Trkolu 1
Fluid Properties
Density
=m/V (kg/m
3
) or (lbm/ft
3
)
Specific gravity
s= /
w
: Density of matter
w
: Density of water,
w
= 1000 kg/m
3
= 62.4 lbm/ft
3
= 1.94 slug/ft
3
Conversion factor in US Customary system is
g
c
=32.2 (lbm ft)/(lbf s
2
)
In other unit systems g
c
=1.0
Dynamic (Absolute) Viscosity,
Viscosity is a fluid property that characterizes
the relation between shear stress and rate of
shear deformation.
t= (du/dy) (Ns/m
2
) or (lb
f
s/ft
2
)
Kinematic Viscosity, v
v=/ (m
2
/s) or (ft
2
/s)
NonNewtonian fluids
Newtonnian,
n=1
Bingham plastic,
t=t
0
+
0
du/dy
Pseudoplastic,
n<1
t
dv/dy
Dilatant,
n>1
FLUID PROPERTIES AND BASIC EQUATIONS
k
dy
du
K


.

\

= t
Prof. Dr. H. Trkolu 2
Continuity Equation
In integral form,
In differential form;
Flow rate:
Momentum Equation
In integral form (for a finite control volume)
In differential form for Newtonian incompressible flow
In xdir:
Energy Equation
In integral form:
Where
Assuming all flow properties are uniform at inlet and outlet
0 = +
c
c
} }
A d V dV
t
CV
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
w
z
v
y
u
x t
VA A d V Q
A
= =
}
} }
+
c
c
= A d V V dV V
t
F
CV
( ) A d V pv e dV e
t
W Q
} }
+ +
c
c
=
x
f
z
u
y
u
x
u
x
P
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u
t
u
+


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+

.

\

c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
gz
V
u e + + =
2
2


.

\

+ +


.

\

+ + =
c
i
c
i
i
Inlet
i
c
e
c
e
e
Exit
e
g
gz
g
V
h m
g
gz
g
V
h m W Q
2 2
2 2
Q
()
Q
(+)
W
(+)
W
()
CV
Bernoulli Equation:
For steady, incompressible
and inviscid flow,
t Cons
g
gz
g
V P
c c
tan
2
2
= + +
P gz
V
P gz
V
P A + + + = + +
2
2
2
2 2 1
2
1
1 1
2 2
o o
Where h
f
is head loss in m of fluid between
cross sections 1 and 2.
o is known as kinetic energy correction factor.
For turbulent flow o=1
For laminar flow o=2
Most practical flows are turbulent. Hence o=1
and it may be dropped from the equations.
Where AP is pressure drop in Pa between cross sections 1 and 2.
These equations are also known as extended (modified) Bernoulli
equation.
g
Pg
h
c
f
A
=
2
1
y
z
g