JCUPN/l Cl llDDll l/Sf WCllN´S SfUDllS

JCUPN/l Cl llDDll l/Sf WCllN´S SfUDllS
Vol. 5, No. 1 (Winter 2009) · 2009
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Ѯis study is the frst of its kind using feld and documentary research
sources. Vhile oē cial sources on the subject have proven the limita-
tions of such data, the study uses a feld survey of a sample of 2,787
women students at Oatar University representing 4.4º of Oatari
females aged 15-õ4 and 0.4º of non-Oatari females in the same age
group. Ѯe study provides important indices and conclusions, e.g., a
substantial percentage of the participants have experienced violence,
with most violence occurring within the family, from family males
such as brothers, fathers, or husbands. It also shows that some women
were subjected to violence during childhood and adolescence. Ѯe
study points to the lack of legislation and oē cial organizations to
protect women from violence and suggests ways and means of dealing
with the problem in Oatari society.
n Oatar and other Arab communities, studies of violence against
women are scarce. According to the author's preparatorv survev
of such studies, not onlv are thev few in number, but the topic of vio-
lence against women has been treated as marginal, the samples studied
have been verv small, and some of the studies have been mere survevs of
the problem, while others did not emplov proper research methodologv
(Bu-Zaboon 2004; al-Iravni 2005; al-Iaba 2005). This article documents
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
the first national survev on violence against women in Oatar-indeed,
in anv Arab communitv-and provides recommendations for address-
ing this vital issue in Oatari societv.
The process of documenting information on violence against
women is aĒected bv the social and cultural context. In a culture such as
that of Oatar, where women are expected to uphold the familv's honor, it
is unacceptable to reveal anvthing that might bring shame and dishonor
on the familv or the tribe. Since governmental securitv bodies are part
of this cultural context, their performance is restricted bv these social
attitudes, rendering their statistics inaccurate and their enforcement of
laws against violence ineĒective.
Statistics involving cases that have come to the attention of the
Oatari Association for the Protection of Children and Women from Vio-
lence (al-Muwasa al-Oatari le Himava al-Atfal wa al-Mar'a min al-'Unf
[OACW]) show that 55 reports of violence against women were made
in 2005, two-thirds involving Oatari women and one-third involving
non-Oatari women. Ѯe information as published is not detailed and
does not represent an information database (al-Obaidli 2006). Other
statistics provided bv the Ministrv of the Interior show that in 2004,
65 complaints of domestic violence were presented as follows: 23 cases
of assault and fghting were addressed to the OĒense Court; 5 to the
Criminal Court (3 involving homicide and 2 assault); and 37 to the So-
cial Status Department (al-Muhannadi 2006).
Clearlv, where no records have been kept of the tvpe of case, the
identities of the victim and the oĒender, the nationalities of the persons
involved, or the manner of oĒense (particularlv in cases of domestic
violence), there is insuē cient information to determine whether these
cases can be classifed as violence against women. Current statistical
data on violence against women lack information, claritv, and organi-
zation. Changing this would require oē cials to address the issue seri-
ouslv and take measures to protect women and applv the international
treaties, protocols, and resolutions signed bv the government of Oatar.
Ѯe Oatari judicial svstem consists of the Ministrv of Iustice and the
Supreme Iudiciarv Council. Legislative Law No. 10 of 2003 (October 2,
2004) defned two tvpes of legislation as judicial and religious under one
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bodv called Ѯe Courts. Ѯese are the Preliminarv Court, the Appellate
Court, and the Supreme Court. Each court is competent to settle cases
fled with it in accordance with the law. However, the Oatari legal svstem
has no provisions for dealing with violence against women, this being a
relativelv new area of interest. Ѯe state, however, is keen on protecting
the familv, including mothers and children, in the face of various chal-
lenges, be thev economic, social, cultural, or environmental, and these
challenges include domestic violence in particular.
As stated in the Permanent Constitution of Oatar, Part 2, Article
21, under the heading Basic Social Elements, ¨Ѯe familv is the basis of
societv, with religion, moralitv, and love of the homeland as its essence.
Ѯe law should provide all means to protect, consolidate, and maintain
motherhood, childhood, and old age." Yet some of these principles are
not refected in criminal law codes. Ѯe Oatari Penal Code currentlv
in force (No. 11 for 2004) does not criminalize domestic violence or
violence against women or children, but it does specifv crimes of phvsi-
cal assault, molestation, defamation, insult, and exposing children to
danger, and it specifes penalties for felonies or misdemeanors involving
anv of these crimes.
