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WINE PRESSES:

(a review for the lecture: Principles of Winemaking. Prof. Dr. Reinhard EDER, Universit of !ife "cience, #$%U, &ienna, 'ustria(
ABSTRACT )he aim of this paper is to present the various wine pressing techni*ues and s stems which have +een and are currentl used in the wine production industr . Each instrument will +e evaluated on +oth its advantages and disadvantages which will essentiall demonstrate each respective design,s uni*ue compati+ilit to specific forms of wine production. )he wine making communit ,s continued pursuit of *ualit is the driving force +ehind innovation within its techni*ues and methods which is ultimatel translated into the production of superior pressing techni*ues. INTRODUCTION )he purpose of pressing is to recover the -uice associated with the pulp and skin section of the grapes that are not readil released + natural draining. Presses can +e classified into +atch and continuous t pes. )he composition of the press fractions has +een long known to +e different from that of the free.run fraction (#oulton, /001(. )hese differences can +e positive in terms of the varietal character and flavour attri+utes and the precursors of certain aging components, +ut are often negative in terms of lower acidit and higher p2, e3cessive tannin and gum content (#oulton, /001(. )he e3tent of these differences is determined + the condition of the fruit, the wa in which pressure is applied, the nature of the screen and the movement of the skins. )he +atch presses are generall less prone to skin tearing (and su+se*uent phenol and tannin e3traction( than the continuous presses (#oulton, /001(.'ccumulation of suspended solids is concerning +ecause it re*uires further clarification of the press fractions. )here are similar concerns for higher tannin levels and high p2 conditions (#oulton, /001(.)hese fractions generall re*uire special attention such as fining and acidit ad-ustments that the free run fractions do not. )he higher gum content would +e e3pected to contri+ute to poorer settling and enhanced filter fouling in the latter stages of winemaking (Werrel, /000(. 4t was not until the introduction of the larger mem+rane presses in the mid /056s that accepta+le press fractions could +e produced at rates compara+le to those provided + the screw presses. "crew presses are now largel su+stituted + recent generations of mem+rane presses (Werrel, /000(. 7ust as the mem+rane press revolutionised the wine press industr and its capa+ilities in the 56s, with the continual passage of time, new and more refined presses will +e produced and the industr will also continuall grow and improve. )he following section will consider the most +asic and original presses8 the +asket press. 1. Batch Presses #atch presses operate in a c cle in which the grapes are filled, pressuri9ed, rotated and sometimes held at pressure then depressuri9ed and emptied (#oulton, /001(. )he filling time is determined + the capacit of the must

pump or conve ors and si9e of the press. )he pressure is usuall increased to a ma3imum pressure of : to 1 atm ( +ars( in a stage over a period of +etween / and ; hours (#oulton, /001(. <ost +atch presses (e3cept +asket presses( are rotated while the pressure is +eing applied so that a regular.shaped cake is developed. 'lthough older and smaller models were often manuall operated, most of these presses toda have e3tensive programming capa+ilit and the pressures and holding times of the press can +e pre. programmed (Werrel, /000( 1.1 Basket Presses )he +asket press is an upright, usuall c lindrical, slatted or perforated =cage> which holds the grapes or must and a plate, -ust slightl smaller than the internal diameter of the cage. )he plate is forced down while the -uice or wine is e3pelled from the perforations or from +etween the slats of the cage usuall at a right angle to the direction of the force. #asket presses range from simple presses, in which a wooden +asket with vertical slats provides the restraining surface and a capstan is used to appl the pressure, to modern, automated and computeri9ed presses made entirel out of stainless steel and that use h draulicall .actuated rams. )he mechanical modifications of the +asket press have +een to mount the screen on its side and to provide a motor drive of an a3ial screw to move the pressing head (#oulton, /001(. "uch presses are generall referred to as movin hea! "resses. )he moving head presses range from those with other one moving head to those in which a heas advances from each end (#oulton, /001(. "ome have an internal threaded a3le, while others have it e3ternal of the pressing cage (#oulton, /001(. )here are even h draulicall displaced rams. <ost of the moving head presses also have internal hoops connected + chains which are used to help in the +reakup of the cake +etween successive pressings as the head is retracted.

#i $re 1 This ima e !is"%a&s a tra!itiona% 'asket "ress. Note the vertica% s%ats (rom )hich the m$st is e*"e%%e! an! the man$a% %ever )hich is $se! to "ress the ra"es +B%ake, -..1/.

