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*
JABATAA :GERISEMBILAN JA WBILAN
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JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERl SEMBILAN
PERCUBAAN BERSAMA
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
2009
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
There are fifty questions in this paper. For each question, Jour suggested answers are
given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the multi-choice answer sheet
provided.
Read the instructions on the multiple-choice ans'rjler sheet very careJully.
Answer alJ questions. Marks will not be deductedJor wrong answers.
This question paper consists of 16 printed pages
STPM TRIAL 964/1
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CONFIDENTI AL* 2
I. "Vhi ch of the follovving are th e properti es of water?
A
B
C
D
Specific heat
capacity
Hi gh
Low
Hi gh
Low
Latent heat of Surface
vapouri sation tension
Hi gh High
Low High
High Low
High Low
2. Diagram belO\v shows a type of monosaccharide.
OH
Which of the foll owin g pol ymers can be formed from the condensation of the
mol ecul e shown in the diagram above?
Glycogen
II Amylose
111 Amylopectin
IV Starch
A II and III
B I, II and III
C II , III and IV
D J, 11, III and IV
3. A mitochondrion in (I mammalian muscle cell measures 1.2 f-lm. In the electron
micrograph, the length of the organelle is 48 mm. What is the magnification of the
electron micrograph?
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A 40000 X
B 12000 X
C 4400 X
D 4000 X
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C:ONFIDENTI AL* 3
4. Which of the following structures of membrane bound organelles is correctly
matched with it s function?
A
B
C
D
Structure
An extens ive network of tubes; each tube is
bound by a single menlbrane . .
A stack of elongated, curved sacs; each sac is
bound by a single membrane.
A spheri cal sac bound by a single membrane.
A sac bound by two membranes, the inner is
hi ghl y folcled.
Function
Lipid synthesis
Photosynthesis
Protein synthesis
Packaging of proteins
s. The graph below shows the rate of reaction with and without an inhibitor.
Rate of
reaction
Concentration of substrate
Which of the following is true regarding the above graph?
Curve J Curve 2
A Compet iti ve inhibi tor Non-competitive inhibitor
Curve 3
Normal activity
.
B Competiti ve inhibitor Normal activity Non-competitive inhibitor
c Non-competitive inhibitor Competitive inhibitor Normal activity
D Normal activity Compet it ive inhibitor Non-competitive inhibitor
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6. The table below shows amino acids and their base sequence on the mRNA codon.
Amino ac id Base sequence on the mRNA codon,
Valine GUC
Glycine GGU
Methionine AUA
What is the base sequence on pnrt of a DNA strand, which would code for the tripeptide
val ine-meth ion i ne-gl yc ine?
A GUC AUA GGU
B GTC ATA GGA
C CAG TAT CCA
D TAT CAG CCA
7. Di agram below shows the electron pat hwny in cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation during
the li ght reacti on stage in photosynthes is.
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energy
level
ferrodoxin
quinone II i ;.,.
1
\ 8\1 y . X
2e- /
e- Z
2e-- \ 2H I + 2e-- T I mOlepcule
I "\
I
/"-" O2 released
(PS 1\
",---;J

