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# ENERGY AND WORK

10

QUESTIONS
Q10.1. Reason: The brakes in a car slow down the car by converting the cars kinetic energy to thermal energy in the brake shoes through friction. Cars have large kinetic energies, and all of that energy is converted to thermal energy in the brake shoes, which causes their temperature to increase greatly. Therefore they must be made of material that can tolerate very high temperatures without being damaged. Assess: This is an example of an energy conversion. All of the cars kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy through friction. To get an appreciation of how much kinetic energy is absorbed by the brake shoes, consider instead the energy explicit in stopping the car by hitting a stationary object instead! Q10.2. Reason: When you hit a nail with a hammer to pound it into some object, many processes are at work. For example, some small amount of energy goes into temporarily increasing the nails kinetic energy temporarily as it moves into the object. Part of the energy goes into permanently deforming the object to accept the nail. An appreciable portion of the initial kinetic energy of the hammer is converted to thermal energy through, for example, friction between the nail and the object as the nail moves into the object. Some gets directly converted to kinetic energy of the molecules that make up the nail (see section 11.4 for an atomic view of thermal energy and temperature) from the collision between the nail and the hammer. Assess: If you ever try hammering nails, the thermal energy generated is appreciable. Note that energy can be transformed directly into kinetic energy of atoms or molecules that make up an object. As a simpler example, banging a hammer on a solid object directly will increase the temperature of the both the hammer and the object. Q10.3. Reason: We must think of a process that increases an objects kinetic energy without increasing any potential energy. Consider pulling an object across a level floor with a constant force. The force does work on the object, which will increase the objects kinetic energy. Since the floor is level the gravitational potential energy does not change. The other form of potential energy possible is that stored in a spring, which is also zero here. Assess: For there to be no potential energy change, the object in question must remain at the same height. Q10.4. Reason: Here we must increase potential energy without increasing kinetic energy. Consider lifting an object at constant speed. Consider the object plus the earth as the system. The force does work that increases the gravitational potential energy of the object, while the kinetic energy does not increase because the velocity of the object remains the same. Another possibility is compression of a spring by an applied force at constant velocity. Note that constant velocity is not necessary for the change in kinetic energy between the beginning and end of a process to be zero. Lifting an object or compressing a spring in any way, as long as the initial velocity is equal to the final velocity at the end of the process leads to no change in net kinetic energy. Any kinetic energy gained during the process is lost when the object is brought the rest. Assess: Kinetic energy does not change if an object has the same velocity at the beginning and end of a process. Q10.5. Reason: The system must convert kinetic energy directly to potential energy with no external force doing work. For gravitational potential energy we must change the height of the object. One simple example would be rolling a ball up a hill. The initial kinetic energy is converted to gravitational potential

10-1

10-2

Chapter 10

energy as the ball increases its height. The ball loses kinetic energy while it gains potential energy. Another example is rolling a ball into an uncompressed spring on level ground. As the ball compresses the spring, the system gains potential energy, while losing kinetic energy. Since there are no forces external to the systems in these examples, no work is done on the systems by the environment. Assess: As long as no forces external to the system are applied, work done on a system is zero. Q10.6. Reason: We need a process that converts kinetic energy to work without any change in potential energy. Consider a block sliding on level ground, to which is attached a cord you are holding on to. As the block slides, it exerts a force on your hand by virtue of its kinetic energy. As the block pulls your hand, it is doing work on you. The kinetic energy of the block will decrease as it continues to exert the force on your hand. Assess: To have a change in gravitational potential energy you must have a change in height. Q10.7. Reason: Here we need to convert potential energy to kinetic energy without any work done on the system. Consider dropping a ball from a height. The balls gravitational energy is converted to the kinetic energy of the ball as it falls. Another example would be releasing a ball at the end of a compressed spring. The potential energy stored in the compressed spring is converted to the kinetic energy of the ball as the spring stretches to its equilibrium length. Since no external forces act on a system, the work on the system is zero. Assess: Many examples in the problem section will involve just this type of conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. If no forces from the environment act on a system, the work done on the system is zero. Q10.8. Reason: Here we must convert potential energy to work with no change in kinetic energy. Consider lowering a massive object at constant velocity, with the object plus earth as the system. Your hand exerts a force on the object and therefore the object exerts a force on your hand. Since the object exerts a force on your hand, and your hand is displaced, the object does work on your hand as its potential energy is lowered. Assess: Considering the earth plus object allows us to consider the gravitational potential energy in this question. Q10.9. Reason: The energies involved here are kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy and thermal energy. For the system to be isolated, we must not have any work being done on the system and no heat being transferred into or out of the system. The balls kinetic and elastic energy is changing, so we should consider it part of the system. Since its gravitational potential energy is changing, we need to also consider the earth as part of the system. Thermal energy will be generated in the ball and floor when the ball hits the floor, so we must consider both to be part of the system. In as much as the earth itself is not an isolated system (heat can leave the earth) we really should consider the universe the system to consider the system completely isolated. Assess: In order to have an isolated system no heat can leave or enter the system and all forces must be internal. Q10.10. Reason: The tension force is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the mass. The work done by tension is W = Td cos = Td cos 90 = 0. No work is done by tension. Assess: The work done by a force depends not only on the force and the displacement, but on the angle between them. When the force is perpendicular to the displacement, the force does no work at all. Q10.11. Reason: (a) The work done is W = Fd . Both particles experience the same force, so the greater work is done on the particle that undergoes the greater displacement. Particle A, which is less massive than B, will have the greater acceleration and thus travel further during the 1 s interval. Thus more work is done on particle A. (b) Impulse is F t . Both particles experience the same force F for the same time interval t = 1 s. Thus the same impulse is delivered to both particles. (c) Both particles receive the same impulse, so the change in their momenta is the same, that is, mA (vf )A = mB (vf )B . But because mA < mB , it must be that

(vf )A > (vf )B . This result can also be found from kinematics, as in part (a).

Assess: Work is the product of the force and the displacement, while impulse is the product of the force and the time during which the force acts.

## Energy and Work

10-3

10-4

Chapter 10

you are converting chemical energy in the food you eat into this work and into thermal energy of your body. Eventually the thermal energy will escape as heat. Assess: Since the earth is not considered part of the system, the gravity must be considered as an external force, and not as contributing to potential energy. Note that since your arms are part of the system your arms cant be considered to be doing work. Only forces external to the system do work. Q10.20. Reason: The earth is included as part of the system, so your gravitational potential energy increases. To do the chin-up you are converting chemical energy in the food you eat into this work and into thermal energy of your body. Eventually the thermal energy will escape as heat. Assess: Since the earth is considered part of the system, gravity must be considered as contributing to the potential energy of the system. Q10.21. Reason: Only changes in energy are important when considering energy conservation. In most ordinary transformations we study, no nuclear energy transformations occur. We would need to include nuclear energy change in processes in which nuclear energy transformations occur, such as in nuclear reactors. Assess: Only changes in energy are important in the energy conservation equation. Q10.22. Reason: (a) If the car is to go twice as fast at the bottom, its kinetic energy, proportional to v 2 , will be four times as great. You thus need to give it four times as much gravitational potential energy at the top. Since gravitational potential energy is linearly proportional to the height h, youll need to increase the height of the track by a factor of four. (b) Using considerations of conservation of energy, as in part (a), we see that the speed of the car at the bottom depends only on the height of the track, not its shape. Assess: Kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity. Q10.23. Reason: (a) Because the elastic potential energy of a spring is proportional to the square of the distance its compressed, its potential energy will increase by a factor of four when this distance is doubled. (b) The ball now has four times the energy it had on the first shot. When the ball is released, conservation of energy tells us that the ball will then have four times as much kinetic energy. Kinetic energy depends on the square of the speed, so the ball need travel only twice as fast to have four times the energy. Assess: Elastic potential energy and kinetic energy both depend on the square of the displacement and speed, respectively. So doubling the displacement leads to a doubling of the speed. Q10.24. Reason: Because both rocks are thrown from the same height, they have the same potential energy. And since they are thrown with the same speed, they have the same kinetic energy. Thus both rocks have the same total energy. When they reach the ground, they will have this same total energy. Because theyre both at the same height at ground level, their potential energy there is the same. Thus they must have the same kinetic energy, and hence the same speed. Assess: Although Chriss rock was thrown angled upward, so that it slows as it first rises, it then speeds up as it begins to fall, attaining the same speed as Sandys as it passes the initial height. Sandys rock will hit the ground first, but its speed will be no greater than Chriss. Q10.25. Reason: Assume the cans have the same mass. Chicken broth is fluid, while tomato paste is relatively viscous. The tomato paste would tend to rotate along with the can since it is relatively stiff, while the broth wouldnt be carried along in the rotation of the can since it can flow easily. The broth can would effectively act like a hoop, while the tomato paste would act like a solid cylinder. Assess: An objects rotational kinetic energy is made up of the kinetic energies of the particles that make up the object. Q10.26. Reason: By the time the blocks reach the ground, they have transformed identical amounts of gravitational potential energy into translational kinetic energy of the blocks and rotational kinetic energy of the cylinders. But the moment of inertia of a cylindrical shell is higher than that of a solid cylinder of the same mass, so more of the energy of the system is in the form of rotational kinetic energy for the shell than for the cylinder. This leaves less energy in the form of translational kinetic energy for the shell. But it is the translational kinetic energy that determines the speed of the block. So the block moves more slowly for the system with the cylindrical shell, and so its block reaches the ground last.

## Energy and Work

10-5

A. h / 4

B. h / 2 C. 3h / 4

D. 3h / 2

E. 2 h

10-6

Chapter 10

The solution below corresponds to this revised problem statement. Reason: The potential energy at the top of the first ramp is equal to the kinetic energy at the bottom, so that mgh = (1 / 2) mvi2 . By conservation of energy, the energy when the ball is moving up the second ramp at speed vi / 2 is equal to the initial energy mgh, so we have mgh + as mgh +
1 vi m = mgh, which we can rewrite 2 2
2

1 1 2 mvi = mgh. From the conservation of energy applied to the first ramp, we can rewrite this 4 2 1 as mgh + mgh = mgh, or h = 3h / 4. 4 Assess: Because the block had energy mgh at the top of the ramp, it has energy mgh at all points along both

ramps. Similarly, its energy is (1 / 2) mvi2 at all points along both ramps. Q10.33. Prepare: When the cable is at 30, the ball is higher than when the cable is vertical. Thus the ball has more potential energy when the cable is at 30 than when its vertical. As the ball falls, this potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy. We can use the law of conservation of energy.

Solve: Refer to the diagram above. Take the final height of the ball to be yf = 0 m. Then the initial height is h = L x = L L cos = L (1 cos ) = (5.0 m)(1 cos 30) = 0.67 m. The conservation of energy equation is K i + Ui = K f + Uf which we can write here as 1 0 + mgh = mvf2 + 0 2 giving vf = 2 gh = 2(9.80 m/s 2 )(0.67 m) = 4.2 m/s. Assess: This problem is essentially identical to that of a particle sliding down a frictionless slide. As we learned for such problems, the final speed (if starting from rest) depends only on the change in height.

PROBLEMS
P10.1. Prepare: Since this is an etiquette class and you are walking slowly and steadily, assume the book remains level. We will use the definition of work, Equation 10.9, to explicitly calculate the work done. Since no component of the force is along the displacement of the book, we expect the work done by your head will be zero.
n v = 0.20 m/s m = 0.75 kg m w
r r

## Energy and Work

10-7

Solve: Refer to the diagram above. There is no force in the horizontal direction since your velocity is constant. Your head exerts a normal force on the book, which counteracts the weight of the book. Since you are walking steadily there is no acceleration in the vertical direction, so the normal force is equal to the weight of the book. The force your head exerts on the book is then
n = w = ( 0.75 kg)(9.80 m/s ) = 7.4 N
2

W = Fd cos = ( 7.4 N )(2.5 m) cos( 90 ) = (7.4 N)( 2.5 m)( 0) = 0 J

The work done by your head on the book is exactly 0 Joules. Assess: As expected, no work is done since the force and the displacement are at right angles. Note that your speed, which is given in the problem statement, is irrelevant. P10.2. Prepare: Equation 10.9 gives the work done by a force F on a particle. The work is defined as W = Fd cos( ), where d is the particles displacement. Since there is a component of the lifting force in the

direction of the displacement, we expect the work done in both parts of this problem to be nonzero. Assume you lift the book steadily, so that the force exerted on the book is constant.
r

Fhand on book
r r r

w = Fearth on book

r w

Fbook on earth

Fbook on hand

Solve: (a) Refer to the diagram above. We are assuming the book does not accelerate, so the force you exert on the book is exactly equal to the force of gravity on the book. Fhand on book = Fgravity on book The total displacement of the book is 2.3 m 0.75 m = 1.55 m (keeping one extra significant figure for this intermediate result). The work done by gravity is then
Wgravity on book = wd cos( ) = (2.0 kg )( 9.80 m /s )(1.55 m) cos( 180 ) = 30 J
2

(b) The work done by hand is Whand on book = Fhand on book d cos( ) .
Whand on book = (2.0 kg )(9.80 m /s )(1.55 m) cos( 0 ) = +30 J
2

Assess: Note that the only difference is in the sign of the answer. This is because the two forces are equal, but act in opposite directions. The work done by gravity is negative because gravity acts opposite to the displacement of the book. Your hand exerts a force in the same direction as the displacement, so it does positive work. We should expect the total work to be zero from Equation 10.4 since energy is conserved in this process. Referring to the results above, we see that the work by your hand cancels the work done by gravity and the total work is zero as expected. P10.3. Prepare: Note that not all the forces in this problem are parallel to the displacement. Equation 10.9 gives the work done by a constant force which is not parallel to the displacement: W = Fd cos( ), where W is the work done by the force F at an angle to a displacement d . Here the displacement is exactly downwards in the same direction as w . We will take all forces as having four significant figures (as implied by T2 = 1295 N).

