrteral Purl)osc
v:rlvcs. ExPansiorr, r-clic[, antl solcnoi(l v:rlves are ...orrrc oI tlte ntorc conurrort sllecial l)trrlnse valve;,

corrvqyi69 a tluid. tlte losses thr-u the valves an<l fictirrts irr tltc systent nrtrst be rcelistically evaltr:rred. Tlbles have bcerr prepared lor deternrining thesc
losses in certtts oI etltrivalcnt lerrqth o[ pipc. 1'hese values are tlterr used rvitlr the correc! friction chart

.\ rclicl valve is hcld closctl lt'r:r sprirrg or sonte (r[hcr nrcans :rrrct is desiqne<l to autotnaticrlly relievc rhc lirrc or corrtainer l)ressrrrr irt excess of iu sctting. Irr gcrrcrul l relicl valvc slrortltt l>c installetl rvherever rlrerc is artv tlauger of the fltricl l)ressure risiug above rlre rlcsigrr rr'orking prLssrrre oI the pi1rc fiitings rrr l)rei\rtl'c \'6scls.

lor the particrrlar fltrid florrin' thru the system. Tahle l0 gives vllle losses rvir!r screrretl, flanged,
tlared. rr'el<lctl. sol<lcretl. or llr:rzr,;onnections. Trltle I / sives 6trirrq losscs rri ir scrervcd. Hangcrl, Ilarcrl. r.'eltle<[, soitleretl, or brazcii connections. Tnble I2 lists the losses lor specral types of fittings sornetirrrs encoun(ere(l in pi1>irrr; a1;plicacions.

TAETE

IO-VALVE tO555 IN EAUIVATENT

FET

OF PIPE'

Screwed, Welded. Flonged, ond Flored Conneclions

cArEii
NOMIXAL
Ptt e OR

swrxc cHcKi

UFT CHECK

IUsE
5t

(in.)

zE

t,L l,tr

l_L '!

nn
I

it fT)
r-l-l

rm

-_-:fi {I:l

(H
r2

XI lo
l.

:rl
-.{

\ll v.
I

I
29

Globo

t?

vrdkol

&

ltL lrh
2,4
3

l8

rl

r5
IE

l5
t8

uh Sonc qr Globc
20 25

69 34 100 120

l0 l5
.f

2t
29

7.
29

l5

to

Jrh
4 5

i0
58

rl

lr0

!7
5E

7l

t70
?80 120 160

i8
!15
I 15

I
'lo

roj
rl0
r55

70l70"7l60 35l359laO

t2 l4
t6

t65
ra5
210

'os

r2

I J

roo

Anglc Uh

Sonc qr
Angla

.10

t80

lr
20
21

rc 2OO I 2651251'ro

2r5l,tl:oo

165

.larcr ora for oll vqlvcr in lully oeea poritio. illrcrc lotrcr do rcr opply ro volve*ilh ^"edlc ;s6t rypo 6ota I'apr ole oppiy lo thc i+lino, bqlt typG choct volvc. "fs "f Po|r6t^ globo l;tr 6ecl vqlvc vrth rao? opgl.oridqlcly cecol lo tte si^ol pipa diometcr, sr: "oluel ct 60' 'Y- 'oko lor lott. ffRrgulot oad rhon p<ncrn plvE <qi 'olvr! -hra fully opa. hovr rcao'orr qt gqtr yqiv6. For "ol"c lorsr ;i it fl Ftt..n plug <ocb obqrr 6 inr. cjr<k oongfoosrcr.

3-t3

P.\RT J. PIPINC DESICN

Ellrures.R,D-l
ioRTlr I

[.rpect<l lcngth ,;i oD<rx(rorr


na

li{J}l) lloilrs

Rt

I'i rrrl:

l. Design hef(lcr lrater velocl(y ::- I\'r(cr quantir" for pump sleclion j. He:dcr pipc si:l' :nd pump friaion hcarl
5ol

rrrion:

l-

Design rvatcr

lciocirv for siring the Ircrders is rlercrmine<l

from lablcs
\[a:<imum
is

..' td ll.
7

1 ]faximum rv
applied
is

rvrtc] eloci(r -

fpr

i. Tltc taltle lxl.-'

Jtrt" pm. Pump is sclccrcd for 360 gpm. glves the hcader pipe :izes ln<[ 1>tttrrP fnction hcrd tvhen no diver:rtv is applicrt.

luantitv rcqrrircd when no tlirersirv

Exomple 3
Givcn:

- Sizir';

Header Using Diversily

Samc piping

Frc. ?3
Example 2
Civen:

Suppcv Hs,roen Ptre' Srztxc

Schedule.t0 pipc rno fittings

layor -.s in Exanple 3 rnd fig. lJ. .\laximum flow ro crch riscr - 20 gpm
Ellpws. R/D = I Lrpected length oi ,rpcrarion

Sizing Heoder Using No Diversily

\laximum dcsign vciocirv


Finrl:

- i

6000 hours fps (Exauplc 1)

.\ lrtriltlinq rvith r closed recircrtlation rvater piuing svstetn ttsing r horizontal hceder rntl vertical riscrs :s illttstrete<[
in Fis. lJ. \laxrmtrm fl6w to each ri*r
Sclrcrlrrlc +O pipe rncl lirting:.

l.

Diversirv hcror tor cach er(posrtre

'10 Sprrt

1. Design gpm for trch herdcr scction i. \\'rter quanritv for ptrmo scleclion +. Herdcr pipe size rnd pumo friction

hearl

\V,\TER

sr.cTlo\ lo
Rl

E.\DER

QU.\\TITY
/gpnr

SIZEI

I'II'E

;
I

LE)JCTH RET1VEE\

FITTINC
EQUIv-

TOT.\L E(lurv.

FRtCTlOll
LOSST

FRICTIOTI{L-\U

T.\KE.
OFFs

FITT]\G-5

.\LENT

LE\CTH'
rfrt
't5
I I

-\LE\T
(fr)
5

r[t of rvater
pcr
100

LE.i"CTH
3.0

I I (ln.)

(fr)
'17

cqrril fr)
:.J
:.0 i.s
t.d
"t.

([t oi

rvetert

jr;o

!-eils
I
:

RI.R:
R3.R+
R.+-

Ri

j't0 i00 :s0


150

J.r0

':0
4O

-(ee

-(ee

J.: 3.:
3.:
12.0 O-l

:5.1

I.:: i5
.-,
.

l-tee
1

:0

i-red tce,
l-tee I -ell l-ree

:S,:
l9 ll

i') 9l
SJ

t_iI

R5.R6
R.6.
R

t0.0

R;

:{0
?:TJ

5.;

7.R3

?0

-ree

6.;
5.;

a3. R3 R3-Rr0

:00
ts0
3
J
I

:c

l -ree

:1.; :5.; :6.; :6.;


?0.;
?9.0

1J

Jl

;2
63

Rt0-Rll
R

Rll.Rt:
I2,RI3
100 -r0
n{)

20 ?0
'..:0

l-tee I -ell I -red.


I

6.;
ri.0 rec 9.0

-tce

l-tee

j.0 j.0

:5.0
?5.0
30.'', 9t I
1.6

Rl3-Rr4
R,tt.Rt5
R

20
s ?0 20 30

j.0
:;.0

63 .33 LS-{

i.j
i.0
3.3 5.0

l5.R l6

6.8

Rt6.Rl7 Rr7.Rl3

{}
:0

J.:
6_',

::,

t.6:
16.39

Irrmp fricrion headi 'Firring losscs rre dercrmine<l lrom Ttblz /. For rerltrcing (ee! en(er Tablc I I at rhe lrrgel 'irmctcr. iFriction r:tc rnd pipc size :re dercrrnincd (mn Clturt i not ercccr:.ing (he nra:(ir .rrm af lcr velocitv (7 fps)iPrrnrp friction head doer not inclrrdc lor<<. for valrcs. strrincrs. etc.. q'hich mrrst lr :irr!u(lcd in rhe rcrrral rlcign.

CH^PTF.R

I.

PIPING DL.sIC.\

- (;E\ER/\I. II.FITTING
IN EQUIVALENT FET OF PIPE

FIr

TAELE

LO55E5

Scre-ed, Welded, Flonged. Flored. ond Brozed Connectionr


S.\{OOTH BENO E(!OW' NOMINAL
PIP OR

5MOOTI{ SENO TEES r5"


Strcet' Mc Flow-lhro
llro l< h

9(l-

joo Lcag
Rod-

90J

{5"

5rd'

Sl..d'

sld'

std'

5lreight-tlw
No

Flow

ledo<rd
%

Rrdocrd
,h

ledsaion

lu8
5t

zE

r-1--\

r-:\

(in.l

\.ll
l-r
1.6
2_0

l-Tv
0-9

\__ri
2.J 2.5
,4. I

:1l'OJ
0.8 0.9

1m3 imE
c-9

,A Yt I I t/t

r.0

l-l
t_7
1.6

t.l
r.6
2.1

t.t

2.3
2-5

1'
1.0

r.2

l.a
t.6
2.0 1L

r.0

3.2

r.0
5.0
7.0 a-0

l.t
i_7

l-1 t.9
rl

2.6

l.l

a.l
5.6 6.J 8.2

5.6
6.1

tth
a

r.0
-6.0

t-7 2-l
2-6 J,2

1,0 3.a

t.l
2.i

l.l
J.O

5-0

l-J
a.l
J.0 t/

4.2

..5
<a
6-1

r0
r5 r8

2th
3

t0 r5

l0
t2
r5

l.l
r.
I

.J
5.6
7.O

5.0 6.0
9.O

7.5
9.0 r0

r.0
r-7
6.J 7.9

5-0

3tA
4
5

5.t

t7
2l

l1

lt

7.J 8.5

t7
2l
25 33

?l
75

a7
3.1

J.9

8.0 9.0

l0

t2

rl

6
E

l6
20 25

rl
21

t0

tr_

t0
t3

'1

l0
r0

0
3

l1 l8

t6
20 25 30

t0 r2 t4

l6

.2
50 55 62
7t)

i0
50
6a 79 35

5 9

2l
26

l0
31
38

l6 l8
70

l
5

l6

:6
?e

l0 l5
10 t,a 50

ll l8
12 50 60

tt
20 21

.2
50 60

2l
26

l3
r0

l0

EI 9a

rcc

:e l3
.0

)t5

MIRE t80\^/S
NOMINAI
PIP OR

IUEE
5I

(in.)

\
v,
I

7.1 1.0

t.l

r.l
r.6
2- l

10
J.0

0.d 0.7 0.9

0.J 0.1

CJ

| '/.
111
2

70 lo l2
r5

1.0

t.0 r.5
1.3

a.i
0.t l.i

l-r
!.5 5.r

2-J

2t.1

l.l t.;
?.:'

JIA
4
5

t8
2l
25

{.0

2.t

II
2t

3.J

..J
6.0
7.O

2.i

l.:
5_r

lo l2 la
r6

l0
r0
JO

rl
t7 t<
29

r.C 7.1
8.C
9.C

9.0

t2

60 68 78

rl
l5
t9
t1
25

lr
1l

t0

It
20

8J

ll

r00

21

nl

rl
r6

r9

'l/O cppro.iaot.ly

eqsol ro l. fR/O rgprorioorcly lquol ro i.5-

iis
TABTE
SUOOtl
V.