Which of the following statements are true for electron pathway in the above diagram?
The electrons in PSI and PS II nre excit ecl to hi gher energy levels
II NADP+ is reduced in non-cycli c photophosphorylation
III ATP is produced in steps Y and Z
IV Molecule P is a water molecul e
A I and II onl y
B II and IV only
C I, II and III only
D I, II , III and IV
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5
8. The graph belo'w shows the relati onship between the rate of photosynthesis with environmental
factor X.
rate of photosynthesis
(arbitrary unit)
t
Which of the foll owing is factor X?
I Light intensity
II Oxygen concentrati on
III Temperature
IV Carbon dioxide concentrat ion
A I and IV onl y
B II and III onl y
C " and IV onl y
D I, III and IV on ly
Factor X
9. Which products are formed during anaerobic respiration?
Muscles Yeast cells
A
Pyruvate, NAO+, ATP Ethanol, NAD+, ATP
B
Lactate, NAO+, A TP Ethanol, NAO+, ATP, CO
2
C
Lactate, NAD-", ATP, CO
2
Ethanol, NAO+, ATP
D Ethanol , NADH, ADP, CO
2
Lactate, NADH, ADP, CO
2
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CONFIDENTIAL* 6
10. Diagram below shows a reaction in Krebs cycle.
What is process X?
A Chemiosmosis
Krebs
cycle
GTP
A D ~ G D P
ATP
C Photophosphorylation
B Oxidative Phosphorylation D Substrate level phosphorylation
11. Which of the following organism is/are not saprophytes?
Afucor
II RhizopZls
III Taenia
IV Amoeba
A I only
B II and III only
C III and IV only
D I, III and IV only
12. Which of the following sequences brings about Bohr' s effect?
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I I-t causes oxyhaemoglobin to release its oxygen
II CO
2
enters red blood cell
III Carbonic anhydrase catalyses the formation of 1-1
2
C0
3
IV Respiration of tissues gives out CO
2
A I, III, IV and II
B II , Ill , I and IV
C IV, III , II and I
o IV, II , III and I
*This question paper is CONFIDENTIAL until the examination is over
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7
13. Whi ch of the fo ll owing expbins why myoglobin I S founci III large amounts III the muscles of
birds?
A Myoglobin ca n ') Ll ppl )' thc encrgy needed for nyin g
B Myoglobin can supply oxygen to th e Illll scul ar ti ss ues when birds fl y in areas with low
parti al pressure of oxyge n.
e When compared to haemoglobin, myoglobin has hi gher affinit y towards oxygen ane! can better
retain oxygen in acti ve muscles.
D Myoglobin has a small er Ill olecul ar size to h3emcglobin .
14. Which process does not occur during th e opening of stomata?
A Sugar is convert ed into starch.
B Starch is convert ed int o Ill ali c acid .
e Water enters int o guard cell s by osmosis.
D Potass iulll ions diffuse int o guard cell from adj acent cell s.
15. Whi ch of the foll owing increases the rate of impul se released from sinoatri al node?
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I Impul se from the sympatheti c nerve
Il Impul se from the parasympatheti c nerve
III Thyrox ine hormone
IV Adrenaline hormone
A I and IV
B II and IV
e I, I II andl V
D II , lIl andl V
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CONFIDENTIA L* 8
16. Diagram belo\-\' sho'vvs a i'vlull ch model.
x
Pure water
~ .
Semipermeable membrane
If A is fill ed with concentrat ed sucrose so lution, while B is fill ed \vith dilute sucrose solution,
which of tile foll owing statements are true?
1 A is equivalent to leaves in translocat ion.
II Hi gh turgor press ure is created in A.
III X is analogoLls to phloem in plants.
IV Y is analogous to xylem vessels in plants.
A 1, II and III
B 1, II and IV
C I, III and IV
D I, II, 11I and IV
17. What is tile function of adrenaline in the negative feedback mechanism ifbody temperature of
endotherms decreases?
A Stimulate secret ion of sweat
B Increase convers ion of glycogen int o glucose in li ver
C Triggers a shivering process
D Contract erector musc les
18. Liver is an organ in vo lved in homeostasis because it
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I produces bile salt
II performs gluconeogenesis
III performs detoxi fi cati on
IV produces a hi gh amount of heat
A III and IV
B I, III and IV
C II , III and IV
D I, II, III and IV
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CONFIDENTIAL* 9
19. Which of the foll owing are the characteri sti cs of an impul se?
I It foll ows the all or nothing law
II Speed of impul se transmi ssion is faster in mye linated axon
III Speed of impul se transmi ssion is fas ter in unmye linated axon 'with a small er diameter
IV In the absolute refractory peri od, a new impul se cannot be generated even if a strong
stimulus is received
A L II and !II
B I, IlandlV
C I, III and IV
D I, II , III and IV
20. Curare effects neurolllLl scul ar juncti on by
A binding to receptors on postsynaptic membrane
B preventing exocytosis of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft
C preventing action of cholinesterase
D preventing di ffu sion of calcium ions into presynaptic membrane
21. The follovvings are the event s that occur in the act ion of a steroid based hormone.
I Hormone-recept or complex diffuse into the nucl eus
II Steroid based hormone diffuse into the cell through the cell membrane
III Hormone binds to the receptor in the cytoplasm
IV Specific gene is activated in DNA
The correct sequence for the event s above is
A I, II , Ill, IV
B I, Ill , II , IV
CII, III , I, [V
)) II , [, [II , IV
22. Ifplant X is a short day pl ant with a critical day length of8 1/2 hours, in which of these conditions
will pl ant X not flower'?
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Exposed to red li ght for 9 hours
II Kept in darkness for 8 hours
III Exposed to far red I ight for 12 hours
IV Kept in darkness for I S hours before exposed to red li ght for I hour
A I and II
B III and IV
C I, II and IV
D II , III and IV
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CONFI DENTIAL* 10
23. Which of the followings are invol ved in cell-med iated response of the il11rnune system?
I involves B lymphocytes
II mature T lymphocytes require macrophages to prese nt the anti gen for them to bind
III involves the thymus gland
IV mat ure lymphocytes can directly bind with ant igens.
A I and IV
B II and 11I
C I and 11I
D II and IV
24. HIV lies dormant in the body because
A its reverse transcriptase is engulfed by T4 cell
B its parti cle rest in the cytoplasm ofT4 cell
C the replication of its RNA occurs later
D it s DNA is incorporated into the DNA ofT4 ce lI
25. The sporangium of Marchantia where spores are pl:oduced is a
A diploid structure
B haploid structure
C dioecious structure
D oviparous structure
26. Which orthe foll owing terms apply to birds?
oviduct
II vIvIparous
III internal fertilisation
I V hermaphrod ites
A II and III
B I and III
C III and IV
D II and IV
27. In an amniotic egg of a bird, the reservoir fo r waste and the part that provides for gas
diffusion is the
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A chorion
B yolk
C amnIon
o allc1lltois
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CONfIDENTIAU' II
28.
The formation 01-blastul a frolll n zygote in volves C\ successiOI1 of" rnp id cell
divi sions. Thi s speciall ype orcell di vision creates Clill uiti cellul ar embryo
The above statement refers to whi ch stage of embryolli c development?
A Blastomere
B Cleavage
C Gastrul ation
D Organogenesi s
29. The hormone that plays an import ant role in seed germinati on and ea rl y seeeling
growth is
A auxll1
B gibberelin
C cytokinin
D absc isic acid
30. The table below shows four patterns of growth curves and their exampl es.
Growth pattern Examples
(a) Isometric grov·"th
I (i) 1-lulll an organs
(b) All ometric growth (i i) Coral reefs
(c) Intermittent growth (iii ) fi sh
(eI) unli mited growth (iv) Grasshopper
Which of the fo ll owing is correct ly
-
(a) (b) (c) (d)
A (i) (i i i) (iv) (ii)
B (i i) (i i i) (i \') (i)
C (i ii) (i) (i i) (iv)
D (iii ) (i) (iv) (i i)
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CONFIDENTIA L * 12
31. Which of the fol lowin g statement s me true ilbout neurosec reti on secreted by the neurosecretory
cell in insects?
I It is stored in corpus carel iacull1
II It inhibi ts the effect of juveni le hormone
III It is also known as prothoraci ctrophi c hormone
IV It st imul ates the secretion of ecdysone from prothoracic hormone
A I, II and III
B I, III and IV
C II , III and IV
D I,II , lll and lV
32. In pea plants, red flovver s (R) are dominant to whit e fl owers (r) and ta ll (T) to shOl1 (t). The tabl e
