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How to build efficient systems of spreadsheets to save time, et promoted and have extra time for vacation

An Excel book that takes you from the beginning theories of how to construct efficient systems of s readsheets towards the !eautiful Excel infinity at the other end

!y "ichael #Excel Is Fun!$ %irvin

&arnin " because this book is free# $ could not afford an editor% &o you will have to ut u with the occasional s elling'grammatical error% $f you find any kind of error# lease e-mail me at mgirvin(highline%edu%

2007-2009

'edication(

*his book is dedicated to +ennis ,!ig +- .o# my ste -son# because he loves books so much/ *his book is also dedicated to $saac ,!ig $- 0irvin# my son# because he is so in1uisitive/

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)able of *ontents

Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................4 What Is Excel?.......................................................................................................................................................5 Rows, Columns, Cells, Range Of Cells.................................................................................................................7 Wor sheet, !heet "a#, Wor #oo .........................................................................................................................$ !a%e &s is different than !a%e.............................................................................................................................'( "here are no more )enus or "ool#ars in Excel *((7. We now ha%e +Ri##ons,, the +Or#, and the +-&", tool#ar...................................................................................................................................................................'' Ri##ons.................................................................................................................................................................'. -uic &ccess "ool#ar /-&"0..............................................................................................................................*' !croll 1ars and !electing Cells...........................................................................................................................*4 2e3#oard !hortcuts and the < 2e3...................................................................................................................*7 "wo )agic Characters In Excel..........................................................................................................................* )ath......................................................................................................................................................................$ 4ormulas..............................................................................................................................................................4* 4unctions.............................................................................................................................................................47 Cell References....................................................................................................................................................5$ &ssum5tion "a#les6!heets...................................................................................................................................7. Cell 4ormatting....................................................................................................................................................$4 &nal37e 8ata9 !ort, 4ilter, !u#totals, :i%ot"a#les...........................................................................................'*4 I4 function.........................................................................................................................................................'.$ Conclusion9........................................................................................................................................................'4.

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Introduction

Excel is )un/ 7hy8 !ecause your efficient use of Excel can turn a three hour ayroll calculating chore or a five hour re orting task into a five minute bree9e% Efficient use of Excel will save a lot of time% *hat time adds u to extra time for your more en:oyable endeavors in life such as vacations/ $n addition# your bosses and em loyees will notice that you are efficient and can roduce rofessional looking re orts that im ress% *his of course leads to romotion more 1uickly% &till# further# your knowledgeable and efficient use of Excel can land you a :ob during an interview% Em loyers are like dry s onges ready to soak u any :ob candidate that can make their entity more efficient with Excel skills/ &ave time8# get romoted8# get the :ob8# and have more time for vacation8 ; *hat sounds like a great skill to have/ $n the working world# almost everyone is re1uired to use Excel% Amongst the eo le who are re1uired to use it# very few know how to use it well< and even amongst the eo le who know it well# very few of those eo le know how to use it efficiently to the oint where grace and beauty can be seen in a sim le s readsheet/ *his book will take you from the very beginning basics of Excel and then straight into a sim le set of efficiency rules that will lead you towards Excel excellence% Rule # 1: Learn Excel well so you can have fun working efficiently, gain promotions uickly, and have more vacation time

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!hat Is Excel"

=ou use 7ord to create letters# flyers# books and mail merges% =ou use 2ower2oint to create visual# audio and text resentations% =ou use 0oogle to research a to ic and find the local i99a restaurant% =ou use Excel to make *alculations# +naly,e 'ata and *reate *harts% Although databases >such as Access? are the ro er lace to store data and create routine calculating 1ueries# many eo le around the lanet earth use Excel to com lete these tasks% Excel@s row and column format and ready ability to store data and make calculations make it easy to use when com ared to a database rogram% .owever# Excel@s essential beauty is that you can make calculations and analy9e'mani ulate data 1uickly and easily ,on the fly/- *his easy to use# lanet-earth ,default- rogram must be learned if you want to succeed in today@s working world% A en u the Excel file named ,Excel 2007 $s )un/%xlsm- and with your mouse# click on the ,7hat is Excelsheet tab% .ere is an exam le of how Excel can make ayroll *alculations 1uickly and with fewer errors than doing it by hand >)igure 3? >=our sheet will not a ear as large as the one in )igure 3?"

4igure '

2007 Excel is )un 2007-2009 .ere is an exam le of how Excel can +naly,e 'ata -sorting by time? 1uickly and with fewer errors than doing it by hand >)igure 2 and )igure 6?"

!efore .ort(

Observation No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

4igure *

+fter .ort(

Observation No. 7 1 5 6 13 11 2 12 3 14 4 9 8 10

4igure .

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7ith your mouse# click on the ,Cows and Dolumns- sheet tab%

Fame !ox

4igure 4 Cows are hori9ontal and are re resented by numbers% $n our exam le >)igure 4? the color blue has been added to show row 5% Dolumns are vertical and re resented by letters% $n our exam le >)igure 4? the color yellow has been added to show Dolumn !% A cell is an intersection of a row and a column% $n our exam le the color green has been added to show cell !5% $n our exam le column ! and row 5 can be detected because the column and row headers are highlighted in a light-orange color >)igure 4? >color may vary by com uter?% $n addition# you can see that the name box shows that cell !5 is selected >)igure 4 and )igure 5?%

4igure 5 !5 is the name of this cell% $t can be thought of as the address for this cell% $t is like the intersection of two streets% $f we wanted to hang out at the corner of Dolumn ! &treet and Cow 5 &treet# we would be hanging out at the cell address !5% Eater when we make calculations in Excel >making formulas?# !5 will be called a cell reference% A range of cells is two or more cells that are ad:acent% )or exam le you can see three blue cells +9# E9# and )9% *his range would ro erly be ex ressed as +9")9# where the colon means from cell +9 all the way to cell )9%

4igure ; A worksheet is all the cells >3#04G#57B rows# 3B#6G4 columns worth of cells?% A worksheet is commonly referred to as ,sheet%*he sheet tab is the name of the sheet% !y default they are listed as &heet3# &heet2% $n our exam le >)igure B?# the sheet we are viewing is named ,Cows and Dolumns%- =ou can see other worksheets that have been given names in our exam le% Dan you see what they are8 Rule # ( ) *lways name your worksheets so that you can identify amongst the various worksheets Faming your sheets hel s you to kee track of things in a methodical way% Favigating through a workbook# understanding formulas and creating headers'footers is greatly enhanced when you name sheets% *o name your sheet# double-click the sheet tab >this highlights the sheet tab name? and ty e a logical name that describes the ur ose of the sheet% =ou can also# right-click a sheet tab and oint to Cename in order to give the sheet a new name%

