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Islamic Medicine in its true context, can be defined as a body of knowledge of Medicine that was inherited by the Muslims in the early phase of Islamic History (40- 4! "H#$$% -&$% "'( from mostly )reek sources, but to which became added medical knowledge from, *ersia, +yria, India and ,y-antine. HALAL AND HARAM THERAPEUTICS
5 He also wrote a treatise on measles and smallpox and called it 6de *este or de *estilentia.6 It was translated into 7atin in %>$> ".'. It is a masterpiece in clinical medicine (,rowne %4$ (. It describes the clinical difference between the two diseases so 1i1idly that nothing since has been added (Aeys %4!%(.
AL-ZAHRAWI (",B79"+I+, ,B9"+I+, "7C"H@"DIB+( 4<%-%0%< ".'.
+ome medicine is good and others are bad. ,ad medicine is forbidden. ,ad medicine causes more harm than benefit. /hile seeking treatment, the moral teachings of Islam must be respected. 0he end ne1er 2ustifies the means. Haram material is not allowed as medicine except in special circumstances where the legal principle of necessity applies. "lcohol is for example not an accepted cure for any disease3 it is actually itself a disease. THE MAIN ISLAMIC PHYSICIANS
5 "l-Cahrawi became an eminent surgeon. He spent a producti1e life in practicing medicine, especially in surgery and medical writings. He died at the age of &<. 5 He authored four main works. :ne of these is 6"l0asrif 7iman "2i- Ean "I-0aElifE which was the best medie1al surgical encyclopedia and was used in =urope until the %!th century. +tressing the importance of basic sciences he says; F,efore practicing, one should be familiar with the science of anatomy and the functions of organs so that he will understand them, recogni-e their shape, understand their connections, and know their limitations. "lso one should know the bones, ner1es, and muscles, their numbers, their origin and Insertions, the arteries and the 1eins, their start and endG. 5 "l-Cahrawi also used cautery to control bleeding. He used wax and alcohol to stop bleeding from the skull during cranial surgery. +prengel said that "l-Cahrawi was the first to the lithotomy position for 1aginal operations. "IH Cahrawi also described the tracheotomy operation and performed it in an emergency on one of his ser1ants. 5 He was the first to write on orthodontia. He showed e1idence of great experience from details of clinical picture and surgical procedures e.g. his description of 1aricose 1eins stripping, e1en after ten centuries, is almost like modern surgery ("l-:kbi %4!%(. 5 He also wrote about fracture of the skull ("I-:kbi %4!%(. 5 "l-Cahrawi described many dental operations such as dental extractions, fixation, reimplantation, and artificial teeth. He described tooth pain and cautioned the physician against remo1al of the healthy tooth to which pain is referred. 5 He also de1oted one whole chapter to midwifery, gi1ing tips to midwi1es, and describing the problems of difficult labor and obstetrical maneu1ers. 5 'uring the time of "l-Cahrawi, surgery in the Islamic world became a respected specialty practiced by reputable physicians. :n the contrary in =urope, surgery was belittled and practiced by barbers and butchers. In %%$< ".'., the 9ouncil of 0ours declared the following resolution 6+urgery is to be abandoned by the schools of medicine and by all decent physicians.6
AL-RAZI (RAZES) &4%-4 $ ".'
5 He defined medicine as 6the art concerned in preser1ing healthy bodies, in combating disease, and in restoring health to the sick.6 He thus outlined the three aspects of medicine, namely public health, pre1enti1e medicine, and treatment of specific diseases. 5 He published se1eral books which were translated into 7atin, 8rench, Italian, Hebrew, and 9reek. :ne of his main books is 6"I-Mansuri6 (7iber "l-Mansoris( which he dedicated to his patron *rince "l-Mansur. It was composed of ten treatises and included all aspects of health and disease. 5 He listed se1en principles for the preser1ation of health; %. Moderation and balance in motion and rest. . Moderation in eating and drinking. <. =limination of superfluous matter. 4. Impro1ement and regulation of dwelling places. >. "1oidance of excesses before they become uncontrollable. $. Maintenance of harmony in ambitions and resolutions. !. "c?uisition of reticence through possession of good habits including exercise. 5 He also published another book called "-Murshid. In it, he emphasi-ed the important lines of therapy that we mentioned earlier. 5 "nother book written by "l-@a-i was named 6"lHawi6, which means the complete text. It was composed of 1olumes, and it, especially its 4th 1olume on pharmacology, was used as one of the main text books in the medical school of *aris.
IBN-SINA ("DI9=II"( 4&0-%0<! ".'
