Information Resources

Beginning Microsoft Project

Marshall School of Business University of Southern California

INDEX
Basic Steps For Designing a Project.......................................................................................... 4 Starting a New Project ............................................................................................................... 5 Step 1: Set Project Defaults ...................................................................................................... 5 Table Entry and Gantt Chart View.......................................................................................... 6 Table Entry ............................................................................................................................. 7 Outlining ................................................................................................................................. 7 Manipulating the Entry Table.................................................................................................. 7 Step 2 - Task Entry .................................................................................................................... 8 Purchasing Phase .................................................................................................................. 9 Purchasing Phase Indention................................................................................................... 9 Demolition Phase ................................................................................................................... 9 Construction Phase .............................................................................................................. 10 Step 3: Linking (Controlling Task order)................................................................................. 11 Linking the Phases ............................................................................................................... 12 Dissolving Links.................................................................................................................... 12 Adjusting the Timescale ....................................................................................................... 12 Going to a Task .................................................................................................................... 12 Adjusting Working Hours ...................................................................................................... 13 Telling Project to Use the “Home Project” Calendar............................................................. 13 More on Task Relationships ................................................................................................. 13 Lag Time/Lead Time............................................................................................................. 14 Elapsed Duration versus Working Duration.......................................................................... 15 Scheduling A Task To Start Or Finish Relative To A Specific Date...................................... 15 Step 4: Creating a resource list.............................................................................................. 16 Creating the Resource List ................................................................................................... 16 Step 5: Assigning Resources to tasks..................................................................................... 17 Assign Fixed Costs............................................................................................................... 19 Step 6: Analyze/adjust project................................................................................................. 20 Project Duration.................................................................................................................... 20 Methods of Shortening Task Duration: ................................................................................. 20 Resource Allocation ............................................................................................................. 22 Project Cost.......................................................................................................................... 23 Step 7: Document Task Progress ............................................................................................ 24 Creating a Baseline .............................................................................................................. 24 Recording A Project’s Progress............................................................................................ 24 Using the Tracking Toolbar .................................................................................................. 25 Exercise: Updating Tasks.................................................................................................... 26 Printing & Reports.................................................................................................................... 28 Printing the Current View...................................................................................................... 28 Reports................................................................................................................................. 28

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Microsoft Project is a project management program that can assist you in planning, organizing, scheduling, and managing the tasks necessary to complete a project. With it you can: • • • • • • • List each task necessary to complete a project in the order they should be performed. Assign start and finish dates to tasks or let the program set them for you by you specifying the duration of the task. Display the tasks graphically over a time line to get an overall view of the project. Assign workers, contractors, and other resources to tasks and print their schedules. Compute the hours and cost necessary to complete a task or the entire project. Monitor a project’s progress and compare it to your original estimate. Analyze such items as cost, hours, slack time, resource allocation, etc. using tables and graphs.

The picture below shows one of the many views available in Project. This view displays the name of the task on the left and is duration graphically on the right.

Throughout this handout, we are going to use an exercise where we will remodel a bathroom. This will involve: scheduling tasks, purchasing materials, renting equipment, scheduling workers, paying fees, assigning costs to tasks, and specifying the sequence that the tasks should be performed in. The next page give you an overview of the steps we will go through in creating our or any project.

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BASIC STEPS FOR DESIGNING A PROJECT
Though these steps may vary depending upon the nature of the project, the basic steps for creating a project are: 1. Set up Project Defaults: • Set working order. (Schedule from Start Date forward or Finish Date backwards) • Set a start or finish date. • Select/create the project calendar to use. (Controls working days and hours) 2. Enter tasks: • In chronological order, enter the tasks necessary to complete the project. • Set the task’s duration. • When appropriate, set a task’s Start / Finish date. 3. Set Task Sequencing: • Link tasks that must be completed sequentially. • Do not link tasks that can be completed simultaneously. 4. Create a Resource List: • Create a list of contractors, laborers, equipment rental, fees, etc. and their corresponding rates. • Set working hours for each resource.

5. Assign Resources to Tasks

6. Analyze/Reevaluate/Adjust Project

7. Document Task Progress

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STARTING A NEW PROJECT
1. 2. Start MS Project. (The “Welcome to Microsoft Project” window appears.) Click on: “Work on Your Own”.

