The Hamburg School of Astrology originated in Hamburg, Germany, and revolved aro und the research and teachings

of surveyor/astrologer/amateur astronomer Alfred Witte. The term Hamburg School of Astrology originated in 1923 at the Second Ger man Astrological Congress in Leipzig, Germany, where the astronomer/astrologer D r. Wilhelm Hartmann was a participant. The Hamburg School was established as an Association as "Astrologenverein Hambur ger Schule" at October 31, 1925, 9h45'51" PM (-2 = GMT) Early collaborator of Alfred Witte were Friedrich Sieggrün and Ludwig Rudolph. In his search for Pluto, Witte claimed four planets beyond Pluto, and Sieggrün claime d yet another four. These bodies are in the Transneptunian regions, where many p lanetary discoveries are being validated today. These astrologically derived tra nsneptunian factors have as of 2009 neither been proven nor disproven to be amon g what astronomers have generically labeled Transneptunians, or Kuiper Belt, Sca ttered Disk Objects, or Oort Cloud phenomena, as further research on this region remains to be done. Remo, John L. (2007), "Classifying Solid Planetary Bodies", AIP Conference Proceedings 886: 284 302, Bibcode:2007AIPC..886..284R, doi:10.1063 /1.2710063 Witte promoted the use of the transneptunian hypothetical planets, me aning none of the Witte transneptunian planets were astronomically verifiable at the time in which he discovered them nor have they been verified by astronomers at any time since he proposed their existence. Witte s transneptunian planets wer e, Cupido, Hades, Zeus and Kronos. In 1924, Sieggrün expanded the list of transnep tunian hypothetical planets to include Apollon, Admetos, Vulkanus and Poseidon, beyond what Witte himself perceived to exist. Ludwig Rudolph printed and published Witte's findings, the core of which were pu blished in the Rulebook for Planetary Pictures (Regelwerk für Planetenbilder) in 1 932. An increasing amount of the research of the Hamburg School revolved around work with astrological midpoints and use of the extra planets. Unfortunately, Witte and Rudolph were pursued by the Gestapo as enemies of the T hird Reich. Alfred Witte committed suicide before being sent to a concentration camp, and Ludwig Rudolph was indeed interned, the Rulebook for Planetary Picture s banned and burned by the Nazis. Reinhold Ebertin, a (unofficial) student of Hamburg School methods, eliminated t he use of the hypothetical trans-neptunian objects while maintaining the core te achings of the Hamburg School, renamed them "Cosmobiology" (German: Kosmobiologi e), and published them in The Combination of Stellar Influences in 1940, last up dated in English in 1972. After the fall of the Third Reich, the Hamburg School reconvened, and Ludwig Rud olph, having survived concentration-camp internment, played the key role in perp etuating the teachings of the Hamburg School. The Hamburg School astrologer Herm ann Lefeldt combined Witte's theories with more astrological traditions such as the use of astrological houses. However, other Hamburg practitioners maintained their focus on working only with astrological midpoints [1], abandoning traditio nal practices, including the 12 houses and rulerships; and among these astrologe rs is former Hamburg School Vice-President Ruth Brummund, who went on to form th e new School of Uranische Astrology (Uranian astrology) in Germany.

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