A workbook is all the sheets >over G000 worksheets ossible ; limited my com uter@s memory?% *o name a new workbook that has not been saved or named# use Save As ( e!boar" S#ort$ut % &12'%

4igure 7 )igure 7 shows the &ave As dialog box" &ave in H 7here do you want to save it8 )ile name H 7hat do you want to call it8 &ave as ty e H 7hat ty e of file is it8 >%xlsm8 or %xlsx or %xls or %htm8 or %xltm or %xlt8? &ee notes on next age about the new Excel 2007 ,&ave as ty es-% Rule # + ) *lways name your work'ook and save it to a location that you will 'e a'le to find later

&ome of the Excel 2007 ,&ave as ty e- or ,extension ty e- or ,file format-" 3% xlsm i% 2007 workbook that allows Iacros >Iacros H custom code that you can ut in workbook >J!A?? ii% *his file format is called KIE >Extensible Iarku Eanguage?% KIE is efficient because" 3% Iost any rogram can read it 2% $t is less corru tible i% Eose a few lines in !$)) and you can lose the whole file# lose a few lines in KIE and you can easily recover the file iii% *his new file format is different than KIE in 2006 >2006 KIE did not su ort J!A# Dharts# and other embedded images?# it now su orts all Excel elements% iv% *hese files are actually 9i ed files//// i% &aves s ace 2% xlsx i% *his is the same as the descri tion for %xlsm exce t that does not allow Iacros >Iacros H custom code that you can ut in workbook>J!A?? 6% %xls i% 3997 ; 2006 file format 3% Lse this if you are going to let other eo le use your file that do not have Excel 2007 4% %htm i% &aves worksheet or workbook as html >web site? 5% %xltm i% 2007 Excel *em late that allows Iacros 3% *em lates automatically save to the Iicrosoft *em late folder so that your tem late will show u in the *em lates window B% %xlt i% 3997 ; 2006 file format for *em lates 7% %xlsb i% *his file ty e is called !$)) >!inary $nterchange )ile )ormat? 3% !$))5 >Excel 95? 3% !$))G >Excel 97-2006? 2% !$))32 %xlsb i% !$)) cannot be read by many a lications ii% !ut it saves and loads more 1uickly than KIE

Ance you have saved your workbook for the first time# subse1uent saves will re lace the stored file with the most recent changes% &ave As gives you the ower to" 3? &ave the file to a new location 2? save file with a new name 6? change the file ty e% $n this way the &ave As dialog box is very owerful%

&here are no more ,enus or &ool'ars in Excel (--./ !e now have 0Ri''ons1, the 0$r'1 and the 02*&1 tool'ar/

*he menus and toolbars from earlier versions of Excel are gone% $n their lace are ,Cibbons- and the ,Muick Access *oolbar- >MA*?% *he Cibbons contain icons and words that let you click on a articular icon to take a articular action such as changing the font si9e or changing the number of decimals showing for a number% *he icons and words are grou ed into categories to hel the user find similar items% *hese categories are called ,0rou s-% *here are 2B total different Cibbons% =ou can only view one Cibbon at a time% *he ,Arb- or ,Affice !utton- >located in the u er left corner of the screen# to the left of the .ome Cibbon and slightly on to of the title bar? shows a ,Iicrosoft Affice- icon inside a glowing circle% $f you click on the Arb a dro -down menu a ears >similar to the old )ile menu? that has icons and words that let you click on a articular icon to take a articular action such as &ave As or Excel A tions% *he MA* contains the icons for save# undo and redo by default and then any other additional icons that you add yourself% *here is only one MA*% *he MA* is always visible and available for use# either above the Cibbons or below the Cibbons de ending on where you lace it% *he Cibbons change a earance de ending on the si9e of your screen and'or your com uters screen resolution >screen resolution can be changed in +is lay 2ro erties?% *he MA* changes a earance de ending on how you customi9e it% )igure G shows the .ome Cibbon on a large screen >or high screen resolution? and with a MA* that has five additional icons beyond the three default icons% )igure 9 shows the .ome Cibbon on a small screen >or low screen resolution? and with a MA* that has 26 additional icons beyond the three default icons%

4igure $ Arb .ome Cibbon )ont 0rou )ont &i9e Muick Access *oolbar >MA*? Dhange +ecimals *itle !ar Edit 0rou

4igure <

)igure 30 &hows the Arb dro -down menu and the Excel A tions button% =ou can see the icons and words such as &ave As# the list of recent +ocuments that have been used and are accessible here to re-o en# and the Excel A tions button in the lower right corner%

4igure '(9 Or# dro5=down menu and Excel O5tions #utton that a55ear after 3ou clic the Or#.

Ri''ons

Fow we would like to talk about the Cibbons in more detail% Each Cibbon has a tab that sticks out above the Cibbon and contains the name of the Cibbon% *here are seven standard Cibbons >.ome# $nsert# 2age Eayout# )ormulas# +ata# Ceview? and 3G additional Cibbons% &ome of the addition Cibbons you can add in the Excel A tions Area and some of the additional Cibbons are ,Dontext&ensitive Cibbons- >also known as ,Dontextual Cibbons-? that show u de ending on where the cursor is located >for exam le# if a chart is selected# the context sensitive Cibbons for charts a ear?% *o move between the visible Cibbons you can click on any tab name to access that articular Cibbon% $f you want to tem orarily hide the Cibbons because of s ace re1uirements# use the keyboard &hortcut Dtrl N )3 >*his is a toggle that will successively hide and unhide the Cibbons?% *he seven standard Cibbons# one additional Cibbon added in Excel A tions and one context sensitive Cibbon are shown below in figures" )igure 33 to )igure 20%

4igure ''9 >ome Ri##on9 Contains items such as Co53, :aste, st3listic /4ont6Color0 formatting, ?um#er 4ormatting, Conditional 4ormatting, Insert Row6Column, Insert 4unction, Clear &ll, Clear 4ormat, !orting, 4ind, Re5lace, !elect, @o "o, @o "o !5ecial, and moreA.

4igure '*9 Insert Ri##on9 Insert items such as9 :i%ot"a#le, "a#le, :ictures, Cli5 &rt, !ha5es, Charts, >35erlin s, "ext 1ox, >eader and 4ooter, Word &rt, O#Bect, or !3m#ol.

4igure '.9 :age Ca3out Ri##on9 &dd "hemes /coordinated Color, 4ont, Effects0, %arious 5age la3out for 5rinting.

4igure '49 4ormulas Ri##on9 Contains items such as Insert 4unctions, Insert 4unctions Categories, items associated with ?ames, items associated with 4ormula &uditing, and Calculation.