STEP 1: SET PROJECT DEFAULTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. From the menu, click on: Set “Schedule From” to: Set “Start Date” to: Set “Calendar” to: Set the “Current Date” to: Click on: FILE – PROJECT INFO. Project Start Date 9/1/97 Standard (Working hours are M-F, 8hrs. per day) 5/19/97 OK

Schedule From: • Project Start Date – tasks are scheduled from the Start Date forward. The finish date depends on the time it takes to complete the tasks. Use this when you know when you wish to start but the finish date is not as crucial. • Project Finish Date – tasks are scheduled from the Project Finish Date backwards. The Start Date depends on the time it takes to complete the tasks. Use this when the project must be completed by a particular date. Start / Finish Date: • Set Start Date when scheduling from the Project Start Date. • Set Finish Date when scheduling from the Project Finish Date Current Date: Set to the current date. Calendar: Determines which days per week are working days and which hours per day are working hours. You can create/modify the calendar under: Tools – Change Working Time.

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Table Entry and Gantt Chart View
When you begin a new project, two windows open: the Gantt Chart (right) and Table Entry View (left). Both involve taking the first steps in scheduling a project. The Gantt Chart allows you to view a project’s progress graphically and control task order. Table Entry View allows you to: • • • Enter the tasks needed to complete the project including the start/finish dates and duration. Specify which tasks need to be sequential and which may occur simultaneously. Assign resources to tasks.

Task Name: Type the name of the task here.

Entry Table

Start: Enter the start date only when you know exactly when this task will begin. Otherwise, let Project adjust it based on the flow of tasks.

Column Width: Click & drag groove to change column width.

Predecessors: If you have specified that one task must follow another (linking), the predecessor to the current task will be listed in this column.

Split: Click & drag the line to change the proportion between the table and the Gantt chart.

Duration: This is how long the task is expected to take. The duration can be in minutes(m), hours(h), days (d), or weeks(w). Examples: 30m, 12h, 1d, .5d, 1w, 1.5w. (0d for milestones)

Finish: Enter the finish date only when the task must finish on this date, no later, no sooner. Otherwise, let Project adjust the date for you based on the flow of tasks.

Resource Names: If you have assigned resources to the task, the name of the resource will be displayed in this column.

Gantt Chart: Displays the progress of a project graphically.

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Table Entry
The first step in creating a Project is listing each task and its expected duration in the Table. Some general guidelines for creating most projects are as follows: • • • Enter tasks in the order they will occur. This is true whether you set are working from a start date forward or a finish date backwards. If the tasks occur simultaneously, you should (but don’t have to) list the tasks above/below one another. Enter a duration for each task. Let Project assign the start/finish dates for the tasks based on their duration. You can worry about specific Start & Finish dates later.

Outlining
Simply listing one task after the other in chronological order is fine for small projects, but if you have a large project, you might wish to consider breaking the project up onto logical phases using outlining. Outlining give you the added advantage of: • • • Adding clarity to long projects. Viewing cost subtotals for each phase. Viewing duration subtotals for each phase.

Manipulating the Entry Table
The Entry Table will allow tasks to be deleted, edited, moved, and inserted.

Moving a Task 1. Click on the row number of the task to be move and then release the mouse. 2. Click and drag the row number up or down to move the task. Deleting a Task Pressing the DELETE key in a row will delete the entire row. Editing a Task 1. Click on the task to be edited. 2. Click in the Formula Bar near the top of the screen to edit the task. 3. Press ENTER on the keyboard when editing is complete. Inserting a Task 1. Click on the row below where the task will be inserted. 2. On the keyboard, press the Insert key. (or from the menu, click on: Insert – Insert Task. Undoing Project is able to undo the last action performed. 1. From the toolbar, click on the UNDO icon:

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STEP 2 - TASK ENTRY
Our bathroom remodel will use outlining to brake the tasks into four phases consisting of: Design Phase, Equip. & Materials Purchase Phase, Demolition Phase, and Construction Phase. 1. If you are not viewing the Gantt Chart & Entry Table, do the following: a. From the menu, click on: VIEW – GANTT CHART b. From the menu, click on: VIEW – TABLE “_____” – ENTRY

2. Type Begin Project in row one as shown. 3. Type Design Phase in row two as shown.

NOTE: Ignore the Duration, Start, & Finish dates for now. We are ignoring the duration for these two tasks because there are “Phase Names”, not actual tasks. There durations will be calculated automatically based on the tasks within them. 4. Click on the words Design Phase. 5. From the toolbar, click on the “Indent” icon: (This designates “Design Phase” as subtask within “Begin Project”.) 6. Type what is shown in rows 3, 4, & 5. 7. Highlight rows 3-5 with the mouse. 8. Click on the “Indent” icon: Note on Outlining Because rows 3-4 are indented one level beneath “Design Phase”, there total duration will be tallied at “Design Phase’s” duration. Further, because “Design Phase” is indented one level beneath “Begin Project”, it and all other items at the same level of indention will be tallied at “Begin Project’s” duration. In other words, when complete, the phase names will contain all the subtotals for the tasks beneath them and “Begin Project” will contain a grand total.