A!vanta es o #asket presses are advantageous in that the generall press grapes softl

o Relative to other more comple3 presses the +asket press is of less cost. )his is illustrated + the fact that small wineries, with generall smaller +udgets are more likel to +u +asket presses than medium or large scale wineries.

#i $re - Bar ra"h !is"%a&in the $se o( 'asket "resses, tank0'%a!!er "ress1%oa! thro$ h !oors an! tank00'%a!!er "ress1a*ia% (oo! across sma%%, me!i$m an! %ar e )ineries.

Disa!vanta es o )he press, open design means it has a relativel high degree of e3posure to the surrounding air which increases the must,s risk of o3idation. $3idation can +e defined as the interaction +etween o3 gen molecules and all the different su+stances the ma contact, from metal to living tissue (? e, ;66/(. "ensitive phenolics and aromatics in wine are negativel impacted + o3idation. "$;, ?$;, @$;, or the strict e3clusion of $; are emplo ed to com+at this pro+lem. o )he +asket press is not h gienic, relative to other pressing techni*ues. 4ts open nature ma make the must more suscepti+le to infection from the surrounding environment o )he +asket and moving head presses are limited in that the -uice channels in the cake are *uickl closed off as pressure is applied. )his results in a dr outer section of the cake with a wet core. o #asket presses generall re*uire more time relative to other presses to press a similar amount of grapes. )his is +ecause the cake in the +asket press design has less surface area. 4n the market econom where time e*uals mone , this ma +e a concern. 2owever, this disadvantage was addressed + the creation of the moving head presses which had two cages as opposed to one.

o )he use of the vertical +asket press is now limited almost e3clusivel to home wine makers. Reasons for this include their small volumes difficulties in appl ing uniform pressure to all parts of the cake, the tendenc to s*uirt -uice at high pressures and the la+our intensive operations of loading and unloading these presses (#oulton, /001(. 1.- 2em'rane Presses <em+rane presses function through the pressuri9ation of gas in order to affect mechanical motion. )he mem+rane is mounted on opposite sides of a c lindrical tank diametricall across the ends (#oulton, /001(. When evacuated, the mem+rane is drawn +ack against one.half of the circumference while the skins enter either through doors in the side walls or a3iall at one end. Drain screens are mounted along the length and the mem+rane is inflated like a +alloon + an on.+oard air compressor. <em+rane presses have gained widespread acceptance due to the preferred composition of their press fractions (#oulton, /001(.

#i $re 3 This ima e !is"%a&s an A$stra%ian "ne$matic mem'rane )ine "ress )ith a e%ectronic contro% s&stem

A!vanta es o <em+rane presses are +eneficial in that the can +e defined as a soft pressing device. 4n these presses the pressure is applied with a minimum of skin movement across the screen surface, and this leads to much less tearing and grinding of skins and seeds. 's a result the tannin released and fine solids generated due to this action is greatl reduced and the press fractions are lower in +oth suspended solids and condensed phenols. o 4n relation to, for e3ample, the +asket press, pneumatic presses generall allow for increased pressuring surface area.

o )he design of the mem+rane reduces the grinding of the grape against the resistant surface when it is +eing pressed + the inflation of the mem+rane. )he reduction of grinding is important as grinding can lead to the release of undesired phenolic compounds found in, for e3ample, the pips. o 4n relation to the +asket press, the t pical design of pneumatic presses decreases the e3it time of the -uice from the tank. o ?on.perforated pneumatic presses are generall easier to clean and have less risk of o3idation in relation to their perforated counterparts o ?on.perforated pneumatic presses are also +eneficial in that mash standing can occur within them, given that the are sealed, and the -uice would not +e a+le to escape from the remaining cake. o 2owever, perforated pneumatic presses are +eneficial in that free run -uice is a+le to +e e3pelled, and +ecause of this, more grapes can +e filled within the tank. 2aving the a+ilit to increase the amount of grapes within the tank will inevita+le decrease the *uantit of time taken to press, which in itself is +eneficial. Disa!vanta es o )he most critical part of pneumatic press is the mem+rane, as it responsi+le for pressing the grapes. Pips, stones or other hard particles are lia+le to pop this mem+rane during pressing. Without it, the press loses its primar function, a conse*uence that ma +e entirel inopportune if this occurs right in the middle of the harvesting season. )herefore it is critical for the functioning of the press and the mem+ranes suscepti+ilit for damage given the presence of hard or sharp particles

