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A Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of 5 Year Integrated MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION De art!ent O" INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STUDIES AC#ARYA NA$AR%UNA UNI&ERSITY 'A re()gn*+ed *n,t*t-te and g*.en B// ran0 12 NACC3


!" B# K.&ENKATA S#YAM BABU (Roll No: Y12IB20045)

UNDER T#E $UIDANCE OF Dr. R. SI&A RAM PRASAD M$B$A$%M$&'M%M$&$A$%P$($"$&$A$% B$)$%P*$"


I K.&ENKATA S#YAM BABU hereb+ declare that the project report entitled ,A St-d2 )n e5 )rt r)(ed-re 6 d)(-!entat*)n *n KAKINADA SEA PORTS LIMITED. KAKINADA prepared based on the information collected during -.

'& /.0- ' /1

2'3 /.0-for partial fulfillment of the award of Achar+a 2agarjuna

I2 !(RA !" M$B$A4International business studies5$ III6I S!M!S !R% Uni7ersit+% 2agarjuna 2agar$

It is an original wor8 done b+ me and to the best of m+ 8nowledge and belief% it has not been published earlier elsewhere or presented to an+ Uni7ersit+ or Institution for award of an+ degree% diploma or other similar title$


CERTIFICATE his is to certif+ that the project Report titled ,A St-d2 )n e5 )rt r)(ed-re 6 d)(-!entat*)n *n KAKINADA SEA PORTS LIMITED. KAKINADA: is an original wor8 carried out b+ K.&ENKATA S#YAM BABU 'Enr)44!ent N) Y78IB899:53% under m+ guidance and super7ision% in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of ; #ear integrated M$B$A to the department of international Business% Achar+a 2agarjuna Uni7ersit+% 2agarjuna 2agar% (untur during the Academic +ear /.00<0=$ his report has not been submitted to an+ other Uni7ersit+ or Institution for the award of an+ "egree6"iploma6&ertificate$


Na!e and Addre,, )" t;e $-*de< 2ame of (uide9 "esignation9

I wish to ac8nowledge m+ sincere gratitude to all persons who whole<heartedl+ contributed their sincere support that helped me for the successful completion of m+ project wor8$ I ta8e much pleasure to e>press m+ deep sense of gratitude and than8fulness to the "epartment of International Business% Achar+a 2agarjuna Uni7ersit+% and (untur$ It is indeed m+ great pleasure to profoundl+ than8 to m+ project guide "r$ R$ SI3A RAM PRASA"% for his 7aluable and sincere guidance throughout m+ Project$ I am dut+<bound to sincerel+ than8 SRI$M$MURA)I ?RIS*2A% (!2!RA) MA2A(!R 4BUSI2!SS "!3!)'PM!2 @ )'(IS I&S5 for his 7aluable guidance and support for the successful completion of the project% and also than8 to all the emplo+ees of ,?A?I2A"A S!A P'R S )IMI !"$ ?A?I2A"A:% for their 7aluable co<operation% co<ordination and assistance in m+ project wor8$



&hapter <0

Introduction 0$0< 0$/< 0$-< 0$A< 2eed for e>ports @ imports !>port incenti7es$ International business$ International mar8eting$

&hapter B / /$/ /$/$A /$; &hapter< &hapter <A &hapter B ; &hapter B = &hapter < C &hapter <D $

/$0 'bjecti7es$ scope Research methodolog+ )imitations sampling Profile of sea port industr+ &ompan+ profile !>port procedure documentation and procedures and its anal+sis I2&' !RMS Suggestions and conclusion Bibliograph+


INTRODUCTION Imports and !>ports of goods dominate the interdependence of countries in the world econom+$ !>ports are the part of a countr+Es domestic production that is sold to residents of other countries$ Imports are the part of a countr+Es domestic consumption and6or in7estment that is purchased from foreign producers$

An e>port and import is 7er+ much necessar+ for a countr+$ Because if a countr+ had no import or e>port% the+ wouldnFt be able support themsel7es$ Import is when a countr+ brings things in that the+ canFt suppl+$ And e>port is when a countr+ gets paid to gi7e awa+ e>tra stuff the+ ha7e$ Without import and e>port% a countr+ would onl+ ha7e what the+ could suppl+ on their own$

In order to de7elop countr+Es econom+% it has to import what it doesnEt produce$ he pa+ment for all these imports can be done onl+ through e>porting the products and earnings through 7aluable foreign e>change$

NEED OF IMPORTS IN INDIA 'n the imports side% India has been in a disad7antageous position% ad7anced countries which are capable of producing and selling almost e7er+ commodit+ at low prices$ his meant that India could not de7elop an+ industr+ without protecting it from foreign competition$ Imports are essential to protect domestic industries and to promote industrial de7elopment$ Since independence% the go7ernment of India has broadl+ restricted foreign competition through a judicious use of import licensing% import quotas% import duties and in e>treme cases% e7en banning

import of specific goods$

NEED OF EXPORTS IN INDIA o pa+ for its imports and to minimiGe dependence on foreign countries% e>pansion of e>ports was 7er+ essential$ here are man+ good reasons for e>porting9 he first and the primar+ reason for e>porting are to earn foreign e>change$ he foreign e>change

cannot onl+ brings profit for the e>porter but also impro7es the economic condition of the countr+$ he companies that e>port their goods are belie7ed to be more reliable than their counterpart

domestic companies assuming that e>porting compan+ has sur7i7e the test in meeting international standards$

Hree e>change of ideas and cultural 8nowledge opens up immense business and trade opportunities for a compan+$

'ne starts 7isiting customers to sell oneEs goodsI he has an opportunit+ to start e>ploring for newer customers% state<of<the<art machines and 7endors in foreign lands$

EXPORT INCENTI&ES he go7ernment of India has framed se7eral schemes to promote e>ports and to obtain foreign e>change$ hese schemes grants incenti7e and other benefits$ he few important e>port incenti7es% from the point of 7iew of indirect ta>es are briefed below9

0$ Hree rade Jones 4H J5$ /$ !lectronic *ardware echnolog+ Par86 software technolog+ par8s$ -$ Ad7ance )icense 6 "ut+ e>ception !ntitlement scheme4"!H&5 A$ !>port Promotion &apital (oods Scheme 4!P&(5$

INDIAN EXPORTS Indian e>ports ha7e grown at a rate of nearl+ //K$ Some commodities ha7e enjo+ed faster e>port growth than others$ Some of the main IndianEs e>ports are



/$ -$ A$ ;$ =$ C$ D$ 1$

obacco &otton e>tiles Lute good tea &offee &ocoa products Rice Wheat

0.$ Lams 00$ Luices @ preser7ed 7egetables etcM$ India e>ports its goods to some of the leading countries of the world such U? USA B!)(IUM RUSSIA &*I2A % !$ $&


9 N0;; billion f$o$b 4/..1 est$5

(oods e>ported

9 Software% petroleum products% te>tile goods% gems and jeweler+% engineering goods% chemicals and leather manufactures$

Main e>port partners

9 US 0/$-K% &hina 1$-K 4/..D5

UA! 1$AK%


9 N/-/$- billion f$o$b 4/..1 est$5

Import goods

9 crude oil% machiner+% gems% fertiliGer% chemicals

H"I stoc8

9 N0=0$- billion 4/..1 est$5

Horeign e>change reser7e

9N/C1$A billion4/.0.5

RESER&ES OF FOREX he foreign e>change mar8et 4H'R!O5 is a worldwide decentraliGed financial mar8et for the trading of currencies$ Hinancial centers around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of different t+pes of bu+ers and sellers around the cloc8 with the e>ception of wee8ends$ he foreign e>change mar8et determines the relati7e 7alues of different currencies$

he primar+ purpose of the foreign e>change mar8et is to assist international trade and in7estment% b+ allowing businesses to con7ert one currenc+ to another currenc+$ Hor e>ample% it permits a US business to import !uropean goods and pa+ !uros% e7en though the businessEs income is in US dollars$ It also supports speculation% and facilities the carr+ trade in which in7estors borrow low<+ielding currencies and lend 4in7est in5 high<+ielding currencies and which ma+ lead to loss of competiti7eness in some countries$

International trade is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories In

!ost co"ntries, it represents a significant share of gross do!estic prod"ct #$D%& 'hile international trade

has been present thro"gho"t !"ch of histor( #see )il* Road, A!ber Road&, its econo!ic, social, and

political i!portance has been on the rise in recent cent"ries

Ind"striali+ation, advanced transportation, globali+ation, !"ltinational corporations, and o"tso"rcing are all having a !a,or i!pact on the international trade s(ste! Increasing international trade is cr"cial to the

contin"ance of globali+ation 'itho"t international trade, nations -o"ld be li!ited to the goods and services prod"ced -ithin their o-n borders

International trade is in principle not different fro! do!estic trade as the !otivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change f"nda!entall( regardless of -hether trade is across a border or not The

!ain difference is that international trade is t(picall( !ore costl( than do!estic trade The reason is that a border t(picall( i!poses additional costs s"ch as tariffs, ti!e costs d"e to border dela(s and costs associated -ith

co"ntr( differences s"ch as lang"age, the legal s(ste! or c"lt"re

Another difference bet-een do!estic and international trade is that factors of prod"ction s"ch as capital and labo"r are t(picall( !ore !obile -ithin a co"ntr( than across co"ntries Th"s international trade is !ostl(

restricted to trade in goods and services, and onl( to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labor or other factors of prod"ction Then trade in goods and services can serve as a s"bstit"te for trade in factors of prod"ction

Instead of i!porting a factor of prod"ction, a co"ntr( can i!port goods that !a*e intensive "se of the factor of prod"ction and are th"s e!bod(ing the respective factor An exa!ple is the i!port of labor-intensive goods b(

the .nited )tates fro! /hina Instead of i!porting /hinese labor the .nited )tates is i!porting goods fro! /hina that -ere prod"ced -ith /hinese labor

International trade is also a branch of econo!ics, -hich, together -ith international finance, for!s the larger branch of international econo!ics

New Trade Theory

Ne- Trade Theor( tries to explain e!pirical ele!ents of trade that co!parative advantage-based !odels above have diffic"lt( -ith These incl"de the fact that !ost trade is bet-een co"ntries -ith si!ilar factor

endo-!ent and prod"ctivit( levels, and the large a!o"nt of !"ltinational prod"ction #i e foreign direct invest!ent& -hich exists Ne- Trade theories are often based on ass"!ptions li*e !onopolistic co!petition and

increasing ret"rns to scale One res"lt of these theories is the ho!e-!ar*et effect, -hich asserts that, if an ind"str( tends to cl"ster in one location beca"se of ret"rns to scale and if that ind"str( has high transportation

costs, the ind"str( -ill be located in the co"ntr( -ith !ost of its de!and to !ini!i+e

Reg-4at*)n )" *nternat*)na4 trade

Traditionall( trade -as reg"lated thro"gh bilateral treaties bet-een t-o nations 0or cent"ries "nder the belief in !ercantilis! !ost nations had high tariffs and !an( restrictions on international trade In the 12th cent"r(,

especiall( in the .nited 3ingdo!, a belief in free trade beca!e para!o"nt This belief beca!e the do!inant thin*ing a!ong -estern nations since then In the (ears since the )econd 'orld 'ar, controversial !"ltilateral

treaties li*e the $eneral Agree!ent on Tariffs and Trade #$ATT& and 'orld Trade Organi+ation have atte!pted to pro!ote free trade -hile creating a globall( reg"lated trade str"ct"re These trade agree!ents have often

res"lted in discontent and protest -ith clai!s of "nfair trade that is not beneficial to developing co"ntries

0ree trade is "s"all( !ost strongl( s"pported b( the !ost econo!icall( po-erf"l nations, tho"gh the( often engage in selective protectionis! for those ind"stries -hich are strategicall( i!portant s"ch as the protective

tariffs applied to agric"lt"re b( the .nited )tates and E"rope The Netherlands and the .nited 3ingdo! -ere both strong advocates of free trade -hen the( -ere econo!icall( do!inant, toda( the .nited )tates, the

.nited 3ingdo!, A"stralia and 4apan are its greatest proponents 5o-ever, !an( other co"ntries #s"ch as India, /hina and R"ssia& are increasingl( beco!ing advocates of free trade as the( beco!e !ore econo!icall(

po-erf"l the!selves As tariff levels fall there is also an increasing -illingness to negotiate non tariff !eas"res, incl"ding foreign direct invest!ent, proc"re!ent and trade facilitation The latter loo*s at the transaction cost

associated -ith !eeting trade and c"sto!s proced"res

Traditionall( agric"lt"ral interests are "s"all( in favo"r of free trade -hile !an"fact"ring sectors often s"pport protectionis! This has changed so!e-hat in recent (ears, ho-ever In fact, agric"lt"ral lobbies, partic"larl(

in the .nited )tates, E"rope and 4apan, are chiefl( responsible for partic"lar r"les in the !a,or international trade treaties -hich allo- for !ore protectionist !eas"res in agric"lt"re than for !ost other goods and services