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Purchasing Phase
The next step on our project is scheduling when the materials will be purchased. Later we will assign costs to them. The purchases will fall into 2 categories: Fixed Costs – Items that have a one time cost such as licence fees, and materials. Variable Costs – Items that have a time based or per use cost such as rental fees and labor. 1. Type the information shown in rows 6-15. 2. The duration for each item is 1 day. Ignore the start and finish dates for now.

Purchasing Phase Indention
“Purchasing Phase” needs to be at the same level of indention as “Design Phase”. Further, the items listed beneath “Fixed Costs” and “Variable Costs” need to be indented. 1. Click in row 6. 2. From the toolbar, click on the Outdent icon: 3. Highlight rows 8-11. 4. From the toolbar, click on the Indent icon: 5. Highlight rows 13-15. 6. From the toolbar, click on the Indent icon: The Gantt Chart should look like the picture to the right.

Demolition Phase
1. Type the Task Names and Durations as shown for rows 16-19. 2. Highlight rows 16-19. 3. From the toolbar, click Outdent twice. 4. Highlight rows 17-19. 5. From the toolbar, click Indent once.

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Construction Phase
1. Type the Task Names and Durations as show in rows 20-28. 2. Click in row 20. 3. From the toolbar, click Outdent

Task entry and outlining is now complete. Your screen should look like the picture shown. Note that you will probably have different dates.

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STEP 3: LINKING (CONTROLLING TASK ORDER)
By default, Project assumes that all tasks are performed simultaneously. In our case, this is erroneous. The four different phases need to be sequential. Further, many of the tasks within the different phases need to be sequential as well. At the moment, the total duration of the project is only 5 days. This is because the longest task is 5 days long, but once the project tasks are listed in the order the will actually be performed, the project will take much longer. Basic Steps: There are two ways to create links: • You can highlight the tasks to be linked using the table and then click the link button. • You can click and drag from one task bar on the Gantt chart to another. Link the Tasks in Design Phase 1. Use the mouse to highlight the tasks to be linked (Rows 3-5). 2. Click on the LINK button on the toolbar.

The Duration for Design Phase now displays the subtotal for all of its tasks.

Although your dates will be different, the Start dates now reflect the new sequence.

The blue arrows indicate that the tasks are linked. The staggered boxes indicate when the task will occur.

Purchasing Phase 1. Highlight rows 8-11. 2. Click on the LINK button on the toolbar: 3. Highlight rows 13-15. 4. Click on the LINK button on the toolbar:

Link the Tasks in Demolition Phase 5. Highlight rows 17-19. 6. Click on the LINK button on the toolbar: Link the Tasks in Construction Phase 1. Highlight rows 21-28. 2. Click on the LINK button on the toolbar: Microsoft Project.doc May 21, 1997 11

Linking the Phases
Although the tasks in each individual phase are now in the correct order, there is no sequence between the Phases. All phases are currently starting on the same day. To link the different phases, you can either: • • Control click each Phase name (rows 2, 6, 16, & 20) and then click the LINK icon. Highlight the end of one phase and the beginning of the next and click the LINK icons.

Both methods are primarily the same except that the first method produces a black line that runs through all of the tasks. We will use the second method. 1. Highlight rows 5-6. 2. Click on the LINK icon on the toolbar: 3. Highlight rows 11-12. 4. Click on the LINK icon on the toolbar: 5. Highlight rows 15-16. 6. Click on the LINK icon on the toolbar: 7. Highlight rows 19-20. 8. Click on the LINK icon on the toolbar:

Dissolving Links
There are several methods of breaking the link between two tasks: • Using the graph, double click the arrows joining the tasks and select “DELETE”. • Using the table, highlight the cells the tasks are in and click on the “Unlink Tasks” icon.

Adjusting the Timescale
The Gantt chart displays the project in terms of weeks, but is it possible to alter the time scale used. To see a more detailed Gantt chart, we will display the units in days instead of the default of weeks. 1. 2. 3. 4. From the menu, click on: FORMAT – TIMESCALE. If necessary, click on the Timescale tab. Change the UNITS in the Major Scale section to DAYS. Click on OK.