In Oatar there is no centralized svstem of protection for the victims
of abuse. A victim can report their complaint to the Police Department,
the OACW, or the Human Rights Commission, which are the onlv agen-
cies available. Once reported, their complaint is investigated and the
victim is provided with protection (safe house). Ѯe victim can then sue
the oĒender through the judicial svstem.
DllCGP/PHlC ll/fUPlS
Ѯe Oatari familv is characterized bv a number of demographic features
common to manv developing countries, such as large familv size and
high fertilitv rate. According to GOO 2004, the average size of a Oatari
familv in 1997 was 5.3 members, and while that fgure had decreased
bv 2004, it was still greater than the average size of non-Oatari families
resident in Oatar, which was 4.5 members (al-Ghanim 1999; 2004).
Ѯe overall fertilitv rate of Oatari women has taken an upward
trend to reach 3.9 in 2004, despite the relative drop from 4.4 in 1997
(GOO/SGPC 2006). Ѯis suggests that reproductive literacv has not im-
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
proved despite a rise in the level of education among Oataris. Ѯe high
fertilitv rate among illiterate and lesser-educated females balances the
fertilitv rate of more educated women, preventing the rate from dropping
below 3.0. Altogether, however, the current trend suggests a decrease in
the next few vears, and therefore a drop in population growth rates and
eventuallv in familv size.
Ѯe basic transformation in Oatar seems to be the shrinking size
of the familv and the change from extended to nuclear families. As well,
the social conditions of large families are changing. As income and
education levels rise and occupations and tvpes of residence change,
the social status of Oatari families also changes. Women's traditional
role within the familv is diversifving as women join the work force.
Ѯe participation of Oatari and non-Oatari women in the work force
increased from 10° in 1986 to 15° in 2004; during the same period,
participation of Oatari women increased from 8° to 30°. Ѯis has led
to what is perhaps the most prominent challenge facing modern Oatari
societv. Ѯe consequences for the Oatari familv of women's entrv into
the work force require further studv.
CU/Sl·ClllCl/l Sf/flSflCS CN VlCllNCl
Table 1 shows a set of unpublished data based on available Securitv
Services Department (SSD) records (i.e. police records) on crimes of
violence committed against women in Oatar from 2000 to 2004 (GOO/
MOI n.d.). Ѯe data reveal a rise in cases of violence against women
from 2000 to 2003, with a negligible decrease in 2004. Ѯis mav refect
a growing willingness to fle such cases. It mav also refect economic
Table 1
Number of crimes committed against women in 2000-2004.
Percentage of increase/decrease.
Year Number ° + / -
2000 212 -
2001 332 + 57°
2002 402 + 21°
2003 554 + 38°
2004 498 -10°
Source: GOO/MOI n.d.
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changes and modernization introduced to Oatari societv with no clear
awareness of the nature and results of such changes and no plans to
minimize the resultant negative social eĒects.
According to SSD records, over half of the reported crimes were
committed against Oatari women, and the majoritv were classifed as as-
saults, although the tvpe of assault was not specifed. Next in frequencv
were sexual crimes (such as rape) and premeditated murder, which seem
to be reported more frequentlv among non-Oatari women. Over half of
the reported violence can be classifed as sexual harassment in shopping
precincts. Statistics obtained from SSD, which represent cases normallv
referred to the Preliminarv Court svstem, do not reveal the tvpe or de-
gree of violence, nor whether it occurred within the familv.
Data from the Emergencv Oē ce of Hamad Hospital in Doha docu-
mented onlv 200 cases of violence against women in 2006. Ѯe victims
ranged between 20 and 40 vears of age, and the tvpes of assault extended
from deep wounds to bruises, superfcial cuts, and traumas inficted bv
hands, sharp tools, or sticks.