10-8

Chapter 10

1830 N 60 Before

T1

T2

1295 N 45 y d = 5 m exactly

yi 2500 N w d
r r

After 0

Ground y=0 m

yf

Solve:

Refer to the diagram above. The angle between the force w and the displacement is 0 so
Ww = wd cos = ( 2500 N )(5 m) cos( 0 ) = 12 .50 kJ.

## The angle between the force T1 and the displacement is 90 + 60 = 150 .

WT = T1 d cos = (1830 N)( 5 m) cos(150 ) = 7.924 kJ
1

## The angle between the tension T2 and the displacement is 90 + 45 = 135 .

WT = T2 d cos = (1295 N)( 5 m ) cos(135 ) = 4.579 kJ
2

Assess: Note that the displacement d in all the above cases is directed downwards and that it is always the angle between the force and displacement used in the work equation. For example, the angle between T1 and d is 150 , not 60 . P10.4. Prepare: Note that not all forces act in the same direction as the displacement. We must use Equation 10.9: W = Fd cos( ) for each force. W is the work done by a force of magnitude F on a particle and d is the particles displacement. The crate is moving directly to the right. We assume all forces are given to three significant figures, including the 500 N force since the other two forces are given to three significant figures.
r

T1
r

r

fk

d = 3 m exactly

500 N
r

T2

Before

Solve:

## For the force f k , the displacement is exactly opposite the force, so

W f = f k d cos(180 ) = (500 N)(3 m )( 1) = 1.50 kJ
k

## For the tension T1 :

WT = T1 d cos( 20 ) = (326 N) (3 m) (0.9397 ) = 0.919 kJ
1

## For the tension T2 :

WT = T2 d cos( 30 ) = (223 N )(3 m )(0.8660 ) = 0.579 kJ
2

## Energy and Work

10-9

Assess: Negative work done by the force of kinetic friction f k means that 1.50 kJ of energy has been transferred out of the crate and converted to heat. The other two forces have components along the displacement, and therefore do positive work to move the crate. P10.5. Prepare: We will use the definition of work, Equation 10.9 to calculate the work done. The sidewalk and escalators exert a normal force on you, and may exert a force to propel you forward. We will assume that the escalator propels you at constant velocity, as the sidewalk does. Solve: (a) Since you get on the sidewalk moving at 0.70 m/s, and you continue at 0.70 m/s afterwards, there is no acceleration and therefore no force on you in the horizontal direction. See the diagram below.
n v
r r

v = 0.70 m/s m = 60 kg d = 25 m

m w
r

The work is then W = Fd cos = ( F )(d ) cos( 90 ) = ( F )( d )( 0) = 0 J. The work done by the sidewalk is exactly zero Joules. (b) The escalator moves you across some distance like the sidewalk, but it also moves you upwards. See the diagram below.
v
r

## n u h v = 0.70 m/s h = 4.5 m d = 7.0 m m w

r

The force on exerted on you by the escalator is the normal force, which is equal to your weight.
n = w = mg = (60 kg)(9.80 m /s ) = 588 N
2

Which should be reported as 590 N to two significant figures. Unlike the sidewalk case, there is a component of the displacement parallel to the normal force. The angle between the force and displacement is cos 1 (4.5/7) = 50 , so d cos( ) = 4.5 m. Then
W = Fd cos = ( 588 N )( 4.5 m) = 2.6 kJ

n
r r

v
r

## v = 0.70 m/s h = 4.5 m d = 7.0 m

u m
r

Here, the displacement is in the opposite direction compared to part (b), so the angle between the force and the displacement is now 50 + 180 = 230 . So
W = Fd cos = ( 588 N )(7.0 m) cos( 230 ) = 2.6 kJ

Assess: In part (a), since the force has no component in the direction of your displacement, the force does no work. In part (b), there is a component of the force along and in the same direction as the displacement, so the force does positive work. In part (c), the component of the force along the displacement is in the opposite direction to the displacement, so the force does negative work.

10-10

Chapter 10

P10.6. Prepare: Equation 10.9 is the definition of work when the force and displacement are not parallel, as is the case in this problem. Solve: (a) The boy is standing still in this case, so the displacement is zero. W = Fd cos( ) = ( F )( 0 m)cos( ) = 0 J. The work done on the boy by the string is exactly zero Joules. (b) The displacement is non-zero in this case, so we expect the work done to be non-zero. Refer to the figure below. The angle between the force and the displacement is 180 30 = 150 .
Before
r
r

After
T

T
308

308

T = 4.5 N d = 11 m

The work is
W = Fd cos( ) = ( 4.5 N)(11 m)cos(150 ) = 43 J

(c) The angle between the force and displacement in this case is 30 (Look at the figure above and imagine the direction of the displacement vector is reversed). The work is
W = Fd cos( ) = ( 4.5 N)(11 m)cos(30 ) = 43 J

Assess: For there to be work done, the displacement must not be zero. If there is no displacement there is no work done. Note that the answers to parts (b) and (c) have opposite signs. This is because the displacement is exactly opposite in those cases for the same direction of the force. P10.7. Prepare: The kinetic energy for any object moving of mass m with velocity v is given in
1 2
mv .
2

Equation 10.11: K =

Solve:

KB = 1 2
mB v B =
2

1 2

## For the bowling ball,

KBB = 1 2 m BB vBB =
2

1 2

## (10 kg )(10 m /s) = 0.50 kJ

Thus, the bullet has the larger kinetic energy. Assess: Kinetic energy depends not only on mass but also on the square of the velocity. The above calculation shows this dependence. Although the mass of the bullet is 1000 times smaller than the mass of the bowling ball, its speed is 50 times larger, which leads to the bullet having over twice the kinetic energy of the bowling ball. P10.8. Prepare: Use the definition of kinetic energy, Equation 10.11, to set up an equation such that the kinetic energy of the car is equal to that of the truck.

## Energy and Work

10-11

Solve:

For the kinetic energy of the compact car and the kinetic energy of the truck to be equal,
KC = K T 1 2 mCv C =
2

1 2

m T vT vC =

mT mC

vT =

20 ,000 kg 1000 kg

( 25 km / hr) = 110 km / hr

To match the kinetic energy of the truck, the car needs a velocity of 110 km/hr (to two significant figures). Assess: Note that the smaller mass needs a greater velocity for its kinetic energy to be the same as that of the larger mass. Though the truck has 20 times the mass, the car only needs about four times the velocity of the truck to have the same kinetic energy. This is because kinetic energy is proportional to the mass, but proportional to the square of the velocity. P10.9. Prepare: We denote the oxygen and helium atoms by O and He, respectively. The oxygen atom is four times heavier than the helium atom. We can express this fact in the form of an equation: m O = 4 m He . We will set the kinetic energy of the helium and oxygen atoms equal and solve for the velocity of the helium atom. Solve: The fact that the kinetic energies of the oxygen and helium atoms are the same can be written as KO = K He . Using the definition of kinetic energy in Equation 10.11,
1 2
v He 2 vO
2

m O vO =

1 2

m He v He ( 4 m He )v O = m He v He

Solving for

, we get

v He 2 vO
2

4 m He m He

## = 4 so v He = 2 vO . Note that m He cancels.

Assess: Note that for the same kinetic energy, the velocity of the helium atom is only twice that of the oxygen atom though the mass of oxygen is four times the mass of helium. This is a consequence of the way kinetic energy is defined: it is directly proportional to the mass but is proportional to the square of the speed. This behavior is also exhibited in Problem 10.8. P10.10. Prepare: We will assume that the work that Sam does goes entirely into stopping the boat. We can use conservation of energy as expressed in Equation 10.4 to calculate the work done from the change in kinetic energy.
Before vi = 1.2 m/s After vf = 0 m/s Sam

m = 1200 kg

Solve:

Refer to before and after representation of Sam stopping a boat above. Equation 10.4 becomes
1 2 mv f
2

1 2

mv i = W

Since the boat is at rest at the end of the process, v f = 0 m/s. Therefore, the final kinetic energy is zero. The work done on the boat is then
W= 1 1 2 2 mv i = (1200 kg)(1.2 m /s) = 0.86 kJ 2 2

Assess: Note that the work done by Sam on the boat is negative. This is because the force Sam exerts on the boat must be opposite to the direction of motion of the boat to slow it down.

10-12

Chapter 10

P10.11. Prepare: Use the law of conservation of energy, Equation 10.4 to find the work done on the particle. We will assume there is no change in thermal energy of the ball.

Solve: Consider the system to be the plastic ball. Since there is no change in potential, thermal or chemical energy of the ball and there is no heat leaving or entering the system, the conservation of energy equation becomes
W = K = 1 2 mv f
2

1 2

mv i =

1 2

m vf vi =

1 2

## (0.020 kg )[( 30 m/s) ( 30 m /s) ] = 0 J

Assess: Note that no work is done on the ball in reversing its velocity. This is because negative work is done in slowing the ball down to rest, and an equal amount of positive work is done in bringing the ball to the original speed but in the opposite direction. P10.12. Prepare: The definition of kinetic energy for objects rotating around a stationary axis is given by Equation 10.12. In Equation 10.12, the rotational velocity should be in units of radians/second. Solve: The turntable turns once every 4.0 s. So its rotational velocity is
=

This should be reported as 1.6 rad/s to two significant figures. We keep an extra significant figure for substitution in the next step:
Krot = 1 2 I =
2

1 2

## ( 0.040 kg m )(1.57 rad/s) = 0.049 J

Assess:

This is a reasonable result for such a low rotational velocity and moment of inertia.

P10.13. Prepare: Energy is stored in the flywheel by virtue of the motion of the particles and is given by Equation 10.12. In this equation, units for rotational velocity must be rad/s. Solve: Using Equation 10.12,
Krot = 1 2
I , so I =
2

2 K rot

We need to convert to proper units, radians/second. Since = 20,000 revolutions /minute and there are 2 radians/revolution and 60 seconds in a minute, rev 1 min 2 rad = 20, 000
min 60 s rev

So
I=
( 2)(4.0 10 6 J ) rev 1 min 2 rad 20 ,000 min 60 s rev
2

= 1.8 kg m

Assess: The flywheel can store this large amount of energy even though it has a low moment of inertia because of its high rate of rotation.

## Energy and Work

10-13

P10.14. Prepare: As the height of the hiker changes so does his potential energy. Gravitational potential energy is given by Equation 10.16. We only need to calculate the difference in potential energy. The reference point for measuring the hikers height is arbitrary.
y
Mt. Whitney
Known yi = 85.0 m yf = 4420 m m = 65.0 kg

xf, yf After

Sea level

0 Death Valley

x i, y i Before

We choose the origin of the coordinate system chosen for this problem at sea level so that the hikers position in Death Valley is y0 = 85.0 m. Solve: The hikers change in potential energy from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mt. Whitney is
U = Ug

( ) (U ) = mgy
f g i

mgy i = mg ( yf y i )

## = (65 .0 kg)( 9.80 m /s 2 )[ 4420 m ( 85 .0 m )] = 2.87 10 6 J

Assess: This is a large amount of energy, as expected. Note that U is always independent of the origin of the coordinate system. P10.15. Prepare: In part (a) we can simply use the definition of kinetic energy in Equation 10.11. We then use this result in part (b) to find the height the car must be dropped from to obtain the same kinetic energy. The car is falling under the influence of gravity. We can use conservation of energy to calculate its kinetic energy as a result of the fall. The sum of kinetic and potential energy does not change as the car falls. Solve: (a) The kinetic energy of the car is
KC = 1 2
m C vC =
2

1 2

## (1500 kg)( 30 m/s) = 6.75 10 J

We keep one additional significant figure here for use in part (b). (b) Refer to the diagram below.