Going to a Task
To view a task on the Gantt Chart that is not currently visible in the Gantt Chart window, follow these steps: 1. On the Entry Table, click on a task. 2. From the toolbar, click on the “Goto Selected Task” icon: The corresponding task on the Gantt Chart should now be visible. Microsoft Project.doc May 21, 1997 12

Adjusting Working Hours
By default, Project creates a project based on a Standard working calendar of Monday through Friday, 8 to 12, and 1 to 5pm. If you intend to work weekends, or if there are any weekdays that you do not wish to work, (holidays, etc.) then you will need to either alter the standard calendar or create a new calendar and then tell Project to use the new calendar. Creating a new Calendar 1. From the menu, click on: 2. Click on the button: 3. In the “Name” box, type: 4. Click on the option: 5. Click on: TOOLS – CHANGE WORKING TIME NEW Home Project “Create New Base Calendar” OK.

Setting Working hours in the New Calendar 6. Verify that the “For” box is displaying the new calendar name: “Home Project”. 7. With the mouse, click and drag across the headers: S M T W TH F S 8. At “Make Dates”, click on: Working 9. With the mouse, click and drag across the headers: M T W TH F 10. Working time for weekdays is 6pm to 10pm. Enter these times in the “Working Time” section as shown. Be sure to delete the information in the second row.

Setting Nonworking days 11. Use the scroll bars to display September of ’97. 12. Click on September 1, 1997. 13. At “Make dates”, click on Nonworking. 14. Click on OK.

Telling Project to Use the “Home Project” Calendar
We have created a new calendar and now we will tell Project to use it. 1. From the menu, click on: FILE – PROJECT INFO 2. At “Calendar”, click the down arrow and select: Home Project 3. Click on: OK Note that although the total duration for the project has not changed, the project now stretches over a longer period. This is because there are less working hours per week.

More on Task Relationships
Different tasks in a project can relate to each other in different ways. For example, they can occur simultaneously or perhaps one must be completed before the other one can be started. Predecessor: a task that must start or finish before another task can begin. Successor: a task that depends upon the start or finish status of the previous task.

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There are four ways you can relate tasks in Project: Task Relationship Description Finish-to-Start (FS) A task begins when its predecessor is complete. This is the default relationship. Start-to-start (SS) The specified tasks need to start at the same time. Finish-to-Finish (FF) The specified tasks need to finish at the same time. Start-to-finish (SF) A task finishes when its predecessor starts.

Lag Time/Lead Time
Use Lead/Lag time when you have linked two or more tasks and you wish to have the successor start before its predecessor is completely finished (lead time) or to have the successor start well after its predecessor is complete (lag time). Lead Time: The task that follows (the successor) starts before the proceeding task (the predecessor) is complete. For example, you can grout one wall of tile even though you have not tiled the entire room. The task which follows (the successor) starts well after the proceeding task (the predecessor) is complete. For example, you must wait for the paint to dry before you can hang pictures.

Lag Time:

Exercise: Adjust lag/lead time between linked tasks We must wait one day for the paint to dry (task 27) until we can replace the fixtures (task 28). 1. Click on “Replace Fixtures” (Row 28). 2. From the toolbar, click on the INFORMATION icon: 3. Click on the “Predecessor” tab.

The elongated arrow indicates lead time in the Gantt Chart.

4. In the “LAG” column, type 1d. 5. Click on OK. NOTE: You can also access the “Task Information” window by: • Double clicking the blue arrow between two tasks on the Gantt Chart or • Double clicking the name of a task on the “Entry Table”. Microsoft Project.doc May 21, 1997 14

Elapsed Duration versus Working Duration.
When you enter a lag time, it is based on working hours, not elapsed time. For example, suppose you paint on Friday, you do not work weekends, and you specified a lag time of 1 day to let the paint dry. The lag would be applied to the first working day (Monday), and the next task would not begin until Tuesday. To allow Project to assign Lag time to non-working days (Saturday and Sunday) you need to place the letter “e” into the lag duration. For example, 1d becomes 1ed. Lead Examples -.5d -50% -3h 0d Lag Examples 10h .5 1ed Description Begin the next task ½ a day before the previous task ends. Begin the next task when the previous task is 50% complete. Begin the next task 3 hours before the before the previous task ends. No lag or lead time Description Start the next task ten hours after the previous task is complete. Start the next task ½ a day after the previous task ends. The task starts 1 day after the previous task ends, regardless if it is a working day or not. (“e” stands for elapsed time.)