shows the gametes and poss ibl e offspr ings of a dihybrid cross . The numbers 1- 16 represent the
genotypes of each ind ividuaJ.
RT Rt rT I't
RT I 2 3 4
Rt 5 6 7 8
rT 9 iO II 12
rt 13 14 15 16
If plants 4 and 13 are crossed, what proportion of th eir offsprin g \;vi ll show at least one recessive
trait?
A 1/16 B 611 .6 C 7/ 16 o 9116
33. The colour of onions is controlled by two pairs of all eles Ss and Rr, whi ch segregate
independently. The all ele S is dOlninant anci 1l1ust be present to all ow development of pigment in
the skin . In its absence, the on ion is wh it e. All ele R is dDminant ond gives a red colour, the
recessive r gives a ye ll ow coloui-. Y\ hat wi ll be the rat io of phenotypes in the offspring of a cross
between plants of genotypes SSR,R and ss r!"!
I whit e 3 red J wh ite A
B
1 red
I red I ye ll ow
C
D I whit e : 2 red I yell ow
34. Which of the following statement's are not true about mutations?
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mutat ions are spontaneous changes in th e amount or structure of DNA Or
changes in the sequence of Ilucl eoti de bases of a gene.
II the changes that occurred are non-random
III all mutations lead to production of non-functi ona l proteins
IV germ-line mutations can be -inherited
A I and III
B I and IV
C II and III
o II and I V
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CONFIDENTIAL* 13
35. Chromosomal deleti on occurs
A when the deleted DNA segment becomes reattached in an in vert ed position.
B when the chromClsome breaks and a segment of it is lost
C when a segment of a chromosome contai ning a sequence of lltl cleoticl es is repeated.
D when the chromosome segment becomes deleted and rejoins at a different positi on on the
same chromosome or another non-homol ogous chromosome.
36. The Hardy- Weinberg equati on does not apply if
I there is migration
II there is natural selection.
III mutations occur.
IV there is non-random matin g.
V there is a large population.
A I, II , III and IV
B I, II , III and V
C I, Ill , IV and V
D II , III , IV and V
37. The maintenance of the allele for sickl e-cell anaemia in human popul ati ons in malaria-endemic
region in Africa is an exampl e of
A genetic drift
B gene flow
C founder effect
D heterozygote advantage
38. What is the function of the inducer of the lac operon?
A Bind to the promoter and prevent s the repressor from bindij! g to the operator.
B Bind to the operator and prevents the repressor from binding to the promoter.
C Binds to the repressor and prevents it from bi nd i ng to the' PI:Oll1oter.
D Binds to the repressor and prevents it from binding to the operator.
39. The statements below refer to different stages in the production of human insulin by genet ic
engineering techniques. What is the correct sequence productio-il?
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I DNA cut "vith restriction enzymes.
II mRNA extracted frolll pancreati c cell s
III Plasmid DNA and human DNA joined usin g li gase enzymes.
IV DNA copy made using reverse transcriptase
V Recombinant plasmid incorporated into bacteri al cell.
A I, Ill , IV, II , V
B II, IV, III , V, I
C II , IV, I, Ill , V
D II , I, IV, Ill , V
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40. Which of the following are characteristics of pl asmid?
Found in the bacteria
II Integral par! of bacterial chromosome
III Confers special characteristics to the organi sm
IV Self-replicating
V Small, linear molecule
A I, ll, III and I V
B I, III, IV and V
C I, III and IV
D III , IV, and V
4 J. The following are uses of recombinant DNA technology except
A screening for carriers of genetic diseases
B identification of badly-decomposed victims
C treatment of diabetic patients with synthetic insulin
o prevention of inheritance of genetic disorder by offspring
42. The table bdO\v shows the taxonomic groups and taxa for the house ny.
I
11
III
JV
Taxonomic group
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Taxon
(a) Arthropoda
(b) Insecta
(c) AnimaIia
(d) Diptera
Which of the following combinations is correct ?
A
B
C
D
I
Xc)
(c)
(e)
(c)
11
(a)
(b)
(d)
(a)
III
(b)
(a)
(a)
(d)
43. Which of the following is likely to be radially symmetrical?
A A chordate C An arthropod
13 A cnidarian D An annelid
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IV
(d)
(d)
(b)
(b)
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44. Whi ch of the foll owing statements are true about Marchanlia?
I Monoecious
II Asexual reprod ucti on through gemma cups
III Gametophyte is dominant
IV gametophyte is dependent on sporophyte
A I and II
B I and III
C II and III
D 11 and IV
45. Which of th e foll owing cannot cause the geneti c vari ation?
I Mutati on
II Camoufl age
1II Recombinati on
IV Dominancy
A II and III
B III and IV
C I and III
D II and IV
46. Which one of these is the definiti on for the.:biogeochemi ca l cycle?
A Circul ati on of chemi cal element s th rough the bioti c component of an ecosystem.
B Circul ati on of chemical elements througil the abioti c component of an ecosystem.
C Circul ati on of chemi cal elements through the biotic and abiotic component of an ecosystem.
D Circul ati on of organi c molecul es through the bioti c components of an ecosystem.
47. The main reservoir of phosphate is
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A inorgani c phosphate ions in soil.
B inorgani c phosphate in rocks
C inorgani c phosphate in organi sms.
D Organi c phosphate in organi sms.
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CONFIDENTI AL*
16
48. The success of organi sms in the ecosystem can be shown by th e
1 population di stribution
Il population si ze
III prey-predator relati onship
IV position of trophi c level in the ecosystem.
A I and II
B I and III
eland IV
D II and III
49. A quadrate with a measurement of SO cm x SO cm is L1 sed to ascert ain the densit y of
a type of herbaceous plant in a farmin g area. The bar chart below shO\vs the
results of the experiment.
10
9
8
7
Number 6
of
plant 5
4
3
2
o
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Quadrat number
From the bar above, the densit y of the herb8ceous plant s per square metre or farm is
A 16
B 20
C 80
D 160
SO. Which of the following statement is not true about cmrying capac it y?
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A Total number of organi sms that can be support ed by enviro nmental resources.
B Carrying capacity is limited by limited resources.
C Carrying capacity of an ecosystem is constant.
D Affected by environmental conditions.
END OF QUESTION PAPER
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JABAT AN PELAJARAN NEGERl SEMBILAN
PERCUBAAN BERSAMA
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
2009
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN TIDS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU
ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers in the
spaces provided
Answer any four questions in Section B. Write your answers on
your own test pad Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper.
Answers should be illustrated by large and clearly labeled
diagrams wherever suitable.
Arrange your answers in numerical order and tie the answer
sheets to this question paper.
This question paper consists of 8 printed pages
For examiner's use
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Total
STPM TRIAL 964/2 CONFIDENTIAL *
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CONFIDENTIAL 2
Section A
[40 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
I. In some plants, Dowering is induced by a critical photoperiod. Cocklebur (Xanthium
strumarium) is a short-day plant. The photoperiodic response is controlled by a specific
light-sensitive pigment.
(a) State what is meant by the terms:
(i) photoperiod
(ii) photoperi odism
[2 marks]
(b )(i) Name the pigments responsible for photoperiodism and their interconvertible
fomls.
[2 marks]
(ii) With an aid of a diagram, explain the process involved III the interconversion
betvveen the two fonns of the pigment.
[3 marks]
(c)(i) State what is meant by a short-day plant.
[1 mark]
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CONFllmNTIAL 3
(ii ) Explain huw fl owering is controlled in short-day plant.
[2 marks]
2. Graph A shows the changes in dry mass (g) of the tuber, leaves and stems of a potato
plant. Graph B shO\·vs four growth patterns of various parts of the human body plotted in
percentage or size against time (in year).
"'" ::J
u
'"
. ~
(l)
N
'U'j
a
tV

