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Framework for Conducting Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Data Centers

Christophe Garnier EMEA Technical Work Group Member Schneider Electric

The Green Grid EMEA Forum 2012


Celebrating 5 Years of Leading the Industry to Resource Efficient IT

Agenda
Objective of the study Environment versus sustainability Life cycle analysis principles
System boundaries Functional unit Life cycle perspective Comprehensiveness

Life cycle analysis limitations and trends Lessons Whats next?

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Objectives of TGG study


Give framework and rules for conducting studies on environmental aspects of data centers Not calculate numbers Not a list of best practices

Make proposals for next studies, anticipate future developments in this area, to give TGG a vision in the environmental field

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The 3 Pillars of Sustainability


Sustainability = meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet (Brundtland Report, 1987)

This study focuses on environmental aspects only

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International Standardization Bodies


International Electrotechnical Commission

TC 111

SC22H: UPS JTC1 SC39 Datacenter metrics ISO 14040: Life cycle assessment Principles and framework

Environment

SG 5
International Telecommunication Union

TC 207
International Standardization Organization Copyright 2012, The Green Grid

Existing Studies: Various Scopes, Goals, Organizations


Environmental impacts Single impact: GHG Protocol Data Centre Chapter Multi impacts: ISO 14040 Life Cycle Analysis Product phase Most of the time, only use phase 2 phases embedded/use, several TC111 Product scope All products in scope: ISO 14040 Data Center only: GHG Protocol Geographical scope WW: ISO, IEC, ITU TC207 Europe: EU methodology, Singapore: SS564 No visible activity in US and Asia for the moment Product, organization, or service? A data center can be considered as a product, an organization, or a service Focused on reduction Calculate progress, and not current number Standards or consortia IEC, ISO, ITU, GHG Protocol, TGG, Copyright 2012, The Green Grid

SG5

Life Cycle Assessment Principles


Complete life cycle + all environmental impacts.

Product life cycle


Manufacturing Construction Transport Use Maintenance End of life Upgrade

Raw material

Environmental impacts

Air Water Energy Global Warming (CO2) Ozone Toxic Waste Substances Recycling Biodiversity Noise

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Life Cycle Assessment Principles


Be careful about pollution shifts: Do not transfer burden from one environmental impact category to another

Before
Energy

After
Hazardous substances Waste

For instance, what is the global environmental benefit if you reduce energy consumption and increase hazardous substances and waste?

?
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Life Cycle Analysis Principles


System boundaries: What is in/out the study Functional unit: Unit of reference Life cycle perspective: Consider complete life cycle Comprehensiveness: All aspects of natural environment, human health, and resources

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System Boundaries
Set of criteria specifying which unit processes are part of a product system (ISO 14040) Description of what is IN and OUT of the data center There no unique definition of a data center Each study can have its own boundaries but clearly defined Required to compare, measure evolution, or aggregate data Use ratio when data center is part of a building with other functions

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IN or OUT of Data Center?

Fire system

Lightning

Submarine cables Satellites

Employee offices

Lifts Photovoltaic panels


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Functional Unit
Quantified description of performance of a product system for use as a reference unit (ISO 14040) Defines what is being studied, all subsequent analyses are then relative to that functional unit
What is measured in the data center? Per compute basis = Very complex Calculation capacity, storage capacity, transactions per second, + system availability, geographical area Per-kW of computing per-year basis

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Functional Unit Examples


Year 1: Data center A, Year 2: Same data center A with 50% less activity. PUE is better. Data center is more efficient?

Data center A is Tier 1, data center B is Tier 4 with same activity. A is more efficiency than B? Assessment of impact for 1 year usage. Divide lifetime impact by expected lifetime of equipment.

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Life Cycle
Consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal (ISO 14040) Life Cycle Phases for a Data Center

Use, Upgrade, Maintenance

Building and Components

Construction
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Comprehensiveness
Life cycle analysis considers all aspects of natural environment, human health and resources. By considering all aspects, potential trade-offs can be identified and assessed (ISO 14040). Environmental impacts Energy consumption Water usage / pollution Air pollution Carbon footprint Hazardous substances Waste Noise Biodiversity
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Shifting Impacts
Through such a systematic overview and perspective, the shifting of a potential environmental burden between life cycle stages can be identified and possibly avoided Refresh equipment every year with top of the class
More efficient Recycling and packaging waste
Dismantling existing building

Move to a carbon neutral building


New carbon neutral building

Using water from river


Save drinkable water Warm the river

Electronic documentation
Save paper Use IT

Photovoltaic panels
Save energy Raw material, hazardous/rare substance
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Rebound Effect
Smaller/cheaper -> shorter life time
More devices -> same function in several devices More powerful -> more use (video,) More flexible -> more upgrade

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Limits of Life Cycle Analysis


Expertise people are required Resources: Time and money Data collection No data, no result Uncertainty Primary data: Measure or collected data Secondary Data: Data derived from other sources such as literature or database Impact categories: Carbon is the most recognized and documented Also water, air, ozone, biodiversity

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Life Cycle Analysis Trend: What to Measure?


From single criteria to global assessment
TODAY
Manuf. / Constr. / Use / Transp. End of life Design Commission Maintenance Raw material Air Water Energy Global Warming Ozone Toxic Waste Substances Recycling Biodiversity Noise Manuf. / Constr. / Use / Transp. End of life Design Commission Maintenance Raw material Air Water Energy Global Warming Ozone Toxic Waste Substances Recycling Biodiversity Noise Manuf. / Constr. / Use / Transp. End of life Design Commission Maintenance Manuf. / Constr. / Use / Transp. End of life Design Commission Maintenance

YESTERDAY

TOMORROW
Raw material Air Water Energy Global Warming Ozone Toxic Waste Substances Recycling Biodiversity Noise

1 phase x all impacts = PUE, CUE, WUE, xUE,

1 phase x 1 impact = PUE

Raw material Air Water Energy Global Warming Ozone Toxic Waste Substances Recycling Biodiversity Noise

All phases x all impacts = Focus on main impacts

All phases x 1 impact = Carbon footprint


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Life Cycle Analysis Trend: How to Measure?


Many methodologies under development
ITU/ETSI, IEC, GHG Protocol, EU JRC

Compatible, similar results


Good for identification of main impacts

But too much uncertainty


GW from 20 to 50 substances CO2 conversion not always the same

At the end
Comparison is not possible Regulation cannot be implemented

Standardization of KPIs
ISO/IEC JTC1 SC39

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The Time is Now!


Define the data center Product category rules Opportunity for the data center industry
We are in a proactive position to provide guidance and rules to legislative bodies

Benefits
Harmonize assessments between methodologies Let the industry define the rules Reduce uncertainty

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TGG Is the Key Player


JTC1 SC39 SG5

TC111

TC207

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Thanks - Merci

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:-)

Thank You
christophe.garnier@schneider-electric.com

The Green Grid EMEA Forum 2012


Celebrating 5 Years of Leading the Industry to Resource Efficient IT