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Thorpe Park Hotel

Leeds
14 September 2011
Fire Engineering
Fire Engineering
Richard Dixon
BCSA
Manager Structural Advisory
Service
Mobiles to
silent, please
Fire exit
Fire Engineering
9.30 09.45 Legislation & Trends
John Dowling BCSA
9.45 10.05 Association of Specialist Fire Protection
Wilf Butcher ASFP
10.05 10.25 Testing Principles and Practice
Dr David Moore BCSA
10.25 - 10.40 Simplified Structural Fire Engineering
John Dowling BCSA
10.40 10.50 Questions and Answer
John Dowling, Wilf Butcher, Dr David Moore
10.50 11.15 Break
Fire Engineering
11.15 11.35 Fire Engineering Design of Unusual Structures
Dr Florian Block Buro Happold
11.35 11.55 Fire Engineering on the Shard
Mark OConnor WSP
11.55 12.15 Value from Fire Engineering
Neil Butterworth Arup
12.15 12.30 Questions and Answer
Dr Florian Block, Mark OConnor, Neil Butterworth,
12.30 12.35 Chairmans summary
Richard Dixon BCSA
12.35 pm Lunch
Legislation and trends in fire protection
John Dowling
Sustainability and Fire Engineering Manager
British Constructional Steelwork Association
UK building regulations tell us what to do but not
how to do it
The building shall be designed and constructed such
that, in the event of a fire, its stability will be maintained
for a reasonable period
The external walls of the building shall adequately resist
the spread of flames over the walls and from one building
to another, having regard to its height, use and position
of the building
Highlighted figures may be reduced by 30 minutes
if sprinklers are installed
Fire resistance requirements in
Approved Document B
Approved
Document B 2006
Height of Building (m)
<5 <18 <30 >30
Residential 30 60 90
Offices 30 60 90
Shops, commercial,
assembly
60 60 90
Industrial & storage 60 90 120
Car parks - closed 30 60 90
Car parks - open 15 15 15 15
1
2
0