Here we set Kf equal to KC in part (a) and place our coordinate system on the ground at yf = 0 m. At this point, the cars potential energy ( U g ) is zero, its velocity is vf, and its kinetic energy is Kf. At position yi,
f

f i

( ) = mgy .
i i

10-14

Chapter 10

## Kf + mgy f = Ki + mgy i Kf + 0 = K i + mgy i yi = (K f K i ) (6.75 10 J 0 J) = = 46 m mg (1500 kg)( 9.80 m / s 2 )

5

To check if this result depends on the cars mass, rewrite the result of part (b) leaving m as a variable, and check if it cancels out.
yi =
( K f K i) 1 = 2

mv f mg

1 2

mv i

mg

(v

2 f

vi2 2g

Since m cancels out, the distance does not depend upon the mass. Assess: A car traveling at 30 m/s is traveling at 108 km/hr or 67 mi/hr. At that speed, it has the same amount of energy as from being dropped 46 m, which is 151 ft, or from the top of an approximately 19 storey building! P10.16. Prepare: This is a case of free fall, so the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change as the ball rises and falls.

The figure shows a balls before-and-after pictorial representation for the three situations in parts (a), (b) and (c). Solve: The quantity K + Ug is the same during free fall: Kf + U gf = K i + U gi . At the top of its trajectory where the ball turns around the balls velocity is 0 m/s. We have (a)
1 2 mv 1 + mgy 1 =
2

1 2

mv 0 + mgy 0

y1 = v02 v12 1 2
1 2

(
2

) 2 g = [(10 m /s)

## (0 m /s)2 ] /( 2 9.80 m/s 2 ) = 5.1 m

5.1 m is therefore the maximum height of the ball above the window. This is 25 m above the ground. (b)
mv 2 + mgy 2 =
2

1 2
1 2

mv 0 + mgy 0

## Since y2 = y0 = 0, we get for the magnitudes v 2 = v0 = 10 m/s. (c)

mv 3 + mgy 3 =
2

mv 0 + mgy 0 v3 + 2 gy 3 = v0 + 2 gy 0 v3 = v 0 + 2 g( y 0 y 3 )

## v3 = (10 m/s) + 2(9.80 m /s )[ 0 m ( 20 m )]

Taking the square root, the magnitude of v3 is equal to 22 m/s. Assess: Note that the balls speed as it passes the window on its way down is the same as the speed with which it was tossed up, but in the opposite direction.

## Energy and Work

10-15

P10.17. Prepare: The only force acting on the ball during its trip is gravity. The sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy for the ball, considered as a particle, does not change during its motion. Use Equation 10.4. Note that at the top of its trajectory when the ball turns around, the velocity of the ball is zero. Assume there is no friction.

The figure shows the balls before-and-after pictorial representation for the two situations described in parts (a) and (b). Solve: Since energy is conserved, the quantity K + Ug is the same during the entire trip. Thus,
Kf + U gf = K i + U gi . 1 1 2 2 (a) mv 12 + mgy 1 = mv 2 0 + mgy 0 v0 = v1 + 2 g ( y1 y0 ) 2 2
2 2 2

v0 = (0 m/s) + 2(9.80 m/s )(10 m 1.5 m ) = 167 m /s v0 = 13 m /s 1 1 2 2 (b) mv 22 + mgy 2 = mv 2 0 + mgy 0 v2 = v0 + 2 g ( y0 y2 ) 2 2 v2 = 167 m /s + 2( 9.80 m/s )(1.5 m 0 m ) v 2 = 14 m /s
2 2 2 2

Assess: An increase in speed from 13 m/s to 14 m/s as the ball falls through a distance of 1.5 m is reasonable. Also, note that mass does not appear in the calculations that involve free fall since both gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy are proportional to mass. The mass cancels out in the equations. P10.18. Prepare: Since the ramp is frictionless, the sum of the pucks kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change during its sliding motion. Use Equation 10.4 for the conservation of energy.
y yf, vf Known m = 100 g yi = 0 m yf = (3.0 m) sin 20 = 1.026 m vf = 0 m/s Find vi

3.0 m

yi, vi 0

20

Solve: The quantity K + Ug is the same at the top of the ramp as it was at the bottom. The energy conservation equation Kf + U gf = K i + U gi is
1 2 1 2 2 2 mv f + mgy f = mv i + mgy i v i = vf + 2 g ( yf y i ) 2 2 vi = (0 m /s) + 2(9.80 m /s )(1.03 m 0 m) = 20.1 m /s v i = 4.5 m /s
2 2 2 2 2

10-16

Chapter 10

Assess: An initial push with a speed of 4.5 m/s 10 mph to cover a distance of 3.0 m up a 20 ramp seems reasonable. Note that a ramp of any angle to the same final height would lead to the same final velocity for the puck. Note that the mass cancels out in the equation since both kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy are proportional to mass. P10.19. Prepare: The figure below shows a before-and-after pictorial representation of the rolling car. The car starts at rest from the top of the hill since it slips out of gear. As suggested by Tactics Box 10.1, consider the car and earth as the system. Following Problem Solving Strategy Box 10.1, the energy conservation equation should include the initial and final kinetic and gravitational potential energies of the car. Mechanical energy will be conserved since there is no friction, so E th = 0 J.
y yi = 50 m vi = 0 m/s

vf yf = 0 m Before After

Solve: or

## The energy conservation equation then becomes

Ki + (U g ) i = Kf + (U g ) f

1 2

mv i + mgy i =

1 2

mv f + mgy f

Since the car starts from rest so v i = 0 m/s, which gives Ki = 0 J. Taking the bottom of the hill as the reference point for gravitational potential, yf = 0 m and so U f = 0 J. The energy conservation equation becomes
1 2 mv f = mgy i
2

## Canceling m and solving for v f,

vf = 2 gy i =
(2)(9.80 m/s )(50 m) = 31 m/s
2

Assess: Note that the problem does not give the shape of the hill, so the acceleration of the car is not necessarily constant. Constant acceleration kinematics cant be used to find the cars final speed. However, energy is conserved no matter what the shape of the hill. Note that the mass of the car is not needed. Since kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy are both proportional to mass, the mass cancels out in the equation. The final speed of the car, after traveling to the bottom of the 50 m hill is 31 m/s which is nearly 70 mi/hr!

P10.20. Prepare: In the absence of frictional and air-drag effects, the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change as the pendulum swings from one side to the other. Use the conservation of energy equation, Equation 10.4.

10-17

30

u L cos 30 L

## Known m = 500 g L = 75 cm y1 = 0 v0 = 0 = v 2 Find v1 u

y0, v0

y0
0

y1, v1

y2, v2
x

The figure shows the pendulums before-and-after pictorial representation for the two situations described in parts (a) and (b). Solve: (a) The quantity K + Ug is the same at the lowest point of the trajectory as it was at the highest point. Thus, K1 + U g 1 = K 0 + U g 0 means
1 1 2 2 2 2 mv 1 + mgy 1 = mv 0 + mgy 0 v1 + 2 gy 1 = v0 + 2 gy 0 2 2 v1 + 2 g ( 0 m ) = (0 m /s) + 2 gy 0 v1 =
2 2

2 gy 0

## From the pictorial representation, we find that y0 = L L cos 30 . Thus,

v1 = 2 gL (1 cos 30 ) =
2(9.80 m /s )(0.75 m )(1 cos 30 ) = 1.4 m/ s
2

## (b) Since the quantity K + Ug does not change, K2 + U g 2 = K 1 + U g 1 . We have

1 1 2 2 2 2 mv 2 + mgy 2 = mv 1 + mgy 1 y2 = v1 v2 2 g 2 2 y 2 = [(1.4 m/ s) ( 0 m / s) ]/ (2 9.80 m /s ) = 0.10 m
2 2 2

Since, we obtain
cos = L y2 L = (0.75 m ) (0.10 m) (0.75 m ) = 0.867 = cos ( 0.867) = 30
1

That is, the pendulum swings to the other side by 30 . Assess: The swing angle is the same on either side of the rest position. This result is a consequence of the fact that the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change. Since the balls kinetic energy is the same at the other side of the swing, its potential energy must also be the same, since the total must remain the same. So the ball rises to the same height on the other side of the swing. P10.21. Prepare: Assume there is zero rolling friction since friction is not mentioned in the problem. The sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy, therefore, does not change during the cars motion. Consider the other side of the hill to be the zero for gravitational potential energy.
y

y1, v1 y1
30
0

5m

y0, v0
5m 20

y2, v2

y2

10-18

Chapter 10

Solve:

## (a) The initial energy of the car is

K0 + U g0 = 1 2 mv 0 + mgy0 =
2

1 2

## The energy of the car at the top of the hill is

K1 + U g1 = K 1 + mgy1 = K1 + (1500 kg )(9.80 m /s )( 5.0 m ) = K1 + 7.4 10 J
2 4

If the car just wants to make it to the top, then K1 = 0. That is, the car has no velocity at the top of the hill. In other words, a minimum energy of 7.4 104 J is needed to get to the top. Since this energy is less than the available energy of 7.5 104 J, the car can make it to the top. (b) The conservation of energy equation K0 + U g 0 = K 2 + U g2 is
7.5 10 4 J = 1 2 mv 2 + mgy2 7.5 10 4 J = 2 (1500 kg)v 2 + (1500 kg)( 9.80 m /s 2 )( 5.0 m) 2 2 v2 = 14 m/s 1

Assess: A higher speed on the other side of the hill is reasonable because the car has increased its kinetic energy and lowered its potential energy compared to its starting values. Note that the shape of the hill is irrelevant because gravitational potential energy depends only on height. P10.22. Prepare: Assume an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. Equation 10.18 gives the potential 2 energy stored in an ideal spring. The elastic potential energy of a spring is defined as U s = 1 2 kx , where x is the magnitude of the stretching or compression relative to the unstretched or uncompressed length. Solve: We have x = 20 cm = 0.20 m and k = 500 N/ m . This means
Us = 1 2 kx =
2

1 2

## ( 500 N/m)( 0.20 m) = 10 J

Assess: Since x is squared, Us is positive for a spring that is either compressed or stretched. Us is zero when the spring is in its equilibrium position. P10.23. Prepare: Assume an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. Equation 10.18 gives the energy stored 2 in a spring. The elastic potential energy of a spring is defined as U s = 1 2 kx , where x is the magnitude of the stretching or compression relative to the unstretched or uncompressed length. U s = 0 when the spring is at its equilibrium length and x = 0. Solve: We have U s = 200 J and k = 1000 N/m. Solving for s:
s = 2U s / k = 2(200 J) / (1000 N /m) = 0.632 m

Assess: In the equation for the elastic potential energy stored in a spring, it is always the distance of the stretching of compression relative to the unstretched or equilibrium length. P10.24. Prepare: Assume an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. There is no friction, so the mechanical energy K+ Us is conserved. The book doesnt change height, so gravitational potential energy does not come into the problem.

## Energy and Work

10-19

x1

Before

4.00 cm

Equilibrium position xe = 0 x

v2 x2 = xe = 0

After

The figure shows a before-and-after pictorial representation. The compressed spring will push on the book until the spring has returned to its equilibrium length. We put the origin of our coordinate system at the equilibrium position of the free end of the spring. The energy bar chart shows that the potential energy of the compressed spring is entirely transformed into the kinetic energy of the book. Solve: The conservation of energy equation K2 + U s2 = K1 + U s1 is
1 2 mv 2 +
2

1 2

kx 2 =

1 2

mv 1 +

1 2

kx 1

1 2 mv 2 =
2

1 2

kx1 v 2 =

kx12 m

## (1250 N /m )( 0.0400 m ) 2 ( 0.500 kg )

= 2.00 m /s

Assess: This problem cannot be solved using constant-acceleration kinematic equations. The acceleration is not a constant in this problem, since the spring force, given as Fs = k x, is directly proportional to x. Since x is changing, the force is not constant. P10.25. Prepare: Consider the spring as an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. We will also assume zero rolling friction during the compression of the spring, so that mechanical energy is conserved. At the maximum compression of the spring, 60 cm, the velocity of the cart will be zero.

The figure shows a before-and-after pictorial representation. The before situation is when the cart hits the spring in its equilibrium position. We put the origin of our coordinate system at this equilibrium position of the free end of the spring. This give x1 = xe = 0 and x2 = 60 cm.

