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POF

LFnew/LForiginal = (Vnew/Voriginal)^2 Flap extension causes a reduction in stall speed and the maximum glide distance. he Principle o! "ontinuit# states$ %&! the cross sectional area o! a streamlined !low o! su'sonic air is increased( the !low )elocit# will decrease%. he "ontinuit# e*uation is$ %"ross+sectional area (,) x Velocit# (V) = "onstant%. he illustration shows the relationships 'etween ",- (")( ,- ( ) and .ach num'er (.) with changing Pressure ,ltitude. &t can 'e seen that when in a clim' a'o)e the tropopause at a constant .ach num'er the ,- must remain constant.

V-/ is the stall speed in the landing con!iguration V-0 is the stall speed in a speci!ied con!iguration V-0g is the minimum speed at which the aeroplane can de)elop a li!t !orce (normal to the !light path) e*ual to its 1eight he re!erence stall speed is V-2 he &nduced 3rag coe!!icient !ormula is$ "3i = ("L)2 / ,spect 2atio ip )ortices are wea4er when the aircra!t is close to the ground (within hal! a wing span). he illustration shows that when an aeroplane is out o! ground e!!ect( the induced downwash (angle) is increased and conse*uentl# the induced angle o! attac4 is increased.

he angle o! attac4 o! an aero!oil section is de!ined as the angle 'etween the undistur'ed air!low and the chord line. ,s !laps are deplo#ed the wing cam'er increases and sometimes( in addition( the wing area. -o i! a constant angle o! attac4 is maintained( the Li!t coe!!icient would increase. he illustration shows a slat (a mo)ea'le part o! the leading edge( which when acti)ated !orms a slot at the wing leading edge). he slot thus !ormed( directs high energ# air onto the wing upper sur!ace which increases the 'oundar# la#er 4inetic energ# on the top o! the wing and dela#s the stall to a higher angle o! attac4 &t can 'e seen !rom the illustration that slats do not change the cam'er o! the wing 'ecause the Li!t cur)e is merel# extended

2egarding su'sonic air!low in a )entur#$ 0. the d#namic pressure in the undistur'ed !low and in the throat are not e*ual

2. he total pressure in the undistur'ed !low and in the throat are e*ual 5. -tatic pressure acts in all directions -tall speed (&,-) )aries with weight. he Li!t !ormula is$ L = 0/2rho V2 "L -( where rho is the air densit#( V is the rue ,irspeed ( ,-)( "L is the Li!t coe!!icient and - is the wing area. ogether( 0/2rho V2 = 3#namic Pressure (*). ,lthough the *uestion as4s #ou to consider the Li!t !ormula( it is actuall# necessar# to consider how the ,irspeed &ndicator wor4s. 1e 4now !rom the 3#namic Pressure !ormula (* = 0/2rho V2)( i! we dou'le the speed o! the aircra!t through the air (dou'le the ,-)( 3#namic pressure (*) will 'e !our times greater 'ut 'ecause o! the s*uare root gearing inside the ,-&( the &ndicated ,irspeed will onl# dou'le. &! #ou now put !our times the 3#namic Pressure into the Li!t !ormula( it is clear that the Li!t will 'e !our times greater. &! #ou pre!er the math6s explanation( &,- is proportional to the s*uare root o! 3#namic Pressure (*). ransposed this 'ecomes 3#namic Pressure (*) is proportional to &,- s*uared. his is a theor# *uestion. &n !light #ou need to 4eep Li!t e*ual to 1eight. -o to maintain constant Li!t as airspeed (&,-) is dou'led( #ou would need to reduce the angle o! attac4 to 0/7 o! its pre)ious )alue.

&nduced 3rag is caused '# tip )ortices. he stronger or more e!!ecti)e the tip )ortices( the greater the &nduced 3rag. ip )ortices !orm 'ecause o! the pressure di!!erential 'etween the top and 'ottom sur!ace o! the aero!oil. he greater the 1eight( the greater the Li!t re*uired to 'alance it( there!ore the top and 'ottom sur!ace pressure di!!erential will 'e greater( gi)ing stronger tip )ortices and more &nduced 3rag. "onse*uentl#( i! wing Li!t is 8ero there will 'e no tip )ortices and there!ore 8ero &nduced 3rag. he relationship 'etween pressure( densit# and a'solute temperature o! a gi)en mass o! air can 'e expressed as p / (rho 9 ) = constant. his *uestion relates to the :&deal ;as Law:( which states that air densit# (rho) is proportional to pressure (p) and in)ersel# proportional to a'solute temperature ( ). ,ssuming no compressi'ilit# e!!ects( induced drag at constant &,- is a!!ected '# ,eroplane 1eight (mass) will a!!ect the amount o! Li!t produced( so will there!ore a!!ect &nduced 3rag. 1here the hori8ontal axis crosses the )ertical axis is 8ero Li!t coe!!icient ("L). he swept 'ac4 wing has an increased tendenc# to stall !irst at the tips due to the span+wise !low !rom root to tip. his reduces Li!t a!t o! the "; and generates an aircra!t nose up pitching moment. he nose+up pitching moment o! some aircra!t with a swept 'ac4 wing is so )iolent and !ast that no human is capa'le o! reacting !ast enough to pre)ent it. his is 4nown as a 3eep -tall( which can also 'e called a -uper -tall. ,n# aeroplane suscepti'le to 3eep -tall can ne)er 'e allowed to stall and must there!ore 'e !itted with a %-tall pre)ention de)ice%( called a -tic4 Pusher. 1ith

increasing angle o! attac4 the -tall 1arning s#stem (-tic4 sha4er) will acti)ate as normal( 'ut i! the pilot does not decrease the angle o! attac4( the stic4 pusher then acti)ates and pushes the stic4 (ele)ator control) !orward to pre)ent 3eep -tall !rom happening. &n two dimensional !lows( span wise !low is not considered< there!ore there can 'e no &nduced 3rag. &nter!erence 3rag results !rom the inter!erence o! the 'oundar# la#ers o! ad=acent components( 'ut here we ha)e no ad=acent components and there!ore we don:t need to consider &nter!erence 3rag. he onl# correct answer is Pressure 3rag and -4in Friction 3rag. Flap as#mmetr# usuall# happens when high li!t de)ices are selected + one side mo)es and the other side sta# in its original position. he illustration shows that !lap as#mmetr# will cause a large rolling moment at an# angle o! attac4( whereas slat as#mmetr# would merel# cause a large di!!erence in "L.,>. One o! the 'iggest ad)antage o! a slat is the# do not signi!icantl# increase 3rag. he gi)en :correct: answer there!ore ma4es no sense. %Flap as#mmetr# causes a large rolling moment%( is a'solutel# correct( 'ut not$ %a #awing moment !rom slat as#mmetr#%. From the illustration it can 'e seen that L/3 .,> corresponds to the speed V.3 in straight and le)el (0g) !light. -o i! speed is reduced 'elow L/3 .,> the otal 3rag will increase due to increasing &nduced 3rag.

he stall speed decreases$ (all other rele)ant !actors are constant) when( during a manoeu)re( the aeroplane nose is suddenl# pushed !irml# downwards (e.g. as in a push o)er). Load Factor (n) = Li!t / 1eight. &! the aircra!t is manoeu)red '# suddenl# pushing the nose down the Li!t will 'e reduced and !rom the a'o)e !ormula it can 'e seen that less Li!t will decrease the stall speed. ?ecause tip )ortices generate &nduced 3rag( an#thing that inter!eres with the !ormation or strength o! tip )ortices will reduce &nduced 3rag. 1inglets reduce the strength o! tip )ortices and there!ore reduce &nduced 3rag. @owe)er( an#thing placed in the air!low will also generate Parasite 3rag.

@igh li!t de)ices (leading and trailing edge) are !itted to an aeroplane to decrease the ta4e+o!! and landing distance. 3ecreasing the ta4e+o!! and landing distance is achie)ed '# increasing the maximum li!t coe!!icient ("L.,>) which will decrease the stall speed and there!ore the minimum operating speed. 1hen (trailing edge) !laps are deplo#ed !rom /A to 0BA( there will 'e a comparati)el# large increase in "L and a small increase in "3( 'ut with each successi)e increase in !lap angle( the increase in "L will 'e less( whereas the increase in "3 will 'e greater. For maximum e!!icienc# during ta4e+o!!( not onl# is an increase in "L.,> desired( 'ut an# increase in 3rag needs to 'e minimi8ed. "onse*uentl#( the :optimum: !lap !or ta4e+o!! is approximatel# 0BA. @owe)er( !or landing( maximum 3rag is re*uired( so !ull !lap is necessar#.