I2-SPECIAI fITTING LO55E5 IN EqUIVALENT


SuooN qoNrR^crloN' d/o
ta
,h
Yt

FEET

OF

PIP
PI?E PTOJCTION'

EX(ATGEMiII' d/O
,h
Yt

sfiAnP EO6'
natan<a

Eril

Erroncr I

Etir

XOM.
PIP OR

rut
srzE

l-+

(in.)

ll
l.r
t-8 0.8 l_t
1.5

-l

r_T
r.t
t.5 L2
2.7

th
I

x
v,

0.3

OJ
0.9
1.7 1.6

L5
1.2

0.a 0-J

0.5 0.7 r.0 r.2

0.3

0.r
0.5

1.5 , 1.8 : Lt ,

.6

l.o
r.8

l.r

1.5 1.3 2.8

r%

IJ
5.8
8-0

OJ
3.0 1.6 1.0 1.2

OJ
1.0

lth
7

2.1 2.9

r.t
L2
3.0

r.2

3J 5.1 6.6
9.0 12 ta
t7
20

]J
5.3
6_6

L6
3-3

!.2
J-0 6.8

t.8
6.1

t.6
2.0 2.6
3.O

..0
5.0

2rt

l0
r1
5

8.0

6J

t.t
r.9

!.6
2.O

..1
5.6

9.0

2.6 1.0 3.8 J.0 6.0 8.5

7.2
B-5

lr

l2

tl

8J

3h
a
5

I ,"_

ll
t1

9.2

7J
9.0

l.E
5.0 6.0 9.5

l5
25 32

6"0 6.8 9.0

t7
20 27 tl

r0
19

lr
2.
29

l3 l6
20
2S

l0
r2

l5

il
r5
20

il

il

13 a7 60
/3
86 96

t7
60
7X

35

.6

at

l
6

t:
ltl-

J7

l4 l6

It
20 2a

I )6
o? rmo/le;t

r5
50

t,
56 17 90 r08 r30

86 96

20

ll5 lr2 l6l

58 70 a3

ll5

t.2
r63

'<rtca tob{a lor lorret

diqncrcr "d."

CH.\I''I'ER

:. \V.\TER

PIPTNC

!23

CHART 4-FRICTION LO55 FOR OPEN PIPING SYSTEMS


Schedule zoooo t5000 toooo 9000 6000
5000 4000 zo o00
15

t0

Pipe

000

ro 000 8000

6000
5000

4000 3000

tooo
zooo
a
r

ooo
500

500
|

;('

ooo 800

rooo
800

;t

)I

600 500

400 300

600 500 400

foo
eoo

e- 200
<9

o = )
l!

t5o
150

to0
80 50
50 4O 60

roo 80

50
4O

lo
30

ao
20

l5
l5 ro
EI

tO

7 6

I
7
6

r5

5.s .B r.o r.s a


FRICTION LOSS

(F::r

J 4 s 6 tiJ-tr
OF WArER P5R IOOFT
)

' 60 go too

rr lr

l.O

1t-)

P.\R

I J. PIPINC D[,5IC;N

CHART 3_FRICTION LOSS FOR CLOsED PIPING SYSTEA{s


Schedule.lO Pipe

15
20000
I5OOO

ao

.2: l

t.5 ? 5l

5 a

8 rO

15 ?9ZtiO

40

50 80 lco

?o r5

ooo

000

roooo
I
OOO

roooo

I
6

OOO

6000 5000
4OOO

000 5000

4000
3000 ?ooo
l

f,ooo ?ooo

t500
I

500

ooo
800

rooo
800 600 500

. .500
500

.oO
300

400 300
200 t50

3 3
q

2oo

r:o
rOO

o = )

loo
ao
60 50
4O

30 60
50
4O

30

50

zo

20 .'
r5
!O

rO

I
5 5

I
5 3

f
2

f
2

l-5

t5
: 8 rP zc z5 lo {o
80 t@

ro

lJ

i 5

rO

r.5 2 255

3 5

15

FRICI-}CN LOSS ( FEET CF \IATER PER IOO FT)

eo

\TER

PIPING

3-21

: consi(lere(l irr tlcsiening tlre lrAter


o5s

TABTE
6t
Pur'

VELOCTTY

oc

,aNGE (lpr)
'_1

:tion los itt e

svstetrr dc1.lctr<ls on

Pr'
Hr,

'

ipe diarnetcr, ittterior sttr[acc rotrglr'

0rc
Rir'

*.

ngth. Varying rny one of tltese [ac:te toml frictiort loss in che pipc. irioning applications use either stccl -l'o o'alrulling in the piping s,vstent. loss in.steel pilx or coPl)cr ttrbing, thru i in this ciral>ter. I are for Schetltrle {0 pipe up to 2{ Cltart 2' 5116rr'5 rlte lriction losscs for cic ipirrs svstettts. The friction arc . -.'ot)en orlce'tltrtt attcl for o1rctt ling svstenrs. frictiou lossc: for T,v1:es K, L ancl N( vhen used irt either open or closed
shore rr:rler vclocitv, 1>i1rc or rtrl>c .vater quanritv, irt adtlition to rhc r 100 ft oI eqtrivrlent 1ri1:e len.]tlt. 'o oI these factors, thc other [\\'o cArl rinetl irorn rhe chert. The effect o[ s o[ the piue or trrbe is cortsideretl
e5.

'fltc rtra.. /J urc llas,:'i


insrrrc tlr,
trrrclcr
r,. Rc.,.

n Tuble
rl
l n<l thev

rent litc

Friaion

rrired by Tire, ' ,'r,'i1. .. ;u51 have trrattt.t'torr ir,.' :,: i ., ti.,1r :il,: !-,-{:.rlfed flO\V tltc 1>illtirs 'r: '' 1,, i .)r ' ,'., available r:rtc rt a ; ,' ,1-.. -. ,i -l ' .'.on loss is to at tlte cit,. ' ] .-i ' :,rr-flrl'l)fesstlfe i. incltrde ei; .' re: i: ir :t.:. { ,i te.i, and water <lro1.l. pipe art<t nrttttt, .c' -fhe j rOl) ntUSt be r.' ,L.ri' .;\, lucter dr,,,i., totaI .rri le:s tltart tire citv rr):ll!r i)ii-rsslr.,.: lJ have design
rr':rtcr florr. .\ recirclrlatinq sr steltt r: rzed 1.' 1;p,;..'i1[q a reasonallle balance belr.. een incre.i:ed p(i,,, i.)i:1g horsepotver rltre to high friction loss rird incr:ease I piping first cosr due co large pipe sizes In larse rir conciitioning a1:plications tiri: balance poinr is r,itcn taken as a rua-rirrrun'r frrction race o[ l0 [t oi '1 .]tel' per l0() [t prpe !engrir -, 9!-eci11'alenr Irr tlte aver.igc irll ;orrri:. icrnir, , a1;plication rlte , ceeds the cost irrsrallerl -,fsi -Jr ri-ie .r rir.: :-. ,l :l'.,,,. I lr,'cost o[ incrcaso[ the \r:lrer p'.r]lrp! .l ing clte pille size oi : i ,-\t 'rr .' .r': the friction r..r : 'r,erexs tlte installeci ' rate is rtor:na. l' 11c,, ,' ''t t(: of large pipe cost ittcreases i rpr:r:, , ed- Smaller (a1>lrroxirrrateir i irl. irr-,, . ,' ' 'l ,. I , r friction l.ri1res clrt l)e ei'..;,,,:"l, r:ttes (irtcrcasinq the pi1.r..' r,:; iit;tn the larger pipes. Irr rrrost a1;plic'iriors econnmic considcrxtions (lictatc tllat ltri'.-: ' ,,,i 11 ,1 illoi e' flo, rates
r

.rantitv is clerermirred h-orrr clte lir a<l and 1l1s rr'atr velocitv ltv prr:,nrmendatiorrs. Tltese nr'o factors rre ,p;- i:ze rrrd fricrion rate.
r'econrnrerrcletl :onti it io n-s:

:5

l()t'

1r'eter' 1>itrrrrq

for rt'ltich cire 1>ipe is to lle use,.t. i oI erosion. s reconllllerr<letl vclocirv ranqes [or'. :s. The dcsigrr oI ilre 1\':lter piping tl llv che ntlsirtturtt 1>crrrrissillle ilorr rt:txirrrtrrrr r':tlrrcs listerl irr Table l) tablishcd 1>ernrissibie sotrrrtl lcvels oI rtttl crttrairrerl :rir', rrr(l orr thc effcct.s

1:illinq i\'srelns is rhc irrrltinqeoI rrrllc or' 1;i1x ol rapirllv rlrtl:rirrirrg' lir lttrlrlllcs, sarrtl or otlrer' l soulc casc: cltis lu:l\' nleitn r:rlrttlllctc f tlre ttrlrc or pipc r'':rlls, llirrricrrlrrlv ;trrfl<'e rnrl rr rhe cillort's. r is I [t:rtctiorr of tirrre. rtatcr velr.lcirr'. rrr:r(criel.s irr thc r\.:lrer, thc sclectiorr tcr velocitt is a rrreLrer o[ itrclsnrcrrt.
,i<[c strr[acc

':rter

T,6

F'

'

t'iTY

.
'l
( i

:/c
-):'

5.'ii
E00c

t)

6-8

PART 6. AIR HANDLINC EeutpitrgNf-{

Axial flow fans are available for belt Crive or di' rect connections. Therefore, two arrangements have been standardized throughout the industry. Ar' rangement 4 is driven directly- Since the motor is in rhe air stream, the application of this arrangemenc is limired to the handling of air which will not damage the rno(or. Arrangement 9 is beltdriven, wittr rhe motor locatecl outside of the air stream and the
clrive protected.

ties. The former method is illustraterl in i?ig. 6,7, g,


9 and

ll.