Ѯese data originating from diĒerent sources, such as the Associa-
tion for the Protection of Children and Women, the Securitv Services
Department, and Hamad Hospital, show that there are manv cases of
women being subjected to violence. But more importantlv, the data show
that there is a lack of eĒective recording and reporting.
llfHCDClCGY Cl fHl llllD SfUDY
Ѯis scientifc feld studv was fnanciallv supported bv Oatar's Supreme
Council for Familv AĒairs as part of its task to establish policies and
programs aimed at unifving and protecting the familv. Ѯe studv takes
a descriptive and analvtical approach to data and analvses of violence
against women in Oatari societv. It is the frst of its kind in Oatar, and
its size has provided an extensive reference source. Due to the scarcitv
of data on the subject, it was important to use a survev tool to provide
a database, enrich the methodological and scientifc aspects of studv-
ing such a social problem, and vield suggestions for decision-makers
concerned with violence against women. Ѯe large sample size allows
results to be generalized to Oatari societv. Ѯe studv helps to expose
features of violence against women, including its causes and conse-
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
quences, and points the wav toward recommendations for countering
the problem.
A questionnaire was administered to female students at the Universitv
of Oatar during the Spring 2006 academic term. Ѯe size of the studv
was large enough to help discover the sources and the extent of violence
against women, and to increase knowledge about how assaulted women
understand and react to violence. Ѯe feld studv provided various data
that were analvzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS) program. It showed some demographic, social, and economic
changes that represent the societv under survev. Based on the data, con-
clusions were made that represent the phenomenon of violence against
women in Oatari societv.
S/lPll Sl/l
According to the 2004 census, the total population of Oatar was 744,046,
most of whom were males (GOO 2004). Oatari females numbered
92,560, versus 155,087 non-Oatari females, for a total of 247,647 females,
or one-third of the population.
Ѯe sample encompassed 2,787 female students, representing 1.1°
of the total number of females in Oatar: 2,366 Oatari and 421 non-Oatari
females. Moreover, the sample represented 4.4° of Oatari females aged
15-64, and 0.4° of non-Oatari females in the same age group. Consider-
ing the criteria of size, varietv in social makeup, and geographic distri-
bution, female students at Oatar Universitv were suitable candidates for
the studv because of their large number and their representation of the
various classes of societv (taking into consideration that thev represent
a distinct age group). In addition, the large size of the sample lessens the
standard of deviation in the age group involved in the studv.
Oatar Universitv in Doha is the onlv national universitv in the
countrv. Ѯere are no fees applicable to the students; all expenses are
met bv the government. In addition, Oatari culture dictates that male
and female students must be segregated. As Oatar Universitv responds
to these values, it attracts a large number of female students.
JCUPN/l Cl llDDll l/Sf WCllN´S SfUDllS

CUfCCll Cl fHl llllD SfUDY
Ѯe studv investigated whether women in Oatari societv were subjected
to anv kind of violence or assault, and if so, to what extent. Ѯe results
are described below.
Decree cf V|c|ence
Ѯe most crucial part of the studv looks at the degree to which the sub-
jects faced violence. Ѯe questions were structured in such a wav that
participants could choose from three responses: Yes; To some extent;
and No. Ѯis structure worked well in encouraging students to respond
truthfullv. In response to the question, ¨Have vou ever been subjected
to violence:" 23° of the sample (i.e. 596 students) answered Yes, or To
some extent (see Table 2). Among the 499 married Oatari students (18°
of the sample), 119 (24° of those married) responded Yes, or To some
extent. It should be noted that such percentages admitting thev have
been subjected to violence in Oatari societv-where there has never
before been anv such documentation-are phenomenal and underline
the ground-breaking importance of this studv.
lcrmº cf V|c|ence
Ѯe 596 students who said thev were subjected to violence were asked to
indicate the forms of violence thev had experienced bv choosing items from
a list. Beating was the most widespread form of violence, with 381 students
having been beaten (64° of those subjected to anv form of violence). Ѯe
studv also showed that some of these women lived in fear of divorce or
not having children. Fourteen percent of those subjected to anv form of
Table 2
Student responses to the question: Have vou ever been subjected to violence:
Response Qataris ° Non-Qataris ° Total °
Yes 176 8.0 32 8.4 208 8.1
To some extent 333 15.2 55 14.5 388 15.0
No 1,653 75.3 291 76.6 1,944 75.5
I don't know 34 1.5 2 0.5 36 1.4
Total responses 2,196 100.0 380 100.0 2,576 100.0
No response 170 41 211
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
violence (85, including 68 Oataris) had encountered sexual harassment.