Scheduling A Task To Start Or Finish Relative To A Specific Date
When tasks must either end on a specific date or begin on a specific date, you can create constrains. 1. 2. 3. 4. On the Entry Table, click on a task. From the toolbar, click on the “Information” icon. Click on the “Advanced” tab. In the “Constraint Task” section, click the down arrow at “Type”. Description This is the default setting. Starts the task ASAP based upon other constraints and relationships. Do not enter a date for this constraint. Starts the task as late as possible based upon other constraints and relationships. Use when scheduling a project from the project finish date. Do not enter a date for this constraint. Finishes the task on or after the date you specify. Starts the task on or after the date you specify. Finishes the task on or before the date you specify. Starts the task on or before the date you specify. Finishes the task on the specified date. Starts the task on the specified date. May 21, 1997 15

Constraint Type & Description As Soon As Possible

As Late As Possible

Finish No Earlier Than Start No Earlier Than Finish No Later Than Start No Later Than Must Finish On Must Start On Microsoft Project.doc

STEP 4: CREATING A RESOURCE LIST
By allocating resources, you can determine cost of a task and the project thus allowing you to manage your resources more efficiency. There are two places to assign costs: Resource List - Expenses that vary according to hours or times used (labor, equipment rental, use fees) should be entered into the resource list. Cost Table Fixed expenses (materials cost, permit fees) should be entered into the Cost Table.

Creating the Resource List
Assigning costs using the resource list involves two steps: a. Creating the Resource List. b. Assigning items from the Resource List to tasks. 1. From the menu, click on: 2. From the menu, click on: VIEW – RESOURCE SHEET. VIEW – TABLE: – ENTRY
Std. Rate: The cost per unit of time to charge for the use of the resource. Examples: 30/h = $30 per hours. 600/w =$600/week. Base Calendar: Select a base calendar from the drop down list. The resource must adhere to the calendar selected.

Resource Name: Type the name of the resource here.

Group: Allows you to assign a resource to a general category.

Cost/Use: The flat rate incurred each time the resource is used.

Initials: (Opt) These can be made to show up on the Gantt chart rather than the resource name.

Max Units: Maximum number of units of this resource that are available. For example, .5 indicates that the resource is to work no more than ½ a day on any task. Enter 1 if the resource is available full time. 2.5 would indicate that you have two full time workers and one ½ time.

Ovt. Rate: The rate charged when the resource is works overtime hours.

Accrue At: Accruement has an effect only when interim reports are generated. There are 3 options: • START: The full cost of the task is accrued at the beginning of the task whether the task has been completed or not. • END: The cost of the task is accrued when a task is 100% complete. • PRORATED: The cost of the task is accrued as the project proceeds.

Code: You can use this for anything. The most common use if to place accounting codes so you can group task cost information for exporting into other applications.

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3. Create the following Resource List:

• • •

You will have zeroes where the picture has blanks. This was done for clarity. Utilities On/Off – we are charged each time utilities are turned on or off. At “Base Calendar”, double click an item to select the base calendar to use. Note that some resources are not available on weekends and nights and have been assigned to the “Standard” calendar. Once assigned to a task, the tasks on the Gantt chart will automatically adjust their dates to reflect this constraint.

STEP 5: ASSIGNING RESOURCES TO TASKS
Now that the Resource Sheet has been created, we can assign resources to tasks. 1. From the menu, click on: VIEW – GANTT CHART. 2. From the menu, click on: VIEW – TABLE: - ENTRY. 3. From the toolbar, click on the “Resource Assignment” icon.
Name: Displays all the names entered into the Resource Sheet. Double click a resource name to view or edit it. Assign: Click a resource name and then click “Assign” to assign the resource to the selected task. Hold down the CONTROL key to select multiple resources. Remove: Click a resource name and then click “Remove” to unassign the resource to the selected task. Replace: Replaces the selected resources with other resources.

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Design Phase Assignments Here we will decide who will work on the design phase of the project. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. In the Entry Table, click on row 3. Hold down the CONTROL key on the keyboard and click row 5. In the “Name” column in the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ME. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. Click on row 4. In the “Name” column in the “Resource Assignment” window, click on F.L. Wright. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN.

Purchasing Phase Assignments • The Fixed Costs (materials) will be assigned using another method. • Variable costs such as equipment rental must be assigned to the tasks in which they are utilized, not when they are purchased. • Here we will assign someone to spend time acquiring the materials and renting the equipment. It is the cost of their time that we will incur in this section. 1. 2. 3. 4. Highlight rows 8-11. Hold down the Control key and highlight rows 13-15. In the “Name” column of the “Resource Assignment” window, click on: WES In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN.

Demolition Phase Assignments Here we will assign who will perform the 3 tasks. 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Entry Table, highlight row: 17 (Remove Fixtures). In the “Name” column of the “Resource Assignment” window, click on: WENDY Hold down the CONTROL key and click on: UTILITIES ON/OFF In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN.

