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Regisrtation no. Name-Saazia Naaz Malik Paper-1 Response sheet no.1 Question no1.

What are the various approaches to Study OB. Is OB integrative science. Write critically the contribution of MAX WEBER. Ans.APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR There are mainly four approaches to organizational Behaviour as follows: Human Resources Approach :The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher level of competency,creativity and fulfillment, because people are the central resource in any organization. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can supportive approach because the managers primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance. Contigency Approach :A Contigency approach to organizational behavior implies that different situation require different behavioural practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. Each situations must be analysed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. Thus, it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organisation in the most appropriate manner. Productivity Approach:Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input.It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Productivity is considered to be improved, if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. But besides economic inputs and outputs, human and social inputs and outputs also are important. Systems Approach: A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the organisation people employ technology in performing the taskthat are responsible for , while the structure of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their

different activities. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organisation. OB an integrative science: Yes OB is an integrative science. Organizations are social systems.
Oragnization combine science,people,and technology.

It is an in depth, insightful look of the behavior

of individuals in the organisation. It's a combine study of all areas of the behavioural sciences for the improvements and upliftment of individual & organization and the benefits of the worlds around us as we know it today. MAX WEBER THEORY : According to Max Weber, "an Action is 'social' if the acting individual takes account of the behavior of others and is thereby oriented in its course".(Secher 1962), Max weber has constructed a rational- legal authority model of an ideal type bureaucracy. This ideal type rested on belief in the legality of patterns of normative rules and the right of those elevated to authority to issue commands . weber postulated the rules and regulations of a bureaucracy serve to insulate its members against the possibility of personal favouritism. Characteristics of Bureaucracies:1. A well defined hierarchy. All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way permitting the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions. This provides a clear chain of command facilitating control and order throughout the organisation. 2. Division of labor and specialization. All responsibilities in an organisation are rationized to the point where each employee will have the necessary expertise to master a particular task. The necessitates granting each employee the requisite authority to complete all such tasks. 3. Rules and regulations. All organizational activities should be rationalized to the point where standard operating procedures are developed to provide certainty and facilitate coordination. 4. Impersonal relationships between managers and employees. Weber believes it is necessary for managers to maintain an impersonal relationship with the employees because of the need to have a rational decision making process rather than one influenced by favouritism and personal prejudice. This organizational atmosphere would also facilitate rational evaluation of employee outcomes where personal prejudice would not be a dominant consideration. 5. Competence. Competence should be the basis for all decisions made in hiring, job assignments, and promotions. This would eliminate personal bias and the significance of knowing someone in central personnel decisions. This fosters ability and merit as the primary characteristics of a bureaucratic organizations .

2.Define Motivation. Critically evaluate contribution of McGregor to motivation. Ans.

Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.

Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is the processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (Robbins, 2003). Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization. And Persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s, McGregors X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques.

McGregor maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. Theory X Management According to McGregor, Theory X leadership assumes the following: Work is inherently distasteful to most people, and they will attempt to avoid work whenever possible. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. Most people have little aptitude for creativity in solving organizational problems. Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy. Most people are self-centered. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives Most people resist change. Most people are gullible and unintelligent. Essentially, theory x assumes that the primary source of most employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, management approaches to motivation range from a hard approach to a soft approach. Theory Y Management The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be

motivated. In strong contrast to Theory X, Theory Y leadership makes the following general assumptions: Work can be as natural as play if the conditions are favourable. People will be self-directed and creative to meet their work and organizational objectives if they are committed to them. People will be committed to their quality and productivity objectives if rewards are in place that addresses higher needs such as self-fulfilment. The capacity for creativity spreads throughout organizations. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population. Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. Under these assumptions, there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals by using the employee's own need for fulfillment as the motivator. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach.

McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore they may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. XY Theory Management Application - Business Implications for Workforce Motivation If Theory Y holds true, an organization can apply these principles of scientific management to improve employee motivation: Decentralization and Delegation - If firms decentralize control and reduce the number of levels of management; managers will have more subordinates and consequently will be forced to delegate some responsibility and decision making to them. Job Enlargement - Broadening the scope of an employee's job adds variety and opportunities to satisfy ego needs. Participative Management - Consulting employees in the decision making process taps their creative capacity and provides them with some control over their work environment. Performance Appraisals - Having the employee set objectives and participate in the process of evaluating how well they were met.