10-20

Chapter 10

Solve:

1 2 mv 2 +
2

1 2

kx 2 =

1 2

mv 1 +

1 2

kx 1

## Using v2 = 0 m/s, x2 = 0.60 m, and x1 = 0 m gives:

1 2 kx 2 =
2

k 250 N / m 2 x2 = mv1 v1 = 2 10 kg m 1

## ( 0.60 m ) = 3.0 m/s

Assess: spring.

Elastic potential energy is always measured from the unstretched or uncompressed length of the

P10.26. Prepare: Model the jet plane as a particle, and the spring as an ideal that obeys Hookes law. We will also assume zero rolling friction during the stretching of the spring, so that mechanical energy is conserved.

The figure shows a before-and-after pictorial representation. The before situation occurs just as the jet plane lands on the aircraft carrier and the spring is in its equilibrium position. We put the origin of our coordinate system at the right free end of the spring. This gives x1 = x e = 0 m. Since the spring stretches 30 m to stop the plane, x2 = 30 m. Solve: The conservation of energy equation K2 + U s 2 = K 1 + U s1 for the spring-jet plane system is
1 2 mv 2 +
2

1 2

kx 2 =

1 2

mv 1 +

1 2

kx 1

1 2 kx 2 =
2

Assess:

## A landing speed of 60 m/s or 130 mph is reasonable.

P10.27. Prepare: We will assume the knee extensor tendon behaves according to Hookes Law and 2 stretches in a straight line. The elastic energy stored in a spring is given by equation 01.18, U s = 1 2 kx . Solve: For athletes,
U s,athlete = 1 2 kx =
2

1 2

## (33,000 N/m)( 0.041 m) = 27 .7 J

For non-athletes,
U s, non-athlete = 1 2
kx =
2

1 2

## (33,000 N/m )(0.033 m) = 18 .0 J

The difference in energy stored between athletes and non-athletes is therefore 9.7J. Assess: Notice the energy stored by athletes is over 1.5 times the energy stored by non-athletes.

## Energy and Work

10-21

P10.28. Prepare: Assume zero rolling friction, so that the sum of your kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change as the vehicle coasts down the hill.
y i , v ix Known vix = 35 km/hr yi = 15 m yf = 0 m yf, vfx 0 Find vfx

The figure shows a before-and-after pictorial representation. Note that neither the shape of the hill nor the angle of the downward slope is given. These are not needed to solve the problem. All we need is the change in potential energy as you and your vehicle descend to the bottom of the hill. Also note that
35 km/hr = ( 35000 m/3600 s) = 9.7 m/s

Solve:

## Using yf = 0 and the equation Ki + U gi = Kf + U gf we get

1 1 2 2 mv i2 + mgy i = mv 2 f + mgy f vi + 2 gy i = v f 2 2 vf = v2 + 2 gy i = i ( 9.7 m / s)2 + 2( 9.80 m / s)(15 m ) = 19 .7 m /s = 71 km / hr

You are driving over the speed limit. Yes, you might get a ticket. Assess: A speed of 19.7 m/s or 71 km/hr at the bottom of the hill, when your speed at the top of the hill was 35 km/s, is reasonable. Note the mass of your car does not matter. The mass of your car cancels in the energy conservation equation. P10.29. Prepare: This is a case of free fall, so the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change as the rock is thrown. Assume there is no friction. The direction the rock is thrown is not known.
y

vf = 5.0 m/s yf = 16 m

Frisbee

yi = 2.0 m y=0

vi 0

The coordinate system is put on the ground for this system, so that yf = 16 m . The rocks final velocity vf must be at least 5.0 m/s to dislodge the Frisbee. Solve: (a) The energy conservation equation for the rock Kf + U gf = K i + U gi is
1 2 mv f + mgy f =
2

1 2

mv i + mgy i

This equation involves only the velocity magnitudes and not the angle at which the rock is to be thrown to dislodge the Frisbee. This equation is true for all angles that will take the rock to the Frisbee 16 m above the ground and moving with a speed of 5.0 m/s. (b) Using the above equation we get
v f + 2 gy f = vi + 2 gy i
2 2

vi =

vf + 2 g ( yf yi ) =

## (5.0 m /s) + 2(9.80 m /s )(16 m 2.0 m) = 17 m/ s

10-22

Chapter 10

2 Assess: Kinetic energy is defined as K = 1 and is a scalar quantity. Scalar quantities do not have 2 mv directional properties. Note also that the mass of the rock is not needed.

P10.30. Prepare: We can use the conservation of energy equation to consider the energy transformations that occur during the skid. Solve: (a) The car has an initial kinetic energy Ki. The gravitational potential energy does not change and no work is done by external forces. So the initial kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy of the car and the road surface., so during the skid Ki transforms entirely into thermal energy Eth. (b) Note that
Ki = 1 2 mv =
2

1 2

## (1500 kg )(20 m / s) = 3.0 10 J

The change in kinetic energy of the car is K = K f K i = 3.0 10 5 J. From Equation 10.4,
K = E th E th = +3.0 10 J
5

The change in the thermal energy of the car and the road surface is 3.0 10 J. Assess: Note the energy of the road surface increases as the kinetic energy of the car decreases due to the friction between the cars tires and the road surface, as expected from conservation of energy. P10.31. Prepare: The thermal energy of the slide and the childs pants changes during the slide. If we consider the system to be the child and slide, total energy is conserved during the slide. The energy transformations during the slide are governed by the conservation of energy equation, Equation 10.4.
y
y0 = 3.0 m v0 = 0 m/s

y1 = 0 m, v1 = 2.0 m/s

Solve: (a) The childs kinetic and gravitational potential energy will be changing during the slide. There is no heat entering or leaving the system, and no external work done on the child. There is a possible change in the thermal energy of the slide and seat of the childs pants. Use the ground as reference for calculating gravitational potential energy.
Ki = K 0 = W =0J 1 2 mv 0 = 0 J
2

K f = K1 =

## 1 2 1 mv1 = ( 20 kg)( 2.0 m / s) 2 = 40 J 2 2

At the top of the slide, the child has gravitational potential energy of 590 J. This energy is transformed partly into the kinetic energy of the child at the bottom of the slide. Note that the final kinretic energy of the child is only 40 J, much less than the initial gravitational potential energy of 590 J. The remainder is the change in thermal energy of the childs pants and the slide. (b) The energy conservation equation becomes K + U g + E th = 0. With U g = 590 J and K = 40 J , the change in the thermal energy of the slide and of the childs pants is then 590 J 40 J = 550 J. Assess: Note that most of the gravitational potential energy is converted to thermal energy, and only a small amount is available to be converted to kinetic energy.

## Energy and Work

10-23

P10.32. Prepare: We will use conservation of energy, Equation 10.4, to calculate the increase in thermal energy. Assume the initial velocity of the fireman to be zero.
y

## vi = 0 m/s yi = 4.2 m/s

vf = 2.2 m/s yf = 0 m

Solve: Consider the figure above. Using ground level as the reference for gravitational potential energy, the conservation of energy equation becomes
K + U g + E th = 0 E th = K + U g

## The change in his gravitational potential energy is

U g = mgy f mgy i = 0 (80 kg)(9.80 m /s )( 4.2 m) = 3.3 kJ
2

## The change in his kinetic energy is

K = K f K i = 0 J 1 2 ( 80 kg)(2.2 m/s) = 0.19 kJ
2

So
E th = (190 J 3300 J) = +3.1 kJ.

Assess:

Note that most of the gravitational potential energy is converted to thermal energy.

P10.33. Prepare: This is a one-dimensional collision that obeys the conservation laws of momentum. Since the collision is perfectly elastic, mechanical energy is also conserved. Equation 10.19 applies to perfectly elastic collisions.
m1 = 50 g (v1x)i = 2.0 m/s
1

m2 = 20 g (v2x)i = 0 m/s
2 x

(v1x)f
1 After

(v2x)f
2

Before

Solve:

## Using Equation 10.19,

(v1 x ) f = (v1 x ) f = m 1 m2 m1 + m2 2 m1 m1 + m2 ( v1 x ) i = ( v1 x ) i = 50 g 20 g 50 g + 20 g 2( 50 g) 50 g + 20 g (2.0 m /s) = 0.86 m/s (2.0 m /s) = 2.9 m /s

Assess: These velocities are of a reasonable magnitude. Since both these velocities are positive, both balls move along the x direction. This makes sense since ball 1 is more massive than ball 2 and ball 2 is initially at rest.

10-24

Chapter 10

P10.34. Prepare: For elastic collisions, Equation 10.19 applies. In this case of a one-dimensional collision, the momentum conservation law is obeyed whether the collision is perfectly elastic or perfectly inelastic. However, in an inelastic collision energy is not conserved.
m1 = 100 g m1 (v1x)i = 10 m/s (a) m1 = 100 g m1 (v1x)i = 10 m/s (b) m2 = 300 g m2 x (v2x)i = 0 m/s After Before m1 m2 (vx)f x m2 = 300 g m2 x (v2x)i = 0 m/s After Before (v1x)f m1 (v2x)f m2 x

## Solve: (a) Using Equation 10.19,

(v1 x ) f = (v 2 x ) f =

m 1 m2 2 m1 m1 + m 2

m1 + m2

( v1 x ) i = (v1 x ) i =

## (10 m/s) = 5.0 m/s (10 m/s) = +5.0 m/s

(b) For the perfectly inelastic collision, both balls travel with the same final speed vf. The momentum conservation equation becomes
( m1 + m2 )vf = m 1 ( v1 ) i + m 2 (v 2 )i 100 g vf = (10 m/s) = 2.5 m/s 100 g + 300 g

Assess: In the case of the perfectly elastic collision, the two balls bounce off each other with a speed of 5.0 m/s and in opposite directions. This is reasonable, since the smaller mass ball which is initially moving hits the larger mass ball which is stationary. In the case of the perfectly inelastic collision, the balls stick together and move together at 2.5 m/s which is less than the intial velocity of the smaller mass ball as expected. P10.35. Prepare: This is a case of a perfectly elastic collision between a proton and a carbon atom. The collision obeys the momentum as well as the energy conservation law. Equation 10.19 governs elastic collisions.
Before After

mC = 12 mP mP
C
C

(vCx)i = 0 m/s

(vPx)f

(vCx)f

Solve:

## Using Equation 10.19:

(v P x ) f = (v Cx ) f = m 12 m P 7 7 (v P x )i = P (2.0 10 m /s) = 1.7 10 m /s mP + mC m P + 12 m P mP mC 2mP 2mP 7 6 ( vPx ) i = ( 2.0 10 m/s) = 3.1 10 m/ s mP + mC m P + 12 m P

After the elastic collision the proton rebounds at 1.7 10 7 m /s and the carbon atom moves forward at
3.1 10 m /s.
6

## Energy and Work

10-25

Assess: Since the proton is much less massive than the carbon atom, we would expect it to rebound off the carbon atom and head in the opposite direction and that the carbon atom does not gain much velocity from the collision. P10.36. Prepare:
(a)

Equation 10.19 governs elastic collisions with one object initially at rest.
m1

m1

## (v1x)i = 200 m/s

m2

(v2x)i = 0 m/s

Solve: (a) Consider the incoming ball to be much more massive than the stationary ball. Then m 1 >> m 2 . Consider this in Equation 10.19,
(v1 x ) f = (v 2 x ) f = m 1 m2 m1 + m2 2 m1 m1 + m 2 ( v1 x ) i (v 1 x ) i

## If m 1 >> m 2 , m 1 m 2 m 1 and m 1 + m 2 m 1 so these equations become

(v1 x ) f (v1 x )i (v 2 x ) f 2( v1 x )i

Then
(v1 x ) f 200 m /s (v 2 x ) f 400 m /s

## (b) If m 1 << m 2 , m 1 m 2 m 2 and m1 + m 2 m 2 so the equations become

(v1 x ) f ( v1 x )i (v 2 x ) f m1 m ( v1 x )i 0 m/s since 1 is very small m2 m2 (v1 x ) f 200 m /s (v 2 x ) f 0 m /s

And then

Assess: These results make sense. In the first case when the incoming ball has the much greater mass, its velocity is practically unaffected, while the much less massive ball shoots off with a very high velocity. In the second case, when the initially stationary ball has much more mass, it remains approximately stationary, while the much less massive incoming ball simply bounces back. P10.37. Prepare: In the case of elastic collisions where one object is stationary, both momentum and energy are conserved. We need to solve the momentum conservation and energy conservation equations simultaneously for (v1 x )f and (v 2 x )f .
Before
After

(v2x)f

Solve:

## Consider the figure above. The momentum conservation equation is

m 1 (v1 x )i = m 1 (v1 x )f + m 2 (v 2 x )f

## The energy conservation equation is

1 2 m 1 (v1 x )i =
2

1 2

m 1 (v1 x )f +
2

1 2

m 2 (v 2 x )f

10-26

Chapter 10

Want to solve for (v1 x )f and (v 2 x )f in terms of (v1 x )i . Consider solving for (v1 x )f first. In this case, we want to eliminate (v 2 x )f , so solve for it in the momentum conservation equation:

(v )
2x

m1 m2

((v

1x i

) (v ) )
1x f

## Substitute into the energy conservation equation:

1 1 m 1 m 1 (v1 x )i 2 = m 1 (v1 x )f 2 + m 2 1 2 2 m2 2 1 1 m 1 m (v ) 2 m 1 (v1 x )f 2 = m 2 1 2 2 m2 2 1 1x i Canceling 1 m 1 and m 2 , 2 m (v1 x )f 2 = 1 (v1 x )i (v1 x )f m2
2

((v ((v

1x i

) (v ) ) so
2 1x f

1x i

) (v ) )
2 1x f

(v )
1x

)
2

## Factoring the left hand side,

((v

1x

) (v ) ) ((v ) + (v ) )=
i 1x f 1x i 1x f

m1 m2

((v

1x i

) (v ) )
1x f

Canceling

((v
1x

1x i

, we get ) (v ) )
1x f

((v

1x

) + (v ) )=
i f

m1 m2

((v

1x i

) (v ) )
1x f

## Now we bring (v1 x )f to the left, and (v1 x )i to the right:

(v ) 1 +
1x f

m1 m1 = (v1 x )i 1 m2 m2

Rearranging,

(v )
1x

m m2 = 1 (v1 x )i m1 + m2

(v )

2x f

(v )
2x

m1 m2

((v

1x i

) (v ) )=
1x f

## So we obtain Equation 10.19:

(v )
1x 2x

(v )

2m1 m1 + m 2

(v )
1x

Assess: An important procedure here was to solve for one variable in terms of another and then substitute into the other equation. This led to an equation that only contained one unknown. A useful algebra technique was to eliminate a squared term by factoring and canceling. P10.38. Prepare: We can apply the conservation of energy equation to calculate the work done and then use this to calculate the power supplied by the motor using Equation 10.21. Solve: The tension in the cable does work on the elevator to lift it. Because the cable is pulled by the motor, we say that the motor does the work of lifting the elevator.

10-27

## (a) The energy conservation equation is Ki + U i + W = K f + U f + E th . Using Ki = 0 J, Kf = 0 J, and Eth = 0 J gives

W = (U f U i ) = mg ( yf y i ) = (1000 kg )(9.80 m / s )(100 m ) = 9.80 10 J
2 5

(b) The power required to give the elevator this much energy in a time of 50 s is
P= W t = 9.80 10 5 J 50 s = 2.0 10 W
4

Assess: Since 1 horsepower (hp) is 746 W, the power of the motor is 27 hp. This is a reasonable amount of power to lift a mass of 1000 kg to a height of 100 m in 50 s. P10.39. Prepare: We can use the definition of work, Equation 10.8 to calculate the work you do in pushing the block. The displacement is parallel to the force, so we can use W = Fd . Since the block is moving at a steady speed, the force you exert must be exactly equal and opposite to the force of friction.
Known v1x = v0x = 1.0 m/s x0 = y 0 = 0 m t0 = 0 s y1 = 0 s t1 = 3.0 s mk = 0.60 Find d = x1 x0 y
r n

fk
r w

x 0 , y 0 , t0 v 0x Before

x 1, y 1 , t 1 v 1x

After

Solve: (a) The work done on the block is W = Fd where d is the displacement. We will find the displacement using kinematic equations. The displacement in the x-direction is
d = (1.0 m /s)(3.0 s) = 3.0 m

We will find the force using Newtons second law of motion. Consider the diagram above. The equations for Newtons second law along the x and y components are

## (F ) y = n w = 0 N n = w = mg = (10 kg)( 9.80 m/ s 2 ) = 98 .0 N (F ) x = F fk = 0 N F = f k = k n = (0.60 )(98 N ) = 58 .8 N

W = Fd = (58.8 N)( 3.0 m) = 176 J, which should be reported as 1.8 10 2 J to two significant figures.

An extra significant figure has been kept in intermediate calculations. (b) The power required to do this much work in 3.0 s is
P= W t = 176 J 3.0 s = 59 W

Assess: This seems like a reasonable amount of power to push a 10 kg block at 1.0 m/s. Note that this power is almost what a standard 60 W lightbulb requires! P10.40. Prepare: We will use the definition of power, Equation 10.21 to calculate the energy used by each device. Solve: From Equation 10.21, W = P t .
Whair dryer = (1.2 10 3 W)( 600 s) = 7.2 10 5 J 60 min 60 s 5 W night light = (10 W)(24 hour) = 8.6 10 J hour min

Assess: The night light consumes slightly more energy than the hair dryer. This is reasonable since though the night light uses much less power than the hair dryer, it is on for much longer.

10-28

Chapter 10

P10.41. Prepare: We will need to calculate the work done on the car in accelerating the car to calculate the power output of the engine. The car starts from rest. Solve: The change in kinetic energy of the car is
K = K f K i = 1 2 mv f =
2

1 2

## (1000 kg)(30 m/s) = 4.5 10 J

since the initial kinetic energy is zero. The power associated with this work is
P= W t = 4.5 10 5 J 10 s = 45 kW

Assess: This is reasonable. In most cars only a small fraction of the work done by the engine goes into propelling the car. P10.42. Prepare: The energy contained in a spring is given by Equation 10.18. We will use energy conservation, Equation 10.4 to calculate the work you do. Solve: The energy stored in the spring by you compressing it is
Us = 1 2
kx =
2

1 2

## ( 5000 N /m) (0.040 ) = 4.0 J

Since the compression is entirely due to the work you do exerting the force with your hands, W = U s . So the power you output is
P= W t = 4.0 J 0.30 s = 13 W

Assess:

This is a reasonable amount of power to compress a spring this relatively short distance.

P10.43. Prepare: Neglecting friction, the only horizontal force on the stone is the force exerted by the curler. The work done by this force will be transferred entirely into the stones kinetic energy. We can use the conservation of energy equation to calculate this work. We will assume the ice is frictionless, that the acceleration of the stone is constant, and that the stone starts from rest.
Before F
r

## After m = 20 kg vi = 0 m/s vf = 3.0 m/s

Solve: (a) Refer to the diagram above. We can find the force exerted on the stone by the curler from the acceleration of the stone. Since v i = 0 m/s,
a= vf vi t = 3.0 m/ s 2.0 s = 1.5 m/s
2

## The force on the stone is given by

F = ma = ( 20 kg)(1.5 m/s) = 30 N

(b) Since E th = 0 J in this case, the law of conservation of energy (10.6) reads
W = Kf Ki = 1 2 mv f
2

1 2

mv i

Since v i = 0 m/s
W= 1 2 2 mv f = ( 20 kg)(3.0 m/s) = 90 J 2 2 1

## Energy and Work

10-29

P=

W t

90 J 2.0 s

= 45 W

Assess: Note that the amount of muscle power needed to quickly accelerate this relatively heavy stone would not even fully light a 60 W light bulb. P10.44. Prepare: Since the car is traveling at a constant speed, the force that the cars engine provides to move the car forward must equal the total force opposing the cars motion. We will use Equation 10.22 to calculate the power, since we are given the velocity of the car and will calculate the force.
v
r r

## v = 23 m/s Fdrag = 500 N

Fdrag

Fengine

Solve:

(a) Refer to the diagram above. Since the force provided by the engine must equal the drag force,
Fengine = Fdrag = 500 N

The power is
P = Fv = (500 N)( 23 m/ s) = 1.2 10 W
4

(b)

## m = 710 kg v = 23 m/s Fdrag = 500 N u = 2.08

x
r

y n

F engi

ne

F drag
u

Fdrag w sin u

Fengine

w cos u

Refer to the diagram above. Now in addition to the drag force, there is a component of the weight of the car which is opposing the motion of the car. From the diagram, the component of the weight which is opposite the direction of motion of the car is
Fgravity,
along the slope

## = mg sin( ) = (1000 kg)( 9.80 m/s ) sin(2 ) = 342 N

2

The total force the engine must overcome is now 500 N + 342 N = 842 N. The power required from the engine for this is
P = Fv = (842 N)( 23 m/s) = 1.9 10 W
4

Assess: given.

Note that this form of the definition is more convenient to use in this problem since the velocity is

P10.45. Prepare: The two forces acting on the elevator are its weight and the force F due to the motor. Since the elevator is moving with constant velocity, the net force on the elevator is zero. Solve: Consider the diagram above. Since the net force on the elevator is zero, F + w = 0 N. So
F = w = 2500 N

The power due to this force acting on the elevator moving with constant velocity can be calculated using Equation 10.22.
P = Fv = (2500 N)( 8.0 m/s) = 2.0 10 W
4

10-30

Chapter 10

Assess: One horsepower (hp) is 746 W, so the power of the motor is 26.8 hp. This is a reasonable amount of power to lift an elevator. P10.46. Prepare: Use the definitions of kinetic energy (Equation 10.11), gravitational potential energy (Equation P10.16), work (Equation 10.8) and conservation of energy (Equation 10.4) in this problem.
y

.0 L=2

vf
yf vf = 0.80 m/s After
0

F = 10 N yi = 0 m vi = 0 m/s Before

F
u = 178

Solve: (a) The work done by the force can be calculated with Equation 10.8 since the force is parallel to the displacement of the box.
W = Fd = (10 N)( 2.0 m) = 20 J

(b) We know the box starts from rest, so Ki = 0 J. We are given that the speed of the box at the top of the ramp is 0.80 m/s, so we can calculate the change in kinetic energy.
K = K f K i = 1 2
mv f =
2

1 2

## (2.3 kg)( 0.80 m/s) = 0.74 J

(c) Taking the reference for gravitational potential energy to be the bottom of the ramp, U i = 0 J. We need to find the final height of the box to calculate the final gravitational potential energy. Refer to the diagram above. Since the ramp is 2.0m long and at an angle of 17 the final height of the box is
yf = (2.0 m )sin(17 ) = 0.58 m

Ug = U g

( ) (U ) = mgy
f g i

## (d) From the conservation of energy equation we have

K + U g + E th = W E th = W K U g = 20 J 0.74 J 13 J = 6.3 J

Assess: Note that much of the work goes into overcoming gravity and the friction in the ramp, giving a relatively small increase in kinetic energy. P10.47. Prepare: Assuming that the track offers no rolling friction, the sum of the skateboarders kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change during his rolling motion.
y

yf, vf
R R = 3.0 m

## Known m = 55 kg yi = 0 m yf = R = 3.0 m vf = 0 m/s Find vi

yi, vi
0

The vertical displacement of the skateboarder is equal to the radius of the track. Solve: (a) The quantity K + Ug is the same at the upper edge of the quarter-pipe track as it was at the bottom. The energy conservation equation Kf + U gf = K i + U gi is

10-31

## 1 1 2 2 2 2 mv f + mgy f = mv i + mgy i vi = v f + 2 g( y f yi ) 2 2 v i = ( 0 m / s) + 2( 9.80 m / s )(3.0 m 0 m ) = 58 .8 m /s vi = 7.7 m/ s

2 2 2

(b) If the skateboarder is in a low crouch, his height above ground at the beginning of the trip changes to 0.75 m. His height above ground at the top of the pipe remains the same since he is horizontal at that point. Following the same procedure as for part (a),
1 1 2 2 2 2 mv f + mgy f = mv i + mgy i vi = vf + 2 g ( yf yi ) 2 2 v i = ( 0 m / s) + 2( 9.80 m / s )(3.0 m 0.75 m) = 44 .1 m/s v i = 6.6 m/s
2 2 2

Assess: Note that we did not need to know the skateboarders mass, as is the case with free-fall motion. Note that the shape of the track is irrelevant. P10.48. Prepare: We will take the system to be the flea plus the earth. Right after the flea jumps, it has kinetic energy. This is transformed to potential energy and thermal energy as it moves upward. Solve: (a) If there is no air resistance, none of the initial kinetic energy is transformed to thermal energy, so we can write Ki + U i = K f + U f . We will the initial point to be when the flea takes off; at this point, the
2 kinetic energy Ki = 1 2 mv is a maximum. We take the zero of potential energy to be at the ground, so U i = 0. We will take the final point to be the highest point of the motion. Here, K f = 0, and the potential
1 mv 2 = mgh 2 i

## energy U f = mgh is a maximum. Solving, we find

vi = 2 gh = 2 9.8 m/s

## ) (0.40 m ) = 2.8 m/s2

(b) If some of the initial kinetic energy is transformed to thermal energy, the final potential energy, and the final height, will be less. When air resistance is a factor, there is a loss to thermal energy and the final height is half the height with no air resistance. As potential energy is proportional to height above the ground, half the energy, 50%, is lost to thermal energy. Assess: If we are only interested in the height, the mass of the flea does not matter; it cancels in the calculation. The final result is less than other jumping speeds we have seen, which makes sense as the final height is less as well. P10.49. Prepare: For the marble spinning around the inside of a smooth pipe, the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change.
y2 , v2

R y, v

## y1, v1 = 3.0 m/s

We use a coordinate system with the origin at the bottom of the pipe, that is, y1 = 0. The diameter of the pipe is 20 cm, and therefore ytop = y2 = 0.20 m.