5. In the Entry Table, highlight row: 18 (Remove Plaster). 6. In the “Name” column of the “Resource Assignment” window, click: Arnold’s Demolition 7. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. 8. In the Entry Table, highlight row: 19 (Dispose of Debris). 9. In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, click on: Jon’s Debris Removal. 10. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. Construction Phase Assignments Here we must assign two types of resources: • Assign workers to each task. • Allocate the costs of rented equipment to the task where it will be utilized. 1. 2. 3. Click on row 21 (Install 2 New Electric Outlets). In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, click on: Doc Brown’s Electric. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. May 21, 1997 18

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Click on row 22 (Hand Tar Paper). In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, click on: WES. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. Click on row 23 (Apply Concrete Board). In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, click on: Wendy. Hold down the CONTROL key and click on: WES, ME, CONCRETE DRILL, and SAW. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN.

11. Click on row 24 (Prepare Surface) 12. In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, click on: WENDY. 13. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. 14. 15. 16. 17. Click on row 25 (Tile Room) In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, click on: ME. Hold down the CONTROL key and click on: TILE CUTTER In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN.

18. Click on row 26 (Grout Between Tile) 19. In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, highlight: WES & WENDY. 20. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. 21. Click on row 27 (Paint Non-Tiled Surfaces) 22. In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, highlight: WES & WENDY. 23. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN. 24. 25. 26. 27. Click on row 28 (Replace Fixtures) In the “Name” column of “Resource Assignment”, highlight: WENDY. Hold down the CONTROL key and click: UTILITIES ON/OFF In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on ASSIGN.

1. Click on CLOSE in the “Resource Assignment” window. 2. Drag the vertical split in the center of the scree to the right to view the Resource Names column.

Assign Fixed Costs
The only costs left to assign are the fixed costs for materials. 1. From the menu, click on: VIEW – TABLE: - COST 2. Enter the fixed costs as shown in the picture below.

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STEP 6: ANALYZE/ADJUST PROJECT
When evaluating your project, you will probably want to consider such topics as: • The Duration of the project. • How resources are allocated. • The cost of the project.

Project Duration
The most common problem when evaluating a project it that it is too long. Fortunately, there are several methods of shorting the duration of a project. First, it is important to understand that by default, task duration is “Resource Driven”. This means the duration originally assigned to a task can change depending upon the resource assigned to it. The following example illustrates this relationship. Resource working hours are shorter than Calendar Working Hours When the Resource’s Working hours per day are less then the project working hours per day the length of the task will increase over what was originally planned. For example, a task was scheduled to last one day, but you assign a resource to it that can only work 4 hours per day, the task will stretch over two days instead of one. Note that the Table Entry chart will still display only 1 day in the duration column. This is because the total duration is still only 1 day (4 hrs. + 4 hrs. = 8Hrs. = 1 day) The start/finish dates will reflect two days and the Gantt chart will also display a bar stretching over two days.

Methods of Shortening Task Duration:
Increase the working hours per day for the resource. This will allow more work to be accomplish per working day. i.e., if you work longer hours, you get more accomplished. Note that this method involves changing what is considered normal working hours of a resource and does not incur overtime rates. 1. From the menu, click on: TOOLS – CHANGE WORKING TIME 2. In the “For” box, select the name of the resource. 3. Highlight the days involved and increase the working hours.

Assign more workers to the task. This will allow more work to be done in the same amount of time. Note that you can overallocate resources using this method. 1. In the Gantt Chart/Table Entry view, click on the task to be affected. 2. From the toolbar, click on the “Resource Assignment” icon. 3. In the “Units” column, type the number of resources to be assigned to the project.

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Allow Overtime Hours Again, this will allow more work to be accomplished per day. Note that you will also be charged an overtime rate using this method. 1. In the Gantt Chart/Table Entry view, click on the task to be affected. 2. From the menu, click on: WINDOW – SPLIT. 3. Click in the lower of the 3 windows. 4. From the menu, click on: FORMAT – DETAILS – RESOURCE WORK 5. In the “Ovt. Work” column, type in the Overtime hours. (e.g. 4h) 6. To update, the Gantt chart, press F9 on the keyboard. 7. To hide the lower window, from the menu, click on: WINDOW – REMOVE SPLIT

Adjust Task Relationship When tasks are linked, the successor can not begin before its predecessor is complete. This is known as a “Finish to Start” relationship and is the default when linking tasks. If two linked tasks can be worked on simultaneously, their relationship can be changed to a “Start to Start” relationship. 1. 2. 3. 4. View the Gantt Chart (View – Gantt Chart) Double click the line connecting the two tasks involved. In the “Type” box, click the down arrow and select “START to START” Click on OK.