LAWS OF FAN PERFORMANCE

Fan laws are used co predicr fan performance under changing operar.ing conrlicions or fan size. Tltev are aplllicable to all tvlles o[ [ans. Tlre fan laws are srared in Tablc i. The symbols used in rhe formulas represnr rhe following quanriries:

FAN PERFORMANCE
Fan performance curves shorv the relacion cf pres-

sure, power input and fan efficiency for a desired range o[ air volumes. This relation is based on consranc speed and

QN P IlpD W-

Volume rare of florv thru the fan. Rorarionai speetl o[ tire impeiler
Pressure developed by the fan. either scaric

or cotai.
Horsepower input to the [an. Fan wheei diameter. The fan sizc number may be used if ir is proportional to the
rvheel diameter.

air densitv. Sraric racher than total pressure and efficiency are usuallv inferred. Static pressure best rePresen$ the pressure- useful in overcoming resistance. However,

static pressure is less applicable rvhere the fan outlet velocitv is high. Further, if the fan oPer:ltes againsc no resisance, static pressure is meaningless. In these cases total mechanical efficiencv is used. Fan performance may be expressed as percenrages of rated quanrities or in terms of absolute quanti-

Air densiry, varving direcrlv as the baromer-

ric pressure and inversely as the


remPerature.

absolure

In addition to the restricrions noterl in Table 5, upplic:rtion of thesq larvs is limited ro cases where [ans are geornerricalll'similar an<l rvhere there is no

TABTE
VARIASLE
CONSTANT NO. I

s_FAN

LAWS
rcRfiUIA

LAW Copocity vqtiol ol rhc Spcrd.

I
I

lo,Nr
of

Air Ornriry
SPEED

Fon

firr

Ditribnioo
5ytt d

Prcgvrc vqrirr
the 5pod.

cr thc rquorc

lQrNr P' _ /Nr\2

&

- \&/
/N'\l |lpr
D2 IJ, P!

HomFpwr vqriet q tbo obr of


rho Sp*d.

Hpr Qr

Hpr \ xr ,/ q
/Dt\l

Copocify ond Hoapowrr vory cr lhc rquorc of thr Fo 5rr-

Her \ ot,/

Air Drnriry
Tip

Sprd

5 6

Sp*d vorier invcaly q tho


Src.

Fon

N1 N.
P1

(i

Prauro rrnoint onttont.


Copocity vorirr

FAN sIZE
7

Sr.

or thr obr ol lho

Qr P'

a' \

or \: o'.,/

Air Drndty

5prd

Presro voricr or thr rquorc of


thc Sirr.

Hoapowrr vqrirr or tlt


power of thc Si:r.

Gfth

tr :I-g-Y Hp1 \orl


N1 N1 Pr Qr Qr Hpr Hpr /Y/t\h Hp2 \ Wt,/
Wl
W2

P1 -=t-l

/DtV \ orl

Pururc
Fcn

Dirrribcti6
AIR

Srr

't0

Spld,

Copocity

vory invcrrrly or

od Homponr lhr rqvon rcol

5yrtrn
OENSITY

of Drndty-

Copocity
Foa

Dirrribcioa

5rr

ll
l2

Prrsrc ond Horupowrr vory or


fhc Drnrity. Spred rcooior

5yrim

qrtcnf.

P2 H9 -=-=Nr=Nt

.a

,ACKGROUIID
duilding mantgers and owners have become aware that coorol of temperalure and humrcilty alone rs insuricient to mect occupanl comfort needs. .A.ir qualiry atfects pertbrmance and, in some ca,ses. occup&nt heeirh. To help maintain pcoper vendlation rues, Honeywell offcrs the C7242line of CO: scnsors.

CO2-lVhat it

is

COl is exhaled fmm us all. Altiough not nonpally a health concrrn. CO: levels increase as buriding occupancy levels rncrease. Numberof occupanu. .rcnvtry lcve_l.$uridiog tightness. ventiladon rate, spare voiumc. plants, urd building consuuction all affect brr:lding CO: icvels- CQ leveis typicaily corrclate wrth other bio-effluena such iu gases, odors, pa;tculates. basteria- viruses, and perfumes.J6rutonng COl levels hclps facrlitate vcntjlation decistons rhar allow
bajancing occupan( comfon

ud

energy-savings.

CO: Levels
Rural outdoorCQ levels are about r50 pans per mrl[on (ppm) while urban CQ levels are considerably higher- OSIL\ gUidelines ailow a COl air contarninant limjt oi 5.000 ppm for morc than 8 hours"- In comparison. submannes car reach as high as 7,000 ppm (and on rare occasioos even reecb alael of 30,000 pprn). Offlces cypicajly are 300-1300 ppm. lightly packed conference roonu wlth mirumal ventjlation can be 2.000 ppm. Tb leam how snrffy dre ur ftels ar higher CO2 levels, c$ry a ponable C7?42 and monitor CQ levets thmughout your day. This is an excellcnt way ro sell CO2

sensors.

/ -u

rrns that 1.Q00 ppm md -Ercf,Ier COI le'lels cause dmwsiness. farigue or headachcs are hig}iy sub1ecwe and onen .oundcd Elevated CO: lcvels do not necessarily cause these symproms. but can indicatc r builduo of orhcr conraminants thal do causc such svmotoms. Managing venrilation using CQ levels can improve occuDan( comfon because other pollutants arc also exhausted with tlre COz

IMPORTANT
Do nat confuse carbon dioxtde (COz) with carbon monoxide (CO), a highty toxic gas rhar:s aho a byprod.ucr oi combustion ',n lurnaces. lireplaces ond auromobiles. Carbon monoxide (CO ) can 'oe harmful .ren at vet,* lorv levels (25 to 50 ppml.

CO: as an

L{Q Indicator

Clarms thu CCh sensors are indoor air quelitv (lAQ) senson are inaccurate. CQ le"eis are onc picc: of the undcfined rndcor air qualiry esuauon. Low f Q. lcvels do nor indicate good rr quajiry .riule high CO, lc'.,eis cio not mc:n rhat air is hilinfui, 5o CO: Jcnsors should bc ,rcsented end sold Lt iensors of CO: ievels thu proriie iolcrmanon useful in ,lerermrrdng vcnDia[on ra(es [o controi CO: levels. C7Z2 CO: iensors should not be used ]s l pnmail/ life safety device or

is

rt

I.\Q sensor,;rrd the.r are no iirbslrtrrte ior rn :ndoor ur quaiity analysis, csnrcreil'r.v\:r
R,e::r ro,\Si{RAE

i,.r:ii:g !r :uaiti'r:

_qucstionab ie.

'lCYIE

5l-l989

Standzrd for ietails iciaoirg CO; revei :o v;nujaLua;are,

' ti,

r .r.(e derices markered rs IAQ sensors thar output one composrre signd. Regardle:: of what 56s16 vcnciors mav say - f,re no r:lrable H\AC raarret pnc:d indoor air quality sensors because IAQ rs a compiex problem rhar includcs manv vanables. To funher confuse thc rssue. some substanccs ue deadly whcn prc:cnt 1n lsw pom ,rrhile others rre harmless when prescnr rn iush thousands of ppm. The Iist of subsrances rs qu.tte ions f,nd not ictailv deined: see thc OSIIA web:iter' Scnson curenrlv;old on the market c.r.trnot soive ihese issues. Howcvcr. 'vnen (rni becomes avuiabie. Honeywell piars to offer rt.

It is anilcipated that CO: senscr use rn ccdes and legtslauon wi]l rmprwe in the F.rturc. The;ocjes wril octine relatronships among venolation.occupdrc:/ andiAQ paramerec (including CO:). The new t-amily of C'i?a2. producls ts destgned (o mes. ail CO: scnsor nceds and is also compauble with most conrollers. Warch for geogrrphuc area ccde :hanges rhat can aflect your CQ sensor sales.

61.7U9

CARB OI{ DIOXIDE, DEi\{A}ID.C OI{TROLLED

ITNTILATION TDCV) QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


)
IMPORTANT

'.

Always

reltr o sutc

and,

Iocal

codes

jor daails

on rcouired and rccommended CO2

loek.

Temperature Control and CO: Control


Tempennrre concrols rrrd

CQ coasols haw simiiariucs; both concols

have a dcsired setpoiot. The

CQ setpoint is rhe

facton inJluencing rempertrure discribuooo in a space influencc CQ disuibution. Thesc lactors inciude convection. diffusion. and mechanrcaj rir moremcoc It is important to dercrsrine CO: scnsor placcocnt based on the anuopucd loads. For optrnum conuol. placc a CO: scnsor ln crcry zonc. If an IryAC sysrm is scrving a series of zones with simrlar occupancy panerns. it may bc apgfopnarc to placs sensors in rcrum & oucdng- It is imponant to elirn:nate duct lcalage as this can cqylibnum level necessary to maintarn the vendlanon rarc (cfm per pe6on) for the
spacc. The same

inroduce nlse COz mdiogs.

There 'are also differcnccs berwecn COz and (emplature scnsrng utd concrol. Tcmpcrarurc is rxually quite unrfom throughout a zone wherEas CO1 leveis 611 var) widely. CQ levels witlun a confercnse ioora carl rcach 2,500 ppmi wfule rhe level on the other sidc of the door remaios d 800 ppm. Therefore, sensor placement s(ongly affecrs the result becausc the conrol system enempts to control C01 levels rt the sensor locarion,

-l

Thetc arc a variery of CQcontrol straregies and algorithnsused io venrilarion control. Properselecuon depends wt thc complexiry of the building rnd irs FfVaC sysem. Three comrnon straregics follow.

Or/Otr
OmOffconrol employs an open-closed dampcr strar5/ based on COl level. This sr'uepr is tie most corrrrlon ,rpproacn to CQ control. A darroer opcns at a setpoint and closcs when lcvels dmp 50 to 100 ppm below setpornt, This sraagy works :esr in applicanons wrth high occupaory dcnsiries (20 to 50 people pcr 1,000.sq n) and with oc.upancv \alvrng from zrro to full in a very shon rime. Theacrs. conl-erenc: rooms and somc sshool classrcoms are appticcons where dus :uaep- i] used
When COr 1.rsl5 vary around thc serpoint. the da.npen dnve fully opcn and fully closed. depcnding on ,Jre read,ing ;o 'lhen oticr control options are not available, use serpolnt control.

hoportional
of heaong or cooling energy provided to a space ls the basis lor staging many HVAC syslcms. Venciarion Jvstems w:(h propontonal conqol use a CO: sensor srgnal proporuoneJ to C02 level. Consol bcgins whcn indoor lovels exceed outdoor levels by a dedncd differcncc (100 ppm). Air delivery to the spacc increues proponionally o pro"'rCe i00da ven0lauon rate. Compared to setpoinr conrol. this approach r.llows frster svstcm re-rction to varying occupascy levels. It does nor Jways wait for levels to burld io rie cootrol pomt. Applicauons requrnng r higher degree of conqol use r proporuona.l strarcgy. hoporuonal conuol uscs sensor models thu allow tle insuller to scalc the output to cofre. sponci wrth the control range dcsired. For cxample, a 2 to l0 Vdc srgrral cur bc adjusreC to match a CQ level djfferlnual ranse of 400 to 1.000 ppm- hoporuonal ventilalon conlrol is ideal in soaces with highly valable and unprcdrcablc occupancies such as bars, restauranls, confercnce rcoms. corrtrooms, classrooms. and rerail !pac3s.
TJre amount

ho portiona.l -In tegrd- Deriva tive P ID)