cd
C
<D
~
(l)
0...
Graph A
12
~ 10
<n
<n
E1 B
c:-
o 6
4
2
o
Graph B
200%
180
160
140
120
100%
80
60
40
20
2
/
/
/
/
/
,
,
,
,
,
Leaves:'
3 4 5
Time (weeks)
I
/
I
I
I
I
I
\
6 7 8
\ Thymus gland
\
\
\
"
O ~ - r ~ ~ ~ - r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - r ~ ~
o 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 4 16 1 8 20
Time (years)
(a)(i) Explain the shape of the curve for the tuber of the potato plant.
[2 mark]
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CONFIDENTIAL 4
(ii) E.\plain the dec line of the dry mass of the tuber.
[2 marks]
(b) State the age at which the human reproductive organs are growing most rapidly.
[1 mark]
(c) State the type of growth pattern shown in the human's organ growth curve.
Explain.
[2 marks]
(d)(i) Describe the growth of the human thymus gland.
[2 marks]
(ii ) Ex pl ain the importance of the human thymus gland?
[2 marks]
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CONFIDENTIAL 5
3. An experiment to determine the distribution of plants in a study area was done by ll slng
a sampling method. Each quadrat size is 1m x 1 m. The number of organi sms from each
plant species in each quadrat is shown in the table below.
r-.. - ---
. - . ~ - .... _---
------
Quadrat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
-_.£
9 10 Total
-
Mimosasp_ , - 5 - 10 5 2 3 9 - - 34
f----
15 18 6 12 14 Imperata sp_ - - 9 15 15 104
(a) Name the sampling method used in this experiment.
[ I markl
(b) By using the data given in the preceding table, calculate the:
(i) frequency of Mimosa sp_
[ I mark]
(ii) relative frequency of Mimosa sp.
[3 marks]
(iii) density of Imperata sp.
[I mark 1
(iv) relative density of Imperata sp_
[3 marks]
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CONFIDENTIAL 6
(c) Name another sa mpling method that can be used to plot the di stributi on of
pl a nts in a study a rea.
[1 mark]
(d) If a sample or soil was takc n from thi s study ficld, name a method to obtain
the orga ni sms present in the soil.
[I mark]
4. The karyoty pe (M) below was obtained from a pcrson suffering from a certain
genetic di seases.
.. "' ..... ·IIIIUUUUH
I I
2 4 6 7 8 9

