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**Qiuzhen Li, Yingchun Shen, Lixia Li
**

Wuhan Digital Engineering Institute

Wuhan, China

qiuzhen_li@foxmail.com, syc_lq@yahoo.com.cn, lixiali709@yahoo.com.cn

Abstract--For a typical video conference system, generally it is

required to satisfy some basic requirements such as real-time

and security. In the past few years, a large number of

investigators concentrate on how to develop efficient video

encryption algorithms, which are mainly fell into three

categories: complete encryption, selective encryption, and

entropy coding based encryption. Among above three kinds of

algorithms, they all remain some shortcomings. For example,

complete encryption is safe but computation expensive, selective

encryption usually can destroy the statistical characteristic of

DCT coefficients and then results in compression-efficiency

reduction, and entropy coding based encryption suffers from

the issue that some encrypted results of codewords indices are

possibly no corresponding codewords since the codeword index

set of coding table is just a subset of all possible results of

encrypted index. This paper presents a lightweight complete

encryption algorithm based on efficient XOR operation and

hierarchical encryption strategy, successfully overcoming the

weakness of complete encryption while offering a better

security.

Key words--Video encryption; Group public key;

Watermarking; Video Conference

I. INTREDUCTION

With the rapid development of Internet technology and

video compression standard, it probably transmits the video

stream in an efficient way and then yields some new video

applications such as video conference[1]. For video

conference particularly being involved in secret content, it is

usually required to meet with real-time and security

characteristics so as to watch video smoothly and securely.

In past few years, in spite of achieving significant

improvement in the Internet bandwidth, real-time property

remain a challenging issue in the field of video conference

due to ever-increasing demand on better visual quality such

as high-resolution effect[2].

To achieve such goals, a large number of investigators

pay more attentions to how to develop efficient video

encryption algorithms [3-5]. In contrast with ordinary text

data, video sequences are often of large volume, special

compression standard and real-time demand. These

characteristics lead to some problems in terms of video

security, real-time processing, compression performance,

compliance of data format, etc. So how to design an

effective algorithm particularly with respect to these

characteristics is an urgent problem. The existing video

encryption algorithms can be classified into three categories

based on the relationship between encryption and

compression process: complete encryption algorithm,

selective encryption algorithm and encryption algorithm

based on entropy coding [6]. Complete encryption algorithm

often offers high security, but suffers from great

computational complexity due to encrypting all the data.

Selective algorithm, especially DCT-based selective

algorithm, provides satisfying results with respect to real-

time processing and compliance of video format, but will

confront with negative effect on video compression

performance because of changing the statistical performance

of entropy due to encrypting DCT coefficients. That is,

video encryption algorithm should be well integrated with

compression process so as to meet with the expectations in

real-time transmission, error resilience and format

compliance. In this sense, it seems that the entropy coding

based encryption algorithm is ideal choice for video

encryption. Unfortunately, it doesn't become true because it

will face with the problem that some encrypted results of

codewords indices are possibly no corresponding codewords

since such kind of algorithm is based on encrypting index of

codeword but the codeword index set of coding table is just

a subset of all possible results of encrypted index.

Obviously, the aforementioned three kinds of

algorithms more or less exist some shortcomings yet.

Moreover, the performance of video conference needs to be

further improved so as to satisfy some new demand such as

high resolution and open security infrastructure. To avoid

aforementioned issues while considering some new

requirements, this paper proposed a novel video encryption

algorithm which sophisticatedly combine efficient XOR

operation and hierarchical encryption strategy to provide

security guarantees for visual information and identity

authentication. Besides, to further save the transmission

bandwidth to support better visual quality such as high

resolution, it particularly adopts a novel broadcast

encryption, which is somewhat similar to that of Conditional

Access System(CAS)[7] in digital TV but adopt a different

encryption strategy, for downstream(i.e., video stream

flowing from main to sub nodes). Thanks to such special

measure, for a video conference session with one main node

and N sub nodes, it will save approximate N times

transmission bandwidth for downstream. Meanwhile, it

supports that identity authentication is conducted under

public key infrastructure(PKI) since each node is allocated a

RSA-type key pair.The remainder of this paper is organized

as follows. In section ], we will present a visual

___________________________________

978-1-4244-6943-7/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE

information protected framework and explain how to

achieve real-time and security property. Section ] will

introduce a RSA based group key technique which is the

basis of broadcast encryption in section ]. In section |, we

will empirically show the performance of the proposed

scheme. Finally, it will draw a conclusion in section `.