Of this group, over half (46, including 34 Oataris) reported that thev had
been raped (i.e. 1.7° of the total sample). Other forms of violence were
proportionatelv similar or less frequentlv indicated bv the students who
were subjected to violence. Ѯese included humiliation, insult, preventing
self-expression, grounding, control, and ignoring the victim.
lrecuency cf V|c|ence
Ѯe majoritv of the 596 students who were subjected to violence were re-
peatedlv subjected (56° frequentlv and 16° continuouslv), indicating a
need for counseling and protection. Most had been subjected to violence
for a long period: 45° since childhood, 34° since thev were teenagers,
and 11° starting aѫer marriage. Oē cials involved in the protection of
women, children, and human rights, as well as those responsible for
securitv, should be aware of this critical result regarding the abuse of
children and voung women.
V|c|ence cur|nc Ch||chccc
Of the 509 students who answered the question, ¨Were vou ever sub-
jected to violence during childhood:" 27° said Yes, and another 30°
said To some extent, for a total of 57°, or more than half of those who
answered this question. Such results confrm that in manv cases violence
began in and has continued since childhood.
Ѯe analvsis showed that the most common form of violence dur-
ing childhood was beating (62°), followed bv humiliation, degradation,
and verbal abuse. In fѫh place was sexual harassment, experienced bv
21° of those who experienced violence in childhood. Moreover, in the
categorv of sexual harassment, there was no diĒerence between Oataris
and non-Oataris.
Ten percent (52) of the students who said thev were subjected
to violence said thev were raped during childhood. Ѯe discrepancv
between this number and the 46 victims of rape cited above mav have
occurred because some students gained courage to admit the fact aѫer
thev felt more secure.
Ѯis is a verv high percentage that exposes a dangerous fact: a
large number of girls face sexual assault despite living in a conservative
societv. Ѯe students reporting rape said that it had taken place 10 to 15
JCUPN/l Cl llDDll l/Sf WCllN´S SfUDllS

vears prior to the time of the survev. Ѯis was also prior to the current
social and economic development that has brought an increase in the
number of domestic workers and the spread of new communications
technologies, all of which provide more exposure and potential occa-
sions for sexual harassment and attacks from non-relatives who live
with families and become part of their domestic life. Increasing wealth
in Oatari societv makes life easier but also brings with it diĒerent kinds
of problems: social deviation, a high rate of divorce, and new crimes.
Scurceº cf V|c|ence
Ѯe studv indicated that 39° of students subjected to violence said
their brothers were the prime oĒenders (see Table 3). Fathers were a
close second (38°) and mothers third (22°), followed bv sisters and
other relatives as well as unrelated persons. Husbands were in sixth
place (over 10°). Ѯe percentages of other tvpes of oĒenders was low,
though important; for example, women reported facing violence at the
hands of stepfathers, chauĒeurs, housemaids, emplovers, colleagues,
and friends.
While violence is usuallv a male prerogative, 22° of Oatari and
25° of non-Oatari respondents who experienced violence said their
mothers were the perpetrators (whereas there is greater divergence
between Oataris and non-Oataris in the parallel fgures for brothers
and fathers). Ѯis is particularlv true to this sample in which over 80°
of the respondents were single women. Possible reasons for mothers
enacting violence against their daughters include the mothers' position
of authoritv in the familv, their own social upbringing and internalized
oppression, and generational confict caused bv a growing liberalization
and its threat to traditional wavs.
Ccc|nc v|lh V|c|ence
Modes of response to violence were almost evenlv divided between
resistance and passivitv. Ѯose who said thev were passive were asked
about their reaction and it was found that 39° resorted to crving; 24°
resorted to silence; 15° withdrew from anv sort of participation with
others; and 15° hid themselves in their room. When asked whv thev
did not resist violence, 17° said thev wanted to avoid further punish-
ment; 16° said to avoid scandal; 16° said thev did not want anvone to
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
know; and 12° said thev were afraid of the oĒender. In addition, 11°
said thev did not resist because the oĒender was their father, and the
same percentage said thev did not resist because thev loved the oĒender.
Clearlv, a strong motivation for keeping silent is to protect the honor of
men and/or the familv, out of lovaltv, love, or fear, or all three.
Ccnºecuenceº cf V|c|ence
One of the aims of this studv was to identifv the consequences of vio-
lence for the victim. Ѯe studv indicated that nearlv half of those who
experienced violence said thev suĒered from depression due to the vio-
lence perpetrated against them. Tension and temper were experienced
bv more than one-third, with a higher proportion of non-Oataris suf-
fering tension. More than half of the victims of violence said thev had
lost their self-confdence and suĒered from anxietv; one-fourth became
introverted and avoided socializing; and one-fѫh said thev hated men.
