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# Prof. Dr. H.

Trkolu 1
Fluid Properties
Density
=m/V (kg/m
3
) or (lbm/ft
3
)
Specific gravity
s= /
w
: Density of matter

w
: Density of water,

w
= 1000 kg/m
3
= 62.4 lbm/ft
3
= 1.94 slug/ft
3
Conversion factor in US Customary system is
g
c
=32.2 (lbm ft)/(lbf s
2
)
In other unit systems g
c
=1.0
Dynamic (Absolute) Viscosity,
Viscosity is a fluid property that characterizes
the relation between shear stress and rate of
shear deformation.
t= (du/dy) (Ns/m
2
) or (lb
f
s/ft
2
)
Kinematic Viscosity, v
v=/ (m
2
/s) or (ft
2
/s)
Non-Newtonian fluids
Newtonnian,
n=1
Bingham plastic,
t=t
0
+
0
du/dy
Pseudoplastic,
n<1
t
dv/dy
Dilatant,
n>1
FLUID PROPERTIES AND BASIC EQUATIONS
k
dy
du
K
|
|
.
|

\
|
= t
Prof. Dr. H. Trkolu 2
Continuity Equation
In integral form,
In differential form;
Flow rate:
Momentum Equation
In integral form (for a finite control volume)
In differential form for Newtonian incompressible flow
In x-dir:
Energy Equation
In integral form:
Where
Assuming all flow properties are uniform at inlet and outlet
0 = +
c
c
} }
A d V dV
t
CV

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
w
z
v
y
u
x t

VA A d V Q
A
= =
}

} }

+
c
c
= A d V V dV V
t
F
CV

( ) A d V pv e dV e
t
W Q

} }
+ +
c
c
=
x
f
z
u
y
u
x
u
x
P
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u
t
u
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2

gz
V
u e + + =
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

c
i
c
i
i
Inlet
i
c
e
c
e
e
Exit
e
g
gz
g
V
h m
g
gz
g
V
h m W Q
2 2
2 2

Q
(-)
Q
(+)
W
(+)
W
(-)
CV
Bernoulli Equation:
and inviscid flow,
t Cons
g
gz
g
V P
c c
tan
2
2
= + +

## Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics

Prof. Dr. H. Trkolu 3
INTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VICOUS FLOWS
In many practical flows, losses (pressure drop) becomes important. When
losses taken into account, energy equation for incompressible viscous flow
in a pipe becomes
f
c c
h z
g
V
g
g P
z
g
V
g
g P
+ + + = + +
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2 2
o

P gz
V
P gz
V
P A + + + = + +
2
2
2
2 2 1
2
1
1 1
2 2
o o
Where h
f
is head loss in m of fluid between
cross sections 1 and 2.
o is known as kinetic energy correction factor.
For turbulent flow o=1
For laminar flow o=2
Most practical flows are turbulent. Hence o=1
and it may be dropped from the equations.
Where AP is pressure drop in Pa between cross sections 1 and 2.
These equations are also known as extended (modified) Bernoulli
equation.
g
Pg
h
c
f

A
=
2
1
y
z
g