10 I I 12 D 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 2 I 22 X X X
(a) How many c hromosomes arc round in the somatic cell of this person.?
[I mark]
(b) Name the geneti c disorder cause by the chromosomal abnormality as shown in
the Karyotype M.
[I mark]
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CONFIDENTIAL 7
(c) Describe the chromosomal events which may cause this genetic disorder.
[4 marks]
(d) State two features which will be shown by a person with the karyotype M as
shown above.
1 ......... ..... ...... .... ..................................................................... .
2 ...... .... .. . .. ........... .. .... ........ .. ........ . . . . ................... . ................... .
[2 marks]
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Secti on B
[60 marks]
Answer OilY four questions /rom this section.
5. (a) Stale struct ural dil"fcrcnces between RNA and DNA. [3 marks]
(b) Disc uss huw lhe from DN!\' is used to fonn a correct sequence of
am ina acids in the pol ype ptide. [12 marks]
6. (a) Describe the properties or haemoglobin that make them efficient in transporting
oxygen.
(b) Expl ain how gaseous exchange takes place in the alveolar surface.
[6 marks]
[6 marks]
(c) Explain br iefly the effect of carbon monoxide on the etTiciency of human
h<1emoglobin in the transportation of oxygen.
7. (a) Describe how the heal1 beat is initiated and how it is regulated.
(b) Describe the causes of atherosclerosi s and state its effects.
[3 marks]
[10 marks]
[5 marks]
8. (a) With reference to a labe lled diagram, describe the structure of a sarcomere.
Explain what happens to the myofibrils during contraction and relaxation of
musc le.
(b) Expl ain the effect o f" curare on the contraction of skeletal muscle.
9. (a) Describe how Human Immunode ficiency Virus (HI V) causes Acquired
Syndrome (AIDS) .
[10 marks]
[5 marks]
[8 marks]
(b) Descrihe the dcve lupment of the ce ll-mediated response In human immunity
system.
10. With the aid of graphs and suit a hl e examples, explain briefly:
(a) Stabili si ng selection
(b) Directional selecti on
(c) Disruptive selecti on
END OF QUESTION PAPER
[7 marks]
[15 marks]
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ANSWER TRIAL EXAM BIOLOGY PAPER 1 2009