Tjmc rcgurrecj to reach cqulibnun CO1 levels in low.densiry applicauons c'resres a potenual disadvantage for CQ cnnrol. Low densities such as six pcople pcr 1.0O0 sq ft can reoube hours to reach cqullibnum COz and sraggered or varying'oco:oancy can aggtavarc these problems. TEmperrrurc control of Iarge complex bui.ldings eocounrcrs simrlar
problems as a result of unprcdicrable charges in outdoor (empemrurc. solar g'arn and r.ntcrnai heac generarion. Simple remoeraure connol agptoadres, such as scboint orpropomona.l, can be disasterin tlus typc of building
:

o thesc corrple, concol goblems is PID contol. PID congol directs systcm control seguenc$ to examine dlstanccifrom serpornl rine spent at serpoinL and speed of chanp ftom sctpoinr PID Cq conrol views qends and COt lcvel change rues. For *a.rrple. minutcs afier pople enter a buriding in rhc momrng. rlrc HVAC sysEm rEac6 to adjust fush air debvery. This adjusrrrent is based on arnral occupancy predicrcd by the COz lercl r-ate of nsc. Much like the proportonai conuol cystem. rhc PID controllcr opefir(cs based on rirc lincar ougur signal froo a COt sersqr. Most DDC urd buildilg conrol cystcms use PID conu'ol aJgonthms. Stlnd-alonc contmLlers are arailable thar can ranslarc a linear srgral from i CQ sensor iiro a PID signal. H9we.rer. oo.ly rxperieoccd concol dcsign<n and installen shoutd apply PID coosol appoachis. When applied gropcrly, PID conaol prsvlds fut venrilauon rale responsc o changng ocsupancy conditons. fumeg:rbq rhar PID conrol integraes bast in high-rise, multi-zone buldings wirh lcnv dcnnry, h:ghly rariablc or unprcdictabte pancms
A solunon
,

occuPancy.

7f

817ue

Why is CO: Control lmportant?


,llost brr:lding codes base new buriding rtnbladon recommendadons on ASHRAE Sandard 6:-1989, "Vcnofinon for Acccpuble.\r Qudit-v " This standrrd has a wide varieg of rccommcrded veociladon nres bascd on spsce use. Prublems relatnd to poo( t\Q increasc whcn a serious ercgy crisis crerrcs suficient encrgy srvings inrercst ro grompt loweang ventilarion scrndsf,ds A srudy of 500 IAQ irn eS:rions cooductcd by the Nuional Insorue for Occupacional Safcry pnd
:
r

;
,

Heajth6.IoStDinriel970sandl980sr'ndicapdrhat507oofproblemsi&oufiedresuttcdfrooinadcquarcvenularioo'

People per Square Foot or cfrit per Pe$on


pcr tEtare foot ud, peoplc oeisQnrc foot of lloor spqce arc oftcn used when defining hrilding vcnrilarion CQ concentraoon rs a funcloo-o$u.lciing volume (not squarc footage). construcdon. Ughuress. vendlagon rare and occupant lwel of acnvrry. One prson c,rcry t|lre squarc feet of r largc gy[ula]um docs oot result in a sigmficarrt CQ lrrrel rise. Eveo if thr.v are all physically exercjsrng, tie effecc are sirrular. Apply rhe salrc occupdlr &nstr.v to a ryptcal room in a mulu-story ofrce building, and a dranrarjc change jn CQ larels will result (wrth or without erercise).
The terrrs cVn reQulrements.

Recognize

*nr using cfm

menG more accurately detctrnine

per person and cfrn per sguare foot COz are rnpmpts o simplify rhc djscussioo. .{cual me4sureCQ le\,ets. Always refer ro local code urdrcquircrnenu tbr implearcotarion rcquiremenrs.

IIi gh- ventilatjon Ra te Tradeoff


Whjle increased ventilanon srandards &Jease rhc incidence of IAQ complarnts. rherc is a rradeoff for burldlng owncrs "rd oc:upanLs: Genenlly, butlding ownergmusr increrse IIVAC equipmcntcapaciry by 3OTo to 50?o forproperourdoor :r p,reconditiorung. So rhc ccst of hsaungf and cooling fresh eir can become rhe rnosr ngnificanr cosr of FIVAC system ';reration. Exrended and fleruble work hours. and incre&sed use of schools and pubiic buiJdiogs beyond uadioona,l
business hours sdd additional cosr ro IIVAC sysrem operauon.

Balance Energy Savings and

Air Quality

Tradiuona.lly, building engireen desrgned the frcsh air,renrilarion slstem to meer space'renoiauon requiremcnrs based on burlding derrgn occupancy and applicatron.recommended ventilarion rare. This ventilation was mdnrarned d.uring all occupretl hours regardless of acrud occupancy. Hcwever. extendcd and flexible work hours, work,at-bomc progra.ms. and other chanses in work habits rcsulted in rarely-mer dbsign occupancies and occupancy periods exrcnding be-vond cradiuonai roucinc. So ustng rhe uaditronai approach of venrilation system sizing to design occupancy can resull in costly crcr-vendlauon of large spacqs- C02conuol sraregy eosures sufficient ourdoor au delivery for rlte occupancy level. tvoidinS over-vntiladon duri-og lorv ocgutao.y pcrrods provides amactive savrngs that a CG DCV :ystem crn realize.

Can CO2 Based Ventilation Control Lruease Eneryy Costs?


CO:uscd al;ne to control ventilauon can rcsult in increased.nersy cosrs. h'oper appiicanon wirh ECONOVIITFRTr'{ LCgjg iVlpdUiffl in5UgS grnlrngng thEse rncrcasEd energy cos6. When instalicd wrth ECONOIvlIT.cp lsg1. lvloduies, sigruficant :nergy savings are possible.

lutdoor CO: Level ilIust be Considered


rf COi)evels exceerl 1,000 ,,:ioeltne ro follow regarding CQ an<t ventrluion is that an indoor space is under-ventilued ppnr. Tlus rssumes ourdoor levci of 300 ppo. The indoor lcvel of COl can prwidc us:ful 3uidel.incs; howerer. llke many rhe zrldeLines. ir rs possible !o over-stmplify. ForCO:, thc imponant venrilauon indicator is lhe drffcrerce !'rct'qc:n ,ndoor and outdoor levets. Outcioor levels of 300 ppm sxrst only in areas far from umanizauon ancj tndusuralizarion; for cramDle. ou(dmr lewls Ln Los Angeles or Tarpci olten exceed 000 ppm. The corrccted guideline is: "lf indoor level :rcc:ds ourdoor le.rel by more than 700 gpm. a burlding space is considcred under-venulated tbr the number of occuparts rn tle spac:."

Indoorioutdoor Diflerential
l. 2-

COz Levels

Consrder ourdoor CO2 levels when implemencing COz venulalon conuol strateg,v. Calculate vennladon ratcs from intlour/ourdoor differential )evels. Using an ubirrary CQ control setpoint without considenng ouldoorlevels can rcsult rn ovcr-ventiladon. Therc zrc rwo approaches uscd in integrating outdoor COz condicions into a conttol slrategy: Fixecl'value, prcrreasurcd, aveclge COr baseline forthe geograpluc locanon. Duect CO7 FIVAC system morutoring.

NOTE:

Use the second approach witlr e(treme variacions in ourdoor lavels (more than 200 to 300 ppm dunng a day). Ermme varianon rccurs with hilding air intabs near sources of pollunon (rra;or hrghways. loading docks, etc.)

:/
l

6i-itH9

-l.r..r

l99.5Al;ll,\pPlictrliolrs
tlrc t)tt.rlt t(). h.rli[(c urinB thc 1()llorvilrg t)rrxc
rcJ.

ll:rutllrook

1,S[;

lestirrg,Arljrrrtirru

ll:rlirrrtirrA l{

34.5
rxrr to rlrL iiltr\ilx lulll]lr(rl to rlt \|[(c Ntrccolornicd vlhEGon obriridcll hy vrrrying rhc lnD JFcd wirh thit rr5tcm. A ontol lr({rlcrr f r[ { r i\l rf rrry rttrrrrt rir rcnriilS ir (lorc lo cstol r wDonrrp rt trnl th*rr tyclc VAV S)rl.ilr t,litrt SiilBlt.])r(l VAV rnd Frn-Powcnd, Pcrrrrrt.l)r|crrdcnl lcrlriilrls. llrs rtrtcrn hnt a rrirory e,c of iir l!oilr rhc lrn lr thc tcrrrirrrl rrr(l i kcorxirat lDwcrcd fen glcc tlrirl pilll! nit Jrrrnt thc rct[rrt nrr llcnrrtr h.fo,. thc rdditbnil hcot trtr,rec 'l}it tysrcrn pln(c( n(ldrrirrrr,rl rrriotcn!rca of tcminrl filrrrt. rr{('rr. rilJ cJl)r!ilorl on tlrc lxrrkling owft( ln ccnrin l!n. fxrwcrcd Ujrcl. h:rcldrlfr dilnrlrrt nrt n gr^'a of tyrcm d6 lcalrgc wlrcil thc rysrcr[ cllls for rhc rlnrrlE. ro lrc lully clor!. Typical l0lrlrc^r(nr! irrclrrlc gcrrgrrltlrre irrc;r\ \{lIrc thc .rtF of hadin! Itr{rr\ ru (u)hill ho!.t l\ krw Doublr-Duct VAV, "llis ryfr o[ tcilrrrrl rrm.Irydcr tw !in!lc rhrcr vrrillrlc tcnniilirlr lt rs cool.olhd by rcleily conrollc6 rhar olraarc in scqucncc to rlrrr t{{h txx lnd @ld d6t on ba ofEncd or (lorcd Som contr'l sylrcrnt havc r downcnrm now ran50r in thc tc.mi|!l uilrr t(r illilinIl(r crrlrcr thc haitiog q thc c@|. irt l}l. orhcr flow rnsrr ii rn thc iillcr (onrrcllcrJ by th< rttlre ilal Ai thrr inlct dampar cloEt. thc downsrEam qtrcllcr ogcN tlrc ulrcr tlanr;rcr to nrainrun tlrc st airllow. Oftcn, low ttgcm FGt. surc in thc dalr contrcllcd by rh. thc(msrrt crust unwutcd miring of rir. *hich rcluhr in crcctt crErty us or di:omfm in thc sprcc. On rmtt di,ccr ditiral con'rol (DDC) ryrtcmr. inlcl @naol oar both duur ir frvqcd in liru of tfE tl)wnstcam contallal,-,, ,,,

, (:firctully tct
d
rr

VAIII

'\/()l-uNili sYS t'tiA ts

AdJUrl ltE tyll([r qrrlr rrririilg drrrrJtrr lrrsitirtrcrl ltrr rrrrrrr mum qildff ria h) Whcrr rdj"JtinB nrrl!ronc (tr rJorrblc.rlrret (ursttnt \olrrr.

r)

Nl,'rry typrt ol v;ilril,lc \()llillc 5y\t(nts hi\c lrcrt dr\rlrlrrt to crnr\cr\( arr(r8) llrcsc ryrtcrrrr ciilr Ir { rtall(,il/crl ilt l)rc5\!tc