Cse the Li!t !ormula !or this *uestion$ (L = 0/2rho V2 "L -)( where - is wing area. &! the wing area is increased( Li!t will increase 'ecause it is directl# proportional to wing area. -weeping the wing( either !orward( or as is more usual( 'ac4wards( decreases the aerod#namic e!!icienc# o! the wing. "onse*uentl#( "L.,> is decreased. here!ore( i! sweep angle is increased "L.,> will decrease. &! we consider V- at "L .,> (V- = the s*uare root o! L / 0/2rho "L .,> -)( it can 'e seen that a decrease in "L.,> will increase the stall speed.

&ncreasing !orward sweep increases the stall speed. 1ing anhedral is used '# the designers to gi)e an aeroplane the re*uired le)el o! Lateral -tatic -ta'ilit#. ,nhedral has no in!luence on stalling. he load !actor is greater than 0 (one) when li!t is greater than weight. 1ing !ences reduce the span+wise !low and help to reduce the increased tendenc# !or a swept wing to tip stall and conse*uentl# pitch+up is reduced. 1ing !ences there!ore impro)e the low speed handling characteristics o! a swept wing. Cse the Li!t !ormula to consider this *uestion$ (L = 0/2rho V2 "L -)( where :rho: is air densit#. ,ltitude is the onl# )aria'le in the *uestion and an# change in altitude will a!!ect the air densit#. he lower the altitude the greater the air densit#( which will re*uire a lower ,- to maintain a constant &,- and Li!t e*ual 1eight. he swept 'ac4 wing has an increased tendenc# to stall !irst at the tips due to the span+wise !low !rom root to tip. his reduces Li!t a!t o! the "; and generates an aircra!t nose up pitching moment. he nose+up pitching moment o! some aircra!t with a swept 'ac4 wing is so )iolent and !ast that no human is capa'le o! reacting !ast enough to pre)ent it. his is 4nown as a 3eep -tall( which can also 'e called a -uper -tall. ,n# aeroplane suscepti'le to 3eep -tall can ne)er 'e allowed to stall and must there!ore 'e !itted with a %-tall pre)ention de)ice%( called a -tic4 Pusher. 1ith increasing angle o! attac4 the -tall 1arning s#stem (-tic4 sha4er) will acti)ate as normal( 'ut i! the pilot does not decrease the angle o! attac4( the stic4 pusher then acti)ates and pushes the stic4 !orward to pre)ent 3eep -tall !rom happening. , wing with !orward sweep does not ha)e an increased tendenc# to tip stall and will not generate a nose+up pitching moment 'e!ore the stall. here!ore an aeroplane with a swept !orward wing is not suscepti'le to 3eep -tall. , contri'utor# !actor to 3eep -tall is a +tail. ,t the extremel# high angle o! attac4 su!!ered in a 3eep -tall the +tail would 'e immersed in separated air!low( ma4ing the ele)ator ine!!ecti)e and pre)enting the pilot !rom decreasing the angle o! attac4. , low mounted tail would not su!!er !rom this pro'lem and is there!ore not a contri'utor# !actor to 3eep -tall. From the illustration it can 'e seen that as the angle o! attac4 decreases( the stagnation point mo)es up on the leading edge and the point o! minimum pressure mo)es a!t.

ip )ortices induce downwash 'ehind the wing( at the tip. his induced downwash changes the a)erage direction o! the air!low o)er the wing. he angle o! this modi!ied air!low ( he D!!ecti)e ,ir!low) to the 2elati)e ,ir!low is the &nduced ,ngle o! ,ttac4. -ee illustration 'elow.

,ssuming constant &,-( when an aeroplane enters ground e!!ect the e!!ecti)e angle o! attac4 increases. "L = 0 / VE ,ir densit# is mass per unit )olume< the unit !or mass is the 4g (4ilogram) and the unit !or )olume is the mF (cu'ic meter)( hence densit# is 4g/mF. he unit !or !orce is the Gewton (G). 1ing loading is the aircra!t weight (G) di)ided '# wing area (mE)( hence wing loading is G/mE. 3#namic pressure is !orce per unit area so is also G/mE. Li!t is generated when a certain mass o! air is accelerated in its !low direction. he d#namic pressure increases as static pressure decreases. he tur'ulent 'oundar# la#er has more 4inetic energ# than the laminar 'oundar# la#er. , positi)e cam'er aero!oil section at 8ero angle o! attac4 will generate a small amount o! li!t. his is 'ecause the cross sectional area o! the streamlined !low is accelerated more o)er the :top: sur!ace than the 'ottom. From the illustration it can 'e seen that the Li!t cur)e o! a positi)e cam'ered aero!oil intersects the )ertical axis o! the "L + alpha graph a'o)e the point o! origin.

On a swept wing aeroplane at low airspeed( the %pitch up% phenomenon is caused '# wingtip stall.

he angle 'etween the aeroplane longitudinal axis and the chord line is the angle o! incidence. From the illustration 'elow( it can 'e seen that the aeroplane ( otal) 3rag in straight and le)el !light is lowest when the Parasite 3rag is e*ual to the &nduced 3rag. 3ue to the !ormation o! shoc4 wa)es on the wing top and 'ottom sur!ace and the su'se*uent rearwards mo)ement o! the shoc4 wa)es as the aeroplane accelerates !rom su'sonic to supersonic speed( the distri'ution o! pressure on the wing changes( causing 'oth the centre o! pressure ("P) and the aerod#namic centre (,") to mo)e a!t !rom 2BH to the B/H chord position (mid chord). , s#mmetrical aero!oil section at 8ero degrees angle o! attac4 will accelerate the air o)er the top sur!ace and the 'ottom sur!ace '# the same amount( hence there will 'e no net li!t either upwards or downwards( conse*uentl# the li!t coe!!icient will 'e 8ero. ,n aeroplane maintains straight and le)el !light while the &,- is dou'led. he change in li!t coe!!icient will 'e x /.2B. he most important pro'lem o! ice accretion on a transport aeroplane during !light is reduction in "Lmax. he e!!ect o! hea)# (tropical) rain on the aeroplane is signi!icant. he large amount o! water on the aeroplane will increase the 1eight and the accumulation o! water will also disrupt the air!low. his will 'oth decrease "L .,> and increase 3rag. ,t the highest )alue o! the li!t/drag ratio the total drag is lowest. ?# de!inition( li!t is perpendicular to the relati)e air!low (also 4nown as relati)e wind or !ree stream !low) and drag is parallel to and in the same direction as the relati)e air!low (relati)e wind or !ree stream !low). he Parasite 3rag !ormula is$ 3p = 0/2rho V2 "3p -( there!ore 3p is proportional to speed s*uared. ,n aeroplane accelerates !rom I/ 4t to 0J/ 4t at a load !actor e*ual to 0. he induced drag coe!!icient (i) and the induced drag (ii) alter with the !ollowing !actors$ (i) 0/0J (ii) 0/7 &nduced drag is created '# the spanwise !low pattern resulting in the tip )ortices. Vortex generators trans!er energ# !rom the !ree air!low into the 'oundar# la#er . ,nhedral can 'e used '# the designers to set the re*uired Lateral -tatic -ta'ilit#. &ncreasing ,nhedral reduces Lateral -tatic -ta'ilit#( 'ut has no in!luence on stall speed. &ncreasing the sweep angle o! the wing is used '# the designers to increase the "ritical .ach num'er. &ncreasing the sweep angle also ma4es the wing less aerod#namicall# e!!icient which will increase the stall speed. , +tail is !itted '# the designers to reduce the in!luence o! wing downwash on the hori8ontal sta'ili8er. , +tail also acts as an %Dnd Plate% on the !in( which ma4es the !in more aerod#namicall# e!!icient. , +tail has no in!luence on the stall speed.