10-32

Chapter 10

Solve:

## (a) The energy conservation equation K2 + U g 2 = K1 + U g1 is

v2 = 1 1 2 mv 2 mv1 + mgy1 2 + mgy2 = 2 2 ( 3.0 m / s)2 + 2( 9.8 m/s 2 )(0 m 0.20 m ) = 2.3 m/ s

v12 + 2 g ( y1 y 2 ) =

Assess: Beginning with a speed of 3.0 m/s at the bottom, the marbles potential energy increases and kinetic energy decreases as it gets toward the top of the circle. At the top, its speed is 2.3 m/s. This is reasonable since some of the kinetic energy has been transformed into the marbles potential energy. P10.50. Prepare: Assume the chain to be massless. In the absence of frictional and air-drag effects, the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change during the swings motion.

Solve:

## K0 + U g 0 = K 1 + U g1 . The above equation is

The quantity K + Ug is the same at the highest point of the swing as it is at the lowest point. That is,
1 1 2 2 2 2 mv 0 + mgy 0 = mv 1 + mgy1 v1 = v0 + 2 g ( y0 y1 ) 2 2 v1 = ( 0 m / s) + 2 g ( y0 0 m ) v1 =
2 2

2 gy 0

## We see from the pictorial representation that

y0 = L L cos 45 = (3.0 m ) ( 3.0 m ) cos 45 = 0.88 m v1 = 2 gy 0 = 2( 9.80 m / s 2 )(0.88 m ) = 4.2 m /s

Assess: We did not need to know the swings or the childs mass. Also, a maximum speed of 4.2 m/s is reasonable. P10.51. Prepare: We will need to use Newtons laws here along with the definition of work (Equation 10.8). Assume you lift the box with constant speed. Solve: (a) You lift the box with constant speed so the force you exert must equal the weight of the box. So 2 F = mg = ( 20 kg)(9.80 m/s ) = 196 N. The work done by this force is then
W = Fd = (196 N )(1.0 m) = 196 J which should be reported as 0.20 kJ to two significant figures

(b)

y
r

n
r

F
ws in u wc
u u w
r

os

## Energy and Work

10-33

Refer to the diagram above. Since the box moves at constant speed, the force that is required to push the box up the ramp must exactly equal the component of the gravitational force along the slope.
F = mg sin( ) = (20 kg)( 9.80 m/s ) sin(30 ) = 98 N
2

(c) Since the height of the ramp is 1.0 m and the angle of the ramp is 30 , the length of the ramp is the length of the hypotenuse in the diagram above, which is
y = L sin L = y sin = 1.0 m sin 30 = 2.0 m

(d) We will use the result of parts (b) and (c) here. The force is parallel to the displacement of the block, so we can use Equation 10.8 again. The work done by the force to push the block up the ramp is W = Fd = (98 N )(2.0 m) = 196 J which should be reported as 0.20 kJ to two significant figures. This is exactly the same result as part (a), where the block is lifted straight up. Assess: We could have expected that the answers to parts (d) and (a) would be the same. In both cases, the force we exert opposes gravity. We know that gravitational potential energy depends only on the change in height of an object, and not the exact path the object follows to change its height. Note that the answer doesnt even depend on the shape of the ramp. P10.52. Prepare: This is case of free-fall, so the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy does not change as the cannon ball falls.

The figure shows a before-and-after pictorial representation. To express the gravitational potential energy, we put the origin of our coordinate system on the ground below the fortress. Solve: Using yf = 0 and the equation Ki + U gi = Kf + U gf we get
1 1 2 mv i2 + mgy i = mv f2 + mgy f v 2 i + 2 gy i = vf 2 2 vf = vi2 + 2 gy i = (80 m / s)2 + 2( 9.80 m / s 2 )(10 m ) = 81 m/s

Assess: Note that we did not need to use the tilt angle of the cannon, because kinetic energy is a scalar. Also note that using the energy conservation equation, we can find only the magnitude of the final velocity, not the direction of the velocity vector. Note that this method is much easier than using kinematics to calculate the final velocity of the ball. P10.53. Prepare: Since the hill is frictionless, mechanical energy will be conserved during the sledders trip. To make it over the next hill, the sledders velocity must be greater than or equal to zero at the top of the hill. The minimum velocity the sledder can have at the top of the second hill is 0 m/s to just make it over. The corresponding velocity at the top of the initial hill will be the minimum the sledder needs to just make it over the next hill.

10-34

Chapter 10

## y After Before yi = 0 m 42 m 30 m vi vf = 0 m/s yf = 12 m

Solve: Consider the before and after pictorial representation above. We will use the sledders initial height as the reference for gravitational potential energy. Since there is no friction, the conservation of energy equation, Equation 10.8 reads
1 1 2 mv 2 mv f + mgy f vi2 = 2 gy f i + mgy i = 2 2 vi = 2 gy f = 2( 9.80 m / s 2 )(12 m ) = 15 m/s

Where we have used yi = 0 m, and v f = 0m /s for the sledder to just make it over the second hill. Note that since we are using the top of the first hill as the reference of gravitational potential energy, we must use the height of the top of the second hill above the first for yf , yf = 42 m 30 m = 12 m. Assess: Note the shape of the hill doesnt matter, only the difference in height between the first and second hill is needed, as expected for gravitational potential energy. Since the second hill is higher than the first, we expect that the sledder needs the additional kinetic energy at initial hill to make up for the additional potential energy needed at the top of the second hill. P10.54. Prepare: We will assume an elastic collision between the marble and the ball, and apply the conservation of momentum and the conservation of energy equations. We will also assume zero rolling friction between the marble and the incline. This is a two-part problem. In the first part, we will apply the conservation of energy equation to find the marbles speed as it exits onto a horizontal surface. In the second part, we will consider the elastic collision between the marble and the steel ball.

We have put the origin of our coordinate system on the horizontal surface just where the marble exits the incline. Solve: The conservation of energy equation K1 + U g1 = K 0 + U g0 gives us:
1 2 m M ( v1 ) M + m M gy 1 =
1 2 2

1 2

m M (v0 ) M + m M gy 0

2 gy 0 . When the marble collides with the steel ball, the elastic collision gives the ball velocity (from Equation 10.19) (v 2 )S = 2mM mM + mS ( v1 ) M = 2mM mM + mS 2 gy 0

## Using (v0 )M = 0 m/s and y1 = 0 m, we get

( v1 ) M = gy 0 ( v1 ) M =

## Solving for y0 gives

( 0.100 kg + 0.200 kg) 1 mM + mS 1 y0 = (v 2 )S = (1.5 m/s) = 0.258 m = 25.8 cm 2 2g 2(9.80 m/s ) 2( 0.100 kg) 2mM
2 2

## Energy and Work

10-35

Assess: Note that though this problem has two parts, energy is conserved during the whole process. However, since we are not given the velocity of the marble after the collision, we cannot directly use conservation of energy between the initial and final states to solve the problem. P10.55. Prepare: Assume an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. There is no friction, and therefore the mechanical energy K + Us + Ug is conserved. At the top of the slope, as the ice cube is reversing direction, the velocity of the ice cube is 0 m/s.

The figure shows a before-and-after pictorial representation. We have chosen to place the origin of the coordinate system at the position where the ice cube has compressed the spring 10.0 cm. That is, y0 = 0. Solve: The energy conservation equation K2 + U s 2 + U g2 = K0 + U s 0 + U g0 is
1 2 mv 2 +
2

1 2

k ( xe xe ) + mgy 0 =

1 2

mv 0 +

1 2

k ( x x e ) + mgy 0

2

k( x xe ) 2 2 mg

## (25 N /m )( 0.10 m )2 2(0.050 kg )( 9.80 m/s 2 )

= 26 cm

The distance traveled along the incline is y2 / sin 30 = 51 cm. Assess: The net effect of the launch is to transform the potential energy stored in the spring into gravitational potential energy. The block has kinetic energy as it comes off the spring, but we did not need to know this energy to solve the problem since energy is conserved during the whole process. P10.56. Prepare: Assume an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. The mechanical energy K Us Ug is conserved during the launch of the ball and during the balls drop to the floor. However, since we are not given the balls final velocity before it hits the floor, we will use kinematics to calculate the balls velocity when it leaves the spring.

10-36

Chapter 10

During launch

xe
v1 = 0 m/s

xe

v2

Dx = 0.20 cm Before

After

After launch
v2

## y2 = 1.5 m x2 = 5.0 m m = 0.020 kg

y2 x2

This is a two-part problem. In the first part, we use projectile equations to find the balls velocity v2 as it leaves the spring. This will yield the balls kinetic energy as it leaves the spring. Using conservation of energy for the second part of the trip, we can find the balls final velocity when it hits the floor. Solve: Using the equations of kinematics,
v 2 t 2 = x2 = 5.0 m t 2 = (5.0 m / v2 )

This is an equation that gives the time of flight of the ball in terms of the unknown velocity of the ball as it leaves the spring. Use the height of the table as the origin of the coordinate system for this part of the problem. Since the velocity of the ball has no vertical component when it leaves the spring,
y2 = 1.5 m = 1 2 1 ay t22 2

(9.80 m / s 2 )( t 2 )2
2

## Substituting the value for t3, 1.5 m = (4.90 m / s 2 )

5.0 m v2

v2 = 9.0 m / s

This is the velocity of the ball as it leaves the spring. The conservation of energy equation for the part of the motion when the spring is launching the ball is K2 + U s 2 = K 1 + U s1 is
1 2 mv 2 +
2

1 2

k (0 m) =

1 2

mv 1 +

1 2

k ( x )

## Using v1 = 0 m/s, x = 0.2 m, we get

1 1 mv 22 + 0 J = 0 J + k( x) 2 ( x ) 2 k = mv 22 2 2 (0.20 m )2 k = ( 0.020 kg)( 9.0 m /s)2 k = 41 N/m

Assess:

Note that we can ignore gravitational potential energy because the spring is horizontal.

P10.57. Prepare: Assume the spring is an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. There is no friction, and thus the mechanical energy K+ Us + Ug is conserved. We assume the rock leaves the spring when the spring reaches its equilibrium position.

## Energy and Work

10-37

This is a two part problem. We will consider the motion of the rock as the spring expands until the rock leaves the spring for part (a) and the motion after it leaves the spring in part (b). We place the origin of our coordinate system at the springs compressed position y1 = 0. We assume the rock leaves the spring with velocity v2 as the spring reaches its equilibrium position. Solve: (a) Note we will have to consider both the potential energy change due to the spring and due to gravity during this phase of the motion. The conservation of mechanical energy equation is
K2 + U s 2 + U g2 = K1 + U s1 + U g1 1 2 mv 2 +
2

1 2

k (y 2 ye ) + mgy 2 =

1 2

mv 1 +

1 2

k( y1 y e ) + mgy1

## Using y2 = ye, y1 = 0 m, and v1 = 0 m/s, this simplifies to

1 2 1 mv 2 + 0 J + mgy 2 = 0 J + k (y1 ye )2 + 0 J 2 2 1 1 (0.4 kg) v22 + (0.4 kg)( 9.80 m /s 2 )( 0.30 m ) = (1000 N /m )( 0.30 m )2 v 2 = 15 m/s 2 2

(b) Now the rock is only traveling under the influence of gravity. Let us use the conservation of mechanical energy equation once again to find the highest position (y3) of the rock where its speed (v3) is zero:
K3 + U g3 = K2 + U g2 0 + g (y 3 y 2 ) = 1 1 mv 32 + mgy3 = mv 22 + mgy2 2 2

## 1 2 v2 (15 m / s)2 v2 ( y3 y2 ) = 2 = = 11 m 2 2 g 2(9.80 m /s 2 )

Note that this is the height the rock travels above the equilibrium length of the spring. The equilibrium length of the spring is not given in the problem. If the springs length is less than 4 m, the rock will not reach the fruit, which is 15 m about the ground. The contestants may want to consider simply throwing the rock in this case. Assess: Its important to consider all types of energy changes that occur during a process, such as in part (a) where kinetic, elastic and gravitational potential energy are changing. Though this is a two-part problem, note that mechanical energy is conserved throughout the whole process. P10.58. Prepare: We will take the system to be the person plus the earth. When a person drops from a certain height, the initial potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy. When the person hits the ground, if they land rigidly upright, we assume that all of this energy is transformed into elastic potential energy of the compressed leg bones. The maximum energy that can be absorbed by the leg bones is 200 J; this limits the maximum height. Solve: (a) The initial potential energy can be at most 200 J, so the height h of the jump is limited by mgh = 200 J. For m = 60 kg, this limits the height to
h = 200 J mg = 200 J

## ( 60 kg ) ( 9.8 m/s 2 ) = 0.34 m .

(b) If some of the energy is transformed to other forms than elastic energy in the bones, the initial height can be greater. If a person flexes her legs on landing, some energy is transformed to thermal energy. This allows for a greater initial height.