+

S
p
r
i
n
k
l
e
r
s
Height of top storey
Plant
Excludes roof top plant areas
Height is measured
from ground to
surface of top level
London has some regulations of its own
This document covers
areas of special risk.
In London, buildings over
25m in height require
sprinklers
Basement car parks
require much higher
periods of fire resistance
than in the rest of the UK.
Scotland has its own system of
regulation
BS 9999 An alternative to
Approved Document B
This document contains alternative requirements to
Approved Document B. In many cases, fire resistance
requirements are reduced
Office buildings over
30 metres in height
now require 75
minutes fire resistance
if sprinklered
Two storey offices
less than 1000m
2
in plan can be
unprotected.
Features of BS 9999
Based on an understanding of how risk is created in fire.
Fire ratings change based on four factors: building height;
familiarity of occupants with the building; whether
occupants are asleep; degree of mobility of occupants.
Likely fire load, compartment size and presence or
otherwise of sprinklers are also taken into account.
Introduction of a new height category, over 60m.
Fire engineering
There is no obligation to
adopt any particular solution
. Fire safety engineering
can provide an alternative
approach to fire safety. It may
be the only viable way to a
satisfactory standard of fire
safety in some large and
complex buildings and in
buildings containing different
uses.
Fire safety engineering
Fire safety engineering is
aimed at adopting a rational
scientific approach which
ensures that fire
resistance/protection is
provided where it is needed
rather than accepting
universal provisions which
may over or under estimate
the level of risk.
Institution of Structural
Engineers
Intumescent coating examples
Photographs courtesy of Leighs
Paints Ltd
Intumescent coating expansion
Off-site intumescent application
Advantages of off-site fire protection
Quicker construction
Overall cheaper construction
Improved quality control
Reduction in site disruption
Cleaner site
Improved site safety
Easier servicing
Board protection
Boarded beams and interface with
intumescent coated columns
Photographs courtesy of Promat Ltd
Board protection
Deep boarded beams with service penetrations
Photographs courtesy of Promat Ltd
Board protection
Photograph courtesy of Promat Ltd
Board protection aesthetic finishes
Aesthetic boards are more expensive and heavier than non-aesthetic boards
Photographs courtesy of Promat Ltd
Spray protection
Photographs courtesy of Promat Ltd
Flexible blanket systems
Photographs courtesy of Thermal Ceramics Ltd
Structural fire protection costs
33
Off-site applied intumescent
Growth in market share
* Source: Construction Markets
Changes in fire protection
35
Guidance in Passive Fire Protection
Wilf Butcher
CEO
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
The Association for Specialist Fire Protection
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
When
Originally known as the
Association of Structural Fire
Protection Contractors and
Manufacturers (ASFPCM), the
association was formed in
1975
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
The ASFP - A brief background history
Why
In recognition of a need to
bring together passive fire
protection (PFP)
manufacturers, contractors
and testing/certification
bodies to encourage, develop
and give guidance on essential
standards in PFP.
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
The ASFP - A brief background history
To better reflect the diversity
of the work then being
undertaken in the fields of fire
stopping, fire resisting ducting,
fire dampers, fire resisting
partitions and other elements
used for compartmentation
In 1996 the Association changed its name to the Association
for Specialist Fire Protection
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
The ASFP - A brief background history
The Association is responsible
for and/or has had a significant
input into the vast majority of
guidance and standards that
exist today across the whole
spectrum of the PFP sector.
In 1996 the Association changed its name to the Association
for Specialist Fire Protection
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
The ASFP - A brief background history
In terms of technical innovation, regulatory
direction, the changing political dimension,
evolving commercial forces and geographic
expansion of the industry.
Today the ASFP is further broadening its membership and remit to reflect
and respond to the significant changes and challenges that are taking place
at many levels within the PFP sector
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
Who is the Association made up of?
Manufactures
Contractors
Testing and
certification bodies
and
Many other
associate members
Today the ASFP is further broadening its membership and remit to reflect
and respond to the significant changes and challenges that are taking place
at many levels within the PFP sector
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
Who is the Association made up of?
It is important to note that all
ASFP Contractors are 3
rd
Party
Certificated as a mandatory
requirement of membership of
the ASFP
Today the ASFP is further broadening its membership and remit to reflect
and respond to the significant changes and challenges that are taking place
at many levels within the PFP sector
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
Who is the Association made up of?
Why is this so important to you?
O Installations independently inspected
O Accredited Certificates of Conformity issued by the installer
O Essential supportive evidence in compliance with the Regulatory Reform
(Fire Safety) Order 2005
O Essential supportive documentation in accordance with Regulation 38
(formally Regulation 16b) of the Building Regulations
Today the ASFP is further broadening its membership and remit to reflect
and respond to the significant changes and challenges that are taking place
at many levels within the PFP sector
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
Who is the Association made up of?
ASFP now offers Affiliate membership
to those professionals that have a
need to keep abreast of all matters
pertinent to passive fire protection
technology, regulation, standards and
industry guidance
Today the ASFP is further broadening its membership and remit to reflect
and respond to the significant changes and challenges that are taking place
at many levels within the PFP sector
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
Who is the Association made up of?
Industry guidance
The ASFPs website
offers comprehensive
technical support to
the professional at a
number of levels
www.asfp.org.uk
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
Industry guidance
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
Indicative or Ad-hoc Testing
Understanding the term
Competent Person
Awareness Guidance for the
Responsible Person
Using Polyurethane Foams
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
RED BOOK
Fire stopping & penetration
seals for the construction
industry
3rd Edition
The Association for Specialist fire protection
Fire & smoke resisting
dampers
GREY BOOK
The Association for Specialist fire protection
Fire retardant coatings for
The construction industry
ORANGE BOOK
The Association for Specialist fire protection
Fire resisting
non load-bearingpartitions
PURPLE BOOK
The Association for Specialist fire protection
YELLOW BOOK
Fire protection for
structural steel in
buildings
4th Edition
The Association for Specialist fire protection
BLUE BOOK
Fire resisting ductwork
2nd Edition
The Association for Specialist fire protection
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
The ASFP Yellow Book supplied in two volumes is referenced in the
Building Regulations and acts as a non commercial guidance document to
the specifier covering all aspects of the protection of steel using the full
range of passive fire protection materials
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
The ASFP website will also gain you access to all the key published
editorials issued by the ASFP each year
Some 50 in 2011
As well as offering guidance on many of the issues you will face
in the specification of structural fire protection
O Approved Documents
O Building Regulations such as 7 & 38 (formally 16B)
O CDM Regulations
O BS 9999
O Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
O The Construction Products Regulation
Either via downloadable information or by contact directly with the ASFP
Technical officer, Niall Rowan
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
For more information go to
www.asfp.org.uk
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
ASFPs support services
What are they designed to achieve?
Wilf Butcher
Chief Executive Officer
Association for Specialist Fire Protection
Kingsley House Ganders Business Park Kingsley Bordon Hampshire GU35 9LU
ASFP Office Tel: +44 (0)1420 471612 Home Office: +44(0)1252 641787
Fax: +44 (0)1420 471611 Mobile: 07914 354788
E-mail: wilf.butcher@asfp.org.uk Website: www.asfp.org.uk
Pioneering fire protection through innovation and professionalism
This PowerPoint presentation is the copyright of the Association for Specialist Fire Protection
Performance Based Structural Fire
Engineering testing, principles and
practice
David Moore
Director of Engineering, BCSA
Fire Engineering
Scope of presentation
Traditional fire design procedures
reliance on standard fire testing
elemental approach
Consideration of fire as a loading
Development of advanced numerical models
Fire
Structure
Research and development
Cardington, full-scale fire tests
Design guides, codes and standards
Building Regulations
The functional requirement covering internal fire spread in
relation to the structure states that:
The building shall be designed and constructed so that, in
the event of a fire, its stability will be maintained for a
reasonable period.
This is achieved through effective sub-division using fire
resistant construction depending on the size and
intended use of the building and through adequate fire
stopping around opening or cavities.
The fire resistance of an element of construction is a
measure of its ability to withstand the effects of fire in one
or more of the following ways:
resistance to collapse, i.e. the ability to maintain
load bearing capacity
resistance to fire penetration, i.e. an ability to
maintain the integrity of the element
resistance to the transfer of excessive heat, i.e. an
ability to provide insulation from high temperatures
Fire Resistance
Fire resistance tests
The most common route to ensure compliance with the
regulatory requirements is through performance under
standard fire test conditions whereby an element of
structure (beam, column, wall, floor) is subject to a
standard fire exposure under conditions
representative of its end use in the building. The specific
requirements of the standard test in terms of fire
exposure, loading and support conditions are set out
in the relevant national and European standards.
Fire Resistance Tests
BS 476 Part 20/BS EN 1363-1 General requirements
These standards set out the basic principles for the assessment of
fire resistance including the selection of appropriate support and
loading conditions and the definition of the standard
temperature/time curve to be used.
The standard time/temperature curve is defined by the following
equation:
T = 345 log10 (8t+1) + 20
Where
T is the mean furnace temperature (in C)
t is the time (in min) up to a maximum of 360 minutes.
Fire Resistance - Standards
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 30 60 90 120 150
Time - mins
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