(lclrrrlcnt or pr(ssurc ir(lcJrorl(.rl

Vtr' i^l,l( t"l(l (.r I l,,:' ( il.r hc .r li' ol 'lrilr I '!1.Ir\( I ) lr rcnll' llr( ('rrc rl,,$/ ,r ( l, r( r ,rrrrtrlrttlr l l'r rrrirrrrrr0rr c rlrct tcrl 6rrflor rlrLrrl.l l,c r'fflrr,rtrrl \hrlirrg Fnrr Siterl trlrcl,:rrrrcrlly. Slrlrp.rgc. lL,'\ ,)l I'clr\. ir,\l oI ltll rtlrlirrcilraill. nr\l tllc irrtrnl (o\t ()l tllc cr)[rlr)rr('ntt nrc ol coilr

l!

lyll.nrt, cltnhlitlr llrc rltio of llk dcaiSI t(]lilhrc tltr(rr!lr rl,.


c(Flin8 coil lo rola.l fr,r volurnc to rchicvc lhc dcrircd tlrrtr rrry facto. Kccp tlrc nro|x)rlron oI aolJ to r()tal irrr (rilliiilrt du,lnB thc balancc llowcvcr. clEck cich ,orrc o, br!r1cll qirlr rhrr comfbncnl oo [!ll ctxlling lf thc (kri8[ crllr for full llrr* rhmr,gh lhc c@lint mil. thc cntirc !y$crn ihould lr lct to frll flow rhmuSh rhc c@lifit ridc whilc nrilinB rcsts Pcrforrrr rlrc
srr

h,r\c

l'ltttrtt i.trcil/l.nt r)stcrt! ilrco.li)rrtc irr lLil[ilr,tl Urrcr tlul n thcflrxrilat srglxl contr()lltrg i d]rnlf,l:rctuit('r 'llrc nr( vol.

cfll

r,rrc lo ll)c !l).tec tartcl to rnri0t,trn thc 5l)rcc lcilrlxr;ilu'c. wltilc rhc balarrcc of llrir 5yircrt constantlt (lr3lfcs s,lll loi{lrrg cltintca. tlrcrcforc. nny biluciilt pr{rdrrrc wtll not Ir(rlilcc rcl*ntrl\lc (hta u[lcri (hargcs in syrt nt lord rrc srllilliilcd try ilsIrg tlrc ririlc co[. 63rrr;rrirrr rrl tlrcrrrror',il lctrirtt c,r(lr lrtc tlrc sy\trrt ir tc\tt,l.. tlrnl it. thc !^nlc tcrnrinnl lnrcr arc fixcLl irr rlrc rtinlnrrr trr(l nrtrlrunl lx)tili0rr f0r lha lc5r Irsttrrc'rttrttlttnrltnr systcilrs tncorlx)rntr iil tctiltiIil lxrrci tllnl hr!c r tlr.nrx)ltil rigrral uscd as I nrartar contrr)l t() ()lkn or rlosc tllc dilrlrcr octr)utor arJ a rclxily corrtrollcr uscd as a sllbilt.t\lcr !{Iltr()l lo rilaiiltiin tlE nra^in)utrr aild nrini|)ilil1 aorqr0t! of air to tr supIlicd to tlE ipncc [Jlc air voluorc ro rhc sFcc vnfics to nrJintiin thc !facc tcnrtEralutc. shrlc thc air lcnr[Kmlurc silpplicd to thc l.rntinal rcilurnJ colsrdlt. ctuc lhould bc lalcn to vcrify thc oFra(ing Eilgc of tlE darn[tr rctulor s I rcaponds to thc vcleity contnrllcr to prc. vcrt dcrd buldr or ovcrlap of control in resfpns to otlrcr stJtcm compoflcnls (c t.. dtublc duct VAY fM-frcwcrcd borcs, and rctrcfil tyltcrni) Cm rhould rlio b. takcn lo vc.ify thc sction of thc lhcrmoJtr wirh cgMd to th. damp.r fEsition, u tlE vcl$ity conrmllcr cM chmgc th. conrrul rignrl mtio u rrvcrtc lhc contrel iigilal ln r prcrrlrc dcpcnd.nt tyltcm. lha riling of tninulutn airflowr to lhc sfracc, o(kr lhan at rc 0ow. ir nol ruggr!tcd. unlcs5 thc tcnlti. nrl bor hr! r mmrll, cl6cd dlmpcr and thc tn!nufacturcr of thc dinrfrr rctultoa providct sdjustablc lrccbaoical stopl J)tc prcr. !urc.indcp<ndcnr rystcnr rcquircl v.ril-icrtion that thc !cldily con. trollcr ir ol{rr|nB propcrly lnlct duct configuriliot caI ad!c,scly an'ccr rh. opcrarion of thc vcl(riry controllc. (Onggs cl 1990) t 1)rc pnrnry diffcrcncc tEtwccn thc two 5yjtanls is tltit thc ^l l)rcssuacdc[Enknl tyitcm supplicr a dificrcnt inlount o[ ai, to thc tpacc r! llE prr!rrlrc upstrcam of lhc tcrnlinal box chrngcs lf tltc tlrcono5latt arc nd calihmtcd propcrly to il)cct tlrc rfacc load. sc\crll zoncs mny ovcrcrrcl or ovcrhcat Whcn thc roncl ovcrcml aod rcccivc grcatca anx)untr of ttpply air than.cquircd. lhcy drcrraJc thc nrn(niln of nit thrt can b< supplicd to ovcrhcatcd rcncs Thc prcssurc-indcFndcnt !yrlcrn ir d sflccr.d by irnptol*r rhcrrnosrar calibmtion irr rhc !anlc way lhal a prc!sur.'dcfEildcnl tysram i! b.causc thc ntinirnunt and muirnum attflow l[nitr ilt.y ba *t for cach zonc

lcnr[rrnrurc t!pl'lrctJ to lllc tcilnitril lXlrcS rcilli!ls C(,il!tJr]t I]C

Vrrinblr I'itch.in-lrlolion Fnili. Ntiilrtciliilra( ,urrl thc rrrc.rrr td nrc\cnl lha Irrr Irrrrtt ttrrrrrrrg rn tlrt rlall crurrlrtrr'rr nlilsl I'c c\ rIr.rlfrl \hrylrrg Fno Specd $:lcctIl()ll). I lrs !ysrcor rs rlrrlly ilrc n!)\r .llicicrt,ril(l rs,r(c(rnfrlrtl('(l lry rlr1r1rg rhc r()lrrtr {'r rlr lrc (Ircn() lo llrc fir rr)alr{ S(rrric rcrsr,rtts of nrrtrr rlrrrcs tIr} rrrrrc
clcclricill rl.)r5c rrrrl rllcct otlrcr rlcr iccs l0 rr\rtr(,llrrB VAV lrr\ {)(tcrr( tlrc lrx r[,nl r)f rlrr rt^t,r Irr\\rrc 3crl{(rrl i( !rirrrl :rrrl rhr'lrl I'c lral(l !qtlrrrl to gr\c tlrc trtr\t tilnr scn:rttrc 1xrrilt oI Lr;*r0lior A[rcr rllc rcfiilitril Inlcs lrnvc bccrr frfir. F)nionfLl. tlrc stirti( l]rc5{urc cr)il1.i)l ciil lt rcrificd by ol.rcrrtng stilic nrcslrrrc clli[gcs it llrc lrr (lr(chrrgc and thc static prcrrrrrc 9ct!tor rs llrc lL',rLl ri srrrrrrl.rcrl flrrl ntrrinrurn arllr)w lo nrrlrnurn airflorv (i c. rct rll tcrrrrirrrl bx)rcs to halnricc(l nirflow coildrtion5 lrrd dctcrrrrrrrc \lrcthcr any chilngcs (r stxric prcr\rrrc (tcrrr b) flrc iog onc tcrillinrl lxrr rl r rinrc ro nrilirnurn airflrrv, until all tcrnrnals arc plrcctl it rhc il!niilrid airflow sciliilB). Cm Jhqrld b. ratcn lo \'tri[) lllrt lhc nririrnuil] to nlinirnunr air voluru clrnngci 0(c *ithin thc farr crrrrr lrrloflilarcc (lfrcd or total lrcssorc]

tonK p(tcduE for thc h<r eir sirJc l}al6rcc lhc tcnnlnol urtlc[ ln crch c(rilml lorE ln D^rtx)nl(,n to .ech dhcr Thc followin6 rtcps mty bc followcd to balturcc thc

$)
I

ur ol tcmirul darnp<rt thrt c.crtc obixtiomblc mirc. b) N@ndlt, EVCGI p{!t rhogh thc cntiR !y$cm n nctr{y to obadtr Fop.a @tld YrlEr. c) I}t tdrl Hcd arlct rir quurity @m[f,rcd to dxr trrvcoc rir quuirbr mry bc u Lxricaq of dwt lc*elc. d) wirh rqd d.ritn ri, cnrblittEd in Oa trrmhct trd rt th. atlcrr. pcrfom $c followint: ( l) lrlc Ew fu moru rm6rcngc rcsliil8,r. (2) flnd rrlic pctrsur .c! thr frn. (3) crd lnd l@rd nrrk [rorurr lcrGr c&h ornpotEnt (inlf,kc. liltc6. oilr. lrd mlrin! dmF6), md (4) irlc I fioal duct tnvcr*.
Dual-Duct SyrlcmJ @n!rnt wlunE dutl.d(t !ystcnlr rc dcaittrcd lo hirdlc

Icrrlindt r) ()rr! th. prlinrrnnry lrn quarrity ir:ct. prolonion thc rcrnri nrl oiltlct belMCc fronr lhc oorlctt into rhc t,nrthc! to thc fan CorKintrdc on l)qxfii()rlint ltrc flow tathcr thin thc sbalutc qua0tity. A! chontcr &. m!(k to lha f!n !.rtingt and brsrch dM)rrR. dE qrtlcl tcnnintl qudrtitict Emain prcponional Llrureh rbmpo:tpuld bc urd ftr mrix aljustint rnd rcmri. nd dlnrp<[ fq uin q mimr xljurtmcnt only. k mry bc ncc. cridy to irorrll rddilimd rubbnrch drmfE6 to dftaE thc

urcrl on 0 VAV tyrtcnl. rsrumrr8 that thc t(xrl t!rlcrn ai.llow vtrlurnc r lowcr by dcsign arrl thsl all oI lh. i)lrcnr tcorrinal horcs will ilcvcro[Err fully st rhc sailr tinrc Carc shooltl bc tal.n to s!uid Jny doct icnkatc All rJuctwork uprtrcarn oI lhc lcnnioll box thould bc corsrdc.cd lt nrcdrum-prrtsuE ductworl. whcthcr in r lir*, or nrdiurr'prcssrrr. rysrcnr A prcrcdurc ro tcjt rhc r(rrrl .!. on thc 5yltcilr thoul(l ba arttb. lishcrl by *trrrg lcilrurrl trrrcs lo rhc arro or nrtrrnrun) lDril(!n rlcircil lo llrL' lerr l)rrrirrg pcrl lord c()ndirioni, cilc rhould b< rilan lo vc.ily tlrrt an r{lcqIrtc 0.cssurc ir avarlablc oni(rcarD of all rcnnr. ncl bora!.n aclric!a rJc\itil iirll()\v to thc rprcci

lllve6rl v Di"c,tty ,r.y h

,,,

Ealancing thc VAV

Syslrm

'