4igure '59 8ata Ri##on9 @et External 8ata, Refresh /External 8ata or :i%ot"a#le0, !orting and 4iltering, "ext to Columns, 8ata Dalidation, Consolidate, !cenario )anager, @oal !ee , 8ata "a#le, @rou5ing, !u#totals, and the &dd=ins 8ata &nal3sis /statistics0 and !ol%er /linear alge#ra0 if 3ou add them using &dd= ins in the Excel O5tions area.

4igure ';9 Re%iew Ri##on9 Contains items such as !5ell Chec , Comments, :rotect Wor sheet or Wor #oo , !hare Wor #oo and "rac Changes.

4igure '79 Diew Ri##on9 Contains items such as ?ormal %iew, :age Ca3out %iew, :age 1rea :re%iew %iew, !how6>ide 4ormula 1ar, !how6>ide @ridlines, Eoom %iew, ?ew Window /o5ens a second %iew of the same Wor #oo 0, &rranges &ll /arranges all o5en Wor #oo s0, 4ree7e :anes /alwa3s show a certain 5art of the Wor sheet0, >ide Window /which means hide Wor #oo 0, Fnhide Window /which means unhide Wor #oo 0, !a%e Wor s5ace, )acros /)acro means Excel com5uter code that 3ou can write Excel0.

4igure '$9 8e%elo5er Ri##on that was added in the Excel O5tions area. *o add the +evelo er Cibbon you would use the keyboard shortcut to get to Excel A tions as follows" Alt N ) N $ >*a the Alt key# then ta the ,)- key# then ta the ,$- key?% Excel A tions is also accessible by clicking on the Arb and then click on the Excel A tions button% After you o en the Excel A tions dialog box# you would check the ,&how +evelo er tab in the Cibbon- checkbox and then click the AO button and the lower right corner% &ee )igure 39"

4igure *(9 1ecause a Chart is selected, the "itle 1ar shows +Chart "ools, and there are three context sensiti%e chart Ri##ons after the last +alwa3s=a%aila#le, Ri##on. "he three Chart Ri##ons are9 8esign, Ca3out, 4ormat.

As seen in )igure 23 and )igure 22# some of the elements of the Cibbons are" 3% *abs >2age Eayout? 2% 0rou s >2age &etu 0rou ? 6% $cons >Arientation? 4% +ro -down arrows >Arientation" 2ortrait or Eandsca e? 5% Dheck !oxes >*oggle to view or not view Excel 0ridlines? B% +ialog Eaunchers >&mall grey boxes with diagonal arrows that# when clicked# launch the 3997-2006ty e dialog boxes ; you can see the 2age &etu +ialog launcher on the right-side of the 2age &etu 0rou Eabel? 7% ,&ee Iore &elections- Arrows >)igure 22 shows Iore Dhart &tyles? 3? *abs 6? $cons 5? Dheck !oxes

4igure *' 4? +ro -down arrows 2? 0rou s B? +ialog Eauncher 7? ,&ee Iore &elections- Arrow

4igure **

4igure *.9 If 3ou clic on the Orientation dro5=down arrows 3ou can see the two o5tions for 5rinting 3our wor sheet9 :ortrait or Candsca5e. "he shaded #ox means that the current selection is Candsca5e. If 3ou clic ed on :ortrait, 3ou would change the 5rinting orientation to :ortrait.

4igure *49 "he chec #ox for Diew @ridlines in the !heet O5tions @rou5 has #een unchec ed. "he result is that the default Excel @ridlines cannot #e seen on the screen and the3 will not #e 5rinted. Com5are this to 4igure ;. In 4igure ; 3ou can see the @ridlines. "he Chec 1oxes are +"oggles, that will alternate #etween %iewing the Excel @ridlines and not %iewing the Excel @ridlines. ?otice that the #lac lines around the Row and Column count are still %iewa#le. "his is #ecause these lines were added using the #orders #utton in the 4ont @rou5 on the >ome Ri##on.

4igure *59 If 3ou clic the :age !etu5 8ialog Cauncher on the right=side of the :age !etu5 @rou5 Ca#el this dialog #ox will show u5. "his is the Excel '<<7=*((. :age !etu5 dialog #ox.

4igure *;9 If 3ou clic the +!ee )ore !elections, &rrow in the Chart !t3les @rou5 in the Chart "ools 8esign Ri##on 3ou will see more selections for Chart 8esign.

*he last im ortant trick regarding the Cibbons is that you can hide them% *his is convenient because they take u a lot of room on the screen% *he keyboard shortcut for toggling the Cibbons on and off is Dtrl N )3 >.old Dtrl and then ta the )3 key >the )3 key is in the to row of keys on the keyboard and all the way to the left# but to the right of the Esc key??% &ee figures )igure 27 and )igure 2G for exam les of the Cibbons toggled off and toggled on%

4igure *79 Ctrl G 4' hides the Ri##ons, #ut the -&" is still %isi#leH

4igure *$9 Ctrl G 4' a second time, toggles the Ri##on on again.

Fow we would like to talk about the Muick Access *oolbar >MA*? in more detail% Fo matter what Cibbon you have showing# or whether or not the Cibbons are toggled on or off# the MA* is always visible and available for use/ *his is great because sometimes it is 1uicker to click on the MA* than it is to click on the Cibbon and then click on the icon you want% Fot only that# but there are actions# dialog boxes and *ask 2anes from Excel 3997-2006 that are not anywhere in the Cibbons/ &o if you have a articular action that you used to do in earlier versions of Excel and it is not in the Cibbons# you can add it to the MA*% Also# you can easily show your MA* above or below the Cibbon% )irst let@s see two great ways to add icon buttons to the MA*% *he first way to add icon buttons to the MA* is to find an icon or an item from a dro -down arrow list in the Cibbons# and then right-click that item% $f the right-click dro -down menu says ,Add to Muick Access *oolbar-# then you are allowed to add that icon to the MA*% $f you do not see ,Add to Muick Access *oolbar-# then that item is not available to be added to the MA* >&ome items are not available?% $n )igure 29 $ have right-clicked the )ill icon >it is the icture of a ti ing aint bucket ; it is the icon button that fills the cell with color? and you can see the right-click dro -down menu% After $ click on the ,Add to Muick Access *oolbar-# the icon button will automatically be added to the MA* >)igure 60?%

4igure .(9 "he 4ill icon has #een added to the end of the -&".

*he second way to add icon buttons to the MA* is to go to the Dustomi9e section in the Excel A tions area% *his is the best method because you can see a list with all the icon buttons that can be added% $n the )igures )igure 63 to )igure 64 the rocess of adding icon buttons from the Dustomi9e section in the Excel A tions area is illustrated%

4igure .'9 Right=clic the -&" and clic on the +Customi7e -uic &ccess "ool#arA, item in the dro5= down menu.