1.3 Tank Press )he tank press is a pneumatic press, which received its name due to its often sealed Atank, like structure. )he BtankB is a closed c linder, meaning onl the ends are welded to the c linder (Phillips, ;661(. )ank presses ma +e either Bopen,B in which the tank has perforated slots that allow the -uice or wine to directl e3it the press, or Bclosed,B in which the -uice is collected in slotted channels inside the press and onl e3it the press tank through a series of drains at one end. )ank presses ma have either a +ladder or a mem+rane inside which acts as the pressuri9ing device used to e3tract the press wine. 'fter pressing the cake to a certain degree, there ma +e a +rief interlude where pressing stops and the press cake is mi3ed. When pressing recommences it is usuall at a slightl higher force then the previous stint. )his c cle continues until the must is full separated from the pomace, or separated as much as desired. 'fter the desired amount of press -uice

is e3tracted, the press cake is discharged. )ank presses ma also function with the use of vacuum force. 4nstead of a mem+rane +eing inflated with the use of compressed air, the air is sucked awa from the tank, a motion which presses the mem+rane against the grapes causing a release of the press -uice. A!vanta es o Civen its closed structure, mash standing can +e performed within the tank o )he design of the vacuum tank press allows for minimal e3posure to o3 gen, and thus it is a ver reductive process, which is desira+le in order to com+at the negative effects of o3idation Disa!vanta es o 4t can +e more e3pensive than other presses o Civen the open tank press is not completel isolated from contact with the surrounding air, it ma still +e su+-ect to o3idation, although perhaps to a lesser degree than other presses (+asket press(. ?evertheless, measures must +e taken to reduce o3idation.

#i $re 4 This (i $re !is"%a&s a stain%ess stee% c%ose! tank "ress !esi ne! '& the #rench com"an& Diemme + Diemme, -..3/.

1.4 Pack Press )he pack press is +ased on the traditional Arustic, press widel used in the cider industr . )he press comprises a set of frames for containing the fruit ('shurst, ;66D(. )hese are loaded, in stages, + placing a loose weave cloth over each rectangular frame and adding an appropriate *uantit of the fruit mash over the frame + the operator who, then folds the cloth across to cover it over ('shurst, ;66D(. 'nother frame is then placed on top and the process is repeated until several filled la ers are formed. )he stick is +uilt up inside a rectangular tra , or +ed, which is a collecting device and a platform raised + the a vertical h draulic ram in +ringing the top of the stack into contact with a fi3ed frame

('shurst, ;66D(. 4n the this wa pressure is increased to e3pel the -uice which runs down into a tra for collection. A!vanta es o )he pack press is relativel cheap in comparison to other methods o 4t is a simple device, in that its repair does not alwa s re*uire advanced devices Disa!vanta es o )he are ill suited for large producers, and are generall onl used for small scale producer ('shurst, ;66D( o 4t is a more difficult machine to clean, given its inclusion of multiple weave cloth. -. Contin$o$s Presses 's opposed to +atch presses, continuous presses can +e in continual use and thus their production time and their production capacit is much higher, despite the fact that there is an inevita+l price for mass production nature of continuous presses. -.1 Contin$o$s Tank Press )ank presses ma +e designed for continuous pressing and is geared for large wine producers which speciali9e in mass production. )he tank press allows the grapes to +e easil and fre*uentl deposited into one end of the tank, and the press cake should +e removed in a similar timeframe. Crapes, as well as other foodstuff can +e deposited into the first receiving cham+er of the press, where it is pressed to a specific degree until it is moved to the second, and third and so on cham+ers to receive different degrees of pressing according to the operators desire. )he must is collected in a receptacle which is either perforated, or the restraining surface is perforated, and then is rela ed to a desired area. )ank presses ma +e powered through various means: ie: h draulicall or electricall . A!vanta e o 4t is a closed s stem, which decreases the risk of o3idation o 4t is a highl productive and efficient s stem o 4ts continuous nature reduces the need to over.pack the grapes, and reduces cleaning time Disa!vanta e o While this techni*ue ma seem +eneficial in that it has the potential to produce large *uantities of must in a minimum time frame, there is a price to pa for this efficienc . )he price, is that the wine which is produced using this

techni*ue is generall of a lower *ualit than those produced using more refined, and time re*uired techni*ues.