,n %erect% spin is with the top o! the aeroplane towards the inside o! the helix (cor4screw shape) o! the spin. he %-tandard% spin reco)er# includes$ Full rudder opposite to the direction o! rotation( close the throttle( neutrali8e the roll control and mo)e the pitch control !orward. -o 4eeping the aileron control neutral during reco)er# is the onl# true statement here. %Kust 'e!ore the stall a nose down pitching moment is generated%. his is caused '# the rearward mo)ement o! the "P. he )ane o! a stall warning s#stem with a !lapper switch is acti)ated '# the change o! the stagnation point. &n a stead# le)el( co+ordinated turn the Li!t must 'e greater than the 1eight( so there!ore the Load Factor (n) will 'e greater than 0. o consider the e!!ect on the stall speed we can re!er to the !ormula$ V- GD1 = V- OL3 x the s*uare root o! the Load Factor. he 4e# to this *uestion is the part which states( %L whilst maintaining le)el !light at a constant &,- L% o maintain le)el !light at a constant &,-( Li!t must remain the same( 'ut when !laps are extended Li!t increases. "onse*uentl#( in order to maintain le)el !light as the !laps go down( the angle o! attac4 must 'e decreased to 4eep Li!t constant. here!ore when !laps are extended whilst maintaining straight and le)el !light at constant &,- the Li!t coe!!icient ("L) must remain the same. railing edge !lap extension will decrease the critical angle o! attac4 and increase the )alue o! "Lmax. &t can 'e seen !rom the illustration that deplo#ing a slat will !orm a slot and deplo#ing a Mrueger !lap does not !orm a slot. &t is also e)ident that deplo#ing 'oth a Mrueger !lap and a slat will increase the critical angle o! attac4.

&t can 'e seen !rom the illustration that o! the t#pes o! trailing edge !lap listed( the Fowler !lap is the most e!!ecti)e (highest "L.,>).

, slotted !lap will increase the "Lmax '# increasing the cam'er o! the aero!oil and re+energi8ing the air!low.

he purpose o! an auto+slat s#stem is to extend automaticall# when a certain )alue o! angle o! attac4 is exceeded. he t#pe o! stall that has the largest associated angle o! attac4 is a deep stall. ,s an aeroplane accelerates through the transonic region the shoc4 wa)es on the wing mo)e rearwards and change the pressure distri'ution on the wing( which ma4es the ,erod#namic "entre (,") mo)e rearwards !rom 2BH a!t towards B/H a!t. he top illustration shows the Longitudinal -tatic -ta'ilit# in su'sonic !low( with the ," at 2BH a!t. he 'ottom illustration shows the ," at B/H a!t when the !low 'ecomes supersonic.

&t can 'e seen that in supersonic !low( when the ," has mo)ed a!t to the B/H chord position( the desta'ili8ing wing moment is reduced and conse*uentl#( -tatic Longitudinal -ta'ilit# is increased.

he shoc4wa)es associated with supersonic !light cause the pressure patterns to appear rectangular in !orm unli4e the pressure patterns !or su'sonic !light which appear smooth and slightl# humped when plotted on a graph. &ncreasing air densit# will ha)e the !ollowing e!!ect on the drag o! a 'od# in an air stream (angle o! attac4 and ,- are constant) the drag increases. %, line connecting the leading+ and trailing edge midwa# 'etween the upper and lower sur!ace o! a aero!oil%. his de!inition is applica'le !or the cam'er line. Power is the rate o! doing wor4 (how *uic4l# wor4 is done). 1or4 is Force (G) x 3istance (metre)( so Power is Force (G) x 3istance (metre) di)ided '# time (seconds) or G. m/s "ompared with the clean con!iguration( the angle o! attac4 at "Lmax with trailing edge !laps extended is smaller. he illustration shows an Dxpansion 1a)e. One o! the characteristics o! supersonic !low is that it can !ollow a con)ex corner 'ecause it expands upon reaching the corner. "onse*uentl#( )elocit# increases and the other parameters( pressure( densit# and temperature all decrease. Local speed o! sound (a) is proportional to air temperature. -o as the temperature decreases through an expansion wa)e( the local speed o! sound will decrease.

he !low on the upper sur!ace o! the wing has a component in wing root direction. -poiler extension increases the stall speed( the minimum rate o! descent and the minimum angle o! descent. 3uring a clim'ing turn to the right the angle o! attac4 o! 'oth wings is the same. Pstat N OrhoVE= constant. ;i)en an initial condition in straight and le)el !light with a speed o! 0.7 V-. he maximum 'an4 angle attaina'le without stalling in a stead# co+ordinated turn( whilst maintaining speed and altitude( is approximatel#$ J/A. 3uring a stead# hori8ontal turn( the stall speed increases with the s*uare root o! the load !actor. he illustration shows the correct orders o! increasing critical angle o! attac4 are$ !laps onl# extended( clean wing( slats onl# extended.

Floating due to ground e!!ect during an approach to land will occur when the height is less than hal)e o! the length o! the wing span a'o)e the sur!ace. ,n aero!oil is cam'ered when the line( which connects the centres o! all inscri'ed circles( is cur)ed. From the illustration it can 'e seen that while !l#ing in the speed unsta'le region( an# reduction in speed will gi)e an increase in 3rag( which will lead to a greater reduction in speed.

,n aeroplane in straight and le)el !light is su'=ected to a strong )ertical gust. he point on the wing( where the instantaneous )ariation in wing li!t e!!ecti)el# acts is 4nown as the$ aerodynamic centre of the wing. he ?oundar# La#er is a la#er o! air !lowing o)er a sur!ace( the lowest la#er o! molecules ha)ing 8ero )elocit# relati)e the sur!ace( 'ut increasing in speed with increasing distance !rom the sur!ace( until the !ree stream !low )elocit# is reached. here!ore the ?oundar# La#er has a lower a)erage )elocit# than that o! the !ree stream. he polar cur)e o! an aero!oil section is a graphic relationship 'etween li!t coe!!icient "l and drag coe!!icient "d. he ?oundar# La#er is a la#er o! air !lowing o)er a sur!ace( the lowest la#er o! molecules ha)ing 8ero )elocit# relati)e the sur!ace( 'ut increasing in speed with increasing distance !rom the sur!ace until the !ree stream !low )elocit# is reached. here are two t#pes o! 'oundar# la#er( the laminar 'oundar# la#er and the tur'ulent 'oundar# la#er. ,t the leading edge the 'oundar# la#er is initiall# laminar (no intermixing o! ad=acent la#ers) and will remain laminar as it mo)es rearwards until it 'ecomes tur'ulent at the ransition Point. he tur'ulent !low will continue towards the trailing edge and =ust 'e!ore it reaches the trailing edge it will start to separate !rom the sur!ace( this is called he -eparation Point. ?ecause the laminar 'oundar# la#er is smooth with no intermixing its 4inetic energ# is comparati)el# low and is there!ore easil# separated. ?ecause the tur'ulent 'oundar# la#er has lots o! intermixing 'etween the la#ers o! air molecules it will there!ore contains more 4inetic energ# than a laminar 'oundar# la#er. "onse*uentl#( compared to a laminar 'oundar# la#er( a tur'ulent 'oundar# la#er is 'etter a'le to resist a positi)e pressure gradient 'e!ore it separates. , positi)el# cam'ered aero!oil will generate 8ero li!t$ at a negati)e angle o! attac4. 1ing Loading = 1eight / 1ing ,rea. here!ore !or a gi)en 1ing ,rea( the greater the 1eight( the higher the 1ing Loading. -tall speeds are determined with the "; at the !orward limit. .inimum control speeds are determined with the "; at the a!t limit. 2egulations state that the stall warning must 'egin at a speed (V-1) exceeding the speed at which the stall is identi!ied '# not less than B 4t or BH ",-( whiche)er is greater. hat would 'e 0./B V-( so the onl# correct answer is %greater than V-%.

he .ean ,erod#namic "hord (.,") !or a gi)en wing o! an# plan !orm is the chord o! a rectangular wing with same moment and li!t. ?ehind the transition point in a 'oundar# la#er the mean speed and !riction drag increases. he !ormula we need when calculating Li!t (L) or Load Factor (n) in a turn is$ L or n = 0 / "O- P@&< where P@& = 'an4 angle. ,nd when calculating the a!!ect o! 'an4 angle on stall speed( the !ormula 'ecomes V- GD1 = V- OL3 x the s*uare root o! 0 / "O- P@& or to put it another wa#( V- GD1 = V- OL3 x the s*uare root o! n. 1here P@& is the 'an4 angle and n = Load Factor. here!ore when a pilot ma4es a turn in hori8ontal !light( the stall speed increases with the s*uare root o! the Load Factor. he true airspeed ( ,-) is lower than the indicated airspeed (&,-) at &-, conditions and altitudes 'elow sea le)el. he li!t !orce( acting on an aero!oil$ (no !low separation) is mainl# caused '# suction on the upper side o! the aero!oil. he relati)e thic4ness o! an aero!oil is expressed in H chord. ,spect ratio o! a wing is the ratio 'etween wing span s*uared and wing area. he wing o! an aeroplane will ne)er stall at low su'sonic speeds as long as.... the angle o! attac4 is smaller than the )alue at which the stall occurs.

he illustration shows an Dxpansion 1a)e. One o! the characteristics o! supersonic !low is that it can !ollow a con)ex corner 'ecause it expands upon reaching the corner. "onse*uentl#( )elocit# increases and the other parameters( pressure( densit# and temperature all decrease. "onse*uentl#( the densit# in !ront o! an expansion wa)e is higher than 'ehind it and the pressure in !ront o! an expansion wa)e is also higher than 'ehind it.