5 Avicenna, considered the father of modern medicine, introduced experimental medicine and systematic experimentation and ?uantification in physiology, disco1ered the contagious nature of diseases, and described many
the humours3 the basic ?ualities of hot. 0he functions and acti1ities attributed to the systems of the body. attributed key roles to certain ma2or organs. 0his category also co1ered matters of attire. elaborated and de1eloped by indi1idual authors in the "rab Islamic tradition. but also co1ered intercourse and bathing.medical treatments.y then. so that people with contagious diseases could be kept away from other patients who do not ha1e any contagious diseases. cold. he critici-ed the shortcomings of "1icennaEs work and of )alenEs 1iews and showed their weaknesses. were routinely attributed to bad or corrupt air. imagination. and dry3 personal temperament.'. like )reek medicine before it. MEDICAL THEORY AND THE HUMAN BODY Islamic theoretical formulations about the human body were founded on those of classical )reek philosophy and )raeco-@oman medicine.% && ". and introduced the method of risk factor analysis and the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases He also described the first known surgical treatment for cancer. 0he heart was the source of the Kinnate heatL that sustains life. "1icenna introduced the method of ?uarantine as a means of limiting the spread of contagious diseases. 0hese were the Kextra-naturalsL by which was meant illness and its symptoms. foodstuffs with a remedial function. microbiology and pathology. this not only had to do with digesti1e function. +leep was deemed to help digest food and mature humours. Muslim physicians were responsible for the disco1ery of infectious disease and the immune system and the introduction of bacteriology. . IBN-EL-NAFIS % 0& . IBN-AL-QUFF (% <<-%<0>( 5 "nother physician who contributed to perinatology. /akefulness was also important. In addition. It began with physiotherapy and diet3 if this failed. 0he third was eating and drinking. and the connections drawn between them."l-Janun6 which means the 6+ummary of the 9anon6. 0he first of the non-naturals was the consideration of air. each of which performed a specific 1ital function. In epidemiology. all that human beings really are. drugs. two of them are 6Mu2a. for example. :nly as a last resort was surgery used. 0he brain was the seat of the psychical faculties M reason. in The Canon of Medicine. good air encouraged and maintained good health. 0he doctrine of the non-naturals highlights the themes of moderation and balance that dominated medie1al Islamic thinking on the healthy body. . 0hat is why he was called by some as "1icenna the +econd. while corrupt air could throw the humours out of balance and cause illness. memory. the pathology of contagion had been fully understood. but that were not regarded as part of it. 0heir disco1ery of contagious disease in particular is considered re1olutionary and is one of the most important disco1eries in medicine. not always in agreement with one another. "ll of the abo1e are part of what Islamic medicine called the KnaturalsL. and sense perception all had their origin here. "nother of the non-naturals was sleep. 'iet was a paramount consideration in both maintenance of health and reco1ery from illness. Islamic medicine placed great stress on the role of exercise in maintaining health. and the faculties and pneumata M in sum. these were di1ided into categories of regular foodstuffs. drugs were used. illustrating how mental function was integrated into the physical and how it was recogni-ed that this could ha1e a decisi1e impact on oneEs physical wellbeing. howe1er. In PULSOLO*Y AND SPHY*MOLO*Y Muslim physicians were pioneers in pulsology and sphygmology. and prescribed it in moderation as part of a recuperati1e routine. but 1ital to the preser1ation or restoration of health. In these two books which were based on "1icennaEs writings. including anesthetics and medical and therapeutic drugs. since it allowed innate heat to spread through the body. 5 Ibn-=l-Iafis added to our knowledge of the physiology of the circulation. and poisons. and the Knon-naturalsL M six things external to the body. 5 :n medicine he wrote many books. "rab-Islamic medicine. hospitals were created with separate wards for specific illnesses. thought. there were two other sets of factors that were deemed to affect the body. 0he fifth non-natural was excretion and retention. 0he last of the non-naturals was psychical states. Method of The !"# $% I&'!($) Med$)$%e 0he patients were treated according to a well-defined treatment plan. 0he second was mo1ement. since too much sleep dulled the mind and could also cool the body. including constipation and diarrhoea. =pidemics. often betrayed the limited extent to which empirical data could be collected and 1erified in the pre-modern age. and as a result. along with wakefulness. EPIDEMIOLO*Y+ ETIOLO*Y+ PATHOLO*Y In etiology and epidemiology. wet.