D"ring recessions there is often strong do!estic press"re to increase tariffs to protect do!estic ind"stries This occ"rred aro"nd the -orld d"ring the $reat Depression 6an( econo!ists have atte!pted to portra( tariffs

as the "nderlining reason behind the collapse in -orld trade that !an( believe serio"sl( deepened the depression

The reg"lation of international trade is done thro"gh the 'orld Trade Organi+ation at the global level, and thro"gh several other regional arrange!ents s"ch as 6ER/O).R in )o"th A!erica, the North A!erican 0ree

Trade Agree!ent #NA0TA& bet-een the .nited )tates, /anada and 6exico, and the E"ropean .nion bet-een 78 independent states The 799: ;"enos Aires tal*s on the planned establish!ent of the 0ree Trade Area of

the A!ericas #0TAA& failed largel( beca"se of opposition fro! the pop"lations of Latin A!erican nations )i!ilar agree!ents s"ch as the 6"ltilateral Agree!ent on Invest!ent #6AI& have also failed in recent (ears

R*,0 *n *nternat*)na4 trade

&ompanies doing business across international borders face man+ of the same ris8s as would normall+ be e7ident in strictl+ domestic transactions$ Hor e>ample%

Bu+er insol7enc+ 4purchaser cannot pa+5I

2on<acceptance 4bu+er rejects goods as different from the agreed upon specifications5I &redit ris8 4allowing the bu+er to ta8e possession of goods prior to pa+ment5I Regulator+ ris8 4e$g$% a change in rules that pre7ents the transaction5I Inter7ention 4go7ernmental action to pre7ent a transaction being completed5I Political ris8 4change in leadership interfering with transactions or prices5I and War and other uncontrollable e7ents$

In addition% international trade also faces the ris8 of unfa7orable e>change rate mo7ements 4and%the potential benefit of fa7orable mo7ements5

T) traded ()!!)d*t*e, 'e5 )rt,3 Ran0 0 / A ; C)!!)d*t2 Mineral fuels% oils% distillation products% etc !lectrical% electronic equipment Machiner+% nuclear reactors% boilers% etc 3ehicles other than railwa+% tramwa+ Pharmaceutical products &a4-e *n US='>9993 N0%=;D%D;0%A;= N0%=.;%C..%D=A N0%;/.%011%=D. NDA0%A0/%11/ NA0=%.-1%DA. Date )" *n")r!at*)n /..1 /..1 /..1 /..1 /..1

= C D 1 0.

'ptical% photo% apparatus



etc N-1=%--C%=1= N-D=%=/D%.=A N-/.%0CA%.D. N-0.%0.=%A-/ N/C-%./A%A0=

/..1 /..1 /..1 /..1 /..1

Plastics and articles there of Pearls% precious stones% metals% coins% etc 'rganic chemicals Iron and steel

T) trad*ng nat*)n,
)ist of countries b+ e>ports and )ist of countries b+ imports Ran8 < 0 / A ; = C D < 1 0. 00 0/ 00A 0; 0= 0C 0D 01 /. &ountr+ !uropean Union 4!>tra<!U/C5 United States PeopleFs Republic of &hina (erman+ Lapan Hrance United ?ingdom 2etherlands Ital+ *ong ?ong South ?orea Belgium &anada Spain Russia Me>ico Singapore India aiwan 4Republic of &hina5 SwitGerland Australia United Arab !mirates !>ports P Imports N-%01C%...%...%... N/%A-1%C..%...%... N/%/.D%...%...%... N/%.;/%...%...%... N0%..=%1..%...%... N1D1%...%...%... ND/A%1..%...%... NC;=%;..%...%... NC/C%C..%...%... N=C/%=..%...%... N==D%;..%...%... N=00%0..%...%... N=.-%C..%...%... N;.D%1..%...%... NA1/%A..%...%... NA;D%/..%...%... NA;A%D..%...%... N-DC%-..%...%... N-C0%A..%...%... N-=C%-..%...%... N-//%A..%...%... N-0;%...%...%... "ate of information /..1 Q/=R /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$ /..1 est$

Internat*)na4 Mar0et*ng<?
International !ar*eting #I6& or global !ar*eting refers to !ar*eting carried o"t b( co!panies overseas or across national borderlines This strateg( "ses an extension of the techni<"es "sed in the ho!e co"ntr( of a fir!

It refers to the fir!-level !ar*eting practices across the border incl"ding !ar*et identification and targeting, entr( !ode selection, !ar*eting !ix, and strategic decisions to co!pete in international !ar*ets According to

the A!erican 6ar*eting Association #A6A& =international !ar*eting is the !"ltinational process of planning and exec"ting the conception, pricing, pro!otion and distrib"tion of ideas, goods, and services to create

exchanges that satisf( individ"al and organi+ational ob,ectives = In contrast to the definition of !ar*eting onl( the -ord !"ltinational has been added In si!ple -ords international !ar*eting is the application of !ar*eting

principles to across national bo"ndaries 5o-ever, there is a crossover bet-een -hat is co!!onl( expressed as international !ar*eting and global !ar*eting, -hich is a si!ilar ter!

The intersection is the res"lt of the process of internationali+ation 6an( A!erican and E"ropean a"thors see international !ar*eting as a si!ple extension of exporting, -hereb( the !ar*eting !ix >%?s is si!pl( adapted

in so!e -a( to ta*e into acco"nt differences in cons"!ers and seg!ents It then follo-s that global !ar*eting ta*es a !ore standardi+ed approach to -orld !ar*ets and foc"ses "pon sa!eness, in other -ords the

si!ilarities in cons"!ers and seg!ents

According to 3otabe, the follo-ing topics cover the !icro-context of international !ar*eting

Organi+ational and cons"!er behavio"r:

organiGational bu+ing beha7iourI

international negotiationsI consumer beha7iourI countr+ of origin$

6ar*eting entr( decisions:

initial mode of entr+

specific modes of entr+

e>portingI Loint 7entures$

Local !ar*et expansion: !ar*eting !ix decisions:

global standardiGation 7s$ local responsi7eness

Mar8eting mi>9

product polic+I ad7ertisingI pricingI "istribution$

$lobal strateg(:

&ompetiti7e strateg+9

conceptual de7elopmentI competiti7e ad7antage 7s$ competiti7e positioningI Sources of competiti7e ad7antage and performance implications$

Strategic alliances9

learning and trustI recipes for alliance successI Performance of different t+pes of alliance$

(lobal sourcing9

global sourcing in a ser7ice conte>tI benefits of global sourcingI &ountr+ of origin issues in global sourcing$

Multinational performance9

determinants of performanceI a different interpretation of performance$

Anal(tical techni<"es in cross-national research:

measurement issuesI

Reliabilit+ and 7alidit+ issues

D*""eren(e, 1et@een d)!e,t*( !ar0et*ng and *nternat*)na4 !ar0et*ng

There are vario"s differences bet-een do!estic !ar*eting and international !ar*eting D"e to a lang"age barrier it is !ore diffic"lt to obtain and interpret research data in international !ar*eting %ro!otional !essages

need to consider n"!ero"s c"lt"ral differences bet-een different co"ntries This incl"des the differences in lang"ages, expressions, habits, gest"res, ideologies and !ore 0or exa!ple, in the .nited )tates the ro"nd O

sign !ade -ith th"!b and first finger !eans =o*a(= -hile in 6editerranean co"ntries the sa!e gest"re !eans =+ero= or =the -orst= In T"nisia it is "nderstood as =I?ll *ill (o"= !ean-hile for a 4apan cons"!er it i!plies

=!one(= Even a!ong the 8> English-spea*ing nations a -ord -ith the sa!e !eaning can differ greatl( fro! the English -hich is spo*en in the .nited )tates as the follo-ing exa!ple sho-s:

Police9 bobb+ 4Britain5% garda 4Ireland5% Mountie 4&anada5% police wallah 4South Africa5

Porch9 stoep 4South Africa5% galler+ 4&aribbean5 Bar9 pub 4Britain5% hotel 4Australia5% booGer 4Australia% Britain% 2ew Jealand5 Bathroom9 loo 4Britain5% dunn+ 4Australia5 (host or monster9 wendigo 4&anada5% dupp+ 4&aribbean5% taniwha 42ew Jealand5 Barbecue9 braai 4South Africa5% barbie 4Australia5 ruc89 lorr+ 4Britain and Australia5 Hesti7al9 feis 4Ireland5 Sweater9 jumper 4!ngland5 Hrench fries9 chips 4Britain5 Soccer9 football 4the rest of the world5 Soccer field9 pitch 4!ngland5

Three recent international exa!ples of !isinterpretation are:

'n a sign in a Bucharest hotel lobb+9 he lift is being fi>ed for the ne>t da+$ "uring that time% we regret that +ou will be unbearable$

Hrom a Lapanese information boo8let about using a hotel air conditioner9 &ooles and *eates9 If +ou want just

condition of warm +our room% please control +ourself$

In an Acapulco hotel9 he manager has personall+ passed all the water ser7ed here$

M)de )" engage!ent *n ")re*gn !ar0et,

After the decision to invest has been !ade, the exact !ode of operation has to be deter!ined The ris*s concerning operating in foreign !ar*ets is often dependent on the level of control a fir! has, co"pled -ith the level of capital expendit"re o"tla(ed The principal !odes of engage!ent are listed belo-:

!>porting 4which is further di7ided into direct and indirect e>porting5$

Loint 7entures$ "irect in7estment 4split into assembl+ and manufacturing5$

.$1 million of pa+ment of freight charges% which could otherwise be used for other high priorit+ imports or for building up indigenous infrastructure$ ;$ A7ailabilit+ of international shipping ser7ices to trade he shipping ser7ices India are also to the global A$ in &urrent status ofpatterned maritimesimilar transport industr+ inshipping India ser7ices% namel+% tramps and liners$ he t+pes of ships engaged in IndiaEs o7erseas trade include dr+ cargo liners% cellular 0$ ore6oil6bul8 Importance of maritime transport in economic container ships% dr+ cargo bul8 carriers% carriers% oil tan8ers 4product carriers5% passenger< de7elopment and in international trade cum<cargo 7essels% acid carriers% timer carriers% )P( carriers% RoRo ships% 'S3s and specialiGed ships$ he shipping industr+ also caters to the requirements of coastal trade and offshore suppl+ 7essels 4'S3s5 'cean transport or shipping pla+s an important role in the trade and economic de7elopment of for '2(& and (AI)$ nations$ In fact% transport% trade and economic de7elopment are mutuall+ supporti7e$ he o7erwhelming "uring thein last ;. +ears% IndiaEs o7erseas trade has e>panded considerabl+ both inthirds termsof ofthe composi< share of shipping the carriage of about 1; per cent in terms of 7olume and almost two total 7alue tion and of international direction due trade to theestablishes polic+ of e>port its predominance promotion being and importance pursued b+ as the a mode (o7ernment$ of international At the same transportation time% efforts are s+stem$ being made he importance to pro7ide and of shipping% impro7e o7er the trade the period% relatedhas infrastructure% also increased especiall+ due to the the technological transport% to facilitate de7elopments the mo7ement in transport% of traffic especiall+ more in efficientl+$ terms of containeriGation So far as the mo7ement culminating of traffic in multimodal b+ ships to o7erseas destinations is concerned% both majorit+ Indian asof well the foreign flagb+ ships conference transportation on door<to<door basis% since theas containers mo7e this operating mode of transport$ and non<conference liner shipping ser7ices ha7e been pro7iding the ser7ices either directl+ or through /$ Role of shipping in IndiaEs foreign trade transshipment arrangements for the general cargo in brea8<bul8 or containeriGed form$ Similarl+ for the and foreign e>change earnings bul8 cargo mo7ing either as imports or e>ports% the ser7ices of tramp ships both Indian and foreign usuall+ engaged chartering basis are a7ailable to all destinations$ Inon case of India% shipping constitutes an the essential component of the countr+Es international trade since about 1. per cent of her o7erseas trade in terms of 7olume and about CC per cent in terms of 7alue mo7es =$ Port infrastructure for foreign trade b+ sea$ In 7iew of the 7ital role pla+ed b+ shipping industr+ in furthering the growth of o7erseas trade% as is ser7ed b+ twel7e major ports% handling more than C; per cent of the total sea borne trade% and also as India a direct earner and sa7er of foreign e>change% the (o7ernment right from the beginning of planning a number of small minor ports% located along countr+Es coastline$ era in 01;.<;0 has and been endea7oring to build adequate national fleet$ he de7elopment of major ports is the responsibilit+ of the &entral (o7ernment% while the operational and administrati7e responsibilit+ for Shipping is 7aluable in7isible e>port or foreign e>change forstates an+ countr+$ '7er jurisdic< the period% the de7elopment ofathe intermediate and minor ports rests with the earner maritime under whose Indian shipping has impro7ed its assistance foreign e>change flows% as theis gross earnings6receipts increased from tion the+ fall% although technical where7er necessar+ pro7ided b+ the &entral (o7ernment$ Rs /=$1D billion in 0110<1/ to Rs ;C$/ billion in 0111</... and the net inflows increased from Rs 0;$= C$ Port capacit+ and traffic throughput billion to Rs -;$- billion during the same period$ !7er since the beginning of planning era% i$e$% 01;.<;0% e>pansion of port capacit+ has been -$ (rowth of Indian shipping fleet an important aspect of de7elopment programmes ob7iousl+ due to increasing 7olume of traffic$ here Indian shipping fleet which towards possessed ;1 ships with a during total tonnage ofdecade about .$01 million ( at the has been progressi7e de7elopment capacit+ building the past or so$ he table time of independence 4August graduall+ increased to traffic .$-C million ( in 01;0% the beginning of 4table 05 in the ne>t page gi7es01AC5 the trends in ports capacit+% throughput and the i$e$% capacit+ utiliGation the Hirst Hi7e #ear Plan$ Since then the same registered a remar8able growth till the end of the Si>th from 01DA<D; onwards9 Hi7e #ear Plan% i$e$% -0 March 01D;$ In the subsequent +ears% there ha7e been fluctuations in the growth he total capacit+ at the major ports is e>pected to be -AA million tons at the end of 2inth Hi7e #ear of the shipping fleet as the achie7ement in terms of fleet siGe fell short against the fi>ed target$ he target Plan 4-0 March /../5 against the en7isaged traffic of about -.. million tons 4about D= per cent capacit+ of 1 million ( fi>ed for 2inth Hi7e #ear Plan is unli8el+ to be achie7ed since the shipping fleet as on utiliGation5% thus bringing a great relief to the e>isting o7erwor8ed ports$ Besides% the port de7elopment 0 April /..0 was ;A= ships aggregating onl+ =$DA million ( % which is almost the same le7el as at the projects ta8en up b+ the state go7ernments in respect of minor ports and also the establishment of capti7e beginning of the Plan period$ ports would boost the capacit+ e>pansion programmes in the port sector$ A$ (rowth of IndiaEs o7erseas trade D$ Pri7atiGation6liberaliGation of port sector and the shipping capacit+ In order to accelerate the pace of pri7atiGation% in line with the o7erall polic+ of liberaliGation of the '7er the period% the mo7ement of traffic in terms of e>port and import cargoes has witnessed a (o7ernment% polic+ guidelines on pri7ate sector participation in port de7elopment were issued b+ the remar8able growth increasing from -. million tons in 01=.<=0 to //A$= million tons in 0111</...% but Ministr+ in 011=$ As a result% a substantial capacit+% particular container handling facilities funded the capacit+ of Indian not shownduring the corresponding growth% since the same increased from through $ pri7ate sector shipping funds hashas been created the 2inth Hi7e #ear plans$

IMP'R A2&! 'H ()'BA) RA"!

India able 0$ otal &apacit+ and raffic *andled at Major Ports

4In Million ons5 #ear 01DA<D; 01D;<D= 01D=<DC 01DC<DD 01DD<D1 01D1<1. 011.<10 0110<1/ 011/<1011-<1A 011A<1; 011;<1= 011=<1C 011C<1D 011D<11 0111<.. /...<.0 &apacit+ 0-/$C 0A0$1 0A0$1 0A0$1 0A0$1 0=/$D 0=/$D 0=1$/ 0C.$/ 0C.$/ 0CA$. 0D0$/ /01$; /-1$; /;A$A /;A$A /10$. raffic *andled 0.C$D 001$; 0/A$A 0--$C 0A=$A 0AD$A 0;/$1 0;C$= 0==$= 0C1$01C$/ /0;$//C$/;0$A /;0$C /C/ /D0 D0 DA DD 1A 0.10 1A 11D 0.; 00001 0.A 0.; 0.; 0.C 10 4Per cent5

B$ !>isting policies6laws6regulations 0$ Mar8et access and restrictions on specific trades Mar8et access% i$e$ access to the carriage of cargo traffic assumes a great significance so far as shipping ser7ices are concerned$ he dearth or denial of opportunit+ to carr+ cargo% both bul8 as well as his is primaril+ due to the brea8<bul8% e7en originating in their own countries or belonging to them is one of the most important factors inhibiting participation of mercantile fleet of de7eloping countries$ fa7ourable to them% i$e$% bu+ing on H'B6HAS and selling on &IH6&HR basis$ Imposition of restrictions on maritime transport ser7ices can ad7ersel+ affect the price% reliabilit+ and qualit+ of these ser7ices$ hese are in fact barriers that limit maritime ser7ice suppliers from entering or operating in a mar8et$ Such restrictions are imposed b+ some go7ernments through legislation and regulation$ Such restrictions ma+ be discriminator+ or non<discriminator+ against foreign ser7ice suppliers$ &argo support in fa7our of national shipping is nearl+ uni7ersal% since reser7ation of national cargoes for national bottoms pro7ides the national fleet with a certain degree of stabilit+ in an otherwise 7iolentl+ c+clical mar8et$ his stabilit+ has an e>tremel+ positi7e impact on the e7entual financial strength of national shipping companies and their abilit+ to raise capital competiti7el+$ In case of Indian shipping as well% cargo support was made a cardinal principle of national polic+ which pro7ed to be a great source of strength in promoting the growth of the national fleet$ Since the 8e+ to cargo support is pro7ided b+ controlling a the terms of shipment imports to bu+ on H'B sell on formulated polic+ of H'B6HAS and &IHand e>ports in &IH 01; basis% the (o7ernment of India also $ I5 Pro7iding cargo support to Indian shipping% terms of trade being used b+ the major trading partners of the de7eloping countries which are more

4ii5 Sa7ing outgo of 7aluable foreign e>change and earning foreign e>change in cross trades% 4iII5 &ontrolling freight le7el and commodit+ price in national interest% etc$ Under this arrangement% the go7ernment owned6controlled cargo is channeled b+ the charting wing of the Ministr+ of Shipping% called ranschart$ As per this polic+ the first right of refusal for carriage of such cargo was gi7en to Indian 7essels$ *owe7er% pursuant to the polic+ of trade liberaliGation in mid<0110 resulting in decanaliGation of 7arious items% li8e roc8 phosphate% sulphur% ammonia% phosphorus acid% "AP% M'P% etc$ and entr+ of pri7ate trade in import of these items% ranschartEs role for ma8ing shipments arrangements for the cargoes under reference has been marginaliGed and the same is li8el+ to further go down in the near future due to the changing pattern of trade in which pri7ate sector will be ha7ing a greater role to pla+$ Moreo7er% the declining share of national carriers in the total o7erseas trade of the countr+ and remaining within a range of /D per cent to -; per cent especiall+ in the post liberaliGation era clearl+ reflects that India has not been following strictl+ an+ cargo support polic+ e7en in respect of cargo being imported or e>ported b+ the Public Sector Underta8ings% since latel+ the+ ha7e been demanding rela>ation in the polic+ of going through ranschart for ma8ing the shipment arrangements due to the growing competiti7e business en7ironment in which now the+ ha7e to operate$ In the conte>t of mar8et access% it ma+ also be highlighted that the lower share of Indian shipping in the carriage of countr+Es o7erseas trade is due to the terms of trade used b+ IndiaEs trading partners% who% b+ and large% ha7e been bu+ing and selling goods on terms more fa7ourable to them$ other countries to carr+ cargo from Indian ports$ he carriage of coastal trade is go7erned under the cabotage principle in man+ countries% de7eloped as well as de7eloping$ India too% has a scheme of 0.. per cent reser7ation of coastal trade for the national carriers% since the mo7ement of traffic within a countr+Es ocean territor+ has alwa+s been considered as part of the internal transport s+stem$ *owe7er% an+ dispensation permitting the foreign flag in the coastal trade is gi7en on 7o+age to 7o+age basis$ /$ Bilateral6unilateral cargo reser7ation schemes Bilateral shipping arrangements are considered to be an effecti7e tool to ensure cargo support to the national bottoms and is reportedl+ used b+ some of the countries in the world$ Initiall+% India used to ha7e bilateral trade and shipping agreements with some of the !astern Bloc &ountries and UA!% according to which there was parit+ 4;.9;.5 in terms of sailings and the carriage of trade b+ the carriers of the respecti7e trading partners$ his s+stem pro7ed quite effecti7e in ensuring cargo support for the national carriers and thereb+ better utiliGation of ships in the liner trade% especiall+ in case of India$ *owe7er% due to the changes that ha7e ta8en place in the economies of those countries% o7er the period% no such agreements or schemes are currentl+ in force$ -$ Subsidies Some of the de7eloped countries arereportedl+ e>tending the facilities of operational and construction subsidies% concessional credits% registration of 7essels in open registr+ countries% ta> incenti7es or assis< tance for shipbuilding or operation costs aiming at the de7elopment of shipping acti7ities or sometimes at hus from IndiaEs point of 7iew% there is no protection as such for the national carriers and no restrictions for the ships of

Hor e>ampl

4S"H&5 was set up in 01;D$ S"H& disbursed large amounts at 7er+ attracti7e rates of interest 7ar+ing from - per cent during 01;1 to 01C0 to C$; per cent from 01D. to 01D=$ *owe7er% S"H& was abolished in 01DC and now no one financial institute has been gi7en an e>clusi7e mandate for financing the shipping sector$ Similarl+ adoption of certain fiscal measures% e$g$ additional 0 per cent R!P license in case of utiliGation of national carrier for the carriage% were also directed towards the de7elopment of shipping fleet$ All schemes ha7e been remo7ed during the past one and a half decades% especiall+ after the introduction of the polic+ of liberaliGation$ Since the financial support to the shipping industr+ is almost non<e>istent% the same has been left with no option but to ta8e care of its requirement through !&Bs or such other instruments so far as the raising of funds for acquisition of ships is concerned$ Hurther% there e>ists no scheme for subsidiGing the national carriers in the carriage of cargo and there is also no cargo preference for them and the trade is thus open for being carried b+ the ships offering competiti7e freight rates$ !7en in case of shipments of (o7ernment controlled cargoes or the cargoes traded b+ the Public Sector Underta8ings for which the fi>ation of ships b+ ranschart is done% Indian bottoms do not get an+ price preference% the+ ha7e to match the lowest price$ A$ Access to port facilities6ser7ices for o7erseas 7essels Indian ports% from the 7er+ beginning% ha7e been following the Sprinciple of non<discriminationE in pro7iding the facilities and ser7ices to the ships calling at ports irrespecti7e of their flags$ )i8ewise% there is uniformit+ in le7+ing charges for the port related facilities or ser7ices for all the ships$ Ports being the lifeline for the econom+ as a whole and foreign trade in particular% the need for efficient ser7ices has been well recogniGed uni7ersall+$ of construction% de7elopment and operation in ports$ o bring about impro7ement in this sector% the he objecti7e of pri7atiGation is in terms of techno< (o7ernment has de7iated from its erstwhile socio<economic polic+ and has accepted pri7atiGation concept log+% better equipment a7ailabilit+% management% funding% mar8eting% shift of operation and related ris8s to the pri7ate entrepreneurs who can ha7e better inputs% commercial practice and fle>ibilit+ required for ensuring the needed competition$ Pri7ate sector is permitted to construct its own cargo handling facilities at the ports% under Build< 'perate< ransfer format$ here is no distinction between foreign and Indian companies$ 0.. per cent Horeign "irect In7estment is permitted without specific appro7als from the (o7ernment authorities$ In order to pro7ide incenti7es to the projects to enhance their 7iabilit+6profitabilit+% corporate ta> e>emption has been pro7ided for 0. +ears and the import of project and its component is permitted on concessional import dut+ bases$ In the maritime au>iliar+ ser7ices% there are no limitations on mar8et access% nor are there an+ limitations on national treatment in the commercial presence in the areas of Maritime &argo *andling ser7icesI Storage and Warehousing ser7ices in portsI &ontainer Station and "epot Ser7icesI Maritime Agenc+ ser7icesI Maritime Hreight Horwarding ser7ices and maintenance and repairs of sea going 7essels$ &$ 2ational 4plan6polic+5 towards liberaliGation 0$ Polic+ towards liberaliGation of maritime transport ser7ices In case of shipping and port sectors% especiall+% the polic+ has been towards encouraging openness$

e% foreign liberaliGation crude Indian nies freedom trade% totan8ers on companies retain to case direct charter sale of and to shipping in7estment case proceeds 'S3s5 within out basis$ Indian India b+ sector of 4H"I5 pri7ate ships Indian or include abroad% isto shipping permissible ships foreign automatic acquisition abroad companies% shipping up and appro7al toof 0.. utiliGation companies replacement sale per for of cent$ acquisition ships of for the 3arious tonnage% emplo+ment for same further ofmeasures for all permitting fresh categories trading6scrapping in international acquisition towards shipping of ships and compa< cross to 4e>cept