'\l6r ol lhc ldrl ry$.d t rupply through thc cold doct rnd fxnioo !millcr tir quMrirlct tlvwth rh. hd ducl. Bdmcin3 th@ld bc
rmnrplirhcd s followr:

Oulsirlt Air Rc(luitrnrrrls lrlrilxairrtrr!: tlrc (|n(c !rdc, r

l. 2 I

Chcck th. lcrvint lir lcmpciltuE !t th. rctcst tcminal to vcrify rhrr thc hd.nd @ld dampcr inlct lcakegc ir nc grclt.( thu thc mrrimum rllowrblc lc*ilc crtrblithcd. Chcct +p!mr rnd mrio trunkr, ! oullircd in thc Edion on EqulpnEnt ed Syltcm ChdL Dclcmirc whcthc. thc tt.ric p.clturc { rhc cnd of thc !yltcfil (rh. lon8d d\rcl run) is !t or rbovc rhc minimum Gquircd tot mixinS bor op.ntion. Pc.ed ro thc crtEmc cnd of thc rystcrn ud clrck thc inlct illric 0Elrurc with an inclincd mlnomctcr. Thc inl.t rtltic pGlrurc lhould crcccd rhc minimum ltatic prct. lurc dommcndcd by thc nriring tFl mlnrrfrcnrrcr. Addirion!l !lrric pBlurc l! Equircd for thc low.pc3rurc distribution ty!. lcm domrtftrrn o[ thc hor Prufpflionrclt brlrncc thc drffurcrr or grrllcr on rlE low.prcr. lurc ri& of lh. bor, I dc{r ibcd foJ low.prc !su.c lyitcmr iil thc

System Stotic Corrtrol sr5lcrn !latic @nlnt i3 inrfbnailt to safc ancrty ao{t to prcvcnl ovcrprcssurizing thc duct systcrn 1}c following pr(rc(htrcs a,ld cquiprncrt srE sonla of thc mcani uraL.l to mnt(tl stntic prcs5rlrc

jlrE,ht frsrtivc or rrcrrtr,rl prcrsrrc lo oilrxtslh('rc rr (hllirult $irh [ll vrrirblc volunrc systcnrs ln nrost 5Islcnl5. lhc cxhrrrrt rcqrrircnrcnt for thc sprcc is cooslanla hcncc. thc ou(strlc uir usc(l to cqual thc crlrausr air rnd nEct rhc nrinrnurn (tulsidc iir ,cqurrcilrcrtt firr tlrc builtJing c(xJcs rru!t also rcnrrin con!tall l)uc lr) tlrc l6ation of thc oulridc rir intnlc a,rd tlla cll!ilgc! rr pras\!rc. thit dN5 not u!ually hippcn llrc outsidc arr lhould arncr rlrc fnil .lt a fDi[l of constant prclsrrrc (i c , lrpply fan rolrrrlrc crrr k* coilrollcd hy proporrional itatic prcr3lrr. cr)nlrol. *hich can corlrol lllc vol(rnc oI rlrc rctum air [M)

prcvio! sion.
thc

Ii
I

otrcl tc(ingt lo full hcating..nd nlalc cenarn lhtt lrd durl-d(t boxca furction pnlJrcrly. Spor-clrcck thc rirllow.l rKnldillurcn Chcck for rtntificrrion 6 lf thc cngirer hE ircludcd r divcniry frctor in sclccrint thc mlin rppmtu!, it pill nol bc lpstiblc to gct full flow fmm all
lhc @nlolt

J Chn8c

1.

borcr rlmultanosly, rr etlincd in hcm 3b in thc prcvious scc. tion MirlnS boxct clGcrt to thc fln rhald bc *r to thc oppolitc hd or @ld drck to thc mrc criticrl rcasn air oow to forcc lhc

!i(

to thc cnd of thc !ysr. m

thi! cornlol ri ilor cncrsy cOicicnt S)st.ttr Byff,lr Conlrcl. A! thc 5tstcnl lrcssutc incrcxlcs (luc l(l tcrnrinal bor.t cloring. r rclicfdamgr bypNsca tlrc Jysrcrn air bicl ro rhc lafl inlcr W,lh this tylc of aontrol. thcccoiloIry of \n{icd fin oiltpul is rrencrtitcnt, rild thc rrliaf d.ilrlEt i5 lriually a fitiior lourcc of dlcl lc^lsgc rrxl noi5c Tlrc rclicf d0tr)grcr slruld bc rn(xltlttcd to nlainlain a niniflrurn duct slitic 0Es5urc Dixhargr f)anrpcr Syslcnr losrs lod loise slrtrLrlrl lrc co rsrri crcd witlr this sysrcr \'oder Otmpcr Slrtcrrr losscs drr lo inlct nI coil{liltrrir\ irc i problcm. ilxl the voncr danltEr d{Es lril conrplctcly clorc l lrc n)ir in.ufir cxlxctcd airllow slrould lrc crahrrtcd

Cortrrl. llris ts somclinrcs r.fcr.rl to rl crroc Tlis t)pc ol tyltcrn sho0ld bc litnilcd to sys wrh irrininrurn airflows of 50% of Frk dcsign nild 0rl tcril! forward curvcd frnl Prcssuc nild noijc are lttantinl pmt,lclll. nn,l
''riLlrng thc farr

No Fcn \blunrttric

llelrrru Air Frrrs


lI rarurl ilr lxils ,[r re(lurrcd rr (cilcs $rllr a srrpply (rur. tlrc rylr ofcorltaol ind saliIe ol tlrc liurs rs r]!)\{ rilt{nnnl Scrious ovcr anrj
utrlcrprrssrrrir.rtrrlr cfclc

TIE t.rnl F.durc ld baliwrrri r VAV ryrro b ,lF*'dlif,i I Dcr.mrE rlE Equi,cd mrrimum rlr rclum to bc &liwrrd by.i rh. lupply r.xl rtum !i. fanr. Divcnly of led u$dly ns!t'-J rhnr rhc volunt will bc srmwhnl lcst lhrn thc elld drl. ' '*r 2 oborn lan cury.! on rh.E unirt. rnd rcqu.il hfqubn{d;-:. :I surgc chuctcrirticr fom rhc iu manuf*tucr .l lf rh iolcr voncr danrpcr corrtrrl ir to tE ued, obarin thc fm nrnouf-ruft. t dr. p.narnrrt to thc dcrdiq of lhc frn rlro: uscd wilh thc drmpr. lf rJrcd conrEl it utcd, hrd th muinrum .nd nlinimum lpccd rhar cro bc uEd on tha paojd. 4 Obrtin (om rlE mMufxruEr rh< nlinimum ud ruimm oFatinS o.ctrurcr fs lcmrinil o. vrnnhlc volum hor6 b bG urad on rhc pajd. 5 Conltruct r tho.crical !yilcrn cu.vc. rmludin3 u rppruirutc rrrrge nr Th ryir.m curvc ttur .r thc minimum iolq tdic prctruc of thc borcr. plus lyilcm lo$ rt minimum llos, gd t.dninrt.r rt thc d.litn nrrrirnuo flow Thc ogalln3 ojc uring M inl.( y!ft damfE. ir bclwccn thc rurtc liB |ffi. rion wilh thc lyflim curc and rhc rurimum &rip Oow. whcn vuiablc rp.cd ronlrol ir u$d. thc opantinl mtc it bctwccn (!) thc minirounr spccd lhal can produa lha lEsfy nrininrum bor itatic at mininrilm llow rtill in lha fD! trrblc ,angc rrx, (b) thc marin\rnl rfEcd n.cctgry to obttin mri: 1

"Ylr.i.:Il,'l .,. ,!: trB

(rn (icrrr. c5lEcirlly durirts lhc

6 7 8

cc(xtrlrirar

1\'pes o( \'AV Sl.stcrns Sirtglt'l)rrct VA\'. I hrs !y\rcnl illaorl\trilcs ir lrc!\rrc (lalrcil or rr(lcli(trd.It tcililirrrl rr(J rrsrrnllr lrrs rclrcrt rt sorIc prcdc lctrrrrtrcd rrnIrrrl \cttiIR oil tha lcIrinnl unrl or scfnritc hciting
(lcrrl
s)

nrum dcrign flow. Po!rrion thc rcmioal [x)rct to th. proJrcnion of muirum frn !ir rolsmc lo tot!l iolrrllcd tcoilioal nruirnum rclum. Scr rlrc fan ta opcriilc !t rpprorirrratc dcrign tpccd (itrce alxut 5 for a full ofrn inlct vafic dlmfrr) Chcck a rcprcscntrti!c nurrftr ol tcrntirral borcr. ll r widc vunl()n iil rtatic lrctsu,c rt arcoontcr(d. or iI thc aiaflow rt r numl*r of borcs ir ttlow nrirrrrrurrr ot nr;uinrum flow. ctrr\ cvcry

hor

slcnl
By

rrc()rl\)rrrc3 i l)resrlrrc (lclEnrlcrl tlrttrJrt. rrhich. rrrr tlcrrnntl lor lrcrtilS., closcs lhc dsnrl{. k) thc
stricc rnd of\.Is t{r tlrc rclrnt ntr plcnllll
I hrs s; stcrrr solrctirrrs lrcorf{)t:rtcs n cr)n\tilt l)) l}nrs illrlloN ot n rr(hracrl irrrrrrt rrl lrr0ou b1'prsrcd to rllc ,ct!ol Ilcililill in talr

lrrsr S1 rttrtt. I lrn sy srcrrr

9 I0

Run r total air trarcrsc witlr 8 pirot ruhr lncr.aJc rhc rfrc.d it intic prctlurc rnd/q volumc e low. lt llrc lolutrlc ii cofirct. hur rlrc lratic ii high.,.ducc lhc rpad. lf rhe iitic rr high or crtrrcct. h(t rhc \ olumc ir low. chcck tq tysrcrtcll.ct al thc tan lIrhcrc rs no 1]rrcnrclTcct, gootrdl tcr. nrirrrlr !nd orljutt thcm tr) tlrc nropc, volunrc

99-i /\S
rrr,rr

||

it,\

l,

.A

!plicrrt iorrs ll rrrrrllrrrol, (Sl)

Ii stirrg,,\rI jrrrtir,,
(rrlrlrir\1. rlrf Lrrrr i,

rl ll;rllrrrr

irr1l rrrir.