Regisrtation no. Name-Saazia Naaz Malik Paper-1 Response sheet no.2

Define learning. Compare and contrast conditioned and instrumental learning. Give an example of how a particular behavior is learned and modified in organization.

Learning covers virtually all behaviours and is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and values, emotional responses (such as happiness and fear), and motor skills (such as operating a computer keyboard or riding a bicycle). We can learn incorrect facts or pick up bad habits in the same way that we learn correct facts and acquire good habits. It refers to a spectrum of changes that occur as a result of one's experience. Learning may be defined as "any relatively permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential produced by experience".

Comparison & contrast between Conditioned & instrumental learning: Conditioned Learning: Classical conditioning grew out of experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell, conducted in the early 1900s by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Conditioned Learning involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. When the stimuli, one compelling and the other neutral, are paired, the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus and, hence, takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus. Classical conditioning can be used to explain why Christmas carols often bring back pleasant memories of childhood; the songs are associated with the festive Christmas spirit and evoke fond memories and feelings of euphoria. Classical conditioning is passive. Something happens and we react in a specific way. It is elicited in response to a specific, identifiable event. As such, it can explain simple reflexive behaviors. But most behaviors, particularly the complex behavior of individuals in organizations is emitted rather than elicited. That is, its voluntary rather than reflexive.

Instrumental Learning: The second type of learning technique is instrumental learning, or conditioning, also called operant conditioning. In this type of conditioning a response is followed by some consequence which then changes the future probability of that response. For example, instrumental conditioning appears to be one way in which aggressive motivation can be changed. If an aggressive response by one child toward another child is followed by some positive event such as the aggressor getting to play with a desired toy, then the motivation to behave aggressively can be expected to increase in the future.

Illustration of how a particular behavior is learned and modified in organization through an Example: According to reinforcement theory, desirable behaviors can be increased by associating them with positive consequences, while undesirable behaviors can be increased by associating them with punishments. In organizational behavior modification, a manager identifies desired and undesired behaviors, measures the existing performance level of individual staff members and identifies current consequences of behaviors. The manager then develops a strategy to make highly-desirable behaviors more rewarding for an employee. To assess whether or not his strategy is effective after implementation, the manager must again measure the performance level of staff members, to see whether they have increased their frequencies of desired behavior. If they haven't, the manager must try a different form of positive reinforcement. Once the manager perceives a positive change in staff behavior, he must maintain the positive behavior. To do this, he must continue to reward his staff for desirable behavior on a continuous, intermittent schedule. For example, if an employee who used to come to work late is given a raise for changing his behavior and coming to work on time, he should be given another reward later if he continues to be punctual. If the raise is only a one-time reward, the employee might start coming to work late again, seeing no benefit in coming to work on time.

2.Define communication.What are the barriers of communication Commuincation:The transfer and understanding of meaning. Barriers of communication are as following1.FilteringFiltering refers to a senders purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.For,example,when a manger tell his boss what he feels his boss want to hear,he is filtering information. 2.Selective PreceptinThe receiver in communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs,motivation,experience,backgroung and other personal chararcterstics.Receivers also project their interest and expectation into communication as they decode them. 3.Information Overload Individul have a finite capacity for processing data.When the information we have to work with the exceeds our orocessing capacity,the result is information overlaod. 4.Emotions

How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication influences how he or she interprets it.The same message received when we are angry or distraught is often interpreted differently than it is when we are happy.Extereme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. 5.Language When were communicating in the same language,words mean different things to different people.Age and context are the two biggest factor that influence language a person uses and the definitions of words he or she gives to words. 6.Coomuincation Apprehension Another barrier in communication is communication apprehension or anxiety.Lots os people dread speaking in front of a group,but communication apprehension is a more serious problem because it affect a whole category of communication technique.People who suffers from it experience undue tension and anxiety in oral communication,written communication,or both.