Allow Lead Time Lead time is when two linked tasks have a Finish to Start relationship, but the succeeding task can begin before its predecessor is completely finished. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Display the Gantt Chart and Table Entry view. Click on the task on the table that will begin early. Click on the “Task Information” icon on the toolbar. Click on the “Predecessors” tab. In the “Lag” column, type in the lead time in negative numbers. For example, to begin ½ day early, type in: -.5d

Adjust Start / Stop Dates Normally, a linked tasks starts immediately after its predecessor finishes. However, if it was necessary to assign Start dates to tasks manually rather than letting Project assign them, you may have gaps between tasks. If this is the case, you will have to carefully examine your chart looking for ways to rearrange task order, start times, etc.

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Resource Allocation
When a resource’s working hours per day is exceeded, it is considered to be overallocated. For example, a laborer works 12 hours per day when their resource calendar only calls for 8 hours per day. Overallocation occurs most frequently when the same resource is assigned to non-linked tasks occurring simultaneously. View the Resource Management Toolbar Use the “Resource Management” toolbar to find overallocated resources: 1. From the menu, click on: VIEW – TOOLBARS. 2. From the list, select: “Resource Management”. 3. Click on SHOW. 4. Click on CLOSE. Viewing Overallocated Resources 5. From the toolbar, click on the “Resource Allocation View” icon:

A window similar to the picture to the right appears. Overallocated resources are in red. 6. Click on the name of the resource that is overallocated. 7. From the toolbar, click on the “Goto Overallocation” icon: You can now tell which resources that are overallocated and the specific tasks they are assigned to. At this point the resource allocation can be changed. Reassigning Resources 1. Click on the name of the task whose resource is to be reassigned. 2. On the “Resource Management” toolbar, click on the “Resource Assignment” icon: 3. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click the overallocated resource. 4. In the “Resource Assignment” window, click on the REPLACE button. 5. In the “Replace Resource” window, click the resource that will replace the overallocated resource. 6. Click on OK, then click on CLOSE. To see the reassignment on the Gantt chart, click on the name of the resource you reassigned the task to in the “Resource Name” column. Returning to Task Entry View 1. On the “Resource Management” toolbar, click on the “View Task Entry” icon: 2. From the menu, click on: WINDOW – REMOVE SPLIT

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Project Cost
Methods for reducing the cost of a project are nearly the exact opposite of the steps taken to shorten the duration of a project. You can reduce the cost of a project by: • Shortening the schedule. • Avoid overtime pay. • Reduce the number of tasks or resources employed. To view tasks and their associated costs: 1. 2. From the menu, click on: From the menu, click on: VIEW – GANTT CHART VIEW – TABLE ______ - COST

A window similar to the one below will open. Note that your figures will not be the same as those shown here.

Fixed Costs: Total Cost: Baseline: Variance: Actual: Remaining:

These costs will only be present if they were typed here by the user. This is a combination of Fixed costs and the cost of resources. This contains the expected costs prior to beginning the project. This is the Baseline cost subtracted from the Total Cost. The cost of the project at its current point of completion. The costs that are still to incur at the project’s current state of completion.

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STEP 7: DOCUMENT TASK PROGRESS
As the project proceeds, you may wish to record its progress, noting any deviations from your planned schedule.

Creating a Baseline
A baseline is a snapshot of you project before actual work begins and changes are made to the schedule. You can then compare the actual project to the baseline. The baseline includes task start and finish dates, resources, and costs. 1. From the menu, click on: TOOLS – TRACKING – SAVE BASELINE. 2. Select the options: Save Baseline and Entire Project 3. Click on OK.

Recording A Project’s Progress
The purpose of a baseline is to compare the planned schedule to the actual one. You can record the a task’s progress using any of the following methods: Status of Task How to Track The task was completed Mark its Percent Complete at 100%. This will: on schedule. • Set the Actual Start & Finish dates to match the baseline. • Set the Actual Duration to match the baseline The task is ½ Mark its Percent Complete at 50%. This will: completed. • Set the actual duration to the amount completed only. • Set the remaining duration the amount that still needs to be completed. • The actual finish date will not be filled in yet. The task was completed Set the Actual Finish Date to the actual date completed. This will: late but started on time. • Leave the original start date and update the finish date. • Change the actual duration. • Set the Percent Complete at 100%. • Alter the Start date of the succeeding task if they are linked. The task is starting late. Set the Actual Start Date to the new start date. This will: • Not affect duration, finish date, or percent complete. • Note that if it is starting late because its predecessor ended late, its Actual Start Date will be updated automatically. The task is starting Set the Actual Start Date to the new start date. This will: Early. • Not effect the Percent Complete. • Not effect the Finish date. • Will increase the duration until you enter a new finish date. The task’s Duration is In Table Entry View, Increase the Duration. This will: expected to take longer • Update the Start/Finish dates. than planned. • Do not alter this in the “Task Information” box because it will not update the dates.