QUESTION 18
The answer given by teacher is II and IV.

NO ANSWER NO ANSWER
1 A 26 B
2 D 27 D
3 A 28 B
4 A 29 B
5 D 30 D
6 C 31 B
7 D 32 C
8 A 33 A
9 B 34 C
10 D 35 B
11 C 36 A
12 D 37 D
13 C 38 D
14 A 39 C
15 C 40 C
16 D 41 D
17 B 42 A
18 C 43 B
19 B 44 C
20 B 45 D
21 C 46 C
22 C 47 B
23 B 48 A
24 D 49 A
25 A 50 C
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PAPER 2 TRIAL STPM 2009 - SECTION B ANS\VER SCHEME
NO ANSWERS SUB- TOTAL
TOTAL
Sea) Differences between RNA and DNA
RNA (Ribonucleic acid) DNA (Deoxyribon uclcic
Consi st of a single Consist of two polynucl eotide
pol ynucl eotide strand. strands wh ich coi I around each
other to form a double heli x. 1
RNA molecul e is shorter. DNA molecul e is much longe r.
1
Contains the pentose sugar, Contains the pentose sugar,
ribose. deoxyribose.
1
The n bases are The nitrogenoLl s base are
adenine, uracil , cytosine and adenine, thyrn i!l e, cytos ine and
1
guanlll e' guanine.
I i
I
Present in the nucleus and Mai nly present in the
cytopl asm. chromosomes in the nucleus.
1
Small amount is present in the
mi tochondri a and ch loropl asts.
There are three main type of Onl y one type of DNA.
RNA:
1
messenger RNA (mRNA),
transfer RNA .( tRNA) ,
ribosomal RNA (rRNA),
Any 3
Max 3
(b)

Protein synthes is involves transcripti on of DNA, amino acid
acti vati on and transl ation .
1 1
Transcription:

The part of DNA (ci stron) whi ch codes fo r the specifi c 1
polypeptides unwinds as the hydrogen bonds between the bases
are broken.

The RNA polymerase att aches to the promoter sit e.
1
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• As the RNA polymerase moves along the template strand in the
5' ~ 3' directiori, the free nucleotides in the nucleoplasm pair
with the complementary bases in the exposed DNA template
strand.
1
• The nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The 1
process require energy from A TP.
• The mRNA passes through the nuclear pore into the cytoplasm and 1
binds to ribosome.
• The exposed regions of DNA are closed by hydrogen bonds
between the complementary bases
Amino acid activation
Any 4
• One end of the tRNA molecule present in the cytoplasm has three
bases called anticodon which are complementary to the mRNA
codon triplet.
• The other end (free 3' end) has triplet bases CCA for the
attachment ofa specific amino acid.
1
1
1
• Amino acids in the cytoplasm are attached to specific transfer 1
RNA molecules, using energy from A TP to form specific amino
acid - tRNA complexes.
• This is known as amino acid activation and is catalysed by enzyme
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
• The transfer RNA molecules then bring specific amino acids to the
ribosome
Any 3
Translation
• The ribosome contains binding sites for mRNA and tRNA
molecules.
1
1
1
• Messenger RNA enters into the cytoplasm. The 5' end of mRNA 1
binds to the small ribosome subunit.
• A tRNA-amino acid complex with anticodon UAC and carrying 1
I Max 4
Max3
2
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6(a)
the amino acid methionine binds to the codon AUG (start codon)
on mRNA .
• The large ribosome subunit then binds to the small subunit to form 1
I
functional ribosome. I
• A second tRNA- acid complex with complementary anticodon 1
enters into site A.
• A peptide bond is formed between the two amlllo acids. The
condensation reaction IS catalysed by the enzyme peptidyl-
transferase.
• tRNA at site P is released from the ribosome into the cytoplasm
and ribosome moves one codon along mRNA.
• tRNA in the A site ribosome moves to P site.
• The translation process is repeated to form polypeptide chain until
the ribosome reaches the termination codon. (UAA, UAG and
UGA)
Any 4
TOTAL
• has four haem groups to bind with four molecules of oxygen
forming oxyhaemoglobin
• very little oxygen is released when oxygen is transported
through the arteries
• can maintain a high (80%) saturation of oxygen because the
change in partial pressure of oxygen in the arteries is little
• releases the oxygen to the tissues for respiration where there is a
sharp drop of saturation of oxygen
• adapted not to deprive the tissues of sudden loss of oxygen
because further drop in partial pressure would cause a slow
release of oxygen
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
• releases more oxygen when there is a higher concentration of H+ 1
caused by higher carbon dioxide concentration to supply more
Max 4
15
3
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oxygen to the respiring tissues
• foetal haemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen which enable
it to get oxygen from the mother's blood
Any 6
(b) • air is drawn into the alveolus by the expansion of walls of the
lungs because of the negative pressure in the thoracic cavity
• changes take place in the blood due to the low concentration of
carbon dioxide in the air
• HCO)- ions enter the red blood cells , changed into H
2
CO
J
and
dissociate into water and carbon dioxide gas which diffuses into
alveolar spaces
• at the same time oxygen from the air di ssolves in the moisture
lining the inner surface of the alveolus
• then into the red blood cellsthrough the alveolar and capillary
wall
1
1
1
1
1
1
• in the red blood cells, oxygen molecules bind with the haem 1
group of the haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin
• there is aiways a concentration gradient between the gas in the 1
blood and alveolar spaces by the rhythmic expansion and
contraction of the alveolar walls
Any 6
(c) • carbon monoxide IS considered to be a dangerous respiratory 1
pOison
• it combines with haemoglobin more read i Iy than oxygen to form
cnrboxyhaemoglobin
• resulting in the inabil ity oC haemoglobin to take up oxygen
• decreasing the oxygen supply to the respIrIng tissues which
eventuall y stops the cellular respiration
TOTAL
1
1
1
Any 3
Max6
Max 6
Max 3
15
4
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7(a) Initiation of heart beat
• The heart walls consists of cardiac muscles which are myogenic,
that is, their rhythmic contractions arise from within the heart 1
mLiscles themselves.
• The regular heart beat depends on the two nodes present in the
heart. The first node is the sino-atrial node (SAN) which is
1
embedded in the wall of the right atrium close to the point where
the anterior vena cava enters the heart. The second node is the
atrio-ventricular node (A VN) which is embedded between the
,
right atrium and ri ght ventricle.
• SAN functions as a pacemaker. There is a potential difference
1
across the membranes of the cells of SAN. As sodium ions enter
the cells, they depolarise the SAN and produce a wave of
excitation.
• The wave of excitation that originates in the SAN spreads across
1
both atria. It causes both atria to contract simultaneoLisly. There is
a delay of about 0.1 s in the conduction of excitation from SAN to
the A VN, which means that the atrial systole is completed before
the ventricular systole begins.
• The A VN conducts the wave of excitation to the bundle of His and
1
its finer branches known as the Purkyne/Purkinje tissue which then
conduct to the apex and throughout the ventricular walls. The
ventricles contract simultaneously from the apex upwards,
squeezing blood out of the ventricles towards the aorta ancl
pulmonary artery. In this way, atrial systole can occur
rhythmically.