10-38

Chapter 10

Assess: There are other tissues in the body with elastic properties that will absorb energy as well, so this limit is quite conservative. P10.59. Prepare: This is a two-part problem. The slide is frictionless, so mechanical energy is conserved. We will calculate the final velocity of the people as they exit the slide and then use that result to calculate how far they travel from the exit before they hit the water.
y Position 1 v1 = 0 m/s y1 = 3.0 m Position 2 v2 y2 = 1.2 m

Position 3 y3 = 0 m x3 x

Solve: Refer to the diagram above. Setting the reference for gravitational potential energy to be zero at the bottom of the slide, the energy conservation equation becomes
mgy 1 = 1 2 mv1 v1 =
2

2 gy1 =

## 2( 9.80 m/s )( 3.0 m) = 7.67 m/s

Note that this result does not depend on the persons mass. We keep an additional significant figure here for the second part of the calculation. After they leave the slide, they are falling under the influence of gravity. Their initial velocity in the y direction is zero. The time it takes for them to fall to the water can be calculated with ordinary kinematics.
y = v0 y t 1 a t 2 , with v 0 y = 0 m/ s gives 2 1 2 2 y = 1.2 m = ( 9.80 m/s ) t or 2 t = (2)(1.2 m) = 0.50 s 9.80 m/s 2

## Using v1 = 7.67 s from the first part of the problem, we find

x = v1 t = ( 7.67 m/s)(0.50 s) = 3.8 m

The mass of the person was not necessary for this part of the calculation either. Assess: Though this is a two-part problem mechanical energy is conserved throughout the whole process. However we could not use conservation of energy to solve the problem since we are not given the final velocity of the person before they hit the water, which is necessary for the conservation of energy equation. Note that it does not matter what the mass of the person is, they will always travel 3.8 m from the exit of the tube before hitting the water. P10.60. Prepare: Since there is no friction, total mechanical energy is conserved.

5.0

3.0 m

y1 = 0 m v1

y2

Solve: (a) As she swings, her height above the cliff increases since the rope doesnt stretch. Her initial kinetic energy is being converted to gravitational potential energy during the swing.

## Energy and Work

10-39

(b) Refer to the diagram above. When she is directly above the opposite side of the ravine, she has moved 3.0 m horizontally while the rope is also swinging her upwards. Using the Pythagorean theorem, we can find the distance between the branch and her new height. l = (5.0 m )2 (3.0 m)2 = 4.0 m. Therefore, she is 5.0 m 4.0 m = 1.0 m above the cliff. (c) To make it to the other side of the ravine, she must have enough kinetic energy to be converted to the equivalent gravitational potential energy of her additional 1.0 m of height. The minimum initial velocity she will need will be when she just makes it to the other side of the ravine with no kinetic energy (all her initial kinetic energy being converted to potential energy of her height above the cliff). Using the cliff as the reference for gravitational potential energy, the conservation of energy equation reads
K1 + U g
1 2 v1 = 2 gy 2 =

( ) = K + (U )
1 2 g

mv 1 = mgy 2
2

## 2( 9.80 m/s )(1.0 m) = 4.4 m/s

Assess: We calculated for the case where all her initial kinetic energy is converted to gravitational potential energy at the other side of the ravine. Note she could start with a greater initial kinetic energy, which would also get her to the other side of the ravine. In this case, when shes above the other side of the ravine, she will have some additional kinetic energy instead of just making it to the other side. P10.61. Prepare: Assume an ideal spring that obeys Hookes law. This is a two part problem. The first part, when the bullet embeds itself in the block, is a perfectly inelastic collision. In a perfectly inelastic collision, the momentum is conserved while energy is not conserved. In the second part of the problem, when the bullet and block hit the spring, there is no friction. Since there is no friction after the bullet enters the block, the mechanical energy of the system (bullet block spring) is conserved during that part of the motion.

We place the origin of our coordinate system at the end of the spring that is not anchored to the wall. Solve: (a) Momentum conservation for perfectly inelastic collision states p f = p i . This means
m ( m + M )v f = m (vi ) m + M (vi ) M (m + M )vf = mv B + 0 kg m /s vf = v m+M B

where we have used vB for the initial speed of the bullet. This is velocity of the bullet and block after the bullet embeds itself in the block. Now, when the bullet and block hit the spring and compress it, mechanical energy is conserved. The mechanical energy conservation equation K1 + U s1 = Ke + U se as the bulletembedded block compresses the spring is:
1 2 m (v f )2 + 1 2 k ( x 1 x e )2 = 0J+ 1 2 ( m + M )( vf )2 + 1 2 k ( x e x e )2
2

m 2 1 2 1 kd = ( m + M ) v + 0 J vB = m + M B 2 2

( m + M )kd 2 m2

(b) Using the above formula with m = 5.0 g, M = 2.0 kg, k = 50 N/m, and d = 10 cm,

10-40

Chapter 10

vB =

## (0.0050 kg + 2.0 kg)( 50 N / m)( 0.10 m ) 2 ( 0.0050 kg )2

= 200 m/s

Which should be reported as 2.0 10 2 m/s to two significant figures. (c) The fraction of energy lost is (initial energy final energy)/(initial energy), which is
1 1 2 2 2 mv B (m + M )vf 2 m + M vf m+M m 2 2 =1 = 1 1 2 m vB m m + M mv B 2 m 0.0050 kg =1 = 1 = 99 .8% m+M ( 0.0050 kg + 2.0 kg )

Where we have kept an additional significant figure. Assess: During the perfectly inelastic collision 99.8% of the bullets energy is lost. The energy is transformed into the energy needed to deform and block and bullet and to the thermal energy of the bullet and block combination. P10.62. Prepare: During the collision, as Lisa leaps onto the bobsled, the momentum of the Lisa bobsled system is conserved. The collision is perfectly inelastic so energy is not conserved during this part of the problem. We will assume the ramp to be frictionless, so that after Lisa is on the sled, the mechanical energy of the system (Lisa + bobsled + spring) is conserved. We will also assume the spring to be an ideal one that obeys Hookes law.

We place the origin of our coordinate system directly below the bobsleds initial position as in the diagram above. Solve: (a) For the first part of the problem, momentum is conserved. Momentum conservation in Lisas collision with bobsled states p1 = p 0 , or
( m L + m B )v1 = m L ( v0 ) L + m B (v0 ) B ( m L + m B )v1 = m L (v 0 )L + 0 mL 40 kg v1 = ( v0 ) L = (12 m/s) = 8.0 m /s m + m 40 kg + 20 kg L B

After Lisa is on the bobsled, energy is conserved. The energy conservation equation: K2 + U s 2 + U g2 = K1 + U s1 + U g1 is
1 2 (m L + m B ) v2 +
2

1 2

k( x 2 xe ) + (m L + m B )gy 2 =

1 2

( m L + m B )v1 +

1 2

k ( xe x e ) + ( m L + m B )gy1

Using v2 = 0 m/s, k = 2000 N/m, y2 = 0 m, y1 = (50 m) sin 20 = 17.1 m (keeping an additional significant figure for this intermediate result), v1 = 8.0 m/s, and (mL mB) = 60 kg, we get
0 J+ 1 2 (2000 N / m )( x2 x e ) + 0 J =
2

1 2

## Energy and Work

10-41

(b) As long as the ice is slippery enough to be considered frictionless, we know from conservation of mechanical energy that the speed at the bottom depends only on the vertical descent y. Only the ramps height h is important, not its shape or angle. Assess: Its important to note that during the Lisas leap onto the sled mechanical energy is not conserved though momentum is conserved. However, energy is conserved once Lisa is on the sled. Due to this, this problem must be split into two separate calculations using the two separate principles of momentum and energy conservation. P10.63. Prepare: We can divide this problem into two parts. First, we have an elastic collision between the 20 g ball (m) and the 100 g ball (M). Second, the 100 g ball swings up as a pendulum.

The figure shows three distinct moments of time: the time before the collision, the time after the collision but before the two balls move, and the time the 100 g ball reaches its highest point. We place the origin of our coordinate system on the 100 g ball when it is hanging motionless. Solve: For a perfectly elastic collision, the ball moves forward with speed
(v1 ) M = 2mm mm + mM ( v0 ) m = 1 3.0 (v 0 )m

In the second part, the sum of the kinetic and gravitational potential energy is conserved as the 100 g ball swings up after the collision. That is, K2 + U g 2 = K1 + U g1 . We have
1 2
Using (v2 )M = 0 m/s, (v1 )M = (v0 ) m 3.0

M (v 2 )M + Mgy 2 =

1 2

M ( v1 ) M + Mgy1

## , y1 = 0 m, and y2 = L L cos , the energy equation simplifies to

g ( L L cos ) =

1 (v 0 ) m 2 9.0

(v0 )m = 18 g L(1 cos ) = 18( 9.80 m /s 2 )(1.0 m)(1 cos 50 ) = 8.0 m/s

Assess: Since the collision is elastic, mechanical energy is conserved during the whole process. We could apply conservation of mechanical energy alone to solve this problem. However, solving this particular problem in two parts using momentum conservation for the first part leads to a simpler calculation. P10.64. Prepare: We can find the kinetic energies directly from the runners masses and final speeds. The power is the rate at which each runners internal chemical energy is converted into kinetic energy, so the average power is K / t . 1 1 2 Solve: (a) We have K S = mS vS = (70 kg)(10 m/s)2 = 3500 J, while 2 2 1 1 2 K G = mG vG = (30 kg)(20 m/s)2 = 6000 J (here, S stands for sprinter and G for greyhound). 2 2

10-42

Chapter 10

(b) We have PS = K S / t = (3500 J)/(3.0 s) = 1200 W, and PG = K G / t = (6000 J)/(3.0 s) = 2000 W. Assess: Although the greyhound has less than half the mass of the human, its final speed is twice as great. And since kinetic energy depends on the square of the speed, the higher speed of the greyhound means that its kinetic energy is greater than the humans. Because 1 hp = 760 W, a human can output about 2 hp and a greyhound about 3 hp in very short bursts. P10.65. Prepare: This is the case of a perfectly inelastic collision. Momentum is conserved because no external force acts on the system (clay block). Mechanical energy is not conserved during perfectly inelastic collisions.

