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When a moving circle rolls around a stationary circle, a point on the moving circle traces an interesting curve related to the cycloid. If it rolls around the outside, the curve an epicycloid. If it rolls on the inside, the curve is a hypocycloid.

1. Open the Geometric page of Epicycloid.gsp in the folder Supplemental Activities | Epicycloid. This page contains a completed geometric construction of an epicycloid. The value r1 is the radius of the stationary circle, r2 is the radius of the moving circle, and cycles controls the number of times the moving circle goes around the stationary circle before returning to the home position. Edit these values to check your answers to the questions below. Q1 What conditions must be true in order to form a closed curve in only one cycle? Q2 What is a general rule for determining how many cycles are needed to close the curve? Q3 What happens when a negative value is entered for r2? In the rest of this activity, you will define parametric functions to describe an epicycloids or a hypocycloid. You will center the stationary circle on the origin, start the moving circle on the right, and start the traced point at the point of tangency. To determine the parametric functions, you will add two vectors: v1 from the origin to the center of the moving circle, and v2 from the center of the moving circle to the point being traced. 2. Open the Parametric page of Epicycloid.gsp.

6

A

v2

v1

-2 There are two pairs of parametric functions: x1() and y1() to represent v1 and x2() and y2() to represent v2. All four functions are defined as zero for now. A third pair of functions, x() and y(), is the sum of the other two. You will use measurement as the parameter, with its value ranging from 0 to 2 times the number of cycles.

Q4 What are the coordinates of center point A in the following image? Express your answer in terms of r1, r2, and . Use your answer to define x1() and y1().

Exploring Precalculus with The Geometers Sketchpad 2005 Key Curriculum Press

6 B A

T r1

r2 P

O -2 C 5

Radius AB is horizontal, and represents the position of radius AP when the motion started. With respect to the center of the moving circle, point P has moved through an angle of , the measure of BAP. To define the parametric functions for v2 (from A to P), you need to know this angle in terms of . Q5 Explain why the measure of BAT is equal to . Recall this convenient fact about radian angle measurement: (arc length) = (radius)(central angle)

in terms of and r1, Q6 Using this formula for arc length, express the length of TC in terms of mTAP and r2. and the length of TP

must be equal in length. Use that fact to express mTAP and TP Q7 Notice that TC

in terms of , r1, and r2. What is in terms of , r1, and r2? To define vector v2 (from A to P), consider a coordinate system with its origin at point A.

Q8 In this coordinate system, what is the x-coordinate of point P in terms of and r2? Use your answer to Q7 to express this result in terms of , r1, and r2. Similarly, write an expression for the y-coordinate of P.

y

r2

P

3. Edit the function definitions for x2() and y2() to match the expressions in Q8.

The calculations appear as x(theta) and y(theta).

4. Calculate the values of x() and y(). Plot these coordinates and label the plotted point P. Press the Animate button and observe the motion of the plotted point.

PRESENT

The driver point is originally hidden. Use the Show driver button to show it.

5. Draw the epicycloid by tracing the plotted point while the animation continues. 6. To construct the epicycloid as a locus, select the driver point and the plotted point. Then choose Construct | Locus. 7. To complete the picture, construct a circle with radius r1, centered on the origin. Construct another with radius r2, centered on point A. (You will have to plot point A. Remember that x1() and y1() represent the coordinates of A.)

Exploring Precalculus with The Geometers Sketchpad 2005 Key Curriculum Press

8. Using the text tool, present the definition of the curve as a single pair of parametric functions.

EXPLORE MORE

A related curve is the epitrochoid. In this case, the traced point moves with the moving circle, but instead of being on the circumference of the circle, it is either inside or outside of the circle. When the moving circle is inside the stationary one, the curve is called a hypotrochoid. Try to construct these curves by editing the sketch that you just completed. Examples of each are shown below.

The curves generated by the educational toy Spirograph fall into these families.

Exploring Precalculus with The Geometers Sketchpad 2005 Key Curriculum Press

Objective: Students apply the concept of vector addition to define parametric functions for epicycloids and hypocycloids. Prerequisites: Students should have a good understanding of parametric functions, radian angle measurement, elementary trigonometry, and vector addition. Sketchpad Proficiency: Intermediate. A partially completed sketch has been provided in order to save time. Students edit functions and perform some simple constructions, such as plotting points and constructing a locus. Class Time: 4050 minutes for the basic construction and presentation. Some students will be able to pursue the Explore More section. Required Sketch: Epicycloid.gsp Example Sketch: Epicycloid Work.gsp Although the construction of the epicycloid is very similar to that of the cycloid, the calculations are considerably more challenging. Students first examine a completed geometric epicycloid construction. This gives them a clear picture of the curve before beginning their own work. Q1 The epicycloids will close in one cycle only if r2 divides r1. Q2 The number of cycles needed to close the curve is LCM(r1,r2)/r1. If the radii are not commensurable, the curve will not close for any finite number of cycles. Q3 If r2 is negative, the curve becomes a hypocycloid. Q4 The coordinates of center point A are x1() = (r1 + r2)cos y1() = (r1 + r2)sin Q5 Various explanations are possible. One explanation is based on the fact that segments OC and AB are parallel, and that and BAT are alternate interior angles formed by transversal OA . Q6 mTC = r1 ,and mTP = r2 mTAP

Q7 r mTAP = r 2 1 mTAP = r1 r2

r1 + r2 r2

= + mTAP =

Q8 Be careful here, because the angle is measured from the negative x-axis, not the positive.

x2 ( ) = r2 cos = r2 cos

r

1

+ r2 r2

+ r2 r2

y 2 ( ) = r2 sin = r2 sin

PRESENT

The presentation should include a clear statement of the compound parametric functions:

x ( ) = r1

+ r ) cos

2

r2 cos

r

1

+ r2 r2 + r2 r2

y ( ) = r1

+ r ) sin

2

r2 sin

EXPLORE MORE

There are several approaches to construct an epitrochoid. One solution is to create a parameter or a slider controlling a ratio. Multiply functions x2 and y2 by the ratio. In the parametric functions below, k is the new ratio.

x ( ) = r1

+ r ) cos

2

kr2 cos

r

1

+ r2 r2 + r2 r2

y ( ) = r1

+ r ) sin

2

kr2 sin

Exploring Precalculus with The Geometers Sketchpad 2005 Key Curriculum Press

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