-tatic sta'ilit# is the initial (split second) reaction o! the aeroplane immediatel# !ollowing the remo)al o! a distur'ing !orce. 3#namic sta'ilit# is what happens a!ter the initial reaction. &! an aeroplane is staticall# sta'le it will start 'ac4 towards its pre)ious state o! e*uili'rium and i! an aeroplane is staticall# unsta'le it will start to mo)e !urther awa# !rom its pre)ious state o! e*uili'rium.

here!ore( 3#namic sta'ilit# is possi'le onl# when the aeroplane is staticall# sta'le. &t must 'e !ull# understood that this is a theor# *uestion. &n practice #ou would not e)en taxi with ice on the wing leading edge( let alone attempt a ta4e+o!!. ,'out I/H o! Li!t is generated '# the top sur!ace o! the wing. ,nd o! the top wing sur!ace( a'out 2/H a!t o! the leading edge is where the ma=orit# o! the !low acceleration ta4es place. -o an#thing which inter!eres with the air!low o)er the leading 2/H o! the wing top sur!ace will ha)e a ma=or in!luence on Li!t generation. he *uestion gi)es us ice located on the wing leading edge. 3uring the ta4e+o!! run the aeroplane is merel# accelerating down the runwa# and ice located on the wing leading edge will onl# increase the 3rag slightl#. 3uring the clim' with all engines operating( the aeroplane will 'e at a small angle o! attac4 (a'out 7A) and ice on the wing leading edge will increase the 3rag and decrease "L '# a moderate amount. 3uring the last part o! rotation( the angle o! attac4 will 'e *uite high and an# ice on the leading edge will ha)e a signi!icant negati)e in!luence on Li!t production and in !act the wing will pro'a'l# !ull# stall. he !ollowing !actors increase stall speed$ an increase in load !actor( a !orward cg shi!t( and decrease in thrust. he illustration shows a (Gormal) shoc4 wa)e. ,s the air!low passes through a shoc4 wa)e the )elocit# decreases and the pressure( the densit# and the temperature all increase.

,t what speed does the !ront o! a shoc4 wa)e mo)e across the earth:s sur!aceP he ground speed o! the aeroplane. Low speed pitch up is caused '# the outward dri!t o! the 'oundar# la#er on a swept+'ac4 wing. he "entre o! Pressure ("P) is the point on an aero!oil through which the Li!t acts. 1e 4now that the location o! the "P is a product o! the a)erage o! the top sur!ace Li!t pressure and the 'ottom sur!ace Li!t pressure. 1e are also aware that as the angle o! attac4 is increased( the Li!t pressure distri'ution changes and the "P mo)es !orward. 1hen stud#ing Longitudinal -tatic -ta'ilit# and certain aspects o! ,ircra!t Limitations( use o! the mo)ing "P would 'e con!using( so in

those circumstances a di!!erent re!erence point is used( called the ,erod#namic "entre (,"). "onsider illustration (,) 'elow$ he ,erod#namic "entre (,") is located 2BH a!t Qo! the leading edgeR. &t can 'e seen that at angle o! attac4 (alpha 0)( Li!t (L0) acts through distance (d0) !rom the ,erod#namic "entre (,"). his generates a nose down pitching moment (.) a'out the ,". &! #ou now consider illustration (?)$ it can 'e seen that an upward )ertical gust has increased the angle o! attac4 to (alpha 2)( which increases the Li!t to (L2) and mo)ed the "P !orward( decreasing the distance o! the "P !rom the ," to (d2). ?ut 'ecause (L2) has increased '# the same amount that (d2) has decreased( the nose down pitching moment (.) a'out the ," has remained the same. Gow consider illustration (")$ 'ecause pitching moment (.) has sta#ed the same with an increase in angle o! attac4( the change in Li!t (delta L)( can 'e considered to act at the ,"( as illustrated in illustration (3). Csing the ,erod#namic "entre (,") as the point through which the change in Li!t acts greatl# simpli!ies the )isuali8ation o! the e!!ect o! changes in angle o! attac4 due to gusts( 'oth in the stud# o! Longitudinal -tatic -ta'ilit# and the a!!ect o! a gust stressing the aeroplane when stud#ing ,ircra!t Limitations. Facts to remem'er a'out the ,erod#namic "entre$ 0( he ," is located 2BH a!t Qo! the leading edgeR in su'sonic !low. 2. he pitching moment a'out the ," is alwa#s nose down. 5. he pitching moment a'out the ," does not change i! the angle o! attac4 changes. 7. he ," is the point through which the change in Li!t acts Qdue to a change in angle o! attac4R.

1ing sweep angle is the angle 'etween the *uarter+chord line o! the wing and the lateral axis.

he mean geometric chord o! a wing is the wing area di)ided '# the wing span. aper ratio o! a wing is the ratio 'etween tip chord and root chord. 1ing twist (geometric and aerod#namic) is used to$ 0. impro)e stall characteristics. 2. 2educe induced drag. ?ernoulli:s e*uation is Pstat N 0/2 9 rho 9 ,-E = constant. &! ice is present on the leading edge o! the wings( it ma# increase the landing distance due to a higher Vth with 7/+B/H. he load !actor is less than 0 (one) during a stead# wings le)el descent. he load !actor is less than 0 (one) 1hen li!t is less than weight. he load !actor is less than 0 (one) during a stead# wings le)el clim'. he top shoc4 will 'e at its wea4est at .crit( it is onl# =ust !orming he shoc4wa)e mo)es a!t as . increases ,t .0 the shoc4wa)e has mo)ed to the trailing edge 1hen the aileron is de!lected down the air!low o)er the top increases and the shoc4wa)e mo)es a!t in the increased !low ,s altitude increased( the stall speed (&,-) initiall# remains constant and at higher altitudes increases. -hoc4 induced separation can occur 'ehind a strong normal shoc4 wa)e( independent o! angle o! attac4. he su'sonic speed range ends at .crit.

here are three aeroplane speed ranges. he slowest speed range is :-u'sonic:< de!ined as the speed range when all o! the !low speeds relati)e to the sur!ace o! the aeroplane are less than the speed o! sound (.L S 0./). he :su'sonic: speed region is 'etween 8ero and the "ritical .ach num'er (."2& ). he next highest speed range is : ransonic:< de!ined as the speed range where some o! the !low speeds relati)e to the sur!ace o! the aeroplane are less than the speed o! sound (.L S 0./) and some o! the !low speeds relati)e to the sur!ace o! the aeroplane are greater than the speed o! sound (.L T 0./). he : ransonic: speed region is 'etween the "ritical .ach num'er (."2& ) and approximatel# .0.2 he highest speed region in which we are interested is :-upersonic:< de!ined as the speed range where all o! the !low speeds relati)e to the sur!ace o! the aeroplane are greater than the speed o! sound (.L T 0./). he :-upersonic: speed region is 'etween approximatel# .0.2 and .B./ he critical .ach num'er o! an aeroplane is the .ach num'er a'o)e which( locall#( supersonic !low exists somewhere o)er the aeroplane. he critical .ach num'er o! an aeroplane can 'e increased '# sweep'ac4 o! the wings. 1a)e 3rag is mostl# caused '# the air!low 'eing heated as it passes through the shoc4 wa)es( 'ut a small proportion o! 1a)e 3rag is due to shoc4 wa)e induced separation. -wept 'ac4 wings are !itted to an aeroplane to increase its critical .ach num'er (."2& ). here!ore( decreasing wing sweep'ac4 will decrease ."2& . he 3rag 3i)ergence .ach Gum'er is the .ach num'er at which the aerod#namic 3rag on an aero!oil or an air!rame 'egins to increase rapidl# as the .ach num'er continues to increase. his increase in 3rag is a result o! shoc4 wa)e !ormation (1a)e 3rag)( and can cause the 3rag coe!!icient to rise to more than ten times its low speed )alue. he 3rag 3i)ergence .ach Gum'er is usuall# close to( and alwa#s greater than( the "ritical .ach num'er. here!ore i! the "ritical .ach num'er decreases( the 3rag 3i)ergence .ach Gum'er will decrease. ,n o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e has similar a!!ects on the air!low passing through it as does a normal shoc4 wa)e( 'ut there are a !ew small )ariations. 0. ,n o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e is so called 'ecause it is at an angle o! greater than U/A to the direction o! the upstream !low. 2. here &- a !low direction change through an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e. 5. he air!low enters an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e at supersonic speed and emerges at a lower( 'ut still supersonic speed. 7. here is an increase in -tatic Pressure( 3ensit# and "ompression through an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e.