4igure .*9 13 right=clic ing the -&" and clic on the +Customi7e -uic &ccess "ool#arA, item in the dro5=down menu, 3ou will automaticall3 go to the Customi7e section in the Excel O5tions area.

4igure ..9 Clic on +&ll Commands, from the +Choose commands from, dro5=down list

3? &croll !ar

4igure .49 Fse the !croll 1ar to find the icon that 3ou want, clic on the icon, and then clic the add #utton. "he Icon will a55ear on the right. When 3ou ha%e added all the #uttons that 3ou want, clic the O2 #utton. *he last trick we want to see regarding the MA* is how to move it above or below the Cibbons% *his is easily done% &im ly right-click the MA* and look in the dro -down menu for the command you would like%

4igure .59 If the -&" is #elow the Ri##on and 3ou want to mo%e it a#o%e.

4igure .;9 If the -&" is a#o%e the Ri##on and 3ou want to mo%e it #elow.

$n Excel there are .ori9ontal and Jertical &croll !ars that let you move the worksheet so that you can see rows# columns and cells that are not in view% $n addition# for the .ori9ontal &croll !ar# you can change the si9e of it by clicking on the front edge of the .ori9ontal &croll !ar and dragging% $n )igure 67 you can see that $ have labeled the &croll !ars as Jertical &croll !ar and .ori9ontal &croll !ar# but technically the whole thing is called the &croll !ar# the art that you click on with your mouse and drag is called a ,&croll !ox-# and the arrows >that allow you to move only one row or column at a time? are called ,&croll Arrows%- Fevertheless# $ will refer to the ,&croll !ox- as the ,&croll !ar- because is common language that is the custom%

*echnically# this is a &croll !ox# but $ will refer to it as the ,&croll !ar-

4igure .7

*o see how the &croll !ars work# click on the Jertical &croll !ar and drag it down until you can see Cow 2B% Fotice how the first row now visible is Cow G >)igure 6G?" )irst row now visible is Cow G &mall ga means that there are more rows above that are not visible

Cow 2B

4igure .$

Fow use the .ori9ontal &croll !ar to move the sheet back so that you can see Cow 3 again >)igure 69?"

4igure .< *o change the si9e of the .ori9ontal &croll !ar so that the .ori9ontal &croll !ar begins after the &heet *ab named ,*he E1ual &ign-# click and drag front edge of the .ori9ontal &croll !ar >)igure 40?"

4igure 4' *ry moving the sheet with the .ori9ontal &croll !ar# and then move it back% Fext# we want to talk about selecting cells%

Although many of us know how to select something and click something with your mouse# we will discuss it here so that we are all on the same age% 7hen you move your mouse in Excel the cursor on the screen moves% .owever# the cursor changes de ending on what item or element your mouse is hovering over% *o see how this works# make sure you are located on the sheet tab ,Cows and Dolumns- and then move your mouse over the cell A3 without clicking in cell A3% =ou will see a thick-white-cross cursor with a black outline and a black shadow% Fow click in cell A3 and ty e the number 3% Fow when you hover over cell A3 without clicking in the cell# your cursor is sha ed like a thin ca ital letter $% Fow hit the Enter key and you will see this >)igure 42?" Fext# in order to add some color to the selected range# click the down-arrow next to the )ill icon on the .ome Cibbon and select the color red as seen in )igure 44

4igure 4* Fow take your mouse and move the thick-whitecross cursor over cell A2# click# hold the click# drag the thick-white-cross cursor to cell AB# and then let go of your cursor% $n )igure 46 you can see that you :ust have selected the range of cells A2"AB%

4igure 44 *hat is how to select cells with the mouse and cursor% .owever# there are sometimes when using the mouse to select cells is not efficient% $n our next section# we will see how to use the keyboard to select cells and how to do many other tasks%

4igure 4.

Fow we are about to learn the best trick in all of Excel/ =es# this is the one trick that will guarantee you extra vacation time and instant success in the eyes of your bosses and co-workers% *he one trick isP well it@s not :ust one trick# it is many% Are you ready for this8 *he best trick in Excel is" Eearn keyboard short cuts//// Oeyboard shortcuts are the best way to save time and become efficient% Eet@s look at a few exam les here# and then throughout the book# we will see many more keyboard shortcuts *he other benefit to the keyboard shortcuts for *o see these keyboard shortcuts# make sure you are Do y and 2aste >besides that they are faster than located on the sheet tab ,Cows and Dolumns-% going u to the .ome Cibbon? is that they work in Dlick in the cell D3# ty e the number 4# and then almost all rograms and web sites in the world/ hold the Dtrl key and ta Enter% *he result is that you have entered the number 4 in cell D3 and ke t *he best exam le of how keyboard shortcuts can your cursor in cell D3 as seen in )igure 45" save time is to show you how to use it when adding% Fow we haven@t learned how to make formulas or use functions yet# but $ am going to show you this next keyboard shortcut for add many numbers in a formula that uses the &LI function before we even learn about formulas and functions% 7hy8 !ecause this trick is sooooo much faster than using a mouse# that it illustrates the beauty of keyboard shortcuts better than any other trick% Ceady8 AO% Dlick in cell 4igure 45 !3 >)igure 47?" 7ith cell D3 still selected# .old the Dtrl key and *a the QD- key >this is the keyboard shortcut for co y?% After you co y cell D3# you will see a moving dotted line around the co ied cell% Fext# to move three cells to the right and 2aste your co ied item# *a the *ab key three times and then hold Dtrl and ta the ,J- key >this is the keyboard shortcut for aste?%&ee )igure 4B" 4igure 47 *hen hold Dtrl and ta the drown arrow >the arrow keys are on the right side of your keyboard% Dtrl N down-arrow :um s you to the next section of data >it ski s all the blanks and :um s to the first cell that has a character?% &ee )igure 4G on the next age" 4igure 4;

&croll !ar

4igure 4$9 Ctrl G down arrow Bum5s to the next section with data, and it also mo%es the scroll #ar so that row ; is the first row that we can see. *his also moved the scroll bar so that row B is the first row that we can see >rows 3 to 5 are still in the worksheet# they are :ust not visible% Fext# hit the *ab key so that your cursor is in cell D26 >)igure 49?"

4igure 4< Fext# to automatically add a formula that will add# .old the Alt key and ta the ,H- sign >,H- sign key is to the left of the !acks ace key?% Atl N H is the keyboard shortcut for the Auto &um )unction )ormula% =ou should see this >)igure 50?"

4igure 5(

Fext# hold the Dtrl key and hold the &hift key at the same time# and then ta the down arrow key >this selects the entire range of numbers below cell !26?% =ou should see this >)igure 53?"

without ever using your mouse/// =ou should see this >)igure 56?"