Sodium ions are pumped out of the cells and this repolarises the

SAN. The atria are in a state of diastole. The whole process is then
1
/
repeated
Any 5
Max 5
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Regulation of heart beat
• Even though the rhythmic beating of the heart is initiated by the
pacemaker, its rate is regulated by the autonomic nervous system
which is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and
parasympathetic system. The sympathetic nerves, part of the
sympathetic nervous system, have their origin in the cardiac
acclerator centre of the medulla.
• Stimulation of these nerves causes a release of noradrenaline
which results in an increase in the heart rate. The vagus nerves,
part of the parasympathetic nervous system, originate in the
cardiac inhibitory centre of the medulla,
1
1
• Stimulation of the vagus nerves causes release of acetylcholine in 1
the SAN, A VN and the bundle of His. This reduces the heart rate
• At times of stress, adrenaline is secreted by the medulla of the 1
adrenal glands. Adrenaline increases the heart rate.
• An increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (a drop in the
pH of blood) or the decrease of blood pressure increases the heart
rate.
Artherosclerosis
• The thickening and hardening of the arterial wall caused by the
deposition of lipids, e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides, fibres and
calcium deposits beneath the inner walls of arteries known as the
endothelium.
• The deposits formed a plague or atheroma. Continuous deposition
causes an increase in the size of the plague . . It protrudes into the
lumen, narrowing the lumen of the arteries and reduce the blood
flow.
1
1
1
• If the plague breaks through the smooth endothelium, its rough 1
surface causes a blood clot, called thrombus. If the thrombus
increase in size, it narrows or blocks the lumen and prevents the
5
6
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8(a)
blood flow (thrombosis occurs).
• Artherosclerosis often occurs in the arteries such as the aorta,
carotid arteries, iliac and coronary arteries.
Effects of artherosclerosis
• Artherosclerosis causes thrombosis and embolism.
• Reduced blood flow to the heart can damage the heart tissues; it
causes chest pain called angina pectoris or heart attack known as
myocardial infarction.
1
Any 3
1
1
• Reduced blood supply to the brain causes stroke. Narrowing of 1
arteries causes hypertension or high blood pressure
Any 2
TOTAL
Dark band (A) Light band (I)
__
--.-__ __
-Zmembrane
--..... ----.,...----t-- ThIck filament (myosin)
-4----
-4-__ .:--.... __ -+-=_;....T..;...:.h,;;.;.ln.;...;.filamenl (actin)

One sarcomere
• Diagram
1
Labels:
2

H zone
Yz

dark band/fA band
Yz
Yz
Yz
Yz
Yz
Yz
Any 4

I band//light band

Actinl/thin filament

Myosin//thick filament

Z membrane// line

M membrane/lline
Max3
Max2
15
Max 3
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The sarcomere is the basic unit of the myofibril between two Z
lines.
1

The myofibril is made up of thick filament/myosin and thin
fi lament/actin.
I
I

The thick and thin filaments overlap to form the darker band.

During muscle contraction the position of thick filament remains
1
unchanged.

Thin filament slides past one another.
1

Myofibril becomes shorter and shorter.
I

During muscle relaxation the position of thick filament remains
unchanged.
1

The thin filament slides out to the original position.
1

The muscle reverts to its original position.
1
Any 7
Max 7
(b)

Curare binds to the receptor on the postsynaptic membrane of I
the neuromuscular junction where acethylcholine is supposed to
,
bind.