-


C


Standard testing
BS 476 Part 21 - ISO 834 BS EN 1363-1 Load bearing elements
Evaluating single simply supported members in laboratory furnaces
Standard
column test
Standard Column Fire Test
Beam Fire Tests
Compare current method for fire design
with wind design. (with thanks to JTR)
Design to resist wind Protect from wind
Fire Safety Engineering
A fire safety engineering approach that takes into
account the total fire safety package can provide an
alternative approach to fire safety. It may be the only
viable way to achieve a satisfactory standard of fire safety
in some large and complex buildings
Broadgate Phase 8
Fire during construction
stage.
Fire Protection not
complete at the time of
the fire.
Broadgate Phase 8
Broadgate Phase 8
Significant
damage but
no collapse
Existing design methods assume isolated members
will perform similar in actual buildings
Fire compartment
Elements tested in isolation
Beams protected
Column Beam Floor
Relationship between isolated
members and actual buildings
Research and development lessons
learnt from large scale testing
Material behaviour at elevated temperature
Interaction between elements
Connection performance
Restrained thermal expansion
Importance of cooling phase of real fires
Identification of alternative load carrying
mechanisms
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 200 400 600 800 1000
concrete
steel
Design Strength p
y
Reduction in strength
at elevated temperature
Temperature deg C
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

f
a
c
t
o
r
Material properties EC3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 200 400 600 800 1000
steel
Design Strength p
y
Temperature C
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

f
a
c
t
o
r
550C
Connection test
Large Building Test Facility
BRE Cardington

24 m
2
ECSC
324 m
2

BS
area 52,5 m
2

ECSC
77 m
2

VUT
70 m
2
SCI
54 m
2
SCI
136 m
2
BS
O - 3
O - level 7
O - level 4
O - level 3
O- level 2
++22222O
OOOO
O
O - level 2
O- level 4
4

3

2

1

9
0
0
0

6
0
0
0

6
0
0
0

A B C D E F
9000 9000 9000 9000 9000
Compartment Fire Tests
BRE corner fire test
BRE large compartment test
Demonstration Fire Test
Fracture of End-Plates

N

E2 D2
Con. D2 - D1
Con. E2 - E1
Con. D2 - C2
Local Buckling of Beam Lower Flanges

N

E2 D2
E1 D1
Column Flange Buckling

N

E2 D2
E1 D1
Beam Web Shear Zones
Concrete slab cracking

D E
1
2
N
10
2030 ~1700
20
~
1
5
0
0

6
0

5
5

9
0

a b c d e f g h i j k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
1
2
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
6
7
9
12
15
0.00
2.25
4.50
6.75
9.00
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Slab deflection after test
Date: 23th January 2003
-10.0-0.0
-20.0--10.0
-30.0--20.0
-40.0--30.0
-50.0--40.0
-60.0--50.0
-70.0--60.0
-80.0--70.0
-90.0--80.0
-100.0--90.0
Concrete slab deformation
Residual deformation max 925 mm
Design Guidance
1) SCI Publication: Fire Safe
Design. (Limited application).
2) Papers by BRE (Structural
Engineer and Engineering
Structures)
3) BRE Digest
HERA (New Zealand) have also produced
guidance
Codes and standards for fire engineering
design of steel structures
Document National/European Scope Comments
BS5950 Part 8 National Steel and composite
structures
Similar approach to
Eurocodes
EN 1993-1-2 European Steel structures Design of steel
structures in fire
EN 1994-1-2 European Composite structures Additional rules for
composite fire design
BS 7974 PD3 National Material independent Application of fire
engineering principles to
buildings
BS 9999 National Material independent May be used to derive
fire resistance periods
that differ from
prescribed values in
regulations
Step1
Fire analysis
(Compartment time-temperature)
Step 2
Heat transfer analysis
(determination of material
temperatures)
Step 3
Structural analysis
(determination of mechanical
response)
Fire Engineering
Fire Engineering Fire analysis
Fire analysis may be split into two parts:
a. Choice of appropriate design fire scenario
Compartment size, geometry
Ventilation conditions
Fire load
Based on reasonable worst case scenario
b. Appropriate design fire
Select the model representing the fire within the compartment
Type of occupancy will play a key role
Given the fire load and an ignition source
I. The fire is extinguished (lack of oxygen, manual/automatic suppression)
II. Local fire (lack of oxygen, insufficient fire load)
III. Fully developed fire
Selection of fire curve
Nominal fire
Natural fire
FLASHOVER
Standard
fire curve
Natural
Fire curve
Ignition - Smouldering Heating Cooling Time
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Three phase natural fire
Time equivalence for fire resistance
Uses the simplicity of the standard fire curve to relate
actual fire severity to an equivalent period in a standard
test.
Useful for demonstrating compliance with regulations
Presented in a language understood by building
control authorities
Does not allow for safety level built in to prescribed
value of fire resistance
Most widely used method is given in Eurocode 1,
based on the work of CIB W14 group
Time equivalence for fire resistance
EN 1993-1-2 defines the equivalent time of standard
fire exposure as:
t
e,d
= (q
f,d
x k
b
x w
f
)k
c
Where the parameters are based on the characteristics
of a real fire compartment.
q
f,d
is the design fire load density (MJ/m
2
)
k
b
is a conversion factor related to the thermal
properties of the compartment (min.m
2
/MJ)
w
f
is the ventilation factor related to the area of
opening and floor area
k
c
is the correction factor related to the material
Heat transfer
Heat transfer used to determine the temperature rise
and distribution within a structural member
Thermal models vary in complexity from simple tables
to complex calculation models based on finite
difference or computational fluid dynamics
Whatever method is adopted, need to consider:
Heat transfer within the element (radiative and/or
convective compoments)
Moisture migration
Chemical reactions and phase changes
The relative high thermal conductivity of steel enables
the assumption of uniform temperature for the cross-
section
Eurocode 3 provides a simple equations for calculating the
thermal response of:
Unprotected internal steelwork
t h
c
V A
d net
a a
m
t a