B. here is a decrease in the energ# o! the air!low and a decrease in otal Pressure through an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e. J. he temperature o! the air increases through an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e. For this *uestion we need to remem'er$ 'ecause the temperature increases through an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e the temperature 'ehind is higher than in !ront o! it. ,nd 'ecause the -tatic Pressure increases through an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e( the -tatic Pressure 'ehind is higher than in !ront o! it. &. % uc4 under% is caused '# an a!t mo)ement o! the centre o! pressure o! the wing. &&. % uc4 under% is caused '# a reduction in the downwash angle at the location o! the hori8ontal sta'ili8er. he illustration shows that( in comparison to a con)entional aero!oil section( t#pical shape characteristics o! a supercritical aero!oil section are$ a larger nose radius( !latter upper sur!ace and negati)e( as well as positi)e( cam'er.

3uring a descent at a constant .ach num'er (assume 8ero thrust and standard atmospheric conditions) the angle o! attac4 will decrease. &! a s#mmetrical aero!oil is accelerated !rom su'sonic to supersonic speed( the aerod#namic centre will mo)e a!t to the mid chord. 2educing the thic4ness/chord ratio o! a wing increases ."2& in the same wa# as does a swept wing. here!ore there will 'e a reduction in the )ariations in 3rag coe!!icient( a dela# in the onset o! shoc4 wa)e !ormation and a reduction in the )ariations in Li!t coe!!icient. , normal shoc4 wa)e has se)eral distinguishing !eatures( chie! among them 'eing$ 0. , Gormal shoc4 wa)e is so called 'ecause it is normal (perpendicular) to the direction o! the upstream !low. 2. here is no !low direction change through a normal shoc4 wa)e. 5. he air!low enters a normal shoc4 wa)e at supersonic speed and emerges at su'sonic speed. 7. here is a greater increase in -tatic Pressure( 3ensit# and compression through a normal shoc4 wa)e( compared to an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e. B. here is a greater decrease in the energ# o! the air!low and lower otal Pressure through a normal shoc4 wa)e( compared to an o'li*ue shoc4 wa)e. J. he temperature o! the air increases through a normal shoc4 wa)e.

V. he least energ# loss through a normal shoc4 wa)e is when the Local .ach num'er (.L) is =ust a'o)e .L0./ "ompressi'ilit# e!!ects depend on .ach num'er. he .ach num'er is the ratio 'etween the ,- o! the aeroplane and speed o! sound o! the undistur'ed !low. , %-hoc4 -tall% is due to air!low separation !rom the !ormation o! a shoc4 wa)e. -hoc4 wa)es !orm at high speed and there!ore a small angle o! attac4. 1hen an aeroplane is !l#ing !aster than .0./( an# pressure changes ta4ing place in the air !low o)er the sur!ace will onl# a!!ect parts o! the aeroplane within the .ach "one. (."2& ) is$ % he aircra!t .ach num'er at which the local )elocit# !irst reaches .0./%. he a)erage modern high speed =et transport has an ."2& o! a'out ./.I he loss o! total pressure in a shoc4 wa)e is due to the !act that 4inetic energ# in the !low is con)erted into heat energ#. he maximum accepta'le cruising altitude is limited '# a minimum accepta'le load !actor 'ecause exceeding that altitude ur'ulence ma# induce mach 'u!!et. he speed o! sound )aries with the s*uare root o! the a'solute temperature. he lower the temperature( the lower the speed o! sound< and )ice )ersa. he :sonic 'oom: (or sonic 'ang) o! an aeroplane !l#ing at supersonic speed is a result o! the shoc4 wa)es the aeroplane is generating stri4ing the ear drums o! a listener (usuall# on the ground). (. = ,- / a). Vortex generators mounted on the upper wing sur!ace will decrease the shoc4 wa)e induced separation. ,s an aeroplane accelerates a'o)e its critical .ach num'er (."2& ) a shoc4 wa)e will !orm on the wing top sur!ace. ,s the aeroplane continues to accelerate( this shoc4 wa)e will get thic4er( increase in length and mo)e 'ac4wards. ,t a'out ./.U another shoc4 wa)e will !orm on the wing 'ottom sur!ace( getting thic4er( longer and mo)ing 'ac4wards with !urther increases in .ach num'er. ,t a'out ./.UI these two shoc4 wa)es will reach the trailing edge o! the wing. ,s soon as .0./ is exceeded( another shoc4 wa)e will !orm a small distance in !ront o! the wing. his is called the ?ow 1a)e 'ecause it is similar in appearance to the 'ow wa)e in !ront o! a 'oat as it mo)es through water. 1ith !urther acceleration( the ?ow 1a)e will mo)e closer to the wing leading edge and e)entuall# will get no closer at a'out .0.5 to .0.7. his is called$ the speed o! attachment. he sin o! the .ach (cone) angle (W) = a / ,-. &n other words( sin W = 0 / .. here!ore( the greater the .ach num'er (.)( the smaller the .ach angle (W) he .ach trim s#stem will ad=ust the sta'ili8er( depending on the .ach num'er. 1hen air has passed through a shoc4 wa)e the local speed o! sound is increased.

he speed range 'etween high and low speed 'u!!et increases during a descent at a constant &,-. @igh speed 'u!!et is induced '# 'oundar# la#er separation due to shoc4 wa)es. Vortex generators on the upper side o! the wing decrease wa)e drag. .ach 'u!!et occurs at the .ach num'er at which shoc4 wa)e induced 'oundar# la#er separation occurs. , transonic .ach num'er is a .ach num'er at which 'oth su'sonic and supersonic local speeds occur. -peed o! sound increases with temperature increase. &n transonic !light the ailerons will 'e less e!!ecti)e than in su'sonic !light 'ecause aileron de!lection onl# partl# a!!ects the pressure distri'ution around the wing. ,s an aircra!t accelerates through the transonic speed range the coe!!icient o! drag increases then decreases. -hoc4 stall occurs when the li!t coe!!icient( as a !unction o! .ach num'er( reaches its maximum )alue. 1hen an aeroplane is !l#ing !aster than .0./( an# pressure changes ta4ing place in the air !low o)er the sur!ace will onl# a!!ect parts o! the aeroplane within the .ach "one. On a t#pical transonic air!oil the transonic rearward shi!t o! the "P occurs at a'out . /.IU to . /.UI. Go noticea'le shoc4 wa)es will !orm o)er an# wing section when !l#ing =ust a'o)e ."2& . %"o!!in "orner% is the collo*uial name !or the pressure altitude where the speed !or low speed 'u!!et is the same as the speed !or high speed 'u!!et. he : echnical: name !or which is % he ,erod#namic "eiling%. 3utch 2oll is sta'ilit# related characteristic and occurs when the Lateral -tatic -ta'ilit# is greater than the 3irectional -tatic -ta'ilit#. -hoc4 wa)es ha)e no in!luence on 3utch 2oll. he local speed o! sound is dependent on temperature onl#. he lower the temperature( the lower the local speed o! sound< and )ice )ersa. -tall speed does not )ar# with 3ensit# ,ltitude. @owe)er( at )er# high altitudes the stall speed will start to increase due to increasing .ach num'er (compressi'ilit# e!!ects). he .ach+trim !unction is installed on most commercial =ets in order to minimi8e the ad)erse e!!ects o! changes in the position o! centre o! pressure. 1hat happens to lateral sta'ilit# when !laps are extendedP Lateral sta'ilit# is decreased. , downward ad=ustment o! a trim ta' in the longitudinal control s#stem has the !ollowing e!!ect$ the stic4 position sta'ilit# remains constant. 3uring a phugoid altitude )aries signi!icantl#( 'ut during a short period oscillation it remains approximatel# constant. ,n increase o! 0/4t !rom the trimmed position at high speed has less e!!ect on the stic4 !orce than an increase o! 0/4t !rom the trimmed position at low speed.