In the %0th century. especially perinatology.. and was the first physician known to ha1e written articles on allergy and the immune system.'. contraction . "1icenna stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected. including the JurEan and the Hadith literature. Modern anesthesia was de1eloped by Muslim anesthesiologists. )od issues a soul to this matter.O 0he pulse is a mo1ement in the heart and arteries . 6=1ery beat of the pulse comprises two mo1ements and two pauses. 0he earliest medical text to deal with dental surgery in detail was the Al-Tasrif by "bulcasis... which then de1elops into an embryo that grows and generates organs. "bu al-Jasim and Ibn Cuhr. Muhammad ibn CakarPya @Q-i (@ha-es( was responsible for disco1ering 6allergic asthma6. . Ibn "bu-"l-Aawafer wrote a book on therapeutic ophthalmology entitled 6Iatigat=l-8ikr fi Ilag "mrad =l-. In the thirteenth century. particularly dental surgery and dental restoration. they described in detail the pharmacology of important narcotics such as opium and other central ner1ous system depressants such as hyoscyamus and hashish (Ahairallal %44 (. and ga1e the first descriptions on bacterial and 1iral organisms (though he did not 1iew them as primary causes of disease(. 0hey were the first to utili-e oral as well as inhalant anesthetics. 0hus. OPHTHALMOLO*Y %0>0 ". it is the oldest book in its original language on diseases of the eye. which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology and modern clinical trials. "1icenna described the six extrinsic muscles of the eyeball. EMBRYOLO*Y =mbryology was discussed to some extent in early Islamic literature. 0athkirat "lAahhalin (" Iote for the :cculists(. and cataract. Muslim physicians made many ad1ances in obstetrics.assar6. "li ibn "bbas al-Ma2usi pro1ed this theory false as he disco1ered that uterine contractions are in fact the cause of deli1ery of the fetus.. Ibn al-Iafis de1elop his own theories on embryology and generation. 0he Canon laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effecti1eness of new drugs and medications. "ccording to Aahil (%4 0(. OBSTETRICS ALLER*OLO*Y AND IMMUNOLO*Y 0he study of allergology and immunology originate from the Islamic world. at . among other Muslim surgeons. "1icenna was a pioneer of sphygmology after he refined )alenEs theory of the pulse and disco1ered the following in The Canon of Medicine. which takes the form of alternate expansion and contraction. in anaesthesia. performed hundreds of surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed o1er the face. He ga1e detailed methods for the successful replantation of dislodged teeth. superior to any written in =urope up to the eighteenth century ANESTHESIA 8irst. expansion . 60he drug must be free from any extraneous accidental ?uality.He belie1ed that when a male and female semen mix. pause. the author described trachoma. /ritten in a clear and logical style. N. a student of Ibn al-Iafis. and when they create a mixed matter that has an appropriate temperament to recei1e an animal or human soul. (9onclusions from =xperience on 0reatment of 'iseases of the =ye(. and prescribed treatment (Aeys %4!%(. pause . described embryology and perinatology more accurately in his Al-Jami. DENTISTRY Muslim dentists were pioneers in dentistry.aghdad. 0he "rab physician Ibn al-Juff (% <<-%<0>(. 0he first correct explanations of pulsation were gi1en by Muslim physicians.6 . "s stated by 9unistan(l4 %(. "li Ibn-Isa (Resu Haly( wrote the classic book on ophthalmology. In Islamic +pain. Muslim physicians also introduced the anesthetic 1alue of opium deri1ati1es during the middle "ges. CLINICAL PHARMACOLO*Y BACTERIOLO*Y AND MICROBIOLO*Y In bacteriology. it is one of se1eral textbooks on ophthalmology considered to be "1icennaEs contribution to pharmacology and the pharmaceutical sciences in The Canon of Medicine (%0 0s( include the introduction of systematic experimentation and ?uantification into pharmacology and the study of physiology. con2uncti1itis.6 0he 7atin translation of his Canon also laid the foundations for the later in1ention of the sphygmograph.