, ,
/

Heat Transfer
Lumped Parameter Model
Where
A
m
/V section factor for unprotected steel members
C
a
specific heat

a
the unit density of steel
- is the net heat flux per unit area
Requires integration with respect to time
Simple spreadsheet-based methods can be used
For greater accuracy, time-dependent values for material
properties (specific heat and thermal conductivity)can be used
d net
h
,

Future
9/11- robustness requirements continuity and whole
building behaviour back to the start
Structural Eurocodes EC1, EC3, EC4, EC5 & EC6 -
Requirement for design guidance, handbooks, worked
examples and CPD (BRE digests, EC3/EC4 companion
document, EC2 companion document and handbook,
BS8110 Background Document)
Innovation in design and construction incorporation of
new materials
Sustainability
Performance Based Structural Fire
Engineering testing, principles and
practice
David Moore
Director of Engineering, BCSA
Fire Engineering Seminar
Simplified Structural Fire Engineering
John Dowling
Sustainability Manager
British Constructional Steelwork Association
The Cardington Project
The Cardington Project
The Cardington fire test results apply to
composite metal deck construction only
Simplified structural fire engineering
This can be downloaded from
www.tatasteelconstruction.com/en/reference/design_software/software_sci_tslab
This can be purchased from www.vulcam-solutions.com
If used, both programmes enable the
design of floors with unprotected
secondary beams
Tslab
Produced by SCI
Based on a design method developed by the BRE (the
Bailey method)
Spreadsheet calculation
Free download
Simple pass/fail answer
Can analyse simple rectangular grids only
Tslab
Tslab depends on a clear definition of the slab with critical
dimensions
The mesh size and position is the critical parameter
Input data is in three parts
The first part is the definition of the slab size, dimensions and mesh
size and position .
Input data is in three parts
The second part is the definition of the loading, currently in Eurocode
format
Input data is in three parts
The last part is the definition of the slab layout, including the beam
sizes, location and degree of composite action
Tslab
One can choose a standard or a parametric fire
Tslab results
Health warning: positioning of the
mesh is critical
Vulcan Lite
Produced by the University of Sheffield
A simplified version of a large frame in fire analysis
package
Proprietorial package
Capable of analysing non-rectangular grids
Vulcan Lite
As with Tslab, it is possible to define a parametric
or a standard fire
Vulcan Lite
A standard fire can include a cooling period
Vulcan Lite
Vulcan Lite is not restricted to simple rectangular grids
Vulcan Lite
Vulcan will work out the dimensions from the information given
Vulcan Lite
Then it will then ask for beam sizes and grades
Vulcan Lite
The unprotected beams are identified.
Vulcan Lite
The slab and mesh data is entered.
Vulcan Lite
..and the position of the mesh is defined.
Vulcan Lite
The loading is user defined, not calculated.
Vulcan Lite
And that is it. Were ready to go. All we have to do now
is click on Analyse.
Vulcan Lite
Vulcan Lite
Vulcan Lite
Q & A Panel
John Dowling
Dr David Moore
Wilf Butcher
Comfort Break
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Structural Fire Engineering of Unusual
Steel Structures
Dr.-Ing. Florian Block
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Agenda
Unusual structures in fire
The atrium steelwork assessment of the ME
Hotel in London, UK
The SFE assessment of the D.Y. Patil School of
Management in Nevie Mumbai, India
Conclusions
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Unusual steel structures in fire
Steel has a great strength-to-weight ratio allowing engineers in combination
with modern analysis and form-finding tools to realise architectural visions.
However, most of our current prescriptive fire protection guidance are for
normal structures made of beams and columns and might therefore not be
applicable for unusual structures.
Solution: Assess the effects of fire from first principles early in the design
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
ME Hotel Aldwych London
Client:
Architects:
10 storey refurbished hotel and residential
building with central atrium
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Assessment Methodology
1) Hazard identification and risk assessment
List all possible fire scenarios
Undertake risk assessment and reduce risk if possible
2) Structural response modelling at elevated temperature
Define design fire
Determine fire protection scheme
Calculate the heat transfer of the structure
Calculate the response of the structure at the elevated temperature
Assessment criteria Global stability
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Atrium
Perimeter
Fire Base
Symmetry
Design Fire Scenarios
Design Fire
Location 2 Rear North
D
D
Design Fire
Location 1 Nose
Risk assessment result: Unsprinklered fire at the atrium base
2 fire locations have been assessment
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Thermal Analysis Fire model
Design fire Localised
Incident heat flux calculated based on
3D location of steel members in
relations to fire for about 980 members.
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 4
Zone 5
Zone 6 Zone 6
Zone 5
Thermal
Plume
Intermittent
Flame
Continuous
Flame
Zone 1
Zone 2
Cylinder Model for heat transfer
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Thermal Analysis Fire protection
Type of fire protection
Intumescent paint
Pseudo density method mimics
effect of intumescent paint
Preliminary protection
Between G floor level to 1st floor
level 120 mins
Between 1st floor level to 2nd
floor level 60 mins
Rest of columns running to top
floor 60 mins
Rest of atrium steelworks
unprotected
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Thermal Analysis - Results
Ground Floor
1
st
Floor Atrium Base
3
rd
Floor
4
th
Floor
5
th
Floor
6
th
Floor
7
th
Floor
8
th
Floor
9
th
Floor
10
th
Floor
2
nd
Floor
Nose fire Rear north fire
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Structural Analysis using Vuclan - Restraints
Thermal restraints from
slab
Stiff cantilever representing
concrete cores
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Structural Analysis Results at Nose
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
Time (sec)
Nose
Rear North
Rear South
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Structural Analysis Results at Rear North
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
Time (sec)
Nose
Rear North
Rear South
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Site images
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
D.Y. Patil School of Management Nevi Mumbai
Client: D.Y. Patil
Architects: Foster + Partners
10 storey university faculty building with staff and
student accommodation above.
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Residential levels Steel structure
Lower 5 floors in RC concrete and upper 5 floors in composite steel construction
Upper levels are supported by full height Vierendeel frames and by hangers from
the crown structure.
Steel structure to be expressed
Intumescent paint considered as not applicable for visual reasons
Solution: SFE assessment!
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Brief and Approach
The brief was to omit fire protection from the exposed structural elements of
the residential floors.
NBC requires 240 min fire protection + sprinklers but an international code
comparison suggested a 120 min FR + sprinklers are ok.
Consideration of structural consequences by changing the severity of the
design fires.
Selection of most appropriate approach for different parts of the structure:
Structural Elements Approach
Perimeter beams and hangers External Steelwork calculations
Hangers in internal open
circulation space
Localised fire approach in combination
with FE analysis
Crown structure Redundancy calculations including
thermal expansion using ETABS
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Risk Assessment and Design Fires
To account for the different in risk are exposed to different fire load fractiles,
consideration of sprinklers and combustion factors.
Compartment fire load densities based on BS7974 and dwelling occupancy.
Design Fire Fire load Sprinkler
factor
Combustion
factor
Design Fire
load density
Design Fire 870 [80% fractile] 0.61 0.8 425
Sensitivity Fire 870 [80% fractile] 1.0 0.8 696
Extreme Fire 970 [95% fractile] 1.0 1.0 970