"$ IndiaEs participation atthe therequirement A ' Ministerial barring strategic cargo li8e crude and petroleum products% of which th is W mostl+ met through imports% majorit+ of the cargo in bul8 and brea8<bul8 &onference trade is being carried b+ the ships belonging either to held in "oha the importing countries or H'& 4Hlag of &on7enience5 countries% where again the ownership is with the participated at the A ships registered W ' Ministerial &onference in "oha from 1<0- 2o7ember /..0$ th leadingIndia maritime countries$ he with H'& countries are offering competiti7e freight he

,Ministerial "eclaration: adopted at "oha reaffirms the (uidelines and Procedures for the charges due to their inherent ad7antage in terms of lower operating costs$ In the interest of2egotiations pro7iding adopted b+ the &ouncil for rade in ser7ices on issue /D of Smar8et accessEMarch /..0 as the basis for continuing the negotia< opportunities for a fair share in their trades% the thas h to be considered based on tions% a 7iew of achie7ing would the objecti7es ofdo the (eneral Agreement on in rade ser7ices stipulated (A Swith rules$ he negotiations hopefull+ awa+ with the limitation thisin regard andas the in the Preamble% Article I3 and Article OIO of that Agreement$ he benefit "oha agreement maritime transport ser7ices of de7eloping countries li8e India might from suchstipulates a mo7e$ that the participants shall submit their initial requests for specific commitments b+ -. Lune /../ and initial offers b+ -0 March /..-$ India is sensiti7e to the needs of the de7eloping countries and is in the process of e>amining the matter in order to finaliGe its stand with regard to the forthcoming negotiations on Maritime ransport Ser7ices$ !$ Preparation for negotiations 0$ !>pectations from the forthcoming negotiations on Maritime ransport Ser7ices 4M S5 through W ' Mandated 2egotiations under the (eneral Agreement on rade in Ser7ices 4(A S5 commenced at the W ' on 0 stLanuar+ /...$ he main objecti7e of (A S is the e>pansion of trade in ser7ices% progressi7e liberaliGation of such trade through negotiations% transparenc+ of rules and regulations and increasing participation of de7eloping countries$ Since M S is go7erned b+ the (A S under the W ' regime% it is e>pected that this sector will witness significant liberaliGation through multilateral trade negotiations$ In the past% the shipping interests of de7eloping countries li8e India ha7e been ad7ersel+ affected because of the policies and practices of the de7eloped countries and their shipping companies$ herefore% the burden of ma8ing the maritime transport ser7ices transparent% non<discriminator+ and pro7iding mar8et access to the shipping industr+ of the de7eloping countries on a fair and equitable basis lies squarel+ on de7eloped countries$ he de7eloping countries ma+ hope that with the remo7al of protectionist he participation of policies and practices followed b+ the de7eloped maritime countries% the former will be ha7ing a better opportunit+ of impro7ing their shipping fleet as also the share in the carriage of trade$ their fleet in cross trade with equal opportunit+ of carriage of global trade would further result in better earnings in foreign e>change% besides utiliGation of increased capacit+ for carriage of national trade would gi7e the ad7antage in terms of sa7ings in the outgo of foreign e>change$ he impro7ement in shipping fleet as also in the port sector is e>pected to bring in better results for the countr+Es econom+ as a whole$ H$ he most important limitation e>pected to be eliminated or reduced through such negotiations Ser7ices trade has emerged as an important and growing part of the world econom+ accounting for increasing shares of production% emplo+ment and international transactions$ /. per cent$ "e7eloping and transition economies can e>pect to compete effecti7el+ in the ser7ices sectors o7erseas co7ered the maritime carriage hough abo7e &urrentl+ the b+ of bu+ers% nations group the (A cargo same% S$ includes especiall+ is the ma+ the most he since originate mar8et range the important the bu+ers transport of carriage access% in ser7ices from the limitation i$e$% ser7ices$ de7eloping of de7eloped currentl+ cargo the denial for is countries% 7er+ the countries$ being of maritime much opportunit+ e>ported their dependent Intransport case national b+ toof some carr+ India% on ser7ices shipping the of e7en the it terms has the of countries has the been national of no trade de7eloping obser7ed claim falling used trade$ on b+ under that% the the he share of ser7ices in the world trade as well as the majorit+ of domestic acti7ities in most economies is reportedl+ around

&*AP !R</ 'BL!& I3!S S&'P! R!S!AR&* M! *'"'(# 4 "A A A2A)#SIS5 )IMI A I'2S SAMP)I2(

*! present stud+ is a comprehensi7e stud+ of !OP'R

"'&UM!2 A I'2

A2" PR'&!"UR! $ he research wor8 is done in collaboration with ?A?I2"A S!A P'R ) " o assess the o7erall e>port procedure @ documentation$ 'n concentrating the 'BL!& I3! 'f the project of ma>imum information is summed up sequentiall+$ !>ecuti7e Summar+ of the project describes$$$ 'bjecti7e he

he main objecti7e of the stud+ is to formulate the o7erall procedure of e>port orders sa+ Show to e>portE% documentation% modes of pa+ment @ incenti7es from ?AI2A"A S!A P'R ) "$ Research Methodolog+

Research comprises defining and redefining problems$ Research purpose is to disco7er answer to question through the procedure of scientific procedure$ Inter7iews and discussion With thesuper7isors and officials to get the root of the pre<determined objecti7e and in order to outline the Sa to GE steps of processing e>port order$ Hindings @ Recommendations

'n the e>ecution of the objecti7e of stud+% it might be conclude that processing of e>port order can be a tedious and costl+ acti7it+$ A careful planning and implementation of appropriate procedure can reduce time and cost drasticall+$ A fair documentation not onl+ reduces the threats of frauds% bottlenec8s and ris8s but also enhances the business relationship between !>porters% Importers @ (o7ernments in the whole world$

he comple>it+ of business operations greatl+ accentuate as businessmen cross the

Statement of objecti7es

formulate the Show to e>portE concept finall+ to contribute to national and in

he focus of the stud+ was the formulation the multifunction procedure of an e>port unit national named ?A?I2A"A boundaries $S!A A lot P'R of formalities ) "$ he focus and modalities of the stud+ of was se7eral on identif+ing organiGations the acti7ities ha7e to of be compileddi7isions different to and and as departments error can of create ?A?I2A"A bottle nec8s S!AP'R in the ) "ha7ing free flow an impact of good% ondocuments% the e>port p information and procedure'f thispa+ments$ unit$ Hocus was to outline the standard modes of pa+ment for e>port houses$ Research on anal+Ged "ocumentation the pre<e>port is definitel+ formalities one andof necessities the prime for e>portation$ specialiGed functions he project of is an international attempt to national and international econom+ @ business contribution business$ he documents safeguard the interests of ransport Agencies% Insurance Agencies and Inspection Agencies$ Main 'bjecti7e of the Stud+

!>porter% Importer% Ban8s% (o7ernments%

he main objecti7e of the training was to stud+ the s+stematic e>port procedure @ documentation of a reputed e>port house sa+ ?A?I2A"A S!A P'R ) " to o7ercome an+ 8ind of error% bottlenec8% frauds and mista8e for the awareness and implementation of standardiGed rule< regulations @ documentation to contribute the integration of International Business up to an+ e>tent$ Sub 'bjecti7es of the Stud+

he sub objecti7es of the stud+ were9 T o stud+ the department wise functions @ sequential documentation for 7arious operations in e>port orders adopted b+ ?A?I2A"A S!A P'R ) "$ T o stud+ the standard modes of pa+ment in e>port<import$

o identif+ the incenti7es% discounts @ dut+ drawbac8s to e>porters b+ the (o7ernment$

H'&US 'H *! S U"#

M! *'"S 'H &'))!& I2( "A A *! "ata collection has in7ol7ed in two steps PRIMAR# "A A9< he Primar+ data is collected b+ interacting with the (eneral manager %asst$(eneral manager and emplo+ees of 8a8inada sea port ) "$ S !&'2"AR# "A A9< he secondar+ data is collected from the internet % journals and boo8s
PAR IA)information of negotiable documents because of securities reasons$$

All the findings are based on the information from Seller6!>porter side onl+$

Primar+ data is anal+Ged though inter7iew of e>ecuti7es and the+ ma+ not be a7ailable and ma+ not be part of research$ )ess sufficient response of e>ecuti7es @ super7isors in respect to information and related matters "ue to insufficient time % information about the project is limited because of project time is one

related to securities month

S&'P! A2" )IMI A I'2S 'H *! PR'L!& S&'P!9< his project wor8 is focussed and confined to understanding acti7ities in7ol7ed in the tobacco e>port process and related e>port documentation$ his project wor8 is focussed and confined to understanding acti7ities in7ol7ed in the tobacco e>port process and related e>port documentation

)IMI A I'2S9<

!>port Rules% Regulations @ &ompliances are too wide to co7er thoroughl+ in short term project$

&*AP !R<I2"US R# PR'HI)!

I2"US R# PR'HI)!
Seaports and sea<borne trade are an important economic asset for the (ulf &oast region% directl+ an Hreeport and (al7eston$ he Port of *ouston is one of the worldEs largest cargo ports$ In /..C% the port ran8ed first in e>as% second in the U$S$% and 0=th In the world in to tal cargo 7olume handled$ -/ It is also the stateEs second< th the opening of a new cruise terminal$ largest cruise port and is e>panding those operations indirectl+

supporting significant numbers of jobs$ he region is home to four major seaports% those of *ouston% e>as &it+%

he Port of *ouston is a /;<mile<long comple> administered b+ the Port of *ouston Authorit+ and hosts more than 0;. pri7ate industrial companies along the *ouston Ship &hannel$ More than //; million tons of cargo mo7ed through the port in /..C and D%.;- 7essel calls were recorded at the Port of *ouston in /..D$ -International trade partners of the port include Me>ico and countries in the Middle !ast% South America and !urope$ Principal products handled at the Port of *ouston include crude fertiliGers% petroleum% organic chemicals% cereal% iron and steel% machiner+% plastics and 7ehicles$ A recent stud+ b+ the Uni7ersit+ of e>as at AustinEs &enter for ransportation Research found that the Port of *ouston directl+ or indirectl+ accounted for CD;%.A1 jobs% N-1$- billion in personal income and N00C$= billion in economic impact on the area% while pro7iding N-$C billion in ta> re7enue for local% state and federal go7ernments in /..= he Port of e>as &it+ is the stateEs fourthBlargest% 0-th in the nation and DCth in the world for total cargo 7olume$ ; It is located about 0. miles northwest of (al7eston and has the significant ad7antage of a highl+ integrated railwa+ s+stem$ he railwa+ facilitates the mo7ement of liquid cargoes including crude petroleum oil and refined petroleum products$ he e>as &it+ erminal Railwa+ &ompan+ handles more than /;%... rail car loads annuall+$ Both the Union Pacific and Burlington 2orthern Santa He rail companies ha7e a significant presence in the area% with -/ miles of connecting rail lines that ser7e different facilities at the port$ he Port of e>as &it+ includes 0%;.. acres of land leased to 7arious industrial entities that operate petrochemical plants and refineries and tan8 and terminal facilities% ma8ing it a 7ital national hub for the petroleum industr+$-= he Port of e>as &it+ directl+ or indirectl+ accounted for 0;%.;. jobs and N101$; million in personal income in /..A$ In that +ear% it generated N==C$= million in economic acti7it+ in the area and contributed N/AD$- million in ta> re7enue to local% state and federal go7ernments$ In /..C% the port handled nearl+ ;/ million tons of cargo$ Its principal import is crude oil% while its principal e>ports are gasoline% diesel% jet fuel% intermediate chemicals and petroleum co8e$ he port ser7es customers throughout the U$S$% as well as numerous countries around the world$-C he Port of Hreeport% located about ;. miles south of *ouston in BraGoria &ount+% is the fifth<largest port in e>as and the /Cth<largest in the nation for total cargo 7olume$-D Its principal imports include crude petroleum% fruit% te>tiles% aggregate% paper goods and plastics$ Its primar+ e>ported commodities include automobiles% chemicals% clothing% food% paper goods and plastics$ he port ser7es customers throughout the U$S$ and from 2igeria% Saudi Arabia% South Africa% BraGil% &olombia% the "ominican Republic% (uatemala% *onduras% Me>ico% 3eneGuela and &osta Rica$ he port directl+ or indirectl+ accounted for /;%C1; jobs% N0$D billion in personal income and N0$= billion in economic acti7it+% while contributing N0=1$1 million in ta> re7enue for local% state and federal go7ernments in /..-$ he Port of Hreeport handled about