Depolarization on the postsynaptic membrane is prevented, and
1

impulse transmission across the neuromuscular junction is also
1
prevented.

No impulse is transmitted to the skeletal muscles
1

causing paralysis.
1

A high concentration of curare causes death as the breathing
1
process stops
Any 5 Max 5
TOTAL 15
9(a)

HIV enters the body via bodily fluids or blood. 1

Inside the body,it binds with T helper cell s with corresponding
receptors.
1

Lipoprotein membrane of HIV fuses with that of the T cell.
1
8
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Viral particle enters via endocytosis. I

Capsid is removed
I

Content of viral RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme released
into cytoplasrn of host cell.
I

Reverse transcriptase converts viral RNA into single strand DNA.
1

Single strand DNA convened into double strand DNA by DNA
polymerase.
1

Viral DNA enters nucleus and incorporates into DNA of host cell
as provIrus.
I
Provirus replicates each time the host DNA replicates.
1

After about 6 years of dormancy, the provirus is transcribed into
1

mRNA.
Host cell synthesizes viral capsid, reverse transcriptase enzyme
1

and viral RNA.

New viruses formed in the host cell exit the cell by budding.
1

Virus kills T helper cells and destroys immune system, causing
1
AIDS.
Any 8 Max 8
(b)

T cells formed in the bone marrow circulate in the blood I
circulatory system until it reaches thymus glands.

In thymus glands,T cells are differentiated to form T helper
1

cells(Th) and T cytotoxic cells (Tc).

Each has unique T cell receptor CTCR) on its surface.
1

Mature Th cell then circulates in the blood circulatory system
I
until it meets an antigen presenting cell (APC ).

The Th cell binds to APC provided the antigen-MHC complex on
1
APC is complimentary with the TCR on the Th cell.

Intcrleukin I (cytokine) is secreted from APC.
1
Interieukin 1 then stimulates the Th cell to secrete Interleukin 2.
1


Interleukin 2 stimulates division ofTh cell to produce clones of
9
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effector Th cells and memory cells and division of Tc cell to
produce clones of effector Tc cells and memory cells.
• The effector Tc cells bind with antigen-MHC complex on
infected cells.
• Perforin is released by effector Tc cells which will then perforate
infected cells to stimulate autolysis.
• The infected cells go through autolysis while the effector
cytotoxic T cell attacks other infected cells.
• Memory T cells respond for a second invasion of the same
pathogen by actively dividing to form effector T cells.
10(a) • Sketch of curves
a) Stabilising Selection
,
Selecl,en again I bot"

/
I
,
I
/
I
I
, -
" \
\ Population
aller selecllon
:\ \'. Or iginal
'<\"'" '"
The sketch must
- shows the normal distribution curve and the stabilising
selection curve.ldirection of curve.
- labell/selection pressure
TOTAL
1
1
1
1
1
Any 7
2/0
Max 7
15
2
10
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b) Directional Selection
I Population
I
"
I
I
I
The sketch must
alter s,ele lJ tion
- shows the normal distribution curve and the stabi lising
selection curve.ldirection of curve.
- label//selection pressure
c) Disruptive Selection
,
,
,
;
''', 'ne,"
, t ,
,
I
I
,
, ,
, \ '
The sketch must
- shows the normal distribution curve and the stabil ising
selection curve.ldirection of curve.
- labell/selection pressure
Sta bi/ising selection
• the bell-shaped curve
• selection favors the intermediate trait value over the extreme
values.
2/0
2/0
1
1
• response to a stable environment// occurs when the environment 1
doesn't change
2
2
11
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• the mode stays the same
• the population graph gets narrower and taller as selection against
mutation takes place
• experience a decrease in the amount of additive genetic variation
for the trait under selection.
Directional Selection
1
1
1
Any 3
• occurs whenever the environment changes in a particular way!! 1
selective pressure for species to change in response to the
environmental change
• directional selection may favor one of the phenotypes at one of
the extremes of the normal distribution!! selection favors one
extreme trait value over the other extreme!! selection favors the
extreme trait values over the intermediate trait values'!! The
average phenotype is selected against more than one other
phenotype is selected for.
1
• the population's trait distribution shifts toward the other 1
extreme!! the mean of the population graph shifts!! One
phenotype can gradually replace another.!/ results in a change in
the mean value of the trait under selection.
• results in a population with new trait!resistant individuals begin 1
to occur and become the dominant type within the population.!/
the variance increases as the population is divided into two
distinct groups.
Any 3
Disruptive Selection
• occurs where an environment change may produce selection 1
pressures that favour two extremes of a characteristic!! selection
pressures act against individuals In the middle of the trait
distribution.
• the environment may favor two or more variant phenotypes at 1
Max3
Max3
12
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the expense of the mean.
a bimodal/two-peaked curve II the two extremes of the curve
1

create their own smaller curves.

results in two distinct populations/morphsllthese two forms may
1
become so distinct that they become new populations

plays an important role in speciation.
1
Any 3 Max3
TOTAL 15
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