Element types Function at FLS Design Scenario
Control deflections and
vibrations
Redundant in FLS Comp. fire: Design Fire
Support small parts of the
building
Required for strength
in FLS
Comp. fire: Design Fire + Sensitivity Fire
Critical for more than one floor
and overall building stability
Critical elements Comp. fire: Sensitivity Fire + Extreme Fire
Localised Fire: 1000C engulfed for 20min
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
External steelwork - Approach
The external steelwork approach given in the Eurocodes was used.
1. Define fire scenarios for compartment and localised fires.
2. Determine flame shape (non-through draft, through draft and wind
conditions)
3. Calculate steel temperature of external members
4. Calculate remaining structural capacity in fire and check against FLS loads
Flame
Projection
Fire Resisting Slabs
Fully Developed
Fire
Non-fire Rated Glazing
Air Supply
Non-through Draft Case
Flame
Projection
Fire Resisting
Slabs
Fully Developed
Fire
Non-fire Rated Glazing
Air
Supply
Through Draft Case
45
Flame
projection
Fully Developed
Fire
45
Perimeter wall
Wind
Wind
Corner columns with deflected flames (plan view)
45 45
Flame projection
Fully Developed
Fire
Perimeter wall
Wind
Perimeter columns with deflected flames (plan view)
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
External steelwork - Fire compartments
A total of 368 fire scenarios have been analysed
for the different structural elements, different
compartments and different window breakages
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
External steelwork - Results
The exposed faces of the vast majority of the perimeter elements can be
unprotected if the unexposed faces are protected as shown below.
Window or Facade
Steel Section
Fire board
Insulation
Concrete Slab
F
i
r
e
Perimeter Floor
Beams
Corner Hanger
F
i
r
e