/1$= million tons of cargo in /..C$-1 In /..C% the Port of (al7eston was the eighth<largest port in the state and ;-rd<largest in the nation for total cargo 7olume$A. he port% located at the mouth of (al7eston Ba+ along the Upper e>as &oast% handles imports including containers% agricultural equipment% machiner+% 7ehicles% fertiliGer products% lumber products and militar+<related cargoes$ Its principal e>ports include bul8 grains% containers% machiner+% 7ehicles% linerboard and paper% carbon blac8 and light fuels$ In /..C% the port handled 1$D million tons of cargo$A0 he Port of (al7eston is also e>asE number<one passenger port$ In /..=% nearl+ =0C%... people embar8ed from the port on cruise ships$ he port ser7es customers throughout the state as well as e>asE neighboring states and the Midwestern U$S$ Its international trading partners include Me>ico% (uatemala% Panama% &olombia% 3eneGuela% BraGil% "ominican Republic% Spain% Ital+% !g+pt% Israel% ur8e+% Bulgaria% Belgium% !ngland% (erman+% Saudi Arabia% United Arab !mirates% ?uwait% Singapore and &hina$ he Port of (al7eston directl+ or indirectl+ accounted for 0-%-=C jobs% NC/C$; million in personal income% and N/$/ billion in economic acti7it+% while contributing N01.$A million in ta> re7enue to local% state and federal go7ernments in /..=$A/


?A?I2A"A S!AP'R S )IMI !" a d+namic gatewa+ port on !ast &oast of India which is ideall+ located between 3isa8hapatnam and &hennai Ports$*ope Island% a natural formation offers protection as natural brea8water for ?a8inada Port and 0$/ ?m brea8water of tetra pods pro7ides tranquil ba+ conditions round the +ear for 7essels to operate in sheltered waters of ?a8inada "eep Water Port$ he 7antagious position of Port gi7es a unique opportunit+ to handle a mi> of bul8% liquid% brea8 bul8% containers% project cargoes @ ser7ice offshore 'il @ (as e>ploration acti7ities of ?rishna B (oda7ari Basin$ ?SP) team is trul+ committed to &ustomer needs% safe wor8ing practices% suppl+ chain management and en7ironment protection$?A?I2A"A P'R is located at ?a8inada off the east coast of India$ It is 0C. 8m 40.= mi5 south of 3isa8hapatnam Port$ ?a8inada Port is a large comple> comprising ?a8inada Anchorage Port% ?a8inada "eep Water Port% ?a8inada Hishing *arbour and Ship<Brea8ing Unit$ ?a8inada Anchorage Port has a centur+<long tradition$ ?a8inada "eep Water Port is an all<weather deep water port% and the channel has a depth of 0/ metres 4-1 ft5$ he port can handle 7essels up to ;.%... "W $ he port handled 0.$D0 million tonnes of cargo in /.0.B/.00$Recentl+ AP (o7t has de7eloped ?a8inada beach and it has 0.. acres of land co7ered from port to uppada area$


Located on the East /oast of A %, East $odavari District , India and the port is in operation depart!entall( since long ti!e b( A % %orts Depart!ent, $overn!ent of Andhra %radesh

)ocated at9<

o )at 9< 0= U $;=E 2 o )ong 9< D/U $0;E !

?a8inada Port is the main gatewa+ port for the rich agricultural belt of !ast (oda7ari% West (oda7ari and ?rishna "istricts of Andhra Pradesh$ ?a8inada Port comprises of ?a8inada Anchorage Port% ?a8inada "eep Water Port% ?a8inada Hishing *arbour$ ?a8inada Anchorage Port has a hundred +ears old histor+ managed b+ the (o7ernment of Andhra Pradesh$ ?a8inada Anchorage Port handled a cargo of 0$0AM$tons during the +ear /.0.<00 and /$;; M$ ons during the +ear /.00</.0/ 4up to .06/.0/5 ?a8inada Anchorage Port Infrastructure

o )and9 01;1$=1 Acres o Wharf9 1// Mts length o 'pen Stoc8ing Area9 0%..%... onnes o ransit sheds for storage of &argo9 ;.%... M 4(o7t5 -%..%... M 4Pri7ate5


?a8inada Sea Ports )imited is a Special Purpose &ompan+ set up in 0111 as a part of its pri7atiGation initiati7es b+ the go7ernment$ It is promoted b+ ?a8inada Infrastructure Moldings P7t$ )td$% group and ?onsortium )ogistic Berhad of Mala+sia with an objecti7e of de7eloping and operating a trul+ world class *ub$ his deep<water port is located on the east coast of India with a graphical position of

)ocated at9<
o 2orth9< )atitude 0CV .;$DE 2 and longitude of D/V -0$;E !$ o South9< )atitude 0=V ;;$1E 2 and longitude of D/V -.$.E !$ o !ast 9< 4A5 )atitude 0CV .;$DE 2 and longitude of D/V -0$;E !$

4B5 )atitude 0CV ..$.E 2 and longitude of D/V -0$;E !$ 4&5 )atitude 0=V ;;$1E 2 and longitude of D/V -.$.E !$

It is situated 0C. 8m south of 3isa8hapatnam and =;. 8m north of &hennai$ ?a8inada forms the main gatewa+ port for the rich agricultural belt of !ast (oda7ari% West (oda7ari and ?rishna "istricts of Andhra Pradesh$ &onser7anc+ powers 7ested with ?a8inada Seaports &ompan+ )imited$ he port is de7eloped with the land to an e>tent of Ac$-./


All weather% deep water$ It has a channel depth of 0/ metres$ he berth waiting time is the minimum in the countr+ of .$-0 hours as against ;$. hours in major port$ he 7essel turnround time is one da+ as against -$; da+s in major ports$ It has secured warehouses and spacious storage +ards$ It is blessed with an efficient e7acuation corridor and rail6road lin8age$ It is an IS' and ISPS certified port$


&ommercial operations are commenced from 0<A<0111 Berths a7ailabilit+9 A Berths are in operation

o &argo Berth B 10. Mts o Multi cargo berth B =-; Mts o 'ffshore suppl+ 7essels Berth o &oast (uard Berth o

he ;th and =th Berths are under construction stage "raft "epth of the channel a7ailabilit+ is 0A$.. Mts$ 3essel handling capacit+ is ;.%... "W $ &argo of 0.$D0 Million ons was handled during /.0.<00$ Ship to ship transport facilit+ is a7ailable










R')! 'H P'R "!PAR M!2

he e>port and import of 7arious commodities$

afe !ntr+ and berthing of 7essel

"ischarging of &argo

Warning the ships of all imminent dangers such as c+clones depressions% etc$

ssue of instructions and guidelines to mariners for safe passage of ships$

Benefits to the 2ation9<

"eri7e the re7enue to the nation such as customs dut+% e>cise dut+% etc$

Reduce pressure on road and rail$

a7ing the consumption of fuel$

A7oid traffic congestion

Reduction of air pollution

Reduction of !n7ironmental problems

ncrease in emplo+ment$

99 "U I!S 'H 'HHI&!RS 'H *! P'R "!PAR M!2

0$ "irector of State Ports$ "irector of State Ports is the *ead of the Port "epartment and the Marine Ad7isor to the (o7ernment of Andhra Pradesh and e>ercises administrati7e control o7er the conser7anc+ of all the Minor and Intermediate Ports in the State$ he "irector of State Ports is the Intermediate Authorit+ to control the &onser7ators of Ports appointed in ($'$Ms$2o$ 0-/% P$W$"$% dated /D< 0<01C.$ *e is also the Agent for Andhra Pradesh (o7ernment &onsignments and (o7ernment Sur7e+or$ he "e7elopment and Impro7ement wor8s at all the State Ports% consistent with need and trade at the Ports% is the responsibilit+ of the "irector$ /$ Port 'fficers Port 'fficers are the &onser7ators of the Ports as per Section C of Indian Ports Act% 01.D$ he Main functions and duties attached to the Port 'fficers are as follows9 < he+ shall be the registering officers under the Andhra Pradesh State Ports *arbour &raft Rules% 01D.$ he+ shall be the inspecting officers under sub<section 405 of section /-D and /DC of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act% 01;D$ he+ shall be the Shipping Masters as per the pro7isions of the Indian Merchant Shipping Act% 01;D and the instructions recei7ed from time to time from the Merchantile Marine "epartment shall be followed$ he+ shall be the Inspectors under section 4=5 of the !mplo+ment of &hildren Act% 01-D$ he+ shall be the Agents to the recei7er of the Wrec8s$ he+ shall be the drawing% disbursing and &ontrolling 'fficers for the Staff wor8ing under them and the Staff of the Ports under their jurisdiction$ 43ide ($'$Ms$2o$ -A;% P$W$"$% dated //<-<01=1 and ($'$Ms$2o$ =C1% P$W$"$% dated 0/<=<01C;$ he+ shall be the &hairman of the Port Ad7isor+ &ommittee originall+ created in ($'$Ms$2o$ 0=A=% P$W$"$ dated /=<1<01C. and e>tended from time to time$ he+ are required to frequentl+ e>amine the light apparatus and na7igational aids at the Ports and be responsible for their efficient up<8eep and maintenance$ he+ are also required to ma8e annual inspection of the Ports under their jurisdiction as well as the light houses of the Port "epartment situated therein and be responsible for their efficient up< 8eep$ he+ shall inspect the 3$*$H6R$ $ Stations at the Ports frequentl+ and be responsible for its maintenance$ he+ are responsible for loo8ing in to the dredging requirements at the Ports$ he Mechanical !ngineer and "redging Superintendent shall carr+ out of the dredging wor8 in close coordination with the Port 'fficers$ A dredging programme shall be drawn up annuall+ b+ the Port 'fficers and Mechanical !ngineer and "redging Superintendent and implemented as per requirements and a7ailabilit+ of funds$ 0.$ he+ shall allot the departmental launches and tugs at the Ports to the Shipping interests upon their requisition and collect re7enues thereon at the prescribed rates$ 00$ he+ shall control and regulate all the boat traffic within the Port limits in accordance with the *arbour craft rules and ensures safe na7igation$ 0/$ he+ shall allot the Port lands on annual licence s+stem for Marine Purposes collecting the prescribed rate of re7enues thereon$ 0-$ he+ shall allot the Port godowns and transit sheds to the Shipping interests for Marine purposes upon requisition b+ them and collects the re7enues thereon at the prescribed rates$ 0A$ he+ shall attend to pilotage duties as and when introduced and whene7er speciall+ ordered to do so b+ the "irector of State Ports$ 0;$ he+ are responsible to collect re7enues% 7arious items of Port &harges% as per the rules and regulations in force% from time to time and shall ensure that the re7enues so collected are remitted into the reasur+ promptl+ and within the time limits prescribed under rules to the appropriate heads of account of State (o7ernment and also to see the proper accounts for collection as well as remittances etc$% are maintained and proper receipts are issued to the parties from whom re7enues are collected and be responsible for the regular maintenance of the &ash Boo8$

@ The %ort Officers shall be the s"b,ect to the control of the Inter!ediate $ O 6s No A7, % ' D , dated 79-1-1281 !ade "nder r"le 8 #iv& of the Indian

A"thorit(, -ho is the Director of )tate %orts, Andhra %radesh 3a*inada as per %orts Act, 129A

-$ Superintending !ngineer 4Marine5

5e is responsible for the ad!inistrative control of the Engineering -ing of the Andhra %radesh %ort Depart!ent and !aintaining the %ort Infrastr"ct"re -ith the assistance of @ Exec"tive Engineers