)ormula !ar

4igure 5. Fext# to navigate 1uickly to cell A3# hold Dtrl and ta the ,.ome- key >the .ome key is to the right of the !acks ace key and above the arrow keys?% =our cursor should be in cell A3 >

)igure 54?" 4igure 5' Fext ta the Enter key# and the u arrow key five times >the Enter is to ut the formula in the cell and the u arrow keys are to move the screen down so you can see what you did?% =ou should see this >)igure 52?" 4igure 54 .ere are some common keyboard shortcuts"

1. (o)! % (tr* + ( 2. (ut % (tr* + , 3. -aste % (tr* + . 4. Save % (tr* + S 5. S)e** (#e$/ % &7 6. 0n"o % (tr* + 1. 7. 2e"o % (tr* + 3 8. 4o to $e** A1 % (tr* + 5ome 9. A"" bo*" to $e** $ontent % (tr* + 6 10. A"" 0n"er*ine to $e** $ontent % (tr* + 0 11. A"" 7ta*i$ to $e** $ontent % (tr* + 7 12. Se*e$t t8o $e**s an" ever!t#ing in9bet8een % (*i$/ on :irst $e**; #o*" S#i:t; (*i$/ on *ast $e** 13. Se*e$t $e** ranges t#at are not ne<t to ea$# ot#er % $*i$/ on $e** or range o: $e**s; 5o*" (tr*; $*i$/ on an! number o: ot#er $e**s or range o: $e**s 14. (tr* + arro8 /e! % move to en" o: range o: "ata; or to beginning o: ne<t range o: "ata

4igure 5* Fext# hit the down arrow key four times to select cell D26% $n the formula bar you can see the ama9ing formula that you created with the keyboard shortcut Alt N H# then Dtrl N &hift N down-arrow# then Enter% *he formula bar shows that you used the &LI function and selected 4B rows of numbers

Fext we want to look at the keyboard shorts using the Alt key% *he Alt key is a s ecial keyboard shortcut key because when you ta the Alt key# all the elements in the Cibbon and MA* show little messages called ,&creen ti s- or ,*ool*i s-% *o illustrate# ta the Alt key once and you should see this >)igure 55?"

4igure 559 &fter 3ou ta5 the < e3, the Ri##on "a#s show tool ti5s and the -&" shows tool ti5s after the first < ta5. $f you ta the Alt key once the Cibbon *abs show tool ti s and the MA* shows tool ti s# but none of the other elements of the Cibbon show screen ti s% .owever# if you ta one of the keys for the letters or numbers that you see in the tool ti s that activates the next level of tool ti s% )or exam le if you hit the ,.- key after you ta ed the Alt key# you would see this >)igure 5B?"

4igure 5;9 &fter 3ou hit < G >, 3ou can see the next le%el of tool ti5s for the >ome Ri##on.

After you hit Alt N .# you can see the next level of tool ti s for the .ome Cibbon% $f you then ta the 0 key >9ero key?# you would have increased the decimals showing by one osition% *hus# the keyboard shortcut for increasing the decimals showing by one osition is Alt N . N 0 >)igure 57?"

4igure 57 *his is an ama9ing as ect to Excel 2007% Every Cibbon and MA* element has a keyboard shortcut% And your goal to achieve efficiency is not to memori9e all the keyboard shortcuts# but it is to memori9e the keyboard shortcuts that you use all the time% $n addition# if you memori9ed some of the Excel 3997-2006 Alt key keyboard shortcuts# they all still work# exce t for the Alt keyboard shortcuts that started with the letter ,)- ; this is because the Alt ,)- is used by the Arb is Excel 2007% Rule # 7 ) Learn key'oard shortcuts in order to save time

)or this next section# click on the sheet tab named ,*he E1ual &ign-% *he e1ual sign# ,H#- and the :oin-o erator >am ersand?# ,R#- are two magic characters in Excel% 7e will look at the e1ual sign first% *he e1ual sign tells Excel to create a formula in a cell% )or exam le# in )igure 5G# if you would like to calculate the net ay for &uix Dhin in cell )2# what would you need to do8 =ou would need to take the net ay and subtract from it the total deductions% $n order to make this calculation in cell )2# you must first tell Excel that you want to make a calculation by ty ing an e1ual sign" ,H-%

3% Lsing your ,thick# white-cross- cursor >it also has a black shadow? click in cell )2 in order to highlight the cell% &ee )igure 5G% Iake sure that the name box shows )2%

4igure 5< 6% Fotice the e1ual sign in the formula bar as seen in )igure B0% >+on@t be alarmed that the name box has converted to an ,$nsert )unction- dro down arrow with the &LI function showing; we@ll talk about this later?% 4igure ;(9 "he 4ormula 1ar. The fx is a symbol from algebra that means f of x, or function, or formula

4% Fext# using your ,thick- white-cross- cursor# click in cell four to the left of )2 >cell !2?% Eike magic# Excel inserts the ro er DEEE CE)ECEFDE after the e1ual sign >see Fi ure 23?% $n addition# Excel shines the blue and yellow flashlight around the cell !2 >these are the colorful marching ants that march around the cell telling you that you have laced the DEEE CE)ECEFDE !2 behind the e1ual sign?%

4igure ;' 5% *he formula is now looking at a cell that is four cells to the left of )2 ; looking at the cell named !2 which holds &uix Dhin@s 0ross 2ay% !ecause our goal is to calculate Fet 2ay# we still have to subtract the *otal +eductions% B% *y e a minus sign# then using your ,thick-white-cross- cursor# click in cell E2# which is one cell to the left of )2% =ou should see this >Fi ure 22?"

4igure ;* 7% .old the Dtrl key# and then ta the Enter key once% *his is what you should see >Fi ure 24?"

4igure ;. G% =ou have :ust created your first calculating formula in Excel by using the e1ual sign as the first character in a cell% Although the cell )2 dis lays the take home ay of 6#262%25# what is actually in the cell can be seen in the formula bar% Aur formula reads" lease look at &uix Dhin@s 0ross 2ay >four cells to the left in !2? then subtract the *otal +eductions >one cell to the left in E2?% 9% 7e have creating our first calculation in Excel# and what we actually created is called a formula% !ecause the e1ual sign is the first character in the cell we told Excel to create a formula% $f there was no e1ual sign# there would be no formula% $n addition# we used DEEE CE)ECEFDE&% DEEE CE)ECEFDE& are our way of telling our formula to look into a different cell and use that value in our formula/ Rule # 8 ) !hen the e ual sign is placed as the first character in a cell that has not 'een pre9 formatted as &ext, it tells Excel to create a formula/

30% 7hat would have ha ened if you did not lace an e1ual sign in the cell as the first character but you still ty ed the rest of the formula >Fi ure 25?8 Excel would obey you and not create a formula# but instead lace the ty ed text ,!2-E2- in the cell%

4igure ;4 33% 7hat would ha en if you ty e the number for gross ay and the number for total deductions in the formula instead of the cell references8 .ere is an exam le of this situation# however# lease burn this image into you brain as something you should FEJEC do >Fi ure 20?"