antiemetic. +urgeons in Islamic +pain utili-ed special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery.!t/ e Cotto% d e&&$%. there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases. TRACHEOTOMY 0he surgical procedure of tracheotomy was in1ented by Ibn Cuhr ("1en-oar( in the % th century. "bulcasis performed the first successful extraction of bladder and kidney stones from the urinary bladder using a new instrument he in1ented Ma lithotomy scalpel with two sharp cutting edgesM and a new techni?ue he in1entedMperineal cystolithotomyMwhich allowed him to crush a large stone inside the bladder before its remo1al. for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not pro1e anything about its effect on man.e !%d P'!&te C!t. THERAPY A o(!the !"# MEDICAL AND THERAPEUTIC DRU*S 5 +team distillation was in1ented by "1icenna in the early %%th century for the purpose of producing essential oils.6 60he time of action must be obser1ed. 8rom the %0th century. ANTISEPTICS Most Fuqaha' (Islamic Rurists( say that circumcision is obligatory upon the men and this is the opinion of Jumhur (the ma2ority of the scholars(. 8or example. so that they would ha1e no effect on them.o'd &)o $!+ )h!'7+ )'!#+ )o !'+ "e! '+ t! + -$t/(e% !%d !')oho'6 H$ /dothe !"# .$)!' %eed'e I%0e)t$o% &# $%. SUR*ICAL INSTRUMENTS Adhe&$. analgesic (pain killing( and antipyretic properties of medical cannabis. "s a result. because sometimes a drug cures one disease by Its essential ?ualities and another by its accidental ones.6 60he effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases./t !%d Fo )e"& C!/te !%d L$.6 60he ?uality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease.e -!%d!.6 60he experimentation must be done with the human body. gi1ing rise to aromatherapy. !%d S/ . 9hemotherapeutical drugs were first de1eloped in the Muslim world. 1 Che(othe !"# 2!& "$o%ee ed -# !'-R!3$ (Rh!3e&) $% the 45th )e%t/ #+ 2he% he $%t od/)ed the /&e of )he($)!' &/-&t!%)e& !%d d /. "rabic physicians disco1ered the diuretic.& !& fo (& of (ed$)!t$o%6 The&e )he($)!'& $%)'/ded . antiepileptic. so that essence and accident are not confused. CIRCUMCISION In the medie1al Islamic world. and in1ented the plaster and many surgical instruments. not a composite.6 SUR*ERY 60he drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases. for if this did not happen. Muslim physicians used a 1ariety of specific substances to destroy microbes. performed surgeries under inhalant anesthesia.$t $o'+ )o""e + (e )/ $) !%d ! &e%$) &!'t&+ &!' !((o%$!)+ .6 ANAL*ESICS+ ANTIEMETICS+ ANTIPYRETICS+ DIURETICS "bu al-Jasim ("bulcasis(. the father of modern surgery. disease. MEDICINAL ALCOHOL Che(othe !"# Iumerous Muslim chemists produced medicinalgrade alcohol through distillation as early as the %0th century and manufactured on a large scale the first distillation de1ices for use in chemistry.e @a-i used mercurial compounds as topical antiseptics. it was an accidental effect. 0hey also originated specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operati1e period. LITHOTOMY In lithotomy. Muslim physicians and surgeons were applying purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent. and used it extensi1ely as medication from the &th to %&th centuries. 0hey applied sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite. 0hey used alcohol as a sol1ent and antiseptic. he is regarded as a pioneer of aromatherapy. significantly decreasing the death rates pre1iously caused by earlier attempts at this operation by the ancients. 6It must be used on a simple. anti-inflammatory. specifically cannabis sati1a.
paralysis. and de1eloped a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings. was introduced by "1icenna in The Canon of Medicine (%0 0s(.6 NEUROSCIENCE AND PSYCHOLO*Y 0he concepts of mental health and 6mental hygiene6 were introduced by the Muslim physician "hmed ibn +ahl al-. mania.6 "1icenna was a pioneer of psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine. nightmare. including hallucination. 0hey de1eloped se1eral methods of therapy for this issue. and proper nutrition was an important item of treatment. SE8UAL HEALTH In sexual health.5 Hirudotherapy. including the single drug method where a drug is prescribed. Muslim physicians and pharmacists identified the issues of sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction. melancholia. the body may also find no 2oy in life and may e1entually de1elop a physical illness. dementia. He recogni-ed Ephysiological psychologyE in the treatment of illnesses in1ol1ing emotions. 7eech therapy became a popular method in medie1al =urope due to the influence of his Canon. and a 6combination method of either a drug or food. 1ertigo and tremor. which is seen as an anticipation of the word association test attributed to 9arl Rung. He first described numerous neuropsychiatric conditions. Ph#&$othe !"# 5 0he physiotherapy prescribed by Muslim physicians usually included physical exercise and bathing. epilepsy. insomnia. In his Masalih al-Abdan wa al-Anfus (Sustenance for ody and Soul(. and argued that 6if the nafs NpsycheO gets sick. who wrote that leech could be used for cleaning the tissues after surgical operations. 9():+9 . the use of medicinal leech for medical purposes.alkhi (&>0-4<4(. and they were the first to prescribe medication for the treatment of these problems. stroke. he was the first to successfully discuss diseases related to both the body and the mind. "1icenna was also a pioneer of neuropsychiatry. " more modern use for medicinal leech was introduced by "bd-el-latif in the % th century. in which there was an awareness of food deficiencies. 5 He also introduced the use of leech as treatment for skin disease. Muslim "rab physicians de1eloped an elaborate system of dieting.