A$ !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 ?a8inada and Machilipatnam *e is responsible for the Administrati7e &ontrol of the "i7ision and the Sub<"i7isions at ?a8inada and Machilipatnam ports$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is responsible for the e>ecution of all &i7il Wor8s both &apital and maintenance at all the Minor and Intermediate Ports of Andhra Pradesh State unless ordered otherwise b+ the "irector of State Ports$ *e is in charge of all the &i7il structures of the Andhra Pradesh Port "epartment$ It is the dut+ of the !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 to inspect &i7il Wor8s in his "i7ision% to satisf+ himself that the s+stem of management is efficient and economical% that the regulations as regards wor8s stoc8 and accounts are strictl+ obser7ed and that the e>ecuti7e and Administrati7e wor8 of the di7ision is satisfactoril+ performed$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is responsible that proper measures are ta8en to preser7e all the Marine structures and wor8s in his "i7ision$ *e must 8eep accurate plans for all Port lands in his "i7ision and ensure that his subordinates are acquainted with the boundaries$ All lands should be demarcated% where7er it has not been done and this wor8 should be carried<out b+ the subordinates of the "i7isions in consultation with the Port 'fficers concerned$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 should immediatel+ report to the S$!$ 4Marine5% an+ serious loss of immo7able propert+ caused b+ an+ accident or unusual occurance$ !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is prohibited from commencing an+ wor8 or e>pending an+ public funds% without the sanction of competent authorit+ or from ma8ing an+ other than trifling de7iations from sanction designs in the course of e>ecution% e>cept in case of emergenc+$ Immediatel+ on a wor8 being finished% it will be the dut+ of the !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 to close the accounts of it and to prepare the completion report$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 will submit his accounts punctuall+ to the audit office under the rules in force and will e>ercise efficient control o7er his "i7isional Account$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is responsible for the correctness of the original records of cash and stores% receipts and e>penditure% and for the submission of complete 7ouchers$ him$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is responsible that the accounts of his "i7ision are not allowed to fall into arrears% but if arrears or confusion arises which in his opinion can not be cleared without the assistance of Accountant (eneral% he should at once appl+ for such assistance$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 has a right to see8 the ad7ices of the Accountant (eneral in all matters connected with the accounts of his di7ision or the application of financial rules and orders concerning which there ma+ be an+ doubt$ It is usuall+ be desirable% howe7er% that he should first obtain the ad7ice of the "i7isional Accountant who is speciall+ trained for this dut+% and this should be done in writing in all cases of importance$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is responsible that the sur7e+ing and mathematical instruments in his di7ision are properl+ cared for% and will report on their condition to the "irector of State Ports at the end of each wor8ing season$ An+ injur+ to the instruments due to neglect or carelessness should be made good at the e>pense of the officer or subordinate responsible for the damage$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 is the drawing% disbursing and controlling officer for the staff wor8ing under him 4($'$Ms$2o$ -A;% P$W$"$% dated //<-<01=1 and ($'$Ms$2o$ =C1% dated 0/< =<01C;5$ he !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Marine5 shall e>ercise the powers 7ested with rele7ant codal pro7isions as ma+ be amended from time to time$ *e is 7ested with the same powers as the !>ecuti7e !ngineers of Public Wor8s "epartment$ he "i7isional Accountant is responsible for the correct compilation of the accounts from the data supplied to

;$ !>ecuti7e !ngineer 4Mechanical5 ?a8inada$ *e is responsible for administrati7e control of the Mechanical "i7ision and the Sub<"i7ision at ?a8inada besides the !lectrical staff allotted to this di7ision% and the Port Wor8shops at ?a8inada and Machilipatnam$ *e is responsible for the e>ecution of all Mechanical wor8s both capital and maintenance of all the Minor and Intermediate Ports of Andhra Pradesh State unless ordered otherwise b+ the "irector of State Ports$ *e is in<charge of all the floating craft and mechanical installations of the Port "epartment$ *e is 7ested with the same powers as the !>ecuti7e !ngineers of Public Wor8s "epartment and shall e>ercise the powers 7ested within the rele7ant codal pro7isions as ma+ be amended from time to time$ *e has to maintain the floating crafts of the department in good and seaworth+ condition$ *e has to arrange dredging programmes in consultation with the respecti7e Port 'fficers$ *e has to ensure that ma>imum out<put is maintained b+ the most economical methods$ *e has to be in<complete charge of the "epartmental Port wor8shops and ensure their proper maintenance etc$ *e is responsible for purchases and maintenance of the Marine Stores and proper maintenance of accounts etc$ within rele7ant codal pro7isions$ *e should immediatel+ report to the S$!$ 4Marine5 an+ serious loss of mo7eable and immo7able properties caused b+ an+ accident or unusual occurrence$ *e will submit the accounts punctuall+ to the audit office under the rule in force and will e>ercise efficient control o7er the "i7isional Accountant$ *e is responsible for the correctness of the original records of cash and stores% receipts and e>penditure and submission of complete 7ouchers$ he "i7isional Accountant is responsible for correct compilation of accounts from the date supplied to him$ arrears or confusion arises which in his opinion can not be cleared without the assistance of the Accountant (eneral% he should at once appl+ for such assistance$ accounts of his di7ision or the application of financial rules and orders concerning which there ma+ be an+ doubt$ It will usuall+ be desirable% howe7er% that he should first obtain the ad7ice of the "i7isional Accountant who is speciall+ trained for this dut+% and this should be done in writing in all cases of importance$ cared for% and will report on their condition to the S$!$ 4Marine5 at the end of each wor8ing season$ An+ injur+ to the instrument due to the neglect and carelessness should be made god at the e>pense of the officer or sub<ordinate responsible for the damage$ 4($'$Ms$2o$ -A;% P$W$"$% dt$% //<-<01=1 and ($'$Ms$2o$ =C1 dated0/<=<01C;$5$ =$ )abour 'fficer and Personal Assistant to the "irector of State Ports$ his 'fficer is generall+ deputed from the State )abour "epartment and of the &adre of "istrict )abour 'fficer$ *e shall be directl+ under the control of the "irector of State Ports and be responsible to him for the administration of Port "epartment% and assist the "irector of State Ports in all matters of administrati7e nature$ *e is responsible for attending to all labour problems arising at an+ of the Minor and Intermediate Ports of Andhra Pradesh and deal with such matters for obtaining amicable settlement% in consultation with the respecti7e Port 'fficer and if necessar+% with the "irector of State Ports

$ *e is responsible that the accounts of his di7ision are not allowed to fall into arrears% but if

$ *e has a right to see8 the ad7ice of the Accountant (eneral in all matters connected with the

$ *e is responsible that the sur7e+ing and mathematical instruments in his di7ision are properl+

$ *e is the drawing% disbursing and controlling officer for the staff wor8ing under him$

99 &AR(' *A2")I2( CAR$O SPECTRUM Ka0*nada An(;)rage P)rt< I! )rt,<

Murate of Potash Roc8 Phosphate Industrial Salt Urea &rude Palm 'il E5 )rt,<

Rice Wheat MaiGe So+a bean Meal So+a bean Retraction Rice bran !>traction Sand &ement

Ka0*nada Dee Aater P)rt

I! )rt,<

!dible 'ils P') 42aphthalene% *S"% S?"% Hurnace 'il5 &hemicals 4Phosphoric Acid% Sulphuric Acid5 (ases 4Ammonia5 "r+ &argo 4Wood Pulp% Machineries5 Project &argo 4'"&S and hea7+ lifts5 E5 )rt,<

Iron 're &ement &lin8er Minerals 4Bentonite% Heldspar5 L*g;terage<

&rude 'il$

CAR$O $ROAT# Ka0*nada An(;)rage P)rt Year N). O" S;* , 1B> /... /..0 1/ /../ =/ /../-A /..A < /..; 0;D /..; < /..= 01; /..= < /..C /;0 /..C < /..D /1D /..D < /..1 //D /..1 < /.0. 0//.0. < /.00 0/; Ka0*nada Dee Aater P)rt

Carg) 'In La0; T)nne,3 0; D /A 0D /D -D A. // D 00


N). O" S;* ,

Carg) 'In La0; T)nne,3

/... /..0 /../ /../..A /..; /..= /..C /..D /..1 /.0. /.00


0; 0D 0D -; ;= 0.; 0/D 0// 0/= 0A; 001 0.D

-0D ;.D ;C0 ;;; 0%0C= 0%-A0%-1D /%0A/ -%C;; /%DC= /%0CA

99 R!3!2U! !AR2I2(S

Kakinada Anchorage Port

Year /... /..0 /../ /../..A /..; /..= /..C < .D /..D < .1 /..1 < 0. /.0. < 00

A!)-nt 'In Cr)re,3 =$-A A$.-$.0 C$.A A$;= ;$== 0.$1= /.$.. 0=$DD 00$-0 0=$-C

Kakinada Deep Water Port


A!)-nt 'In Cr)re,3

/... /..0 /../ /../..A /..; /..=

00$.. 0=$.. A$;. C$C;$ 0A$/1 0C$.-

EC%ORT) 1 Al"!ini"! Roofing )heets 7 ;entonite @ /e!ent > /e!ent /lin*er : /igarettes B /onstr"ction 6aterial 8 /otton )eed Extractions A /otton )eed 6eal

2 /r"de oil #/oastal& 19 /r"she bones, har!s, hoofs 11 0eldspar 17 0ibre 1@ 0ish 6eal 1> 0r"it 4a! 1: 0r"it 4"ice 1B $ro"nd n"t Extractions 18 $ro"nd n"t 3ernal 1A $ro"nd n"t 6eal 12 Illepe Extractions 79 Ill"!inated )and 71 Iron Ore 77 6achine Tools 7@ 6ai+e 7> 6ango 3ernal Extractions 7: 6ango 3ernals 7B 6ica 78 Onions

>9 )and >1 )esa!e /a*e Extractions >7 )esa!e )eed Extractions >@ )oap Needles >> )orgh"! >: )o(a bean Extractions >B )o(a bean 0la*es >8 )o(a bean 6eal >A )tone D"st >2 )teel %ipes #$alvanised& :9 )"gar :1 )"nflo-er Extractions :7 )"nflo-er )eed :@ )"nflo-er )eed Extractions :> Tea :: Tipiaca /hips :B Tobacco :8 Topiaca dried /hips :A T"r!eric

7A Organic 6an"re 72 %al! 3ernal Extractions @9 %al!(rah 0ibre @1 %aper @7 Rape )eed Extractions @@ Rape )eed 6eal @> Red /hillies @: Rice @B Ricebran Extractions @8 )alseed Extractions @A )alseed Extractions #Dollet& @2 )alseed %ellets

:2 'heat B9 'heat ;ran B1 'heat 0lo"r

=/$ #ellow &orn

B@ Dello- 6ai+e

=A$ 'rganic Manure =;$ Project Material


1 A!!oni"! )"lphate

7 /e!ent

@ /r"de %al! Oil

> DA%

: 0ertili+er of all *inds

B 5 %3

8 Ind"strial )alt

A L %$

2 6O%

19 N % 3

11 %al! 3ernals

17 %eas

1@ %otassi"! /hloride

1> Rape )eed

1: Ra- Rice ;ran

1B R;D %al!olein

18 Rice

1A Roc* %hosphate

12 )olar /o!!on )alt

79 ) O %

71 )o(abean )eed

77 )"gar

7@ )"lphate of %otash

7> )"nflo-er Oil

7: Tea

7B .rea

78 'heat

99 HU UR! "!3!)'PM!2 S PR'P'SA)S H'R "!3!)'PM!2 'H ?A?I2A"A A2&*'RA(! P'R

The Anchorage %ort "nder control of $overn!ent of Andhra %radesh is handling at present abo"t 7 9 6illion Tonnes of /argo per ann"! The %ort has re<"isite bac*"p infrastr"ct"re s"ch as 'harvesE4etties, Transit )heds Open stac* (ards and other a!enities li*e 'ater and %o-er s"ppl(, Road and Rail lin*s The reven"e earnings of the %ort are !ainl( fro! %ort d"es, LF) d"es Registration and Rene-al fees fro! steel bargesEfishing boats Rentals on depart!ental godo-ns, T )heds and %ort lands To enhance the reven"e of the %ort Depart!ent, the existing cargo handling capacit( of the %ort has to be increased 0or this, vario"s !eas"res are to be ta*en "p To *no- the exact !eas"res to be ta*en "p for enhancing the cargo handling capacit( of the %ort and there b( its reven"e, it is necessar( to criticall( anal(se existing infrastr"ct"re so as to s"ggest steps to be ta*en "p