Fire
Exposed Perimeter Hanger
F
i
r
e
F
i
r
e

Fire
Design Temperature
Tension
hangers
Prop
beams
Perimeter
beams
Corner
columns
Case [C] [C] [C] [C]
Design Temperature - Design Case 367 585 590 541
Design Temperature - Sensitivity 448 590 592 571
Design Temperature - Extreme 448 591 N/A N/A
Limiting Temperature
Tension
hangers
Prop
beams
Perimeter
beams
Corner
columns
Case [C] [C] [C] [C]
Limiting Temperature 605 655 593 605
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Hangers in internal open circulation spaces
The internal hangers are part of the Vierendeel frames and could be exposed
to a localised fire.
Sprinkler system ignored
Localised fire heating an unprotected hangers and the protected beams.
FEM assessment using Vulcan
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Typical Vierendeel Frame
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Hangers in open circulation spaces - Results
The forces in heated hangers could be
redistribution via Vierendeel and catenary
action.
Some beams and hangers increased.
The steel-to-concrete core connections
have been strengthen and checked for
ductility to allow for catenary action.
All hangers in the open circulation spaces
can be unprotected.
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
External rooftop crown structures
Support the upper 5 floors from above -> critical elements.
Roof has very little fire load as all current and future plant will be within the
crown structures and above the RC cores.
Elements are made of thick steel plates, which have a good inherent fire
resistance to small localised fires.
Central space of the crown structures are fire protected for 120minutes to allow
for the plant rooms.
Overall building model checks conducted to investigate the redistribution of
forces when the protected elements in the central are heated.
Buro Happold the engineering of excellence
Conclusion
The ME Hotel atrium and DYP are both examples of unusual steel structures.
Structural fire engineering from first principles was used.
Both cases studies demonstrated a significant reduction in fire protection,
whilst still maintaining an appropriate level of safety.
The high expectations on finishes and maintenance by the architects and the
clients could be fulfilled.
And finally both projects have been great engineering challenges!
The Shard
Structural Fire Engineering
Mark OConnor
September 2011
Overview
Introduction to Project
Basic Principles Structural Fire Strategy
Case Study - Shard
Structural Fire Overview
Areas of focus
Structural Fire Engineering Techniques used
Summary
The Shard
Height:
Storeys:
Client:
Architect:
Structural engineer:
Services engineer:
Project manager:
Cost consultant:
Main contractor:
Piling:
Steel:
Concrete:
310m
72
Sellar Properties
on behalf of LBQ Ltd
Renzo Piano Building Workshop
Adamson Associates
WSP Group
Arup
Turner + Townsend
Davis Langdon
Mace
Stent Foundations
Severfield Reeve
Byrne Brothers
Basic Principles
Structural Fire Engineering
Fire Development & Growth
I
n
i
t
i
a
t
i
o
n
F
l
a
s
h
o
v
e
r
Time
Fire Protection Systems
Detection
Suppression
Smoke Control
Escape Routes
Compartmentation
Structural Fire Protection
I
n
i
t
i
a
t
i
o
n
F
l
a
s
h
o
v
e
r
Time
Suppression
Existing Design Regime Tall Buildings
Recognition that as building height
increases then so does the risk of
fire
Increased Risks
Fire initiation
Effects on means of escape and
rescue
Increased difficulty of firefighting
Main structural response is to
increase fire resistance periods
required for all structural elements
Key Concept - Fire Resistance
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 30 60 90 120 150
Time - mins
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