II. THE PROPOSED VISUAL CONTENT ENCRYPTION

FRAMEWORK

For a typical video conference system, it usually

composes of one main node and multiple sub nodes, in

which each sub node captures the local visual information

and compresses it in an efficient compression format like

H.264, and then transmits it to main node. The main node

usually deploys a Multi-point Control Unit (MCU) which

integrates and compresses visual information captured from

all nodes, and then distributed to all nodes. In practice,

according to the direction of visual information stream, the

visual information between main node and all sub nodes can

be classified into two categories: downstream and upstream.

Currently, due to the fact that visual information get

involved in commercial or military secrets in most cases, it

is required to encrypt the video stream prior to transmission.

In the existing video conference system, the upstream and

downstream are encrypted using the unified way in which it

needs to prepares the distinguished encryption data for each

destination node. Under such an encryption mode, the main

node needs to prepare multiple encryption shares for all sub

nodes while the visual content of downstream is identical to

all sub nodes. It is evident that such encryption mode for

downstream is quite wasteful. Though most of video

conference systems can be operated under high-bandwidth

digital network environment such as Integrated Services

Digital Network (ISDN), the bandwidth is still rare resource

especially in the case of demand on high resolution.

As summarized in section 1, , existing video encryption

just consider the security of video content. Though they have

made a significant progress in time cost and security.

However, for a practical video conference system, the

security of a video conference should be comprehensively

considered. That is, besides the security for visual

information, security of system should be also taken into

account simultaneously. This means the encryption

algorithm for video stream must be sophisticatedly

integrated with the identity authentication and encryption for

keys. Based on above considerations, we propose a novel

visual information encryption algorithm in which the

efficient XOR operation,viewed as one kind of complete

encryption,is used to encrypt video stream offering lower

computation over current complete encryption like AES or

3DS. In addition, it adopts the hierarchical encryption

strategy to ensure the security of keys and session by

hierarchically encrypting the keys and providing a RSA-

based identity authentication. At the same time, to further

reduce the overhead of transmission bandwidth,it encrypts

and transmits the downstream in broadcast way. Though it is

very similar to the existing broadcast encryption such as

CAS for digital TV but substantially different from each

other. The detail process is as follows. Firstly, we will

introduce how to implement identity authentication and

encrypt for downstream. For each node such as main or sub

node, it will be assigned a RSA-based key pair,

1

,

M M

K K

÷

< >

or

1

,

i i

S S

K K

÷

< > , where

1

,

M M

K K

÷

are public and private key

of main node, and

1

,

i i

S S

K K

÷

are public and private key of

i th ÷ sub node, respectively. As to public key, it will be

produced as public key certificate (also referred to as digital

certificate) used as identity of each node. When starting with

a new session, the main node and sub nodes will exchange

and verify digital certificate each other. Only if being passed

the verification, the sub node will be permitted to join a

session. For a session of vide conference, suppose there

exists N sub nodes passed verification, and then at main

node side it will generate a new key GPK , called group

public key, based on N sub nodes’ public

keys

1

,...,

N

s s

K K .Then the arbitrary message mencrypted by

GPK can be successfully decrypted by any private key

1

, 1,...,

i

S

K i N

÷

= ,i.e.

1

( ( ))

S

i

RSA RSA

GPK

K

m Decrypt Encrypt m

÷

= .As to

why GPK has this property, it will be illustrated in detail in

section ] . Now, it will firstly present downstream

encryption algorithm. As illustrated in Fig.1.

Figure 1. Identity authentication and downstream encryption

As illustrated in Fig.1, similar to broadcast encryption,

it adopts the hierarchical way to encrypt the downstream and

the detail processes of main node are as follows:

(1)Authenticate the sub node based on the digital

certificate from sub node and generate a GPK using the

public keys of all valid sub nodes;

(2)To ensure efficiency and security, firstly

downstream is partitioned into two uneven parts (i.e., larger

size one and smaller size one) and the larger-size one is

scrambled using efficient XOR operation with control word

CW . The smaller-size one is used to carry encrypted

message ( )

SK

Encrypt CW in watermarking way,

where ( ) Encrypt is a symmetric encryption algorithm such

as AES or 3DES, SK is a session key. To avoid using

additional message package to transmit the encrypted

message of CW so as to save bandwidth, a bit domain

watermarking algorithm is selected from literature[8] to hide

the encrypted message into smaller-size part of downstream.