Table 3
Responses of students who were subjected to violence, to the question:
Who exercises violence against vou:
Perpetrator Qataris ° Non- ° Total °
Brother 208 40.86 26 29.88 234 39.26
Father 186 36.54 38 43.67 224 37.58
Mother 111 21.80 22 25.28 133 22.31
Sister 60 11.78 12 13.79 72 12.08
Relatives 60 11.78 11 12.64 71 11.91
Husband 58 11.39 4 4.59 62 10.40
Stepfather 22 4.32 6 6.89 28 4.69
Friends 19 3.73 8 9.19 27 4.53
Classmates 25 4.91 2 2.29 27 4.53
Passers-bv 19 3.73 7 8.04 26 4.36
Stepmother 21 4.12 4 4.59 25 4.19
While driving 14 1.60 2 2.29 16 2.68
Colleagues 12 2.35 1 1.14 13 2.18
Emplover 11 2.16 2 2.29 13 2.18
Housemaid 12 2.35 1 1.14 13 2.18
Driver 11 2.16 0 0.00 11 1.84
Other 25 4.91 5 5.87 30 5.03
Total 874 151 1,025
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Ѯere were 25 cases of attempted suicide and 43 cases of involuntarv
urination. And one of the major fndings in the studv was the frequencv
of nervous breakdowns, with 53 instances.
Onlv 5° of the Oatari students who experienced violence informed
the police; the other 95° refrained from doing so. Ѯe same percentages
were found among non-Oataris. Given the overwhelming proportion of
cases not reported to the police, statistics provided bv those responsible
for securitv do not refect the actual levels of violence against women
in Oatar.
In another case studv on domestic violence in which the author
interviewed a sample of 16 Oatari women, details were provided on the
causes, sources, and consequences of violence (al-Ghanim 2007). Ѯe in-
terviews also identifed noteworthv characteristics of the perpetrators of
violence. All respondents explained the cause of violence as having been
brought about through misunderstanding between the victim and the
perpetrator(s), especiallv when the cases involved males (father, brother,
husband) and females in the familv. Ten respondents attributed the
reason for the violence to a basic deprecatorv attitude of males toward
females in the familv. In these cases, violence resulted when women
refused male orders restricting their movements (i.e. going out) or hav-
ing friends. In the words of one respondent, ¨Mv familv rejected mv
friends and refused to permit me to go out or stav late." Another female
was subjected to violence when she expressed her opinions and argued
on issues of social moralitv and ethics. Women were also subjected to
verbal abuse; one was constantlv abused and berated bv her stepmother
and half-brothers because her mother was a non-Oatari.
In these interviews, women victims of violence revealed the depth
and extent of violence related to sexual relations. One woman explained,
¨I was subjected to violence at the hands of mv husband when I discov-
ered that he was having sexual relations with the housemaid." Another
said that she was subjected to violent abuse from her husband when she
refused to engage in ¨abnormal" sexual acts. Ѯe most extreme case was
the respondent who reported to have been raped bv her father since she
was a child. At least fve of the interviewed women said that thev had
been subjected to phvsical violence, verbal mistreatment, and threats bv
the father or the husband when he was under the infuence of alcohol.
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
Ѯis feld studv has demonstrated without a doubt the existence of vio-
lence against women in Oatar. Ѯe cultural image of women as weak
and dependent, in need of the protection of men, lacking authoritv, and
responsible for preserving the honor of men encourages and excuses
violence against women, to the point that it is oѫen not even defned as
violence. Oatari criminal codes do not include a description, defnition,
or penaltv for domestic violence. Ѯe studv showed that beating is the
most common form of violence. It also revealed cases of sexual assault
and harassment, and exposed the extent of violence against children.
Women reported that thev oѫen keep silent about abuse to avoid further
punishment or scandal, or out of shame, fear, or love for the abuser. Ѯe
overwhelming majoritv of women do not report incidents of violence to
the police or anv oē cial agencv; this fact renders oē cial statistics on vi-
olence against women inaccurate. Most violence is perpetrated bv males
in the familv (especiallv brothers, fathers, and husbands), although, as
stated above, women (especiallv mothers) are also perpetrators.
With its large sample size, the studv allows results to be generalized
to Oatari societv and vields four major areas of recommendations for
alleviating violence against women: raising awareness, revising criminal
laws, collecting data, and establishing a network for educating and sup-
porting victims of violence.