-tatic lateral sta'ilit# will 'e decreased '#$ the use o! a low( rather than high( wing mounting. 3utch roll will 'e corrected '# a #aw damper. -tatic lateral sta'ilit# will 'e decreased '#$ reducing wing sweep'ac4. his in!ormation pro)ided is o! a "mcg diagram( showing moment a'out the "; against alpha &n Part 0 the aircra!t wants to pitch up( 'ut as alpha increases the pitch up !orce gets less and less i.e. it is sel! correcting and thus positi)el# sta'le. 1here the trace crosses the hori8ontal line "mcg is 8ero( the aircra!t neither wants to go nose up nor nose down. &n !act it is %in trim% in 'oth places. ,t Point 2 =ust 'rie!l#( changing alpha has no e!!ect on the nose up or down moment so the aircra!t is neutrall# longitudinall# sta'le. &n Part 5( un!ortunatel# !or the pilot( an# increase in alpha will increase the nose up moment. he aircra!t is negati)el# sta'le + unsta'le. &n !act this is t#pical o! the entr# into an irreco)era'le deep stall. he slope o! the line shows sta'ilit# or not( a'o)e or 'elow the hori8ontal axis shows where the nose will want to go i! #ou let go o! the stic4

-tatic lateral sta'ilit# will 'e increased '#$ increasing wing sweep'ac4. 1hat is predominantl# used to set the ail @ori8ontal -ta'ili8er !or a4e+o!!P ";. -tatic directional sta'ilit# is the$ tendenc# o! an aeroplane to reco)er !rom a s4id with the rudder !ree. Forward mo)ement o! the "; will reduce control response and increase sta'ilit#. @ow can the designer o! an aeroplane with straight wings increase the static lateral sta'ilit#P ?# increasing the aspect ratio o! the )ertical sta'ili8er( whilst maintaining a constant area. he pitching moment )ersus angle o! attac4 line in the diagram( which corresponds to a "; located at the neutral point o! a gi)en aeroplane at low and moderate angles o! attac4 is$ line 2. he Geutral Point is the position o! the "; that gi)es the aircra!t neutral longitudinal static sta'ilit#.

he e!!ect o! a high wing with 8ero dihedral is Positi)e dihedral e!!ect. he stic4 !orce per g o! a hea)# transport aeroplane is 5// G/g. 1hat stic4 !orce is re*uired( i! the aeroplane in the clean con!iguration is pulled to the limit manoeu)ring load !actor !rom a trimmed hori8ontal straight and stead# !lightP 7B/ G. 1hat is the recommended action !ollowing !ailure o! the #aw damper(s) o! a =et aeroplane( !l#ing at normal cruise altitude and speed prior to encountering 3utch roll pro'lemsP 2educe altitude and .ach num'er. ,s the sta'ilit# o! an aeroplane increases its manoeu)ra'ilit# decreases. Dxcessi)e static lateral sta'ilit# is an undesira'le characteristic !or a transport aeroplane 'ecause it would impose excessi)e demands on roll control during a sideslip. ,n aeroplane that tends to return to its pre+distur'ed e*uili'rium position a!ter the distur'ance has 'een remo)ed is said to ha)e positi)e static sta'ilit#. -tatic lateral sta'ilit# will 'e increased '# reducing wing anhedral. he contri'ution o! the wing to the static longitudinal sta'ilit# o! an aeroplane depends on "; location relati)e to the wing aerod#namic centre. ,n a!t "; shi!t decreases static longitudinal sta'ilit#. -tatic lateral sta'ilit# will 'e decreased '# increasing wing anhedral. For an aeroplane to possess d#namic sta'ilit#( it needs static sta'ilit# and su!!icient damping. ,n aeroplane is sensiti)e to 3utch roll when static lateral sta'ilit# is much more pronounced than static directional sta'ilit#. he purpose o! a dorsal !in is to maintain static directional sta'ilit# at large sideslip angles. he e!!ect o! a positi)e wing sweep on static directional sta'ilit# is as !ollows sta'ili8ing e!!ect. &! the total sum o! moments a'out one o! its axes is not 8ero( an aeroplane would experience an angular acceleration a'out that axis.

,n aeroplane has static directional sta'ilit#< in a side slip to the right( initiall# the nose o! the aeroplane tends to mo)e to the right. For a normal sta'le aeroplane( the centre o! gra)it# is located with a su!!icient minimum margin ahead o! the neutral point o! the aeroplane. he maximum a!t position o! the centre o! gra)it# is( amongst others( limited '# the re*uired minimum )alue o! the stic4 !orce per g. he manoeu)ra'ilit# o! an aeroplane is 'est when the cg is on the a!t cg limit. ,n aeroplane with an excessi)e static directional sta'ilit# in relation to its static lateral sta'ilit# will 'e prone to spiral di)e (spiral insta'ilit#). , .ach trimmer corrects the change in stic4 !orce sta'ilit# o! a swept wing aeroplane a'o)e a certain .ach num'er. Positi)e static lateral sta'ilit# is the tendenc# o! an aeroplane to roll to the le!t in the case o! a sideslip (with the aeroplane nose pointing to the le!t o! the incoming !low). &! the static lateral sta'ilit# o! an aeroplane is increased( whilst its static directional sta'ilit# remains constant its sensiti)it# to 3utch roll increases. Lateral static sta'ilit# is determined '# ,ircra!t response to sideslip. he s#stem is concerned with positi)e :g: 'ut i! the pilot pushed the #o4e !orward and experienced negati)e :g: it would increase the stic4 !orce the pilot !elt in pushing the #o4e !orward. &! an aeroplane exhi'its insu!!icient stic4 !orce per g( this pro'lem can 'e resol)ed '# installing a 'o'weight in the control s#stem which pulls the stic4 !orwards. &n a stead# sideslip #ou are holding on aileron to 'alance the tendenc# o! the aircra!t to roll 'ac4 le)el + sideslip sta'ilit#. &ncreasing dihedral increases sideslip sta'ilit# and #ou will then ha)e to hold on more aileron to hold #our attitude. Longitudinal sta'ilit# is directl# in!luenced '# centre o! gra)it# position. &! an airplane has poor longitudinal sta'ilit# in !light( what can 'e done to increase the sta'ilit#P &ncrease sta'ili8er sur!ace area. he a!t "; limit can 'e determined '# the minimum accepta'le static longitudinal sta'ilit#. , !orward "; shi!t decreases longitudinal manoeu)ra'ilit#. he dihedral construction o! an aircra!t wing pro)ides Lateral sta'ilit# a'out the longitudinal axis. Positi)e static longitudinal sta'ilit# means that a nose+down moment occurs a!ter encountering an up+gust. ,!ter an aeroplane has 'een trimmed the stic4 position sta'ilit# will 'e unchanged. -tic4 !orce per g is dependent on cg location. ,n aeroplane:s sideslip angle is de!ined as the angle 'etween the speed )ector and the plane o! s#mmetr#. he e!!ect o! the wing downwash on the static longitudinal sta'ilit# o! an aeroplane is negati)e.

he stic4 !orce per g must ha)e 'oth an upper and lower limit in order to ensure accepta'le control characteristics. Cpward de!lection o! a trim ta' in the longitudinal control results in the stic4 position sta'ilit# remaining constant. , 'o' weight and a down spring ha)e the same e!!ect on the stic4 !orce sta'ilit#. 1hat is the e!!ect o! ele)ator trim ta' ad=ustment on the static longitudinal sta'ilit# o! an aeroplaneP Go e!!ect. 1hich part o! an aeroplane pro)ides the greatest positi)e contri'ution to static longitudinal sta'ilit#P he hori8ontal tailplane. -tatic lateral sta'ilit# should not 'e too large( 'ecause too much aileron de!lection would 'e re*uired in a crosswind landing. 1hen the "; is close to the !orward limit$ Ver# high stic4 !orces are re*uired in pitch 'ecause the aircra!t is )er# sta'le. he e!!ect o! .ach trim on stic4 !orces !or power operated controls$ &s to maintain the re*uired stic4 !orce gradient. &! the aircra!t is properl# loaded the ";( the neutral point and the manoeu)re point will 'e in the order gi)en( !orward to a!t$ ";( neutral point( manoeu)re point. , negati)e contri'ution to the static longitudinal sta'ilit# o! con)entional =et transport aeroplanes is pro)ided '#$ the !uselage. ,n# o! the design !eatures that increases the static lateral sta'ilit#( '# increasing the li!t on the low wing( will add to the static directional sta'ilit#. , straight wing with no dihedral will not ha)e much o! a change in li!t on the low wing during a sideslip( so it will not ha)e the increase in drag to #aw it into the relati)e air!low. "ontrol sur!ace !lutter can 'e eliminated '#$ mass 'alancing o! the control sur!ace. he positi)e manoeu)ring limit load !actor !or a light aeroplane in the utilit# categor# in the clean con!iguration is$ 7.7. he relationship 'etween the stall speed V- and V, (D,-) !or a large transport aeroplane can 'e expressed in the !ollowing !ormula$ V, T= V- 9 -X2 (2.B). For most =et transport aeroplanes( the maximum operating limit speed( V.O$ is replaced '# ..O at higher altitudes. he stall speed line in the manoeu)ring load diagram runs through a point where the$ speed = V-( load !actor = N0. 1hat can happen to the aeroplane structure !l#ing at a speed =ust exceeding V,P &t ma# su!!er permanent de!ormation i! the ele)ator is !ull# de!lected upwards. ,ircra!t designers could 'uild !or a higher sa!e g limit i! the# wanted to( 'ut cost and weight considerations usuall# mean that 2.Bg is 'oth the minimum and the maximum. Load !actor is increased '#$ upward gusts. he extreme right limitation !or 'oth gust and manoeu)re diagrams is created '# the speed$ V3.