4igure ;5 32% $n Fi ure 20 Excel will obey you and calculate an answer% .owever# if you want to become even moderately efficient with using Excel# FEJEC *=2E FLI!EC& *.A* DAF JAC= $F*A A )ACILEA% 7hen you enter numbers that can change >or text? into formulas instead of references to other cells" i% Editing the formulas later on can become nearly im ossible ii% 7hat-if or scenario analysis becomes cumbersome iii% *he true magic of Excel is greatly dimmed# as if a magnificent rainbow that fills the sky with refreshing color is suddenly all one color of grey% 36% Fumbers such as the number 32 that re resents months is AO to ty e into a formula% &imilar numbers would be things like 7 days in a week# 24 hours in a day% Rule # : ) ;o not type data that can vary into a formula/ Instead place the data in a cell and refer to it using a cell reference/ 3* tax rate is a good example of a num'er that can vary< 1( months in a year is an example of data that will not change4/

*he second magic character in Excel is the Am ersand >more commonly known as the ,and- character? ,R-% *his character :oins the content from two or more cells and laces them all into one cell% *o see an exam le# click on the sheet tab named ,Am ersand-%

Here are the steps to 6oin the words #7our$ and #8ame$ and place them into one cell9

3% $n cell A3 ty e ,= o u r- >letters =# o# u# r# s ace?% =ou should see this >)igure BB?" 7% .it Dtrl N Enter >)igure 72?"

4igure 7* 4igure ;; 2% .it *ab% $n cell !3 ty e ,F a m e>letters F # a# m# e?# and then *ab% =ou should see >)igure B7?" G% $n cell A3 ty e ,$saac - and in cell !3 ty e ,Fewton- >)igure 76?"

4igure 7. 4igure ;7 6% $n cell D3 ty e the an e1ual sign >)igure BG?" 9% Fow try your own :oining using the ,R>)igure 74?"

4igure 74 4igure ;$ 4% .it the left arrow key twice >)igure B9?" 8ote about the +mpersand -:;#6oin$ character( 7hen you :oin two or more items using the ,R- in a formula# Excel treats the result as *ext >in com uter rogramming language it is referred to as a ,text string-?% $n other words# Excel thinks that the formula result is a word# not a number% *his becomes im ortant later when we need to distinguish between text and numbers% <eyboard shortcut 8ote( =et#o" o: )*a$ing $e** re:eren$es in :ormu*a a:ter !ou #ave )*a$e" an e>ua* sign as t#e :irst $#ara$ter in t#e $e**? 1' use mouse to $*i$/ on $e**; 2' use arro8 /e!s to move to $e** re:eren$e *o$ation; 3' t!)e t#e $e** re:eren$e (#ig#er )robabi*it! o: error'

4igure 7'

3% Dlick on the sheet tab named ,)ormulas2% As seen in )igure 75# click in cell !2 and ty e an e1ual sign% !y ty ing the e1ual sign# you are telling Excel that you are creating a formula in cell !2%

Figure 75 6% Dlick the u arrow key >in between the letter keys and the number keys?% !y ty ing the u arrow# you are telling Excel that you would like the formula to look into the cell ,one above- !2 and get the annual rate of %0G5% =ou should see what is in )igure 7B"

Figure 76 4% Fotice that by using the arrow key to select a cell reference# you save the time it would take you to grab the mouse and click on cell !3% 5% *y e the division symbol ,'- and the number 32 >32 months in a year does not vary so that fact that this is a number does not violate Cule SB?% &ee )igure 77"

Figure 77 B% *a Enter% *a ing the Enter key uts the formula in the cell and moves the cursor one cell below !2 to the cell !6% *he monthly rate dis layed in the cell can be seen in )igure 7G"

4igure 7$

&o far we have seen two keystrokes that tell Excel that the formula is com leted and we would like to have Excel show us the result% *he keystrokes ,Dtrl N Enter- and ,Enter- will officially enter the formula into the cell% *here are two other keystrokes that will officially enter the formula into the cell" the ,*ab- key will do it and &hift N Enter >&hift N Enter? enters the formula and moves the cursor u ; we will not use this one in this book?% *hese four keystrokes are the safest methods for utting the formula into the cell% *here are other keystrokes that work some of the time# but not all the time% )or safety and efficient formula creation we will only use Dtrl N Enter# Enter# *ab or &hift N Enter to enter formulas into cells% $f we use only four keystrokes to lace formulas in cells we can avoid unintended cell reference insertion that can cause our formula to be inaccurate% *o enter a formula into a cell" 3% Lse ,Dtrl N Enter- to lace the formula in the cell and select the cell with the formula 2% Lse Enter to lace the formula in the cell and select the cell directly below the cell with the formula 6% Lse &hift N Enter to lace the formula in the cell and select the cell directly above the cell with the formula 4% Lse *ab to lace the formula in the cell and select the cell one to the right Rule #. ) =se 0Enter1, 0#trl > Enter1, 0%hift > Enter1, or 0&a'1 to enter a formula into a cell/ 7% $n Dell !6# ty e" ,H>3N-# as seen in )igure 79"

Figure 79 G% Dlick the u arrow once# then ty e" ,?T32-3- as seen in )igure G0 > T symbol H &hift N B?"

Figure 80 9% 7e do not violate rule S B >+A FA* *=2E +A*A *.A* DAF JAC= $F*A A )ACILEA? by ty ing the 3# 32# and 3 into these formulas% )or calculating the annual effective rate from a month rate these numbers do not vary/ 30% Dlick *ab% =ou should see this >)igure G3?"

Figure 81 33% !ut what is that ,T- symbol mean8 &ee the arrows in )igure G2 on the next age%

,ath

Arit#meti$ o)eration signs in @<$e*? ( ' re)resents -arent#eses A re)resents @<)onents ()o8ers an" roots' B re)resents =u*ti)*i$ation C re)resents Division + re)resents A""ition E re)resents Subtra$tion Or"er o: O)erations :orm A*gebra $*ass (@a$# one is *e:t to rig#t'?

2lease 2arenthesis > ? Excuse Ex onents T 2T2 H 4 or 4T>3'2? H 2 Iy +ear Iulti lication U and +ivision ' Aunt &ally Adding >&LI? N and &ubtraction @<$e*Fs Or"er o: O)erations?