Raising awareness is central to addressing the problem of violence
against women-particularlv awareness among decision-makers, public-
opinion leaders, and social agencies including national organizations,
academic institutions, and groups concerned with protecting women.
Understanding the gravitv of this phenomenon and the trend of in-
crease in cases of violence against women is a necessarv prerequisite for
social change. Kev public fgures and agencies should also work toward
a comprehensive plan to ensure that women can live a life without vio-
lence, and should develop a national strategv to combat violence against
Oatari criminal laws must be changed to defne and include crimes
of domestic violence. To guide and track progress, concerned establish-
ments and academic institutions should establish indices on violence
against women bv, for example, furnishing plans and strategies, draѫing
JCUPN/l Cl llDDll l/Sf WCllN´S SfUDllS

legislation, and signing international treaties and resolutions that oppose
violence against women. Iudicial bodies should protect women from
abuse while executing laws. Ѯere should also be follow-up on cases of
female prisoners who have been imprisoned, not for criminal acts, but
as a means of punishment at the behest of their families, and this use of
the securitv apparatus to punish women should be eradicated.
Collecting data involves requesting that securitv and health agen-
cies document cases of violence; it also involves monitoring the abilitv of
such organizations to identifv and report these cases. Statistics must also
be evaluated periodicallv to determine their accuracv in representing
violence against women. More data is needed on the phvsical, psvcholog-
ical, educational, and societal costs of violence against women. Further
analvses and feld studies on violence against women are required for
greater understanding of the sources and causes of the phenomenon.
And fnallv, it is essential to establish a network to educate and
support victims of violence. Awareness programs are needed to help
women expand their traditional views of their role in societv and in the
familv, as well as their status and their relationship to men. Civil societv
institutions should plav a central role in activating awareness of problems
facing victims of violence, such as providing legal defense and demand-
ing changes in penal codes. Training should be provided for those who
work with victims of violence, such as lawvers, police oē cers, and prison
wardens. Legal and counseling services should be provided for assaulted
women, along with practical assistance and support.
Bu-Zaboon, Bana
2004 Al-'unf al-manzili... f al-mujtama' al-bahraini (Domestic violence... in
Bahraini societv). Manama: Al-Markaz al-Watani li al-Bahth.
Al-Ghanim, Kaltham
1999 Woman and Development in Oatari Societv: Analvtical Studv of Oppor-
tunities for Human Development (in Arabic). Majalla al-Khaleej wa al-Iazira
al-'Arabiyya (Iournal of the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula), 24:95 (October):
2004 Irtifa' al-khusuba wa ta´thiratha 'ala al-tanmiya (Ѯe phenomenon
of fertilitv increase and its impact on the development process). Majalla
al-' ulum al-ijtima' iyya (Iournal of the social sciences), 32:2 (Iune):
K/lfH/l /ll /l·GH/Nll
2007 Al-'unf al-manzili f al-mujtama' al-Oatari (Domestic violence in Oatari
societv [case studv]). Manuscript under review for publication bv the
Human Rights Administration, Ministrv of the Interior, Government of
Government of Oatar (GOO)
2004 Ta' dad al-sukkan (Census). Doha.
Government of Oatar, Ministrv of the Interior (GOO/MOI)
N.d. Unpublished police records. Securitv Services Department. Doha.
Government of Oatar, Secretarv General of Planning Council (GOO/SGPC)
2006 Taqrir al-tanmiya al-bashari al-awwal (First human development
report). Doha.
Al-Iravni, Ramzia
2005 Al-'unf dhidd al-mar´a (Violence against women). Research paper.
Conference on the Rights of Arab Women, Sanaa, December 3-5.
Al-Iaba, Amal
2005 Al-Adat wa al-taqalid wa sihha al-mar´a (Customs and habits and
woman's health). Working paper presented at the Arab Conference on
Violence against Women from a General Health Perspective, Amman,
November 22-24.
Al-Muhannadi, Abdullah Sagr
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2006 Tatwir ihsa´at al-'unf dhidd al-mar´a f al-dawla Oatar (Developing Tatwir ihsa´at al-'unf dhidd al-mar´a f al-dawla Oatar Tatwir ihsa´at al-'unf dhidd al-mar´a f al-dawla Oatar
statistics on violence against women in Oatar). Working paper presented
at the fnal discussion on developing statistics of violence against women,
Supreme Council for Familv AĒairs, Doha, March 13.

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