ll

1,

l2

I
I

{ llrc lanllErrluc
pl0ccd

lcnl klOn nlirrimuill ootd(br arr I'o[Fdio[ tlrc ootlctJ. tild vcrify lltc dcrigil t1)llilIc witlt t,rc VAV bor or tlt fir0rillrIn 0ow 161116g Vcrify tlrc rilinirrrrrrrr flow rcttirrg. S.t tlE tannirHl! to nrirrirnrrn. rrrd !(lJUil tlK iillct vrnc ()r jrrc(l $nlrollcr unril InioInurn irrtic l)ftlroft t|d airflow rrc rilairrc,l
contrcl 1xr:onncl. thc balorcrn3 pcrrOnncl. ro(l llrc dcti_gn cngirEcr thould !gtcc o^ thc frnal pliccnrnr ol rlrc

Rurr rlclt ( 7) llrrorlth ( l()) *rth tlrc rctufit t)r .rlr.)r,sl li!r rat ill dcriEn rird ilrcuurcd by n frtol.tulx trrvcrrc und wrtll tlrc t)t_

34.7

tl) l'.trr

srrr

1,',6. rr,,t,, lirq\ur,r {r (l,r,rl\ Lrr I I rl

.) l'lot ot

aLilrnl rc,t(lilr!{ oil ill,ilrr{irftIrcr,s tril l(rloilil.ilt(c (urrc t0 rlil,\v ll,c Ir\l.trtc(l larr r 1*r,rrr.r6 lrrrrrr l) Mcr-rurcrJ arrlloiv rarc
tO

It rl tr''F'rtrnr
llrc

(l(Srr(X\,il)lrrrctrrilrrrrr ,,rl$,rl!lll0(.r,rlr llIrll0,c tlrf l){01)cr lrlrltttrorrl r:tl'r: (rllr tlra {il1((I t,'il|,,1 (lr;[lLtfl\trr \ Lr,r\l lv l;il \r(l(rlrtc,rllt(ilil1\,tltoprrrlrrrtr|rr,rllyl\,rli|r(atlrc$,ttfrll,,$rirtc nCr()tliilll trl llrc (lcsrl[ (r,ilrlrtklr\ llcrt( 'llrrrrsfrr rrt l{trlrrcrrl l,Irrr l(rrlr

lU lr'r tlt, r.rr,r

0l

tlrL t!hl[0,r1

5 Clrccl
sirJc

a!crtr8c nturrnull rtrJ nrinirnrrm $iliC ptcs!tjr(, tn thC,rltcm

khgr for lhc rtrtic pft!l\,rc conlroll.r..Ilrir scnnr ir I rcp.rkntnlivc lxation in thc,lrtlply duct

mrrrt lE to !<nsc

to cniurc tlnt lllc lotil lnn rll,lnlrty \!rll rrcrcr bt lcsl lh,rl tIc IninrrIunt rcqIrrcrncnI lt nlso rcrrci rs I clrcrL rrf tlrrt lr)irlir)B in c()ilr, tincc tIc (t<lign rir rlrrrrrrrry f{rr lr;rt. ti):,(lirj6 r)l rtjc frltcr: ltrt alrcarJl. b<cn calaulilc(,

[o: lhc iir t(ct0rjcnt c(luifIrc0l n|(l tlrc rluct sy!tcIr rr) tl!rt rlrc rrIa' lioil ln rir qUl)tily duc to frllc, ltrrrtirrg crrr I,c cIl(Uliitcrt lt cilrl,lcl

ail,\l,lirh tlrc

il|trrt ]l,lrr, 1,,,.(\l,ruj

,..

rilr,, . t/

I'r ilr(,llr(riln tl,,.r (,rI lt rrrtrrrrrr hy r,usill! tlrc tyil!rD lrl\l'l) \irtCa t![rpCtirturt' l)i\,Sil l\krw rlE tcrrrlrratrrC litnit o( l:{)"C r'{ tl( ASt'lli kru,|rcrrrrrc c(xjc llrrl hc coNidccd. 'l lrc lrrcrrrrrr f{nnlllutr ill\ltly to ltL,rrrug tclrrillll !cl<ct!d fiy r lO K tcrrlxritrrc (lron (drl r,,rl wrrlr I rrrpply wat., taorlE.utlrrc ol alxtrrt 91"(-- liigrrrc I rtrors.r tlrc llr)\v !ivilron *lxn 90i tcrrninel (nl)iarty
(.r,,.e,1

(kiitlcr

lmclt ff rLijuilr

lir

thc rctrm 8tr lail tlrad or trt tillct vanc (tailrlxr lllrr to tlE tupply fan airflow lo cnluc prolEr qrt.
volurrrc

4 Ttnrnol

Ourlttt

l6 -

()l<rs(a tlrc r)5tam orr lft)'f orrtrirjc i[ (\!citlrcr lrrnlililnqt nrd <lrcl rrrpl It o,r(l rclum [rrrj fur fiopcr gr,"ci a,r,l sraiic frciSurc

!) Outlct by r@nl dcitgoilion antl 1r)srttol b) Outlat tn3nt,fnclUrc ar)d t).n c) Oullct lIa (usiilg It!nullcturcr'l (tcsr!|irroI
fncror)

tL)

crr\rrc pft,|rcr

lndrrction Syrtenrr
An.ir8

hidt induction !y!ciltr ujc llSh.vrl(Xity !ir (li5tribution rlRld b. e@nrplirh.d rr tollowr:

Bal

Go L\i-, /
_'>.,

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Optimal Control for a Simple Variable Air Volume Air Handling Unit
By Rob Moult

Abstract
Variable air volume air handling units (VAV AHUs) are extremelv common. In conventionai control of VAV AHUs, the control loops are not co-ordinated resulting in wasted energy. This paper proposes an optimal controi strategy for the simpie type of VAV AHU as is commonly used in Southeast Asia. The control strategy wiil minimize energy whiie ensuring comfort. The strategy also inciudes a reai-time diaenostic to alert the operator when air balancing could lead to additional energy savings.

Simple VAV AHU


The tvpe of

VaV AI{U commonly

used in Southeast Asia is shown in Figure

I below.

Return

Air

Cooling
Coil

Outdoor Air
Chilled Water Valve Variabl
Speed

Supply Air To VAV Boxes

Drive

Figure I

Simple VAV AHU

This tlrpe ot'V.rV AHL has the fbllo',ving charactenstics: . Outdoor air damper and retum air damper are llxed. not modulating - in some cases, where the .{HU is usei as part of a smoke spiil system. the outdoor air and return air dampers mav be two-position . ,,There is no mixed air scnsor or mixed air controi . There is no return lan . There is no space pressurization control . There is no heating

1'he optimization routine described in this paper can also be applied to the more complex

VAV

AHUs found in North America.

,--'\ -1_

sY)

ControlLoops
The simple

. .

AHU has *ree control loops: Temperature Control Loop - The chilled water valve is modulated to achieve the desired otf-coil temperature Pressure Control Loop - The variabie speed drive is moduiated to achieve the desired duct
static pressure

VAV Box Control Loop - The VAV box damper is modulated to deliver the desired airflor.v
as estabiished by the temperature

control loop

Overview of VAV AHU Optimization Algorithm


As shown in Figure 2. the VAV AHU Optimization Algorithm interacts with ail three control Ioops. The reai-time inputs to the VAV AHU Optimization Aigorithm are the duct static pressure . the commanci to the variable speed drive (0% - 100%) and the command to each of the VAV box dampers (0o,6 - 100%). The outputs of the VAV AHU Optimization Algorithm are the setpoint of the off-coii temperature control loop, the setpoint of the pressure control loop and the bias for the VAV box temperature control loop.

VAV AHU Optimization Algorithm

Temperature Control

Tem perature

Control

Pressure Control

Off-coil chilled water Temoera(ure Valve

Ouct SLatic Pressure

Soeed

Veloclty Space Variable Drive Temperature Pressure

VAV Box Damper

Figure 2 - [nteraction of Optimization Algorithm with Control Loops

Fcr simplicity. Figure 2 docs not show the other control'parameters such as space temperature serpoint and loop tuning parameters that are not involved in the VAV AHU Optimization Alqorlthm.

-2-

Fi n

ite Stafe

M ac h i n

e Represen tati o n

Variable Speed Drive output at minimum for 15 minutes

Variable Speed Drive output

at 100% for I 5 minutes

Off-coi I temperatu re reset

at zero for 15 minutes

VAV box tempenture bias at zero for 15 minutes

Figure 3 - State Diagram of VAV AHU Optimization Algorithm As shown in Figure 3. the VAV AHU Optimization Algorithm considers the AHU to be in one ofthree states: o Low AHU Load - During periods of minimal heat load (i.e. iow occupancy at night) . Normal AHU Load - During tvpical periods (this is the initial state of the optimization algorithm) . High AHU Load - During periods of very high heat load (i.e. high occupancy in the
afternoon)

The VAV AI-{U Cptimization .{lgorithm uses dilferent optimization strategies tbr each state. Tabie l providesasynopsisof theoptimizationstrategyusedineachofthethreestates.

Fix Variabie Speed Drive output at minimum


Do not reset temperature
bias of

Fix otf-coil temperature


setpoint

Fix Variabie Speed Drive output at maximum Fix otfl-coii temperature setpoint
Reset temperature bias of all V'.\!' boxes to maintain

Do not reset temperature


bias of

VAV

bo.res

VAV

boxes

Reset off-coil temperature setpoint to maintain static pressure setpoint

Table I

static pressure setpoint Synopsis of Optimization Strategies in Each State

Reset static pressure setpoint based on VAV box damper positions

lt )

-3-

Normal AHU Load State


An AHU is designed to accommodate a range of heat loads. When the actual heat load is within this range, the AHU rvill be in the Normai AHU Load State. As indicated in Tabie l, the role of the VAV AHU Optimization Routine in the Normal AHU Load State is to reset the static pressure setpoint based on VAV box position. To appreciate the benefit of this optimization, it is usefui to consider the implications of the conventionai method ol static pressure control using a fixed static pressure setpoint. There are lwo problems with the conventionai approach of fixed static pressure setpoint: . Selecting the fixed static pressure setpoint

Locating the static pressure sensor

Se/ecfing the Fixed Sfafic Pressure Sefpoint If the static pressure setpoint is too low, some of the VAV boxes will not be abie to get enough air ro provide comfort. Some VAV boxes will have their dampers 100% open but the actual t'low will stiil be less than the desired flow. These boxes are "starved" tbr air and fail to achieve
the space temperatue setpoint. This situation is iilustrated in Figure 4 beiow.