2arenthesis > ? Canges use of colon symbol V"V Exam le" H&LI>A3"A4? Evaluate intersections >s aces >labels?? >$f you ever use labels for natural language formulas? Evaluate unions >#? Exam le" H&LI>A3"A4#!2"D7? Fegation >-? Exam le" H-2T4 3B Exam le" H->2T4? -3B Donverts W >3W %03? Ex onents >T? Exam le" 4T>3'2? H 2 Exam le" 6T2 H 9 Iulti lication >U? and division >'?# left to right Adding >N? and subtracting >-?# left to right *ext o erators >R Doncatenation? Dom arative symbols" H# XY# YH# XH# X# Y $f anything is still left# then left to right

4igure $* As seen in )igure G2# we will have to learn the Arithmetic o eration signs in Excel% $n addition# we will have to learn the order of o erations in order to avoid analysis mistakes% )or exam le# what is the answer to 6 N 6 U 28 $s it 32 or is it 98 !ecause Excel knows the order of o erations# we must also know the order of o erations so we can calculate correctly% )or a refresher in the order of o erations# read )igure G2% Rule #? ) !e must learn the sym'ols that Excel uses for math and we must know the order of operations/

Here are the steps to practice math and the order of operations(

3% Dlick on the sheet tab named ,Iath >2?-% =ou should see this >)igure G6?"

4igure $. 2% Dlick in cell !2 and ty e the formula ,H6N6U2-% =ou should see this >)igure G4?"

4igure $4 6% Eooking at the exam les of formulas in column A# create the remaining formulas in column !% 7hen you are done you should have these results >)igure G5?"

4igure $5 4% *he roblem with what you :ust did >)igure G6# )igure G4# )igure G5?# is that editing the formulas later is inefficient when com ared to a method that em loys cell references% Aur next exam le will em loy cell references%

4igure $; B% Dlick the right arrow key# as seen in )igure G7" 9% *y e the ,U-# as seen in )igure 90"

4igure <( 30% Dlick the right arrow three times# >)igure 93?"

4igure $$ G% Dlick the right arrow key twice# as seen in )igure G9" 4igure <'

4igure $<

33% .it Enter% *he answer should be 9% 32% $n )igure 92 the heading says ,Iath the efficient way-% *he efficiency comes from the fact that it is easy to edit these formulas because you have utili9ed cell reference that oint to numbers ty ed into cells% Dhange the number in cell )6 to 32 and watch your formula change >)igure 92?"

Figure 9 36% Eook at the formulas in column +? and create the corres onding formulas in column E% 7hen you are done you should see this >)igure 96?"

4igure <. 34% !ut what is going on in cell EG8 .ow come when cell EG looks at cell E7 it shows us a dollar figure8 *he answer comes from formatting% 7e will talk about formatting later >this is exciting foreshadowing?P% )or the time being we have been taking about the e1ual sign# am ersand sign# numbers# cell references and math o erators" these are all com onents of formulas% 7e will now formally define a formula in Excel %

@ormulas

'efinition of a formula( Anything in a cell when the first character is an e1ual sign% >*he long version" anything in a cell or formula textbox when the first character is an e1ual sign and the cell is not reformatted as *ext%? +dvanta es of a formula( =ou are telling Excel to do calculations# look into another cell# create text strings# or deliver a range How to create a formula( *y e ,H#- followed by" 3% Dell references >also" names and sheet references? 2% A eration signs 6% )unctions 4% *ext that is in 1uotes >ex" ,)or *he Ionth Ended-? 5% Am ersand symbol" : i% *o combine information from different cells# text in 1uotes# or functions use the am ersand" R 3% Exam le" HV)or *he Ionth Ended VR!5 B% Fumbers i% *he only numbers that ever go in a formula are numbers that will never change >such as the number of months in a year? 7% Arrays >exam le" Z3#-&ioux-<2#-Dhin-<6#-)red-[ How to enter a formula into a cell( hit one of the followin ( 3% EF*EC >Active Dell goes down? 2% Dtrl N Enter >Active Dell remains the same? 6% *ab>Active Dell goes left? 4% &hift N *ab >Active Dell goes right? 5% &hift N Enter>Active Dell goes u ?

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3% =ou are currently looking at the sheet tab named ,Iath >2?-% Iake sure that you are in this sheet 2% *o use a keyboard shortcut to move two sheets u >back toward the first sheet?# hold down Dtrl# then ta the ,2age L - key twice >the ,2age L - and ,2age +own- keys are near the .ome key?% (tr* + -age 0) G moves !ou u) t#roug# t#e s#eets (to8ar" t#e :irst s#eet' (tr* + -age Do8n moves !ou "o8n t#roug# t#e s#eets (a8a! :rom t#e :irst s#eet' 6% =ou should now be located in the sheet tab named ,)ormulas4% Dreate the following formula >as seen in )igure 94?% Efficient key strokes are" ,H-# u arrow twice# ,-,# u arrow once%

Figure 9! 5% .it *ab twice# Arrow u and create this formula in +7 >)igure 95?"

Figure 95 B% *he 32 re resents months in a year and does not change and so it is efficient to ty e this number into a formula 7% .it Enter twice and create this formula in +9 >)igure 9B?"

Figure 96

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G% Dlick in cell !9 and create the formula as seen in )igure 97% After you create it# hold Dtrl# then ta Enter%

Figure 97 9% Dlick in cell A5% *he cell is merged and centered and so the formula will be created in the middle of the range% Dreate the following formula as seen in )igure 9G"

4igure <$ 30% *his formula combines cell references# text in 1uotes and a calculation all :oined together with the Am ersand ,R-% *he resulting label for our calculations can be seen in )igure 99"

4igure <<

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33% *he efficiency and beauty of building a s readsheet in this manner is revealed when we change the source data and then watch our formulas change automatically% 32% Dlick in cell !B and change the rice of the car to 50#000 >ty e 50000?# then hit *ab twice% >)igure 300?"

4igure '(( 36% Fotice that the reformatted cells formatted the ,50000- to a ear as ,\50#000%00-% Also notice that our formulas for Eoan Amount and Ionthly 2ayment u dated% 34% Jerify that you are in cell +B and then ty e ,B- and then hit Enter >)igure 303?"

4igure '(' 35% Fotice that the three formulas that were de endent on the Annual $nterest Cate all u dated when we changed the rate% *his ability to check different scenarios without much effort is at the heart of using Excel efficiently% 7e always want to strive to build our s readsheets efficiently so that they are easily edit-customi9able at any time/ !y ty ing the numbers that can vary into cells and referring to them using cell references in our formulas we have accom lished Excel efficiency and fun/ Rule #A ) 5y typing the num'ers that can vary into cells and referring to them in our formulas using cell references, we gain the a'ility to edit formulas easily and check different scenarios without much effort/

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3B% Eook in the lower left corner of )igure 302 and find the scroll arrow for sheet tabs% *he little black triangle turned on its side means show me one more sheet tab% *he little black triangle turned on its side with an extra vertical line means take me all the way to the last and'or first sheet tab%

4igure '(*

37% Dlick the sheet tab scroll arrow twice as seen in )igure 306"

4igure '(. 3G% =ou should see a few more sheet tabs ex osed% *he sheet tab ,)ormulas- is still selected# even though we see a few more sheets ex osed >)igure 304?"