Hor this a detailed project report on the e>isting infrastructure and steps to be ta8en up for enhancing the cargo handling capacit+ is to -$;
6illion tones is presented in detail as belo- :


I$ S A US 'H W*AR3!S 9 4A$5 BURMA* S*!)) W*ARH 0$ )ength of the Wharf /$ #ear of &onstruction 9 0.. Mts$ 9 2ot 8nown 4App>$ ;. +ears bac85

-$ +pe of &onstruction A$ Status of Wharf ;$ +pe of cargo handled

B %resent pattern of allot!ent 'harf to shippers

9 "esign particulars not 8nown% R$&$&$ piled structures with hard surfaced bac8up area$ 9 Manual operations
: Exports #baggage&:- Rice,'heat, 6ai+e, Rice bran, /e!ent, )o(a beans, )"gar, : Allot!ent is based on first co!e first serve

C$ Problems in Mechanical

9 "ue to pressure from shippers handling Mechanical handling was permitted since 011; b+ placing steel plates underneath the proclainers for uniform distribution of load up to safe limits$ Inspite of all precautions% the area adjacent towharf sun8 b+ about A.&ms$ *ence% Mechanical operations stopped and at present manual operations are going on$

A Extent of availabilit( of stac*ing area behind

the 'harf

9 -%... Sq$Mts$ of hard surfaced area$ 9 - Barges of A.. simultaneousl+$ $ capacit+ can be handled

1$ 2o$ of barges can be andled on this Wharf

19 Rate of handling H !an"al 11 5o- to i!prove the efficienc(

9 0. *ours6barge of A.. $ 9 he wharf is used at present for e>port cargo b+ manual means$ Hor using the wharf for import cargo% the wharf is to be fficienc+$
- ;( Introd"cing 6echanical operations - ;( /onstr"cting five loading platfor!s of si+e @7 6ts x A 6ts - ;( Increasing the bac*"p area for stac*ing the cargo If i!port cargo is per!itted the follo-ing cargo can be handled : .rea,DA% #Dia!!oni"! %hosphate&, 6O% #6"rate of %otash&,Ind"strial )alt, Roc* %hosphate each

strengthenedand following mpro7ing cargo

measures are to be dopted for

4B5$ 2!W P'R AR!A W*ARH 0$ )ength of the Wharf /$ #ear of &onstruction -$ +pe of &onstruction 9 =0- Mts$
: The 'harf /onstr"cted in different spells starting fro! 1289 to 12A: as a part of develop!ent sche!e "nder plan grant : The /onstr"ction of 'harf co!prised driving of contin"o"s R// interloc*ing sheet piles

driven "pto #-& A 2: 6ts These piles have been anchored b( !eans of anchor piles The area behind the 'harf is filled "p -ith the sea sand, gravel and hard s"rfaced at the top

A$ Status of Wharf

: The 'harf is designed to ta*e a s"rcharge load of 7 T E6I and thereb( its "sage is restricted to the !an"al operations "pto 1> 6ts ;ehind the 'harf Rest of Rail-a( siding and 'harf is to be "sed for !ove!ent of tr"c*s the area in bet-een the

;$ +pe of cargo handled

: #a& Exports #;( 6an"al& Rice, loading platfor! H )and

6ai+e, Rice bran, /e!ent,

'heaT, )o(a bean At

#b& I!ports - At loading %latfor!s Ind"strial )alt B %resent pattern of allot!ent of 'harf to shippers

.rea, 6O% # 6"rate of %otash& %otassi"! /hloride

Roc* %hosphate,

DA% #Dia!!oni"! %hosphate&

9 Based on the a7ailabilit+% on first come first ser7e basis% and as per shippers requirement$ 9 As the 0A M$ long bac8up areabehind the wall could not ta8e the load be+ond / 6MW$% the facilit+ is restricted to manual operations onl+ nd the proclainers are not permitted because of its limitations to operate hea7+ machines on it$ o o7ercome this difficult+ and to increase the rate of handling the argo b+ mechanical means% three umber of platforms were onstructed during 0/6/../ pposite to <Sheds A% B @ & long the

8 %roble!s in 6echanical handling

Wharf Wall in 2ew Port rea$

A )tac*ing area behind the 'harf : )tac*ing of an( !aterials are not allo-ed behind the 'harf "p to 1> 6ts ;e(ond 1> 6ts the area available is being "sed for pl(ing of lorries for loading and "nloading of cargo to barges as -ell as to rail-a( -agons and Transit sheds 2 No of barges can be loading handled on this'harf : In the area available for three platfor!s @ ;arges can be handled at a ti!e for i!ports In the rest of the area, 1> Nos of barges can be handled at a ti!e for I!ports EExports

0.$ Rate of handling

11 5o- to i!prove the efficienc(

: #a& 6an"al - 19 ho"rs E barge of #b& 6echanical H : ho"rs E barge : - ;( introd"cing 6echanical

>99 T of >99 T

operations loading platfor!s of si+e

- ;( constr"cting three additional @7 6ts x A 6ts each

0/$ )imitations

: At present !ost of the cargo handled in Ne- %ort Area is export cargo The export cargo are Rice, 6ai+e, 'heat, )o(a ;ean, /e!ent, Rice ;ran These The baggaged /rgo are handled cargoes are baggaged cargoes Roc* %hosphate,

b( !an"al i!port cargoes s"ch as

Ind"strial )alt, 0ertili+ers are b"l* cargoes, and these cargoes cannot be handled in Ne- %ort Area, -here alread( ediblecargo baggaged cargoes are handled so to prevent conta!ination of

4&5$ MA 0$ )ength of the Wharf /$ #ear of &onstruction -$ +pe of &onstruction A$ Status of Wharf ;$ +pe of cargo handled
B %resent pattern of allot!ent of 'harf to 8 %roble!s in 6echanical handling

I P'') W*ARH
: T-o -harves of length >> 6 and 78 6ts

9 2ot 8nown 4App>$ ;. +ears bac85

: Design partic"lars not *no-n, R / / piled str"ct"res -ith hard s"rfaced bac*"p area : 6an"al operations : 6ostl( I!port /argo - Roc* phosphate and Ind"strial )alt shippers : Allot!ent is based first serve basis : 'harves -ere constr"cted long bac*, Technical designs are not available In the absence of technical details, safet( of the str"ct"re cannot anal(sed for allo-ing !echanical operations

A )tac*ing area behind the 'harf 2 No of barges can be handled on this 'harf

9 ;%... Sq$Mts$ of hard surfaced area$

: @ ;arges of >99 T capacit( : 19 5o"rsEbarge : - ;( introd"cing 6echanical - ;( constr"cting three loading @7 6ts x A 6ts each operations platfor!s of si+e can handled si!"ltaneo"sl(

0.$ Rate of handling

11 5o- to i!prove the efficienc(

0/$ )imitations

: The area falls o"t side I)%) /o!po"nd 'all 0or developing this 'harf separate %eri!eter 'all is to be constr"cted

99 'UR 3ISI'2 he minor ports of Andhra Pradesh Port "epartment handled 0; Million onnes of &argo during /..; and is the / nd *ighest &argo handling State in Union India$ he A$P$ State has prepared a perspecti7e de7elopment plan in its 7ision /./. document for de7elopment of Ports according to which ;. Million onnes of &argo b+ /..1 and 0C- Million programmed to handle onnes of &argo b+ /./. is

(ranite Bloc8s
'e are <"er( o-ners? representative in 3ari!nagar 3ari!nagar is -orld fa!o"s for $ranite -ith (o"r $eologistE 6ar*er 'e offer fresh $ranite ;loc*s infront of (o" fro! o"r !ines and ;loc*s- Tan ;ro-n /olo"r, 6aple Red /olo"r, ;lac* /olo"r Do" are !ost -elco!e to visit India along friend !ines 'e also give !axi!"! allo-ance "p to 79 c! in c"bic !eter 3ari!nagar is 1:9 *!

fro! 5(derabad 0ro! 5ongong to 5(derabad it is B ho"rs ,o"rne( on flight, If (o" are interested to b"( o"r bloc*s, O"r representative -ill co!e and escort (o" fro! 5(derabad airport till 3ari!anagar hotel 'e can also arrange /hinese food, /hinese translation and other facilities 'e !a*e (o"r 5otel, !ine visit, selection of bloc*s, transportation fro! !ine to 3a*inada port, export for!alities, loading on the ship and other -or* for (o" Reg"lar vessels of %.D GA)5, $)T etc , are available fro! 3a*inada to Cia!en and )hib" ports O"r rates are cheaper b( 19-79J than (o"r local prices of si!ilar ;loc*s

he southern India holds a major mar8et share of granite bloc8s e>ports to &hina% aiwan% Lapan and Ital+ and out of the total 7olume china ta8es about D.K$ 'ut of 0$; million tons per +ear to the far eastern ports% 0$/ million tons are handled b+ A$S$S*IPPI2( as brea8<bul8 cargo$ &ustomiGed infrastructure with all mechanical de7ices ha7e been created b+ the compan+ at 'ngole in Andhra Pradesh to efficientl+ handle the orerations$ With regard to !>port of (ranite Bloc8s to 7arious destinations% A$S$Shipping AgenciesPri7ate )imited% has Stoc8+ards at the following places 7iG$% Suraredd+ Palem Railwa+ +ard% A$P$% 2umbal (ranite Stoc8+ard% &hennai% "oc8+ard inside &hennai *arbour% (ranite Stoc8+ard at 3isa8hapatnam% A$P$ @ the (ranite Stoc8+ard at ?a8inada "eep Sea Port% A$P$ 'ur &ustomerFs can choose their nearest Stoc8+ards% whereb+ the+ can cut down on their ransportation% handling and the most important being the time sa7ed with respect to ransportation of Rough Bloc8s from Xuarries to the Stoc8+ards for !>port$

Mo7ement of (ranite Bloc8s are also carried out through Railwa+ Wagons from Suraredd+ Palem @ ?arim 2agar to &hennai @ ?a8inada Ports$ otal logistic support is pro7ided to our customers from the mines to the final destination$ 'ur ser7ices include loading and unloading at the mine site% road6rail transportation% loading of cargo into the ship and ocean freight forwarding to the destination from chennai$ o destinations li8e Bang8o8% Port ?elang% Shangai% 2orthern !urope and Australia% where brea8<bul8 ser7ice is not feasible% granite bloc8s are containerised and mo7ed$ o containerise the bloc8s% equipments with e>clusi7e facilities ha7e been created at our chennai &HS and we handle about =.. teus per mont

Brea8 Bul8 )iner

'e are the Agents in India for $en )hipping %acific %te Ltd , based in )ingapore

A 0leet of )even 6"ltip"rpose )hips of 1A:99 D'T are operational and the( are 0itted -ith 5eav( $ear to handle "p to 179 6T Lifting /apacit(

'e can handle an( T(pe E Gol"!e of /argo ranging fro! Ro"gh $ranite ;loc*s, /rates, )*ids, ;ales, ;"ndles, either in %ac*ed or in .npac*ed /ondition

All the Gessels are fitted -ith T'EEN-DE/3 to facilitate the handling of Over Di!ension /argo


We !>port (ranite Bloc8s on behalf of Shippers in Brea8 Bul8 to Har<!ast Ports li8e OIAM!2% *'2(?'2(% S*I*U% etc$% (ranite Bloc8s are e>ported b+ us through other line 7essels also to MARI2A "I &ARRARA% A2 W!RP% *UA)I!2% PASAL!S% 3I(' and other !uropean Ports$ More than 1.K of (ranite Bloc8s which are e>ported to Har< !ast &ountries are onl+ through us$

Apart from &hennai we are arranging shipments of (ranite Bloc8s from ?a8inada @ 3iGag ports also$ At &hennai Port our 7essels are a7ailable thorough out the +ear for shipment$

'n an a7erage 0.%..%... M of granite bloc8s are e>ported as Brea8 Bul8 &argo through us$

'n an a7erage we handle =... containers of (ranite Bloc8s in a +ear$

Apart from the brea8 bul8 ser7ices% we are also pro7iding &@H agenc+ for shipment of (ranite Bloc8s and (ranitefinished Products which are

containeriGed @ !>ported to all destinations of the world$

Granite Yard

YY Pre7ious

2e>t ZZ

Product Specification
In order to cater to the varied re<"ire!ents of o"r val"ed patrons, -e have constr"cted a capacio"s $ranite Dard This (ard is constr"cted in seg!ented for! so as to ens"re a safe and categorical arrange!ent of granite stone 0"rther!ore, -e have installed vario"s hi-tech !achines in o"r (ard to load and transport large bloc*s of stone in an efficient and safe !anner Additionall(, o"r $ranite Dard is constr"cted in co!pliance -ith all set reg"lations of this field