he gust load !actor due to a )ertical upgust increases when$ the gradient o! the "L+alpha graph increases. ;ust Load Factors )ar# depending on altitude( mass/weight( speed and the slope o! the "L+alpha cur)e. 1ith increasing altitude and increasing mass/weight the gust load !actor will decrease. 1ing loading is the ratio o! all+up weight/wing area( so li4e mass/weight this will also result in a reduced gust load !actor. "on)ersel# i! speed is increased then the e!!ect o! an upgust will 'e more se)ere and lead to an increased gust load !actor. 1hich !actor should 'e ta4en into account when determining V,P he limit load !actor. ,ileron !lutter can 'e caused '#$ c#clic de!ormations generated '# aerod#namic( inertial and elastic loads on the wing. 0. &ncreasing the aspect+ratio o! the wing will increase the gust load !actor.2. &ncreasing the speed will increase the gust load !actor. &. ,ero+elastic coupling a!!ects !lutter characteristics. &&. he ris4 o! !lutter increases as &,- increases. ,ileron re)ersal can 'e caused '#$ wisting o! the wing a'o)e re)ersal speed. ,ll gust lines in the gust load diagram originate !rom a point where the speed = /( load !actor = N0 &! clim'ing at V.O( it is possi'le to exceed ..O. V.O$ should 'e not greater than V". 1hich o! these statements concerning !light in tur'ulence is correctP V2, is the recommended tur'ulence penetration air speed. he manoeu)ring speed V,( expressed as indicated airspeed( o! a transport aeroplane$ depends on aeroplane mass and pressure altitude. he gust limit load !actor can 'e higher than the manoeu)ring limit load !actor. ,ssuming &-, conditions( which statement with respect to the clim' is correctP ,t constant &,- the .ach num'er increases. he positi)e manoeu)ring limit load !actor !or a large transport aeroplane with !laps extended is$ 2./. he stall speed lines in the manoeu)ring load diagram originate !rom a point where the$ speed = /( load !actor = /. @ow can wing !lutter 'e pre)entedP ?# locating mass in !ront o! the torsion axis o! the wing. V, is$ the maximum speed at which maximum ele)ator de!lection up is allowed. he load !actor in tur'ulence ma# !luctuate a'o)e and 'elow 0 and can e)en 'ecome negati)e. .ass+'alancing o! control sur!aces is used to$ pre)ent !lutter o! control sur!aces. For an aeroplane with one !ixed )alue o! V, the !ollowing applies. V, is$ the speed at which the aeroplane stalls at the manoeu)ring limit load !actor at . O1.

he signi!icance o! V, !or =et transport aeroplanes is reduced at high cruising altitudes 'ecause$ 'u!!et onset limitations normall# 'ecome limiting. Gow on entering tur'ulence( a gust will change the angle o! attac4< the change in "L !or the swept wing will 'e less than !or the straight wing. -wept wings are less sensiti)e to gusts. "ontrol sur!ace !lutter$ &s a destructi)e )i'ration that must 'e damped out within the !light en)elope. Flight in se)ere tur'ulence ma# lead to a stall and/or structural limitations 'eing exceeded. 1hat is the primar# input !or an arti!icial !eel s#stemP &,-. he ele)ator de!lection re*uired !or a gi)en manoeu)re will 'e$ larger at low &,when compared to high &,-( larger !or a !orward "; position when compared to an a!t position. Yaw is !ollowed '# roll 'ecause the$ #awing motion generated '# rudder de!lection causes a speed increase o! the outer wing( which increases the li!t on that wing so that the aeroplane starts to roll in the same direction as the #aw. Out'oard ailerons (i! present) are normall# used$ in low speed !lights onl#. he !orward "; limit is mainl# determined '# the amount o! pitch control a)aila'le !rom the ele)ator. he centre o! gra)it# mo)ing a!t will$ increase the ele)ator up e!!ecti)eness. 1hen the cg position is mo)ed !orward( the ele)ator de!lection !or a manoeu)re with a gi)en load !actor greater than 0 will 'e$ larger. -tic4 !orces( pro)ided '# an ele)ator !eel s#stem( depend on$ ele)ator de!lection( d#namic pressure. 1hich 4ind o! ::ta':: is commonl# used in case o! manual re)ersion o! !ull# powered !light controlsP -er)o ta'. 1hich statement is correct a'out a spring ta'P ,t high &,- it 'eha)es li4e a ser)o ta'. 1hat is the e!!ect o! an a!t shi!t o! the centre o! gra)it# on (0) static longitudinal sta'ilit# and (2) the re*uired control de!lection !or a gi)en pitch changeP (0) 2educes (2) reduces. 1hich three aerod#namic means decrease manoeu)ring stic4 !orcesP -er)o ta' + horn 'alance + spring ta'. ,n example o! di!!erential aileron de!lection during initiation o! le!t turn is$ Le!t aileron$ BA up. 2ight aileron$ 2A down. ,n aeroplane is pro)ided with spoilers and 'oth in'oard and out'oard ailerons. 2oll control during cruise is pro)ided '#$ in'oard ailerons and roll spoilers. &n straight and le)el !light( as speed is reduced$ the ele)ator is de!lected !urther upwards and the trim ta' !urther downwards. 1hen roll spoilers are extended( the part o! the wing on which the# are mounted$ experiences a reduction in li!t( which generates the desired rolling moment. &n addition there is a local increase in drag( which suppresses ad)erse #aw. 1hen power assisted controls are used !or pitch control$ a part o! the aerod#namic !orces is still !elt on the column.

he pitch angle is de!ined as the angle 'etween the$ longitudinal axis and the hori8ontal plane. ,ileron de!lection causes a rotation around the longitudinal axis '#$ changing the wing cam'er and the two wings there!ore produce di!!erent li!t )alues resulting in a moment a'out the longitudinal axis. ,eroplane manoeu)ra'ilit# decreases !or a gi)en control sur!ace de!lection when$ &,- decreases. For a gi)en ele)ator de!lection( aeroplane longitudinal manoeu)ra'ilit# increases when$ the "; mo)es a!t. 3i!!erential aileron de!lection$ e*uals the drag o! the right and le!t aileron. Dxamples o! aerod#namic 'alancing o! control sur!aces are$ ser)o ta'( spring ta'( seal 'etween the wing trailing edge and the leading edge o! control sur!ace. ,n ad)antage o! locating the engines at the rear o! the !uselage( in comparison to a location 'eneath the wing( is $ less in!luence o! thrust changes on longitudinal control. ,n aeroplane has a ser)o ta' controlled ele)ator. 1hat will happen i! the ele)ator =ams during !lightP Pitch control sense is re)ersed. , horn 'alance in a control s#stem has the !ollowing purpose$ to decrease stic4 !orces. 1hat is the position o! the ele)ator in relation to the trimma'le hori8ontal sta'iliser o! a power assisted aeroplane that is in trimP he position depends on speed( the position o! slats and !laps and the position o! the centre o! gra)it#. 1hen a =et transport aeroplane ta4es o!! with the "; at the !orward limit and the trimma'le hori8ontal sta'iliser ( @-) is positioned at the maximum allowa'le nose down position !or ta4e+o!!$ rotation will re*uire a higher than normal stic4 !orce. 1hen !lutter damping o! control sur!aces is o'tained '# mass 'alancing( these weights will 'e located with respect to the hinge o! the control sur!ace$ in !ront o! the hinge. &n a di!!erential aileron control s#stem the control sur!aces ha)e a larger upward than downward maximum de!lection. @ow does positi)e cam'er o! an aero!oil a!!ect static longitudinal sta'ilit#P &t has no e!!ect( 'ecause cam'er o! the aero!oil produces a constant pitch down moment coe!!icient( independent o! angle o! attac4. ,n aeroplane:s 'an4 angle is de!ined as the angle 'etween its$ lateral axis and the hori8ontal plane. Low speed pitch+up can 'e caused '# a signi!icant thrust$ increase with podded engines located 'eneath a low+mounted wing. ,rti!icial !eel is re*uired$ with !ull# powered !light controls. One ad)antage o! mounting the hori8ontal tailplane on top o! the )ertical !in is$ to impro)e the aerod#namic e!!icienc# o! the )ertical !in. , primar# stop is mounted on an ele)ator control s#stem in order to$ 2estrict the range o! mo)ement o! the ele)ator.