Fan

Speed

Static Pressure Setpoint = 100 Pascal


I

of 40"/'
Flow^
400

Flow^
250

Flow150

Damper
1

Damper
7 0o/o

Damper
30%

00%
300

Elps"

E&jv..
250

Flow,
150

Zone A
High Load

B Medium Load
Zone
Flowo = Desired

Zone C Low
Load
Flow^ = Actual Flow

FIow

Figure

I-

Effect of a Lorv Static Pressure Setpoint

fhe loiv static pressure setpoint will cause the tan to run at a lo,.v speed and use little enerev. Hon,ever. ihe Vfv box in Zone A is starved. The actual tlorv is less than the desired t1ow, even thou-eh the damper is 1009/o open. Zone A '.vill get hotter as insufficient cool air is being pL,tuideci. The buildins operator typically does not understand how the static pressure setpoint
aflects the system. Operators often raise the static pressure setpoint after receiving compiaints about hot spots and come to the conclusion that "higher is better". As a result. the static pressure setpoint is often set at an excessively high level. effectivelv converting the VAV system into a constant voiume system. The operator does not reccive an1, complaints about liot spots but does not reaiize that energy is being wasted.

6z)

-4

-..:\:r>:r{

Fan

Speed

Static Pressure Setpoint = 300 Pascal

of

809/"

Flow.
400

Flow.
250

FIown
150

Damper
65%

Damper
30% Flowq
250

Damoer
10%

Eles
400

Agw^

tt

150

Zcne A High Load

Zone B
Medium Load
Flowo = Desired Flow

Zone C Low
Load
Flow^ = Actual Ficw

Figure 5 - Effect of a High Static Pressure Setpoint

If the static pressure setpoint is too high, energy is wasted as the lan is w,trking harder than truly necessary. In addition high static pressure setpoints lead to noise and controllabilitv problems. This situation is illustrated in Figure 5. In this situation. there will be no comfort problems in the space. This is because. lor each of the VAV boxes. the actual flow is the same as the desired flow. In other words. none of the VAV boxes are starved- The l'an speed is much
higher as compared to the previous condition as the fan must work harder to maintain the higher static pressure setpoint. Having tire least load. Zone C l-ras the lowest airi-low requirement of oni,v 150 CFVI. To achie.re ihis airflow with the lor,v static pressure setpoint. the damper was -109/o open. To achieve the same airllow rvith the high static pressure setpoint. the damper was l()% open. We can see that increasing the static pressure setpoint rviil cause the VAV box dampers to close to maintain the same desired airflow. Pushing the same volume of air through a smailer opening will increa:e the noise of the svstem. In other rvords. a high static pressure setooinr increrses the noise in the
SVSTCM.

A high static

pressure setpoint also reduces the controllabilitlu of the systcm. This is iilustrateC in Fisure 6. The airtlow throush a VAV box will increase quickly as the damper starts to open. This can be seen in the non-linear characteristic of airflow versus cirmper position in Figure 6. Each-VAV box has a minimum tlo,,v and maximum tlow proerammed into the controller. The controiler will position the damper to achieve a desireC tlow that wili be betwee n the minimum

flow and the maximum flow. The minimum florv and the maximum florv are shorvn as
horizontal lines in Fisure 6.

the

(@

Static Pressure

Air
Flow

500 Pascal

200 Pascal

Marimum Flow
100 Pascal

Minimum Flow
0ri
r5%
1

Damper
00$

Position

Figure 6 - Effect of Static Pressure Setpoint on Damper Throttling Range


We can see tiom Figure 6 that with a static pressure setpoint of 100 Pascal, the VAV box carulot achieve the ma-ximum airflow condition, even with the damper 100y, open. This means that the VAV box will often be starved and space comfort wiii often not be achieved with a static pressure setpoint of 100 Pascai. The VAV box wili be able to achieve the ma.ximum airf'low condition with a static pressure setpoint of either 200 Pascal or 500 Pascal. The impact of increasing the sratic pressure setpoint is to decrease the thronling range of the damper. Tluonling range is defined as the difference between the sienal required to achieve minimum position and the signal to achieve maximum position. In Figure 6. the throttiing range of the damper ,,viren the static pressure setpoint is 200 Pascal is roughly 48% and the throttling range oithe damper when the static pressure setpoint is 500 Pascal is roughly 14%. See Table 2.

00 Pascal 200 Pascal i0O Pascal


I

5%
'\o/ ,,o
l o/O
t

Not Possibie
509/"

Table 2 -

t596 on Damper Throttling Range Pressure Setpoint El'fect of Static

N.A. 48% t4%

Increesins the static pressure setpoint tiom 200 Pascai to i00 Pascal cuts the damper throttlint: range by tr.vo thirds. As the throttiing ranqe decreases. the svstem is more sensitive to controi adjusrments. For example. if the minimum airflow is i00 CFlvl and the maximum airflow is 1000 CF\1, a 19lo change in damper position r,vill change the airflow by iess than l5 CFlvl when the static pressure setpoint is 200 Pascal. Changing the static pressure setpoint to 500 Pascal would result in a change of 50 CFivl for a l% change in damper position. It is much more diificult to control the airflow accurately with a high static pressure. In addition, VAV box damper actuators use stepper motors with a finite positioning resoiution. This positioning resolution increases the difficulty in achieving stable box control with high static pressures.

ry

-6

Locating fhe Sfaffc Pressure Sensor


During the design phase. a certain static pressure is assumed in the ductwork. Static pressure sensors are located in the ducfwork at the points of minimum static pressure and the setpoint is initialized at the static pressure assumed during the design phase. This approach wiil hopefully etsure that the static pressure at all points in the ductwork is at least the value assumed during the design phase. In reality, VAV boxes oniy come in fixed sizes and it is impossible to accurately determine the point of lbwest static pressure in the ductwork, especiaily when there is a complicated ducrwork design. As a result, the design static pressure may not be the optimal setpoint for the acruai installed system.
As shown in Figure 7, in the simplified case of one straight run of ductwork. this is one half to two thirds of the rvav aiong the duct run. When the ductwork has two or more branches, a static pressure sensor is placed at the point of lowest static pressure in each of the duct runs and the lan is controlled to ensure that the lowest static pressure in the entire ductwork system is the static pressure setpoint. See Figure 8.

Figure 7 - Static Pressure Sensor Placement in Single Duct Run

Figure 8 - Static Pressure Sensor Locations in Vlultiple Duct Runs

Consider the exampie in Figure 3 of branch A serving the east side of the building and branch B serving lhe west sidc,rlthc buildine. In the mornins, the static pressure on the east side woulci be low and the lan wouid be controlled bv sensor A and in the afternoon. the tan would be controiled bv sensor B.

With a fixed static pressure setpoint. it is imponant to sense the static pressure et the minimum point in the ductwork to cnsure that the static pressure f,t that point is at the selpoint vaiue. If this is achieved then the static pressure in all other portions of the ductw'ork r.r,ill be higher than the setpoint ensuring that there are no starved boxes.
Horvever, since the point of lowest static pressure in the ducnvork varies over time and with a shifting building load, muitiple sensors are required. Because of the complexity of real-life duct designs, even with muitiple sensors, it is not possible to guarantee that the lowest pressure point in the system is being sensed. In addition. each static pressure sensor increases both the first cost and the maintenance cost lor the svstem.

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DESIGN AND COOLING LOAD CHECK FIGURES


I

Applications

Occupancy Sq FUPerson

Lignting Watts/Sq Ft

Frnsh
CFMi

I I

Air

Floom

Person

CFM/Sq Ft

Sensible Btuh/Sq h

Room Total \ Btuh/Sq

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.Supply_Alrfi CFM/Sq Ft Avg

Avg

Apartments (Flats) Auditoriums, Theatsrs Educatlonal Facilrties Classrooms Laboratories Caf eteria-Cotlee Flouso Factories Public Arcos Llght Manufacturing lleavy Manufacturing"
ilos pitals

40
1E

25

1.75

30

s0

2.s
.30 .40 .60

30 75

l.J

10
20 't5

15

l0
50

,20 ,20 .40

la
't ,8 2.1

200 300
20

3.0 3,0 6.5


1.4

Patient Roomst Public Areas Laboratories Libraries Doctors Clinics


Otf Ices

100
130 150

I 60 I 100
I
100 100 100

40 65 50
50

7sl
101

5.0

rs0

I 150 |
r50
125

10.0

20

90 20 30

100

l.7sl

16

4E 15

50 35

20
15

40 20
55 35 45

55

40

45

60
50 60

50

4.0i

s0i
6o

75

,ol

30 40

30 25

tt)
55

60 30 45 30 40

165 100 100

1.7 1.7

2,0
1.7
2.O

70
80

-l
| 125 I

2
30 25

65

lPrrvale
General - Perimetor General . lnlsrior Conlerencs Roonts Restaurants Shopping C6nters Beauty & Birber Shops Dsperlment Stores - Basement
- Main Floor ' UPPot Floors

125

100 100

,oi l0l
l0
|

al 15
15

30 20 50

25

20
15

50 35

AE

55

20
35

201

30
15

30
30

'o --1
45

70 30 80 50

20
40 40

40 25 65 50

80 75

40
30 25 60 60

90

175

13s

2.4

)85
40 120

J)
90 70

250 400
150 150

150 300 100


100

120

2.3 t.1 2.7 2.0

40 30

25 20

0f I 5.0f 9.0fl1 i.5

40 40
BO

501

I s0I I

15

25

35 30 35 25 35 35
15

55
AI

40 35

60
50

50
EE

bU

BO

tc,
50 30
at

ti
40 25 20 40

90hl s.0l
6Ofl1 5.0

7s 75
5.0

20
25
15

40 40 60 60

y Shops

40 50

4.01 101 15 601 50I 7,s 201 50I 75


4.01 5.0

30
CE

45 35 45 45 25
A<

40 30 45 40 20 40

50 40 55 50
30 50

40 30
bU

45 50 40 65
50

60 60 50 75 60 40 60

250 325 300

200 250 300


180

150

1,5 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.4

2.0

275 200
200 250
100

t,75
2.0
1.2

400
200 300 500

40 40

250 400 250

200 300

2.0 2.0

10

7.s

25

35

30 50

t.5
2.0

300

200

'

Rlrigerantron loads aro lor entire application. + Air qualities shown ars lor all.air syslerns.

il lncludes other qulpnlenl loads expressed in watls/sq tt. " Air quanlrties lot heavy ma0ulactufing aroas aro basod supplonlenlary means lo romove gxccssivo hsal,

-_,
P.AI[

OJOO

CHWR DROP FROM ABO\[

0f rt0Yi

w\t

\
0250

clw

|NSULATION cH\fl TOYITR

IO SiRvt OFNCI
MTT OF FIOYI VII\T

6250 ClYt tNSUt/TjON

U)

(J

# -E
O

'1r\ Y"\

v
nr,
(0N/0tt r/PFl
V0i9P1559vAlvr -

^\' ^\) -\) tr

5
O O

'- --

r5otltl,

. \\P

^(\' ^"$l*bq

ffi

swrTcHB0ARD DtM

10400(L)x1200(w)

Fundamentals of HvAc (Heating, ventilation & Air-conditioning)

EGO77

-END OF- WCR.KSFICP_


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