Solve:

## (a) The conservation of momentum equation pfx = pix is

( m1 + m 2 )v f x = m1 (v ix )1 + m 2 ( vix ) 2

## Using (v ix )1 = v 0 and (v ix ) 2 = 0, we get

v fx = m1 m1 + m 2 (v ix )1 = 0.050 kg (1.0 kg + 0.050 kg ) (v ix )1 = 0.048( vi x ) 1 = 0.048 v 0

## (b) The initial and final kinetic energies are given by

1 1 1 1 2 m 1 (v ix )12 + m 2 (v ix ) 2 (0.050 kg )v02 + (1 kg )(0 m /s ) = (0.025 kg )v02 2 = 2 2 2 2 1 1 Kf = (m 1 + m 2 )vf2x = (1 kg + 0.050 kg )( 0.0476 ) 2 v02 = 0.0012 v02 2 2 Ki =

Ki Kf 100% = Ki

## 0.0012 1 100 % = 95% 0.025

The energy goes into the permanent deformation of the ball of clay and into thermal energy. Assess: Mechanical energy is never conserved during inelastic collisions. P10.66. Prepare: Momentum is conserved in both inelastic and elastic collisions. Mechanical energy is conserved only in an elastic collision. We will break this problem into separate parts, using conservation of momentum and/or conservation of energy where appropriate.
m, (v0)m y0 = 3.0 m (v1)m m Before After 2m

(a) m

(v2)3m 2m

(b)

m y4

(v3)m m

(v3)2m 2m

Solve: Consider the motion of the first package down the chute. Mechanical energy is conserved during its slide since the chute is frictionless. For a package with mass m the conservation of energy equation is

## Energy and Work

10-43

K1 + U g1 = K 0 + U g0

1 2

m ( v1 ) m + mgy1 =

1 2

m (v0 )m + mgy 0

## Using (v0 )m = 0 m/s and y1 = 0 m,

1 2 m (v1 ) m = mgy 0 ( v1 ) m =
2

2 gy 0 =

## 2( 9.80 m/s )(3.0 m ) = 7.67 m /s

Keeping an additional significant figure in this intermediate calculation. (a) For the perfectly inelastic collision the conservation of momentum equation is
p f x = p ix (m + 2 m )( v2 ) 3 m = m ( v1 ) m + ( 2 m )(v1 )2 m Using (v1 )2 m = 0 m/s, we get (v 2 )3 m = (v1 )m / 3 = 2.6 m/s

(b) For the elastic collision, the mass m package rebounds with velocity
(v 3 )m = m 2m m + 2m ( v1 ) m = 1 3

## (7.67 m/s ) = 2.56 m/s

Where we keep an additional significant figure in this intermediate result for use later. The negative sign with (v3)m shows that the package with mass m rebounds. It will travel back up the chute and goes to the position y4. During this part of its motion, mechanical energy is conserved. We can determine y4 by applying the conservation of energy equation as follows. For a package of mass m:
Kf + U gf = K i + U gi 1 2 m (v 4 )m + mgy 4 =
2

1 2

m ( v3 )m + mgy 3

## Using (v3 ) m = 2.56 m/s, y3 = 0 m, and ( v4 ) m = 0 m/s, we get

mgy 4 = 1 2 m (2.56 m /s) y4 = 33 cm
2

Assess: The second mass rebounds up the ramp only 33 cm. This is reasonable since the second package does not have much more mass than the first and thus obtains much of the firsts kinetic energy. Note that for part (b), energy is conserved during the whole process. P10.67. Prepare: We will use the constant-acceleration kinematic equations and the definition of power in terms of work, Equation 10.21.
r a = constant

## x x0, t0 v0 = 0 x1, t1 v1 x2, t2 v2

Solve: Refer to the the diagram above. (a) We can find the acceleration from the kinematic equations and the horizontal force from Newtons second law. We have
x = v 0 (t 2 t 0 ) + 1 1 a (t 2 t 0 ) 2 50 m = 0 m + 0 m + a (7.0 s 0 s )2 a = 2.0 m /s 2 2 2 F = ma = ( 50 kg)( 2.0 m/s 2 ) = 100 N

Which should be reported as 1. 0 10 2 N to two significant figures. (b) We obtain the sprinters power output by using P = W t , where W is the work done by the sprinter. After t 1 = 2.0 s the sprinter has moved a distance of d = 2 (2.0 m/ s 2 )(2.0 s)2 = 4.0 m. The work done by the sprinter is 0. 40 kJ then W = Fd = (100 N)(4.0 m) = 0.40 kJ. His power output is then P = W t = 2.0 s = 0.20 kW. (c) During the final two seconds of his run, the distance he has moved is given by
d = x2 x1 = v1 ( t 2 t1 ) + 1 2 1 2 2 2 a (t 2 t 1 ) = v1 (2.0 s) + ( 2.0 m/s )( 2.0 s) 2

10-44

Chapter 10

## v1 = v0 + a t = 0 m/s + ( 2.0 m/s )( 5.0 s) = 10 m/s

So then
d = (10 m/s)( 2.0 s) + 1 2
(2.0 m/s )(2.0 s) = 24 m
2 2

The work done by the sprinter is then W = Fd = (100 N)(24 m) = 2.4 kJ. His power output is then
P= W t = 2.4 kJ 2.0 s = 1.2 kW

Assess: Note the power output required for the last two seconds of the sprint is much larger than during the first two seconds. This is because the sprinter travels a much larger distance during the last two seconds of his trip since he has accelerated to a high velocity by that time. The force is the same during both time intervals. P10.68. Prepare: The rock starts from rest. We can use the kinematic equations to find the force. Apply conservation of energy to calculate the work.
d
m = 0.5 kg
r

FBob x

x0 = 0 m v0 = 0 m/s

x1 = 1.0 m v1 = 30 m/s

Solve: Refer to the diagram above. (a) The force is constant, so we can use constant acceleration kinematics. Using v f 2 = vi 2 + 2 a x with
v i = 0 m/s, a= vf 2 2x = ( 30 m/ s)2 ( 2)(1.0 m) = 4.5 10 m/s
2 2

The force is then F = ma = ( 0.5 kg)(4.5 10 2 m/s 2 ) = 2.3 10 2 N (b) The work done by Bob on the rock is
WBob = Fd = (2.3 10 N)(1.0 m ) = 2.3 10 J
2 2

Assess: The numerical value of the force and the work are the same. This is because the force acts over a distance of 1.0 m. P10.69. Prepare: The motor must pump water to a higher level, and therefore raises the gravitational potential energy of the water. We will calculate the total energy the motor can deliver in one hour, and then use this to calculate the mass of water that can be lifted with this energy. Solve: Using the conversion 746 W = 1 hp, the motor can put our a power of 1.5 kJ/s. This means W = Pt = (1.5 kJ/s)(3600 s) = 5.4 106 J is the total work that can be done by the electric motor in one hour. Since all this work goes into giving the water gravitational potential energy,
Wmotor = U gf U gi = mg ( yf y i ) = mg y m= Wmotor gy = 5.4 10 6 J (9.80 m /s )(10 m) 1 liter 1 kg
2

= 5.5 10 4 kg

Converting to liters,
5.5 10 kg
4

= 5.5 10 liters

Assess:

This seems like a reasonable amount of water for an input power of 2.0 hp.

## Energy and Work

10-45

P10.70. Prepare: The heart provides the pressure to move blood through the body and therefore does work on the blood. We assume all the work goes into pushing the blood through the body. Solve: (a) Using the hint, W = PAd = PV = (1.3 10 4 N/m 2 )( 6.0 10 3 m 3 ) = 78 J (in this equation P represents pressure, not power). (b) P =
W t
= 78 J 60 s
= 1.3 W.

Assess: This seems like a reasonable answer, as it is a small fraction of the power required for most human activities. P10.71. Prepare: Energy is conserved during the fall of the ball since we are ignoring air resistance. We assume the ball is dropped from rest. Solve: Apply conservation of energy. The balls initial kinetic energy is 0 J since its dropped from rest. Taking the reference for gravitational potential energy to be the ground, the balls final potential energy is 0 J. The conservation of energy equation,
Kf + U g

( ) = K + (U )
f i g i

becomes
1 2 mv f = mgy i vf =
2

2 gy i =

## 2(9.80 m/s )(2.5 m) = 7.0 m/s

The answer is choice B. Assess: All the balls initial potential energy is converted to kinetic energy here. P10.72. Prepare: We will need to consider the acceleration after the ball just first hits the floor and starts to compress up to the point at which the ball reaches maximum compression and is about to rebound. Solve: During rebound, the ball compresses 6 mm. Using the result of Problem 10.68, the ball has an initial velocity of 7.0 m/s just before it hits the floor. At the point the ball starts to rebound from the floor, the ball has zero velocity. Since the acceleration is constant, we can use
vf 2 = vi 2 + 2 a y so v i 2 = 2 a y a = v i2 2y = (7.0 m/ s)2 (2(0.006 m)) = 4 10 3 m/s 2

The closest choice is D. Assess: This is a very large acceleration compared to the acceleration due to gravity. This is due to the large change in velocity over a very short distance. P10.73. Prepare: The collision is not elastic. We assume the ball recovers its exact shape from before the collision after the rebound. Since the ball is dropped, we assume it is not rotating right after release. Solve: Refer to the figure in Problem 10.69. As the ball compresses, its kinetic energy is converted to elastic potential energy. However, when the ball decompresses this elastic potential energy is recovered since the ball regains its initial shape. During the compression the balls gravitational energy also changes by a slight amount, but this is also recovered as the ball regains its initial shape. If the ball is dropped straight down, there is no torque available to change the rotational state of the ball when it hits the ground, so its rotational kinetic energy also remains the same. However, during the collision with the floor, the thermal energy of the ball (and the floor) increase. This energy is lost from the system as heat. The answer is C. Assess: In inelastic collisions, these are generally the type of energy transformations that may occur. In all cases some energy is converted to thermal energy which is eventually lost to the environment. P10.74. Prepare: We will need the results of Problem 10.68 and the balls speed after rebounding. Solve: From Problem 10.68, the balls speed before hitting the ground is 7.0 m/s. Its kinetic energy is then
Kbefore = 1 2
m (v before ) =
2

1 2

## ( 0.0575 kg) (7.0 m/s) = 1.4 J

2

10-46

Chapter 10

To find the balls speed after rebounding, use the fact that it rebounds to a height of 1.4 m and use conservation of energy, as in Problem 10.68.
Kafter = mgh after = (0.0575 kg )(9.80 m/s )(1.4 m) = 0.79 J
2

## The percentage change in energy is given by

Kafter K before Kbefore = 0.79 J 1.4 J 1.4 J = 0.44 = 44%

The choice corresponding to this is B. Assess: It is reasonable that the ball loses nearly half of its energy in rebounding from the floor. The height it rebounds to is much less than the initial height it was dropped from. P10.75. Prepare: Since we know that 30% of the initial kinetic energy is lost, we can calculate the final kinetic energy and then the final velocity of the ball after being hit by a racket. Solve: We have that 30% of the initial kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy. In equation form this is
Kf = Ki ( 0.30 )K i = (0.70 ) Ki
1 2 mv f = ( 0.70 )
2

1 2

mv i vf =

( 0.70 )v

## = ( 0.84)(10 m/s) = 8.4 m/s

The closest choice is A. Assess: An energy loss of 30% is consistent with the result of Problem 10.71. Note that this situation is a bounce from a stationary racket. Normally the ball collides with a moving racket and therefore gains kinetic energy. P10.76. Prepare: Equation 10.22 gives the power in terms of force and velocity. Solve: Since the cyclist is moving with constant speed, the drag force must equal the force exerted by the cyclist, assuming no friction from other forces. Using Equation 10.22, W = Fd = (10 N)(1000 m ) = 10 kJ. The correct choice is B. Assess: This is a reasonable amount of energy for a person to expend. Compare to Chapter 11, Example 11.5. P10.77. Prepare: We can use the definition of power in the form of Equation 10.22. Solve: The drag force on the cyclist is 10 N, and her velocity is 5 m/s. The power she is using to overcome drag is P = Fv = (10 N )(5 m/s) = 50 W. The correct choice is B. Assess: Compare to Table 11.4. This table gives the power expended by a 68 kg individual cycling at 15 km/hr (which is about 4 m/s) as being 480 W. A result of 50 W here implies the drag force is actually nearer 100 N in typical cycling conditions. P10.78. Prepare: Since the cyclist has sped up, the drag force has increased. Solve: The drag force is proportional to the square of the velocity. Use k to denote the constant of proportionality. Then F = kv 2 . Before we can use this equation to calculate the new drag force, we need to calculate k. We can use the fact that at v = 5 m/s the force is 10 N. Then
k = F v
2

10 N (5 m/s)
2

= 0.40

N (m /s) 2

## With the new velocity,

N 2 2 F = kv = 0.40 (10 m/s) = 40 N (m/s) 2

Then the work done is W = Fd = (40 .0 N)(1000 m) = 40 kJ. The correct choice is B.

## Energy and Work

10-47

Assess: Since force is proportional to the square of velocity, as the velocity goes up by a factor of two, and the force goes up by a factor of four. So we would expect the work to also increase by a factor of four, which is what explicit calculation shows. P10.79. Prepare: We can calculate the power using the result of Problem 10.75 and the definition of power given by Equation 10.22 Solve: She is cycling at 10 m/s, with a drag force of 40 N. The power expended is then
P = Fv = (40 N)(10 m /s) = 400 W

Assess:

## Compare to the result of Problem 10.74

P10.80. Prepare: The speed of the wind relative to the rider has changed, so the drag force will change. Solve: The wind speed is now 5 m/s relative to the ground, and the rider is moving at 5 m/s relative to the ground and into the wind. The wind velocity relative to the rider is then 10 m/s. The force due to a relative wind velocity of 10 m/s was calculated in Problem 10.75, and the result is F = 40 N. Her velocity is now only 5 m/s, so the power she is exerting is P = Fv = (40 N )(5 m / s) = 200 W. Assess: This is a reasonable amount of power. Compare to Problem 10.74 and Table 11.3.