-


C


BS 476 pt 21 - ISO 834
Minimum Fire Resistance Periods
Building Regulations Alternative Approach
Prescriptive Approach Fire Safety Engineering
Maybe the only practical
way to achieve a
satisfactory standard of fire
safety in some large and
complex buildings.
Building Regulations Functional Requirement B3
Split into 4 parts
Maintain Overall Stability
Spread of Fire Between Buildings (Party Wall)
Inhibit Spread of Fire
Sub-division Compartmentation
Provision of Sprinklers
Inhibit unseen spread of fire
For tall buildings the first , third and fourth are
important
1. Maintain Overall Stability
Lateral stability provided by cores and bracing systems
Vertical stability provided by columns, core and any transfer structures
provided at different levels of the structure.
Need to ensure that failure of key stability elements does not lead to
collapse which is disproportionate to the cause
This is similar to design for collapse against other accidental events
Need to systematically analyse the key elements and substructures for
possible premature collapse in fire.
Assessment requires;
Identification of key elements/systems
Assessment of potential fire threats in the vicinity
Assessment of worst case credible fires
Assessment of thermal & structural response
Design of fire protection system to maintain overall stability
2. Maintain Compartmentation
Compartmentation is an important
cornerstone of any fire protection
strategy
Failure of compartmentation was a
major feature in recent major fires
Presently - no requirement to assess
the effect of structural deformations in
fire on compartmentation
Traditionally protected structures also
thermally expand
The use of advanced analysis tools
allows assessment for practical
structures.
Case Study
Shard at London Bridge
Shard Structural Fire Assessment
Tower and Backpack
Hybrid Structure
Basement RC
Levels 1- 41 Composite Steel
Levels 42-72 RC & PT Flat Slab
Spire Steel
Various Transfers
Different Occupancies
Retail
Commercial Office
Restaurant
Plant
Hotel
Residential
Public Viewing Gallery
Shard Main Areas for Consideration
Composite Steel Floorplates Fire Protection
Optimisation
External Columns Bottom of Structure
Miscellaneous Compartmentation Issues
Transfer Structures
Concrete Elements of Structure Spalling
Spire
Shard Composite Steel Floorplates
Floorplates vary in size
Choose worst case
representative floorplates
3 chosen 9,18,29
Simplify to equiv. rectangle
Decide on worst case fires
Short hot (max. ventilation)
Long cool (25% opening)
Fire Loading
80% fractile 570 MJ/m
2
Develop FE Models
Analyse & Assess
Sensitivity Studies
Shard Composite Steel Floorplates
Shard External Columns
External Flaming Calculations
Difficult to prove not engulfed
Sections - Low Hp/A
Concrete Filled Blast
Thermal Response Calculations
Std. Fire Curve
Calculate reduction in axial
capacity with time
Estimate realistic time of
flaming 20 minutes
Demonstrate capacity at 20
mins > FLS load.
Axial Capacity Ratio of Shard Steel Columns
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
0.00 30.00 60.00 90.00 120.00 150.00 180.00
Time (unit:minutes)
R
e
m
a
i n
i n
g
c
a
p
a
c
i l i t y
r
a
t i o
( %
)
W100-F75
W150-F100
DS decided - 2 hours
compartmentation between
change in occupancies
Only specified 90 mins
Restaurant Hotel
Embedded non composite
sections
Thermal response analysis
Moment capacity calculation
Proved FR >120 minutes
Shard Compartmentation Issues
Transfer Structure limiting
temperature issue
Detailed 3D FE Model
Apply FLS Loading
Assess temperature Truss
Failure
Protect truss to withstand
worst case fire
Limit Temp 500
o
C
Protect for 2 hours
Shard Transfer Structures
-16.0
-14.0
-12.0
-10.0
-8.0
-6.0
-4.0
-2.0
0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Temperature C
A
x
i a
l F
o
r
c
e
-
M
N
-20.0
-15.0
-10.0
-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
D
i s
p
l a
c
e
m
e
n
t
-
m
m
Brace 1
Brace 2
Vertical
Displacement
Shard Transfer Structures
Shard Concrete Spalling
Concrete Elements
Core walls
Columns
PT Slabs
Spalling Factors
Concrete grade
Aggregate Type
Moisture Content
Heating regime
Loading regime
BRE Qualitative assessment
Low Medium High
1 3 5
Thermal Exposure - Type Normal Severe Extreme
Thermal Exposure - Extent 1-sided >1-sided
Concrete - Grade <60MPa 61-95MPa >95Mpa
Concrete - Aggregate type Lightweight Calcareous Siliceous
Environment Internal External -sheltered External-Exposed
Design - Reinforced? Yes No
Design - Restraint? No Yes
Design - Loadbearing? No Yes
Hazard Score Condition
Shard Spire
Central Steel Braced Core
Central Lift Shaft
Cantilever Lateral Trusses
Structural Steel Floorplates
Inclined Faade Columns
Level 72
Level 84
Level 81
Level 78
Level 75
Level 87
Viewing Gallery
(Lower)
Faade Access
Faade Access
Maintenance
Platforms
Viewing Gallery
(Upper)
Shard Structural Fire Protection - Summary
Variety of structural fire engineering techniques used
Office Areas 90 minutes FR to beams Optimised
scheme
Restaurant/Hotel - 90 minutes FR to beams
Hotel Bedroom - 90 minutes FR to beams
External Columns No FR
Transfer Structures & Columns 120 minutes FR
Concrete Elements of Structure Assessment for
Spalling
Spire Steelwork No FR
Summary
Summary Shard - Structural Fire Engineering
Tall buildings usually have special structural features
Not all structural elements contribute equally to overall
stability of the structure
Existing prescriptive design regime based on the
standard fire test does not really cater for this
Therefore alternative approach required to demonstrate
conformance with the functional requirements
Often this will give a safer building than one that is
purely prescriptively designed
Knowledge rather than ignorance
Getting value from fire engineering
for Architects and Engineers
Barbara Lane Director barbara.lane@arup.com
Neal Butterworth Associate Director neal.butterworth@arup.com
The What, When, Why and Who of
Fire Engineering
Barbara Lane Director barbara.lane@arup.com
Neal Butterworth Associate Director neal.butterworth@arup.com
227
Contents
What is Fire Engineering?
Engineering vs Design
Prescriptive or fire engineered design?
When is Fire Engineering Required?
Total fire engineering
Why use a Fire Engineer?
Value of fire engineering
Who?
Project Examples
What to remember from this talk
228
Contents
Fire
Engineering
What
When
Why
Who
What is Fire Engineering?
230
What is Fire Engineering?
engineering n. The application of scientific and
mathematical principles to practical ends
fire engineering n. The application of fire scientific
and mathematical principles to practical ends
IFE - the science and practice of Fire Extinction, Fire
Prevention and Fire Engineering and all operations and
expedients connected therewith
231
Perceptions Fire Engineering
A design is either prescriptive or fire engineered?
OR
Perceptions Fire Engineering
Simple
Conservative (safe)
Quick (low risk)
Easy to manage
Complex
Reducing safety