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Using the Tracking Toolbar
The general procedure for updating a task’s status is to: • Click on the Task. • Open the “Update Tasks” dialogue box (Tools – Tracking – Update Tasks) However, there is a Tracking toolbar that makes tracking somewhat easier. 1. From the menu, click on: VIEW – TOOLBARS 2. Select the TRACKING toolbar and click on SHOW, then CLOSE.
Reschedule Work: If the highlighted task’s start date is before the “Current Date” (File - Project Info.), then the task(s) start date will be rescheduled to start on the “Current Date”.

Project Statistics: Displays the project’s summary informtion.

Percent Complete: Marks the selected task(s) at the percent completed for the button chosen.

Update Resources: Updates the timesheet, then opens the Resource Update Options dialog box, which you use to select the resource work you want to update.

Update as Scheduled: Use this to mark highlighted tasks as 100% completed as they were scheduled. This will only affect tasks whose start/finish dates have already gone by compared to the “Current date” listed in: File – Project Info – Current Date.

Update Tasks: Opens the “Update Tasks” dialogue box.

Update Tasks Range: Opens the “Update Tasks” dialogue box and steps through all of your tasks or the selected tasks one at a time.

Workgroup Toolbar: Hides/displays the Workgroup toolbar.

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Exercise: Updating Tasks
We will now track the progress of our tasks. The Tracking Toolbar is open. Marking Tasks 100% Complete: 1. Highlight rows 3-5. 2. Click on the 100% complete icon. 3. Highlight rows 8-10. 4. Click on the 100% complete icon. 5. Highlight rows 13-15. 6. Click on the 100% complete icon. 7. Click in row 18. 8. Click on the 100% complete icon. 9. Highlight rows 21-22. 10. Click on the 100% complete icon. 11. Highlight rows 24-27. 12. Click on the 100% complete icon.

Changing the Duration & Marking at 100% Complete “Removal of Fixtures” in row 17 took 3 hrs. instead of 2 hrs. as planned. The task is complete. This can be done in Table Entry View or Table Work View. 1. Display the “Table Work” view: VIEW – TABLE – WORK. 2. Change the Duration in row 17 to 3h. 3. Click on the 100% complete icon. Postponing the Starting Date Dispose of Debris was delayed by two days due to an earthquake that has closed all roads to the city dump. However, the task is now complete. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Click in row 19. Click on the “Update Tasks” icon on the Tracking Toolbar. In the “Actual Start” box, type in a date that is two days after the “Current Start” date. In the “Percent Complete” box, type in 100. Click on OK.

Extending the Finishing Date Placing the Concrete board took 3 days longer than expected so we wish to increase the finish date by 3 days. 1. Click in row 23. 2. Click on the “Update Tasks” icon on the Tracking Toolbar. 3. In the “Actual Finish” box, type in a date that is two days after the “Current Finish” date. (The task will be marked as 100% complete automatically.) Microsoft Project.doc May 21, 1997 26

Marking a task at 50% complete The final task, Replace Fixtures in row 28 is only 50% complete. 1. Click in row 28. 2. Click on the 50% complete icon.

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PRINTING & REPORTS
Project can print all of the views displayed on the screen. Further, it also comes with predesigned reports which display the most commonly desired information.

Printing the Current View
1. 2. 3. Display any of the views you desire. (View – Calendar, for example) From the toolbar, click on the Print Preview icon. To Print, click on the PRINT button or to Close, click on the CLOSE icon.

Reports
There are numerous reports available in Project, the can be viewed and printed. To access them: 1. From the menu, click on: VIEW – REPORTS 2. Click a category and then click on SELECT 3. Click a report and then click SELECT 4. To Print, click on the PRINT button or to Close, click on the CLOSE button.

The remainder of this handout shows the different reports available. PROJECT OVERVIEW – SUMMARY

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Overview – Working Days

Current Activities – Completed Tasks

Current Activities – Tasks in Progress

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Costs - Weekly Cash Flow

Costs - Budget

Assignments – Who Does What

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Assignments – Who Does What When

Assignments – Weekly To Do List (Filtered for Wes)

Assignments – Overallocated Resources

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Workload – Task Usage

Workload – Resource Usage

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