Due to the encryption and watermarking operations both

**performing in the lowest bit domain, those operations are
**

computationally inexpensive;

(3)Session key SK , which is updated only until there

exists sub node departing and joining, is encrypted

with GPK and the encrypted message ( )

RSA

GPK

Encrypt SK is

broadcast to each sub node, and ( )

RSA

Encrypt is RSA, an

asymmetric encryption algorithm. The GPK isn't required to

pass to sub node since any message encrypted with it can be

successfully decrypted with any private key

1

, 1,...,

i

S

K i N

÷

= ;

For each valid sub node, it will adopt a series of inverse

operation relative to main node towards encrypted keys,as

well as scrambled and watermarked downstream and then

can successfully obtain decrypted downstream. With respect

to upstream, its encryption and decryption algorithm is

analogous to that of downstream just by replacing GPK ,

1

, 1,...,

i

S

K i N

÷

= with

1

,

M M

K K

÷

respectively.

Based on above illustrations, in comparison with the

existing video conference, one can find out this downstream

encryption algorithm can save approximatetimes bandwidth.

In addition, it offers good security due to adopting

hierarchical encryption structure whose security is

guaranteed by appropriately setting the size and update

periodic of related keys such as , CW SK . Although the size

of message of encrypted session key SK is a little bit large,

it will not seriously affect the performance because the

update frequency of session key is quite low.

III. RSA-BASED GROUP PUBLIC KEY ALGORITHM

In section ], it has been told that each node will be

allocated a key pair

1

, , 1,...,

i i

K K i N

÷

( ) = ,where

1

,

i i

K K

÷

are

public and private key respectively and N is the number of

node or key pair. In addition, one can generate a group

public key GPK based on the set of all public keys

, 1,...,

i

K i N = so that the message encrypted with GPK

can be decrypted by any private key

1

i

K

÷

,i.e., GPK is a

common public key relative to any private key. As to why

this kind of key pair has this characteritic, please look at the

generation principal of such a kind key pair and related

proof later. The key pairs is yielded as follows. First,

generate N pairs of prime number ,

i i

p q ( ) ,next compute

i i i

N p q = × as well as ( ) ( 1) ( 1)

i i i

N p q u = ÷ × ÷ , and then

find a positive integer e such that e is prime to

any ( )

i

N u (i.e., ( , ( )) 1

i

gcd e N u = ),finally

evaluate

i

d satisfying 1mod ( )

i i

ed N = u and can get public

key ,

i i

K e N = ( ) and private key

1

,

i i i

K d N

÷

= ( ) .

And then we will introduce how to generate GPK and its

property. From main node side, one can derive a set

·

S ,which is composed of

i

N extracted from public key

of valid node. The generation of GPK will only consider

the all valid node passed the authentication and

,

j r

j

N S

GPK e N

e

=< >

[

.Let m denote the message expected

for encryption with GPK and the encrypted message is

e

=

[

¹ ) mod¹ )

_ ·

kS^ ·

0ll _

\ S

lu·)µt m m \ .Using any prviate key

1

,

j j j

K d N

÷

= ( ) , it can succefully decrypt the encrypted

message,i.e.,

÷

e . =

=

[ !

¹ ¹ )) ¹ mod¹ )) mod

`

_

·

d kS^ kS^ ·

0ll _ t _

l

t S t _

D···)µt l··)µt m m \ \ \

u +

= = =

¹ ) !

mod mod

_ _

·d x \

_ _

m \ m \ m

Its expanded formulations is .

( ) 1

( mod ) mod

( mod( ) mod ) mod

( mod ) mod

mod

mod

j

x

j

x

j

j

j

d e

t j

t s

d e

j t j j

t s t j

d e

j j

ed

j

x N

j

m N N

m N N N N

m N N

m N

m N

m

e

e . =

u +

=

=

=

=

=

[

[

Where

( mod( ) mod

mod mod( )

x

x

e

j t j

t s t j

e

j j t

t s t j

m N N N

m N N N

e . =

e . =

=

[

[

.

From above derivation, it can be seen that GPK is

indeed a common public key to all valid sub nodes and with

the help of GPK , main node can prepare just one share of

encrypted message for all sub nodes thus saving large

amount of bandwidth. Meanwhile,we can conduct identity

authentication based on PKI, which is the security basis in

state-of-the-arts digital rights management system and

electronic commercial business, and is very popular.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSISES

For video conference,one usually concerns about the

complexity and security. To verify the such two property of

the proposed scheme, we choose three typical video

sequences (352`288) for test: akiyo, flower and football,

which have low, middle and high motion complexity

respectively and contain luminance and chrominance data.

Our program was run on a PC with a Intel(R)-Core(TM)2

2.26GHz CPU under Windows XP Professional.

A. Computational complexity

In this algorithm, we will evaluate its complexity by

analyzing the time cost in main and sub node. For main node,

the session key and GPK is updated only when session

membership has changed. In fact, it rarely happens during

video conference, so the running time is mainly spent on the

processes such as encrypting and embedding the control

word, and scrambling video stream, abbreviated as

'encryption+embed'.As to sub node, its main operations

include extracting and decrypting control word,

descrambling video stream as well as playing video,

abbreviated as 'decryption+extract+play'.