Design & Approvals Risk
Special management
OR
233 Images courtesy of the London Fire Brigade
234 Images courtesy of the London Fire Brigade
235 Images courtesy of the London Fire Brigade
236
What is Fire Engineering?
These fires occurred in non-fire-engineered buildings
The amount of damage was avoidable through simple
design changes
Fire engineered or not, they should have been well
designed!
Message 1:
Adopting prescription does not
negate the need for good design.
238
Leeds Arena
Partial roof protection to
improve the structural
robustness of the arena
Change of facade to omit
combustible materials and
reduce the overall risk
239
Leeds Arena Construction Role
240
Compartmentation Example
When use Fire Engineering?
242
When use Fire Engineering?
243
When use Good Fire Design?
Some images of really simple buildings
244
When use Fire Engineering?
Preparation
Design
Specification
Construction
Use
Fire Strategy
245
Typical Fire Engineering Scope?
Brief
Building Regulations compliance
Enable architecture
Reduce cost
Scope
B1 to B5 (Equivalency)
Deliverables
Fire strategy report
Calculations
Marked-up drawings
Duration
Stage C to E
Ad-hoc advice during construction
Cost Saving
Building Regulations
Compliance
Alternatives to Code
Problem Solving
246
When use Fire Engineering?
Preparation
Design
Specification Construction
Use
247
When use Fire Engineering?
Preparation
Design
Specification Construction
Use
Fire Strategy
248
Design for End-use
249
Integrity of Specification
250
Disconnect
251
Construction
Fire collar examples: Right or wrong?
RIGHT
WRONG
252
Construction
Fire batt/barrier examples: Right or wrong?
RIGHT
WRONG
WRONG
Message 2:
Total Fire Engineering = Good
Design, Construction & Operation.
Why use Fire Engineering?
255
Why use Fire Engineering?
Fire engineering services should enable our Clients
aspirations and requirements.
Using strategic and technical expertise to develop
appropriate fire engineering design solutions.
Consideration for the design and construction
phases as well as operational requirements
Adding value to projects
256
Value
Approvals
Reduced level of risk
Quality and functionality of space
Improved commercial viability of the building
Quality of construction
Cost savings
257
Value Examples
Heron Tower
Nobel School
Giants Causeway Visitor Centre
Leeds Arena
One First Street
Bradford Schools
258
Heron Tower
Enhanced structural response to fire, relative to a code compliant building.
259
Nobel School, Hertfordshire
Significant cost savings due to removal of fire protection as a result of a structural assessment
of the simflor system and composite floor system
Giants Causeway
Client satisfaction in
knowing best international
practise was followed when
developing the fire strategy
261
One First Street
Cost saving exercise taken too far
with removal of lift shaft: the
building became less desirable to
tenants
Now this client sees value as
flexibility of use and operations
Message 3:
Its not all about cost savings.
263
A further thought...
Goal Social
People Life safety
264
Sustainability
Goal Social
People Life safety
Quality of Asset Quality of space
Quality of Operation Functionality of space
Protection of Asset Continuity of asset
Protection of Operation Continuity of
function
265
Sustainability
Goal Social Economic
People Life safety
Quality of Asset Quality of space Cost and value of asset
Quality of Operation Functionality of space Operational costs
Protection of Asset Continuity of asset Property Protection
Protection of Operation Continuity of
function
Business Continuity
Total Cost = Cost of Prevention + Cost of Protection
266
Sustainability
Goal Social Economic Environmental
People Life safety
Quality of Asset Quality of space Cost and value of asset Construction impact
Quality of Operation Functionality of space Operational costs Operational impact
Protection of Asset Continuity of asset Property Protection Prevention of fire damage
to the environment
Protection of Operation Continuity of
function
Business Continuity
Total Cost = Cost of Prevention + Cost of Protection
+ Cost of Occurrence
Message 4:
We have to start addressing the
total cost of fire on sustainability.
Who to use for Fire Engineering?
269
Ethics in Engineering
Accuracy and rigour
Honesty and integrity
Respect for life, law and public good
Responsible leadership: listening and informing
270
Ethics in Engineering
Accuracy and rigour
It is not ethical to work beyond your competency...
Competency to Design
Simple
Conservative
Quick
Complex
Reducing safety
Design & Approvals Risk
OR
Competency to Engineer
Simple
Conservative
Quick
Complex
Reducing safety
Design & Approvals Risk
OR
273
Competency Throughout
Preparation
Design
Specification Construction
Use
Fire Strategy
274
Competencies
In 1990, Margaret Law wrote about fire engineering
competencies:
Education and training
Knowledge of measurement and quantification
Awareness
Experience
Research and development
Intellectual toughness
What makes this list different from other aspects of
engineering? Nothing: Only that with fire safety
engineering we have to spell it out.
Message 5:
Competency, competency,
competency.
Closing Remarks
277
Conclusions
What: Fire engineering is the application of fire
science, but fire expertise are required regardless.
When: Simple or complex, inception to operation.
Why: Quality of design, innovation of design,
efficiency of design.
Who: Appropriate competency for the building and
stage of involvement. Those responsible are obliged to
assess competency requirements and availability.
278
Conclusions
Fire Engineering is not always required.
It wont always add value.
But...
Those responsible for the design, construction and
operation of buildings are obliged to assess competency
requirements and ensure availability at all time.
279
Messages
1. Following prescription does not negate the
obligation for good design.
2. Fire engineering is about the whole process of
design, construction and operation.
3. Value goes beyond cost saving and applies to all
project from the simple to complex and iconic
4. We have to start assessing the impact of fire on
sustainability.
5. Appropriate competency must be applied
throughout.
280
Ove Arup - Total Architecture
Great things can happen when, "all relevant design
decisions have been considered together and have been
integrated into a whole by a well organised team.
281
Ove Arup - Total Fire Engineering
Great things can happen when, "all relevant fire design,
construction and operation decisions have been
considered together and have been integrated into a
whole by a well organised team.
Q & A Panel
Dr Florian Block,
Mark OConnor,
Neil Butterworth,
Further Information
Tata Steel Construction Hotline 01724 405060
construction@tatasteel.com
Chairmans Summary
Richard Dixon
Manager, Structural Advisory Service
New Steel Construction
New Steel Construction
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