-.- Scre) Presses 'n alternative arrangement for developing pressure is to feed the skins into a c linder in which a large helical screw is used to force the skins into a plug against a restriction at the far end. )he restriction is usuall a door which is held partiall closed + h draulic pressure. !i*uid in the foodstuff is separated + gravit and feed pressure while solids is conve ed to the pressing dewatering 9one. "crew presses have +een generall replaced + mem+rane presses in modern wineries.

#i $re 5 This (i $re !is"%a&s a sectiona% vie) o( a scre) "ress

A!vanta es o 'gain, the +enefit of continuous presses is that its capacit for production is high, and the time needed for this production is relativel low. Disa!vanta es o )he movement across the c lindrical screen tears and grinds the pips and outer skin tissue leading to press fractions which are considera+l higher in mineral content, tannin and gums (Werrel, /000(. o )he press must that is e3pelled using a screw press are t picall high in suspended solids content, t picall a+ove : volume to volume. )his is an unaccepta+le level of suspended solids for white wine and further e*uipment will +e needed to address this pro+lem. )hus the *ualit of the wine is compromised + the press efficienc .

-.3 Be%t Press

#elt presses have a continuous perforated +elt that moves over several sets of rollers that appl the pressure to the grape skins. )he -uice e3tracted falls through the screen and is collected in one or more pans. )hese units have +een used e3tensivel for the production of whole cluster processing for sparkling wine production and can have ver high capacities. )he have not gained widespread acceptance for ta+le wine production due to concerns of high solids in the -uice, -uice aeration and the difficult of cleaning A!vanta es o 4ts capacit for production is high, and the time needed for this production is relativel low o Disa!vanta es o Wine is at higher risk of o3idation due to more e3posure than other t pes of presses. o <ore difficult to clean +ecause of the multiple and intricate surfaces of the +elt press. -.4 Decanter ' decanter centrifuge separates solids from one or two li*uid phases in one single continuous process. )his is done using centrifugal forces that can +e well +e ond E666 times greater than gravit . When su+-ect to such forces, the denser solid particles are pressed outwards against the rotating +owl wall, while the less dense li*uid phase forms a concentric inner la er. Different dam plates are used to var the depth of the li*uid . the so.called pond . as re*uired. )he sediment formed + the solid particles is continuousl removed + the screw conve or, which rotates at a different speed than the +owl. 's a result, the solids are graduall BploughedB out of the pond and up the conical B+eachB. )he centrifugal force compresses the solids and e3pels the surplus li*uid. )he dried solids then discharge from the +owl. )he clarified li*uid phase or phases overflow the dam plates situated at the opposite end of the +owl.

#i $re 6 This ima e !is"%a&s a hori7onta% !ecanter centri($ e (or so%i! "artic%es +Diemme, -..3/.

A!vanta es o ' decanter has a high production capacit , and as mentioned previousl , this allows for minimum time investment for a large production value. o "uita+le for use in a variet of wine industries: +ig wineries, simple wines, mash heating, red wine, starch industr and waste eater treatment Disa!vanta es o ) pical decanters re*uire a su+stantial *uantit of electrical power in order to function, causing higher production cost.

CONC8USION Wine presses are divided into two groups, +atch presses and continual presses. )he m riad of presses which +elong to each group ma +e advantageous in their own merit and compati+le to certain genres of wine production, +ut the also ma +e vastl incompati+le for others. 4t is necessar for a wine producer to evaluate each potential press in relation to their goals and o+-ectives and the genre of wine production the are involved in. For e3ample, small, home made wine producers will smaller +udgets ma not have the financial capacit to invest in a state of the art mem+rane press, +ut would +e well served with a version of the +asket press. "imilarl , large wine producers which are not as concerned with attaining a specific *ualit level, +ut rather are focused on *uantit over *ualit will +e more likel to choose a continuous press such as the tank press. # weighing each merit and disadvantage, one can make an informed choice a+out the press which would +e most compati+le to ones uni*ue operation. With the continuation of innovation and discover , these choices will not onl increase, +ut the will +ecome +etter, +enefiting the wine industr and wine alike.

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