**Fig. 2 shows the average time per frame consume to
**

complete the operations like

'encryption+embed','decryption+extract+play',and 'play' over

video sequences akiyo, flower and football, respectively.

One can find out that the time for 'encryption+embed' is far

smaller than that of 'decryption+extract+play' or 'play' and

the time difference between 'decryption+extract+play' and

'play' is very small. That means that operations of

encryption,decryption and watermarking are quite efficient,

and thus this algorithm performs well in the time cost and

can meet with real-time demand.

Figure 2. Comparison of the time consumed by three

processes (i.e., encryption+watermark embedding,

decryption+watermark extraction+play,and play) for video

akiyo,flower,and football

B. Analysis and Evaluation of Security

The security of the proposed algorithm can be divided

into two parts: one is security of the encryption algorithms

and all related keys, another is that of visual information

desired for scrambling and watermarking. As for the first

part, because the encryption algorithm such as AES and

RSA are very powerful standard ciphers, their security is no

doubt. Regarding the security of all related keys, it can be

guaranteed by setting proper parameters such as key size and

key lifecycle. The rule of setting related parameters can be

refer to Table I. From Table I, it can be observed that the

GPK and SK are updated as session-membership has

changed. This is because the RSA cipher is quite powerful

and it is impossible to hack such two keys during a video

conference session when length of GPK is equal to 1024-

bit.

TABLE I. The rules of setting up key size and update

periods

key lifecycle of key Key size

GPK Until the membership changing 1024 bit

SK Until the membership changing 128 bit

CW 2-3 second 16 bit

For the second part, though partial video stream is

selected for carrying the encrypted control word in

watermarking way and the watermarking almost doesn't

cause visual artifacts, i.e., the visual content associated with

this part stream isn't encrypted at all. But, in practice, the

negative impact resulting from watermarking can be ignored

in the case of when all other codewords are well scrambled

even if 16 codewords is not processed at all. Furthermore, in

spite of very simplicity, the scrambling of XOR remains

obtaining a good encryption result since the XOR operation

for codeword in the bit domain can arise a vast variation in

spatial domain. In Fig. 3, the upper row is the original frame

of three video sequence and the bottom row is decrypted

results with error key. Obviously, it hard to obtain any

valuable visual information without the correct keys.

(a)akiyo (b) flower (c) football

(d) decrypted video frame using error key

Figure 3. upper row is original frame; bottom row is the results

decrypted with error key

V. CONCLUSION

Different from the existing video encryption algorithm,

this paper achieve a good property in terms of real time and

security properly by appropriately combining the efficient

XOR operation and hierarchical encryption stategy.Its main

contributions are as follows:(1)Propose a novel RSA based

group public key technique which provides a security

guarantee that only valid node can decrypt the message

ecnrypted with GPK ;(2)Adopt a broadcast encryption

method so as to save approximately N times bandwidth in

the case of N sub nodes;(3)Properly integrate the

watermarking technique and XOR based visual encryption to

obtain realtime property without loss of security.

REFERENCES

[1] C. Xiao, S. Ma, J. Niu, L. Wang, B. Shan, and T. Chen, "A novel

security scheme for video conference system with wireless terminals,"

Beijing, China, 2008.

[2] F. Liu and H. Koenig, "A novel encryption algorithm for high

resolution video," New York, NY, USA, 2005.

[3] H. Guang-Ming, Y. Chun, W. Yi, and Z. Yu-Zhuo, "A quality-

controllable encryption for H.264/AVC video coding," Berlin,

Germany, 2006.

[4] Q. Zhang, J.-M. Wu, and H.-X. Zhao, "Efficiency video encryption

scheme based on H.264 coding standard and permutation code

algorithm," Los Angeles, CA, United states, 2009.

[5] Y. Wang, M. Cai, and F. Tang, "Design of a new selective video

encryption scheme based on H.264," Harbin, Heilongjiang, China,

2007.

[6] C. Mian, J. Jia, and Y. Lei, "An H.264 video encryption algorithm

based on entropy coding," Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2007.

[7] C. Yang, J. Liu, J. Tian, and Y. Zhang, "Authentication scheme and

simplified CAS in mobile mulitimedia broadcast," Nanchang, China,

2009.

[8] G. C. Langelaar, R. L. Lagendijk, and J. Biemond, "Real-time labeling

of MPEG-2 compressed video," Journal of Visual Communication and

Image Representation, vol. 9, pp. 256-270, 1998.

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