1hen ice is present on the sta'ili8er( de!lection o! !laps ma# cause$ he sta'ili8er to stall and a )ertical di)e. he !ollowing is true concerning a 'alance ta'. &t is$ a !orm o! aerod#namic 'alance. he inputs to the X !eel unit are !rom$ Pitot and static pressures. he reasons !or ha)ing a trim s#stem on powered assisted !l#ing controls is$ Dna'les the stic4 !orce to 'e reduced to 8ero. 3e!lecting the ele)ator up( when the trim ta' is in neutral( will cause the ta' to$ 2emain in line with the ele)ator. -ome airplanes ha)e spring ta's mounted into the control s#stem. his is to pro)ide$ , reduction in the pilots6 e!!ort to mo)e the controls against high air loads. he :slipstream e!!ect: o! a propeller is most prominent at$ low airspeeds with high power setting. Fixed+pitch propellers are usuall# designed !or maximum e!!icienc# at$ cruising speed &! the propeller pitch o! a windmilling propeller is increased during a glide at constant &,- the propeller drag in the direction o! !light will$ decrease and the rate o! descent will decrease. 3uring a glide with idle power and constant &,-( i! the 2P. le)er o! a constant speed propeller is pulled 'ac4 !rom its normal cruise position( the propeller pitch will$ increase and the rate o! descent will decrease. , windmilling propeller$ produces drag instead o! thrust. he di!!erence 'etween a propeller:s 'lade angle and its angle o! attac4 is called$ the helix angle. he re!erence section o! a propeller 'lade with radius 2 is usuall# ta4en at a distance !rom the propeller axis e*ual to$ /.VB 2. For a !ixed+pitch propeller designed !or cruise( the angle o! attac4 o! each 'lade( measured at the re!erence section$ is optimum when the aircra!t is in a sta'ili8ed cruising !light. "onstant+speed propellers pro)ide a 'etter per!ormance than !ixed+pitch propellers 'ecause the#$ produce an almost maximum e!!icienc# o)er a wider speed range. Propeller e!!icienc# ma# 'e de!ined as the ratio 'etween$ usa'le (power a)aila'le) power o! the propeller and sha!t power.

D!!icienc# is power out compared to power in( so #ou need an aero!oil design that has a good li!t/drag ratio. , high aspect 'lade (long and narrow) will gi)e #ou low induced drag and so it needs low engine power to o)ercome drag. ,s propellers operate at 'ig angles o! attac4 to produce thrust( a low induced drag will gi)e #ou a good e!!icienc#.

&! #ou loo4 at #our light aircra!t that is exactl# what the# ha)e. Fairl# long narrow 'lades (high aspect ratio) and good e!!icienc#( so #ou don6t need a 'ig engine to dri)e them. Cn!ortunatel# the# don:t mo)e a lot o! air 'ac4wards( so although the# are !ine i! the aircra!t weight is low( #ou need more disc solidit#( i! #ou need more thrust. he minute #ou increase disc solidit# (with wider 'lades) #ou are reducing aspect ratio and losing e!!icienc#. You will need a stronger engine to o)ercome the higher drag. Power a'sorption is the same as disc solidit# in that it reduces e!!icienc#. &! #ou ha)e a power!ul engine #ou are wasting it i! #ou put a high aspect ratio (low disc solidit#) propeller on it( 'ecause #ou could dri)e it at idle. You might as well use the power a)aila'le '# increasing the disc solidit# and produce more thrust. &ncreasing disc solidit# or a'sor'ing more a)aila'le power will alwa#s 'e contrar# to e!!icienc#. he designer has to decide what he wants( #ou cannot ha)e 'oth. he angle o! attac4 o! a !ixed pitch propeller 'lade increases when$ 2P. increases and !orward )elocit# decreases &ncreasing speed reduces the angle o! attac4 on the prop 'lades. &! #ou had a !ixed pitch prop this would mean that #ou lost thrust( and the !aster #ou went the less thrust #ou would ha)e. ?ut #ou ha)e a constant speed prop( and as the angle o! attac4 reduces the tor*ue drag reduces and the prop 2P. 'egins to go up. he "-C senses this( and increases the 'lade angle to get the 2P. sta'ili8ed again. -o #ou settle down at the higher speed with increased 'lade angle. hin4 @urricane .4 &( !ixed pitch wooden prop with a horrendousl# coarse pitch !or high speed. For an# propeller$ thrust is the component o! the total aerod#namic !orce on the propeller parallel to the rotational axis. &! - is the !rontal area o! the propeller disc( propeller solidit# is the ratio o!$ the total !rontal area o! all the 'lades to -. &ncreasing the cam'er on propeller 'lades will( i! all else is the same$ &ncrease the power a'sorption capa'ilit#. he num'er o! 'lades in a propeller would 'e increased$ o increase power a'sorption capa'ilit#. "ounter rotating propellers ha)e the e!!ect o!$ "anceling out the tor*ue and g#roscopic e!!ects. he !irst action in the e)ent o! propeller runawa# (o)erspeed conditions)( should 'e to$ "lose the throttle. @ow will the area ratio o! a propeller 'e calculatedP ,rea o! all propeller 'lades to the total circular sur!ace.

3uring a straight( stead# clim' and with the thrust !orce parallel to the !light path$ li!t is the same as during a descent at the same angle and mass. For shallow !light path angles in straight and stead# !light( the !ollowing !ormula can 'e used$ sin gamma = /1 + "3/"L. urning motion in a stead#( le)el co+ordinated turn is created '#$ the centripetal !orce. &n a co+ordinated hori8ontal turn( the magnitude o! the centripetal !orce at 7B degrees o! 'an4$ is e*ual to the weight o! the aeroplane. 1hat !actors determine the distance tra)eled o)er the ground o! an aeroplane in a glideP he wind and the li!t/drag ratio( which changes with angle o! attac4. he speed V."L can 'e limited '# the a)aila'le maximum roll rate. For a gi)en aeroplane which two main )aria'les determine the )alue o! V.";P ,irport ele)ation and temperature. he airload on the hori8ontal tailplane (tailload) o! an aeroplane in straight and le)el cruise !light$ is in general directed downwards and will 'ecome less negati)e when the c.g. mo)es a!t. he descent angle o! a gi)en aeroplane in a stead# wings le)el glide has a !ixed )alue !or a certain com'ination o!$ (ignore compressi'ilit# e!!ects and assume 8ero thrust) con!iguration and angle o! attac4. &n a stead# straight clim' at clim' angle :gamma:( the li!t o! an aeroplane with weight 1 is approximatel#$ 1 9 cos (gamma) 1hen an aeroplane per!orms a straight stead# clim' with a 2/H clim' gradient( the load !actor is e*ual to$ /.UI. 1hich o! the !ollowing parameters can 'e read !rom the para'olic polar diagram o! an aeroplaneP he minimum glide angle and the parasite drag coe!!icient. &n a straight( stead# clim' the thrust must 'e$ greater than the drag 'ecause it must also 'alance a component o! weight. he 'an4 angle in a rate+one turn depends on$ ,-. 1h# is V."; determined with the nosewheel steering disconnectedP ?ecause the )alue o! V."; must also 'e applica'le on wet and/or slipper# runwa#s. he li!t to drag ratio determines the$ hori8ontal glide distance !rom a gi)en altitude at 8ero wind and 8ero thrust. @ow does V."; change with increasing !ield ele)ation and temperatureP 3ecreases( 'ecause the engine thrust decreases. ,n aeroplane:s !light path angle is de!ined as the angle 'etween its$ speed )ector and the hori8ontal plane. &n a stead#( hori8ontal( co+ordinated turn$ thrust e*uals drag( 'ecause there is e*uili'rium o! !orces along the direction o! !light. ,n aircra!t in !light is a!!ected '# loads. hese ma# 'e classi!ied as$ "ompressi)e( tensile( shear and torsional. &n order to clim' with the speed !or maximum clim' rate( the aircra!t should 'e !lown with the &,- at which$ he power excess is maximal. &n a stead# 'an4ed turn the li!t will$ D*ual the resultant o! weight and centri!ugal !orce.

1hich are the two most important parameters to determine the )alue o! V.";P Dngine thrust and rudder de!lection.