5ighl( spacio"s )ophisticated !achines

)egregated constr"ction

Act Stock Yard

2e>t ZZ Product Specification

'e have developed a highl( capacio"s Act )toc* Dard This (ard is constr"cted in segregated for! so as to ens"re that so"rced act stoc* is stored in an organi+ed !anner 'e also !a*e s"re that o"r (ard has all re<"ired safet( g"idelines This is done to !a*e s"re that !aterial as -ell as o"r -or*ing personnel re!ain in safe condition Adding to this, -e have installed so!e highl( sophisticated !achines in o"r Act )toc* Dard so as to transit the !aterial in safest possible !anner

Graniet oading

YY Pre7ious

2e>t ZZ

Product Specification
0o"nded in the (ear 122B, -e are one of the !ost rep"ted organi+ations engaged in rendering $raniet Loading service These

services are offered b( o"r professionals in accordance -ith set reg"lations of this do!ain 'e have been follo-ing all prevailing safet( policies -hile rendering these services Other than this, -e "se opti!"! grade hi-tech !achines to exec"te these services In order to attain "t!ost satisfaction of o"r patrons, -e have been exec"ting $raniet Loading service at highl( co!petitive price

!>ports are 8e+ to the economic sur7i7al of a nation

$ !>ports not onl+ help a countr+ earn

foreign e>change% the+ help create jobs% peace% prosperit+% and the power to influence$

o be successful in e>porting and importing% it helps to 8now wh+ so man+ e>port and import businesses do not succeed$ Success cannot be rushed b+ high hopes$ Rather% it comes incrementall+$ he success of an e>port business is often attributed to luc8$ Wor8 harder and there wil!>ports l be more luc8$ he e>port success of aiwan% &hina% Lapan% South ?orea% (erman+ and other e>ports countries not a miracle% it is the result of hard wor8$ he business miracle will not happen without wor8ing hard$ *owe7er% success cannot be rushed b+ hard wor8$ he e7ents in a large number of e>port offices worldwide are comparable to the e7ents in a football game$ It is not unusual to see colleagues 8ic8ing responsibilities bac8 and forth% just li8e football pla+ers do the ball$ It is important that emplo+eesF responsibilities are clearl+ spelled out and that s+stems of operation are fle>ible in order to accommodate the rapidl+ changing needs of world mar8ets$

"angers of Imbalance in International rade

rade surplus deficit

<<< fa7orable balance of trade

<<<is an e>cess of e>ports o7er imports$rade <<<is an e>cess of imports o7er e>ports$ In la+personFs

<<< unfa7orable balance of trade

parlance% the trade surplus means earn more and spend less% while the trade deficit means spend more and less$ he trade surplus and deficit is analogous to one personFs fortune is another personFs misfortune$ he danger is imminent in either situation$ A countr+ with a record trade surplus is often threatened with sanctions and trade barriers from a deficit<ridden importing countr+$ A countr+ with a record trade deficit is usuall+ faced with the internal social uphea7al$ he imposition of trade barriers% such as import quotas and higher duties% is meeting the international challenge$ he trade barrier will be confronted with a trade retaliation$ A trade retaliation will be faced with a counter<retaliation$ agreement is not reached$ he conflict will not end if an he remed+ to beat the trade imbalance is to understand foreign

a solution not to

cultures and business practices% and to pro7ide competiti7e products and ser7ices$ It is a good practice to di7ersif+ e>port mar8ets$ &oncentrating e>ports to onl+ a few mar8ets poses imminent danger to an e>porting countr+$ oo much e>port concentration in a mar8et usuall+can imposes people in7ites sanctions% be de7astating$ protectionist the effecttrade to the laws econom+ from the of the importing e>porting countr+$ countr+ In case and the theli7elihood importing of countr+ its

P'R &*AR(!S at ?A?I2A"A A2&*'RA(! P'R )A2"I2( H!!S Sl$2o$ 405 0 / A ; &ommodit+ 4/5 HertiliGers all 8inds in bags or bul8 Roc8 Phosphate in bul8 &ement in bags6&ement &lin8er Rice in bags or bul8 P sugar schedule = C D 1 0. 4other than passengers @ SeamenEs Boat load 0 &M 0 &M 0... )ts =1$.. 0-/$.. -;$.. =1$.. Unit of &harges 4-5 M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons$ M$ ons Rates Hi>ed Rs$ Ps$ 4A5 /1$.. /1$.. /-$.. /1$.. /1$..

Articles or goods not specificall+ enumerated in the M$ ons baggage% ship pro7isions and stores5 &anal Borne cargo and6or passengers imber or Bamboos in rafts 4canal borne traffic5 )iquified Petroleum (as Steel Pipes &rude 'il

Rft$ 'f 0. Sq$m or part thereof =1$..

S*IPPI2( H!!S Sl$2o$ 405 0 / A ; = C D 1 0. &ommodit+ 4/5 XuartG% (+psum% Pig Iron and all other ores in bul8 Heldspar% (ranite Stones6Bloc8s &oal &o8ing &oal% )am &oal% Steam &oal hermal &oal Rice Bran% &rushed bines% *orns% *oofs% Palm+ra Hiber (roundnut ?ernels Rice in bags or bul8 4other than passengers @ SeamenEs baggage% ship pro7isions and stores5 00 0/ 00A Illuminated sand obacco &anal Borne cargo and6or passengers imber or Bamboos in rafts 4canal borne traffic5 M$ ons Ad7alorem Boat )oad /;$.. .$0/K =1$.. M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons M$ ons /1$.. -;$.. /1$.. /1$.. /1$.. /1$.. /1$.. /1$.. /1$.. Unit of &harges 4-5 Rate Hi>ed Rs$ Ps$ 4A5 /-$..

Iron 're% Manganese 're% Herro Manganese Slag% Bar+tes M$ ons

Articles or goods not specificall+ enumerated in the schedule M$ ons

Rft$ 'f 0. Sq$m$ or=1$..


Anal+sis patttern9 he nature of the project is of the subjecti7e nature so for the anal+sis of the a7ailable data% the use 7arious statistical and mathematical and graphical techniques was not required$ here were no additional statistical and technical tool were considered for suitabilit+ of the procedure @ problem in order to achie7e the desire objecti7e$ he stud+ was of the qualitati7e aspect not the quantitati7e$ All the data was collected through inter7iews a secondar+ data so not tool were used


I2 !R2A I'2A) &'MM!R&IA) !RMS


!> Wor8s Hree Alongside Ship Hree &arrier Hree 'n Board &ost and Hreight 4 he former acron+m of &ost and Hreight was &@H 5

&IH &IP &P "AH ""P ""U "!X "!S Incoterms published b+ or

&ost% Insurance and Hreight &arriage and Insurance Paid o &arriage Paid o "eli7ered At Hrontier "eli7ered "ut+ Paid "eli7ered "ut+ Unpaid "eli7ered !> Xua+ "eli7ered !> Ship international commercial terms International &hamber of &ommerce

are a series of international sales terms%

4I&&5 and widel+ used in international

commercial transactions$ he+ are used to di7ide transaction costs and responsibilities between bu+er and seller and reflect state<of<the<art transportation practices

(roup H B Main carriage unpaid

H&A B Hree &arrier 4named place5 he seller hands o7er the goods% cleared for e>port% into the custod+ of the first carrier 4named b+ the bu+er5 at the named place$ his term is suitable for all modes of transport% including carriage b+ air% rail% road% and containeriGed 6 multi<modal transport$ HAS B free alongside Ship 4named loading port5 he seller must place the goods alongside the ship at the named port$ he seller must clear the goods for e>portI this changed in the /... 7ersion of the Incoterms$ Suitable for maritime transport onl+$ H'B B Hree on board 4named loading port5 he seller must load the goods on board the ship nominated b+ the bu+er% cost and ris8 being di7ided at shipFs rail$ he seller must clear the goods for e>port$ Maritime transport onl+$ It also includes Air transport when the seller is not able to e>port the goods on the schedule time mentioned in the letter of credit$ In this case the seller allows a deduction of sum equi7alent to the carriage b+ ship from the air carriage$ (roup & B Main carriage paid

&HR or &2H B &ost and Hreight 4named destination port5 Seller must pa+ the costs and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination$ *owe7er% ris8 is transferred to the bu+er once the goods ha7e crossed the shipFs rail$ Maritime transport onl+$ &IH B &ost% Insurance and Hreight 4named destination port5 !>actl+ the same as &HR e>cept that the seller must in addition procure and pa+ for insurance for the bu+er$ Maritime transport onl+$ &P B &arriage Paid o 4named place of destination5 he general6containeriGed6multimodal equi7alent of &HR$ he seller pa+s for carriage to the named point of destination% but ris8 passes when the goods are handed o7er to the first carrier$ &IP B &arriage and Insurance Paid 4 o5 4named place of destination5 he containerised transport6multimodal equi7alent of &IH$ Seller pa+s for carriage and insurance to the named destination point% but ris8 passes when the goods are handed o7er to the first carrier$ (roup " B Arri7al

"AH B "eli7ered At Hrontier 4named place5 his term can be used when the goods are transported b+ rail and road$ he seller pa+s for transportation to and the named place of deli7er+ at from the frontier$ he bu+er arranges for he "!S Be"eli7ered customs passing !> ofclearance Ship ris8 occurs 4named at port5 the pa+s frontier$ for transportation the frontier to his factor+$

Where goods are deli7ered e> ship% the passing of ris8 does not occur until the ship has arri7ed at the named port of destination and the goods made a7ailable for unloading to the bu+er$ he seller pa+s the same freight and insurance costs as he would under a & IH arrangement$ Unli8e &HR and &IH terms% the seller has agreed to bear not just cost% but also Ris8 and itle up to the arri7al of the 7essel at the named port$ &osts for unloading the goods and an+ duties% ta>es% etc are the Bu+er$ A commonl+ used term in shipping bul8 commodities% such as coal% grain% dr+for chemicals < < and where the seller either owns or has chartered% their own 7essel$ "!X B "eli7ered !> Xua+ 4named port5 his is similar to "!S% but the passing of ris8 does not occur until the goods ha7e been unloaded at the port of destination$ ""U B "eli7ered "ut+ Unpaid 4named destination place5 his term means that the seller deli7ers the goods to the bu+er to the named place of destination in the contract of sale$ he goods are not cleared for import or unloaded from an+ form of transport at the place of destination$ he bu+er is responsible for the costs and ris8s for the unloading% dut+ and an+ subsequent deli7er+ be+ond the place of destination$ *owe7er% if the bu+er wishes the seller to bear cost and ris8s associated with the import clearance% dut+% unloading and subsequent deli7er+ be+ond the place of destination% then this all needs to be e>plicitl+ agreed upon in the contract of sale$ ""P B "eli7ered "ut+ Paid 4named destination place5 his term means that the seller pa+s for all transportation costs and bears all ris8 until the goods ha7e been deli7ered and pa+s the dut+$ Also used interchangeabl+ with the term [Hree "omicile[$ he most comprehensi7e term for the bu+er$ In most of the importing countries% ta>es such as 4but not limited to5 3A and e>cises should not be considered prepaid being handled as a [refundable[ ta>$ herefore 3A and e>cises usuall+ are not representing a direct cost for the importer since the+ will be reco7ered against the sales on the local 4domestic5 mar8et$


Chapter-7 S Suggestions& Conclusion

S!gge"tion" he management has to loo8 after and assign tas8s to its emplo+ees from time to time so that things ma+ mo7e faster he 'rganisation ma+ pro7ide training and de7elopment programs for the e>isting emplo+ees to de7elop professional s8ills and talents he 'rganisation has greater scope for increasing its e>ports b+ e>porting more quantities$

#onc$!"ion he 'rganisation is howe7er successful in carr+ing on its business operations$ It mar8ed impro7ement in its performance o7er the +ears$ here is e7en greater scope for e>panding its trade acti7ities ma8ing a remar8able e>cellence in its field of business$ It has been pro7ed to be successful in achie7ing its objecti7es and fulfilling its functions effecti7el+$

Chapter-8 Bibliography

B*14*)gra ;2 0$ Information ta8en from the web sites of 9 ?A?I2A"A Seaports 4 www$8a8inadaseaports$in5 A2"*RA P'R S 4www$andhraports$com5 /$ Manual of !>port "ocumentation b+ P$3eeraredd+ @ P$ Mamatha Q &ommercial )aw Publications India Pri7ate )imited R -$ !>port B Polic+% Procedures @ "ocumentation b+ M$I$Majan Q Snow White Publications Pri7ate )imited R