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CHAPTER 7: LEARNING Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential caused by reinforced practice and experience Change

ge must be relatively enduring Behavioral change may or may not be immediately observed Exceptions attributed by learning: 1. Maturation 2. Fatigue 3. Motivation 4. Evolution A. Behavioral Learning 1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Introduced by IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV is a behavioral theory on learning which asserts that our behaviors are changed using manipulation of stimuli

As a result, the NEUTRAL STIMULUS becomes the CONDITIONED STIMULUS, classically conditioned to produce a CONDITIONED RESPONSE Contiguity how close together in time are the US and CS presented (should be simultaneous) Contingency the degree to which the US is presented must be consistent Stimulus Discrimination occurs when you only produce the CR at the very situation you were conditioned or to the exact CS you were conditioned to Ex: fear of reciting Stimulus Generalization you perform the same CR to all other stimuli that are even slightly similar to the original CS. Ex: fear of recitation in general 2. OPERANT CONDITIONING Introduced by BURRHUS FREDRICK SKINNER Change in behavior is due to reinforcement and punishment which are consequences after our response to either encourage or discourage age their recurrence SKINNER BOX

Unconditioned Stimulus - the environmental condition that naturally causes a response Unconditioned Response - the natural response elicited CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OCCURS WHEN A NEUTRAL STIMULUS is paired or presented simultaneously with an UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS then it will result to the neutral stimulus adopting the power of the unconditioned stimulus to produce the same response

Shaping the learning process of teaching an animal to produce responses towards a final desired behavior by giving rewards to those that are closer and closer to the target response

Reinforcement a desirable and pleasing situation that transpires after a response to increase the likelihood of its relative permanence Primary reinforcer a positive consequence that reinforces the response by satisfying a biological need (hunger, thirst, etc.) Secondary reinforcer is associated with primary reinforcers. This indirectly satisfies your needs Generalized reinforcer Satisfaction and encourages behavior by just its acquisition (eg. Money) Positive Reinforcers These are encouraging consequences after a desirable kind of behavior (ex. Rewards) Negative Reinforcers Removal of undesirable consequences Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Characterized by giving reinforcers consistently every single time a desirable behavior is manifested Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcers are given partially or at certain non-continuous patterns. May be based on: 1. Time (interval) 2. Behavior (ratio) 3. Constant (fixed) 4. Changing (variable) Fixed interval schedule Reinforcement given at specific and constant periods of time Variable interval schedule Characterized by giving reinforcers at changing and inconsistent periods of time

Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcers are consistently introduced after a constant number or patterns of behavior Variable ratio schedule Followed whenever you provide reinforcers at changing number of patterns of behavior Punishment An unpleasant or unfavorable consequence given after a bad behavior which aims to dissuade such negative behavior from recurring Positive Punishment Involves adding or inflicting stimuli as a consequence of undesirable behavior (ex. Spanking) Negative Punishment Removal or wanted and pleasurable stimulus to weaken misbehavior PUNISHMENT Teaches aggressive behavior Unable to correct behavior in a given situation Ineffective at producing behavior change Operant Conditioning DISCRIMINATION Responding to only specific reinforcement or punishment Operant Conditioning GENERALIZATION Responding to other similar reinforcement or punishment Operant Conditioning EXTINCTION Occurs after a period of time when reinforcement is removed B. Cognitive Learning 1. COGNITIVE MAPS AND LATENT LEARNING EDWARD CHASE TOLMAN pioneered the study of cognitive processes in learning we learn cognitively even during behavioral conditioning by

forming and using our knowledge and expectation of what leads to what in our environment Cognitive Map A mental representation of our environment TOLMANS MAZE Rats were divided into three (3) groups Group 1 Wandered in the maze without food rewards Group 2 Received food rewards whenever they reach the correct part of the maze Group 3 Wandered thee maze for 10 days; on the 11th day onwards, the were given food reward like the 2nd group RESULTS: Group 1 Had the most number of errors Group 2 Finding the food box with few errors Group 3 Matched group 2s performance and error rates CONCLUSION: Latent Learning Learned responses are not manifested immediately until incentives are provided for demonstrating the acquitted behavior 2. DISCOVERY LEARNING Fundamental concept of cognitive learning is UNDERSTANDING Rote Learning - Learning without understanding - Mechanical learning through repetition and memorization

Strength of DISCOVERY LEARNING - Acquiring complex intellectual knowledge and skills are best done with understanding - You are provided with the tools and path towards the discovery of new concepts that are new and unusual C. Social Learning 1. SOCIAL LEARNING Introduced by ALBERT BANDURA Also known as Observational Learning or Social-Cognitive Learning States that humans learn by observing and imitating a model Model Is a person or an object with enough attractiveness and perceived credibility that captures the attention of the learner Bobo doll experiment Humans learn both pro-social and anti-social behaviors by observing others and replicating their responses Modeling Highly beneficial and practical as it allows us to avoid the trial and error process FOUR PROCESSES THAT DETERMINES INFLUENCE 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation IMPORTANCE It ensures that the next generation amongst us becomes productive members of society