4igure '(4 39% Iove to the sheet tab named ,)unctions- by either clicking on the sheet tab named ,)unctions-# or by .olding Dtrl# then ta ing the ,2age +own- key three times% =ou should see this >)igure 305?"

4igure '(5 20% Dlick in cell !9% 7hat if we want to calculate the monthly ayment for our car loan# but we do not know that math formula8 Euckily there are built in ,)unctions- that know how to do this ; as long as we can tell the )unction what the monthly rate# number of months and resent value of our loan is# the function will do the rest/ Excel 2007 is )un/ 2age 4B of 345 Excel is 2ower

@unctions

7hat are functions8 !uilt in code that will do com licated math >and other tasks? for you after you tell it which cells to look in Examples( &LI function >adds? AJECA0E function >arithmetic mean? 2I* function >calculate loan ayment? DALF* function >counts numeric values? DALF*A function >counts non-blank cells? DALF*$) function >counts based on a condition? CALF+ function >round a number to a s ecified digit? $) function >2uts one of two items into cell de ending on whether the condition evaluates to true or false?

3% Dlick in cell !9 and then click the fx button >$nsert function button? in the formula bar >)igure 30B?% > e!boar" s#ort$ut? S#i:t + &3 % O)en 7nsert &un$tion "ia*og bo<?

function button

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2% *he $nsert )unction dialog box looks like this >)igure 307?"

4igure '(7 3% *here are five key arts to the $nsert )unction dialog box" 3% &earch 2% Dategory 6% &elect function 4% +escri tion of selected function 5% .el 2% Dlick in the search for a function text box and ty e ,monthly car ayment- then hit Enter >)igure 30G?"

4igure '($ 6% $n the select a function list the first function selected is ,2I*4% !elow the list is the descri tion" ,Dalculates the ayment for a loan based on constant ayments and a constant interest rate%- *his sounds erfect for our need% !ut let@s check the others to make sure that there is not something even better% Dlick on ,F2EC%- )igure 309 shows the descri tion of this function"

5% After looking at each function# click back on the 2I* function because# amongst the four o tions# it fulfills our goal most satisfactorily% +escri tions are the key to the $nsert )unction dialog box% =ou can find the most ama9ing functions that will do all the calculating for you if you :ust s end a little time ,hunting- >looking through the list of functions?% B% !ecause ,hunting for the right function is the key to learning about all the wonderful built-in functions# another way is to ,hunt- using the ,All- category% 7% Dlick the down-arrow next to ,&elect a category- and oint to All >)igure 330?"

4igure ''( G% Iost of the functions have common sense names% &ee if you can find a function that will calculate ,Absolute value-# ,0eometric mean-# ,Average-# ,&traight-line de reciation-% All four of these can be found by hunting for those words in the list% 9% Absolute value >)igure 333?" 33% Average >)igure 336?"

4igure ''*

4igure ''4 36% Fow# find the 2I* function again% >)igure 335?"

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4igure ''5

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34% +ouble click the highlighted 2I* function to o en the )unctions Arguments dialog box >)igure 33B?"

4igure ''; 35% *he arguments ,=ate- ,8per- and ,>v- are in bold and the most commonly used variables for this function and are re1uired for the function to give you a result% *he ,)v- and the ,*y e- are not in bold and are not re1uired% *here is a descri tion for each argument that will hel you figure out how to use the function% $n addition# ,.el on this function- >bottom lower left corner of )igure 33B? is ama9ing/ $f you click that link it will give you a full descri tion and exam le of how to use this function% *he hel looks similar to this >)igure 337?"

4igure ''7 3B% $f you o ened u the hel # close it% Iake sure your curser is in the argument box for =ate, then click in cell +7 >)igure 33G?"

4igure ''$ 37% Fotice that when you click on cell +7 the value is shown to the right side of the argument box%

3G% .it *ab to move to the next argument box# click in cell +9# .it *ab# Dlick in cell !G >)igure 339?"

4igure ''< 39% $n )igure 339 notice" 3% Each argument box has a cell reference >this makes it easy to edit later? 2% *o the right of each argument box that the variable amount is shown 6% *he formula result is shown in two different locations >can you see both8? 4% *he formula bar shows that Excel has laced an e1ual sign in the cell for you# that the name of the function is in the formula and that the three cell references >arguments? are se arated with commas% 20% Dlick AO% *he result is the same as when we made our calculations before without the use of an Excel function% >)igure 320?"

4igure '*(

Rule #1- ) =sing ExcelBs 'uilt in @unctions can simplify and shorten formula creation/ Rule #11 ) @inding functions in Excel can 'e accomplished 'y reading the descriptions, searching for a common sense name in the list of functions, or 'y using the 0%earch1 feature in the Insert @unctions dialog 'ox/ 3Cou can search Doogle or the mrexcel/com site also/4 Rule #1( ) @iguring out what arguments to use for a given function can 'e accomplished 'y reading the descriptions, or 'y clicking the help 'utton in the *rgument dialog 'ox/

23% Dlick in cell !6# hold the &hift key and ta the )6 key and then use the $nsert )unction dialog box to find a formula for calculating the Effective Annual Cate% *he result should look like this >)igure 323?"

4igure '*' 22% Dlick in cell A5 and then hold the &hift key and ta the )6 key% $n the &earch for a function text box ty e ,:oin text- >)igure 322?"

4igure '** 26% Dreate the label for the Ionthly 2ayment table >be sure to ay attention to the s aces before and after the word , at ,? using the DAFDA*EFA*E function >)igure 326?"

4igure '*.

4igure '*4 25% *y e the number ,3- into cell A36 and the number ,2- into cell A34% *hen highlight the two cells >)igure 325?" 2G% Dlick in Dell A3G% 7e are going to add all the numbers by using a &LI function% *he /e!boar" s#ort$ut :or t#e S0= :un$tion is A*t + H%I. 29% .old the Alt key# then ta ,H- >)igure 32G?"

4igure '*5 2B% Eook at )igure 325% 7hat is that little black box in the lower right corner of the highlighted range8 $t is called the fill handle% $t is magic% *ake your cursor and oint to it until you see a cross hair >angry rabbit?% >)igure 32B?" 4igure '*$ 60% $n )igure 32G we see that the &LI function tries to guess what data we want to sum >it does not always guess correctly?% $t guessed correctly this time and so we hit Dtrl N Enter >or if we are still holding the Alt key we would ta ,H- a second time% >)igure 329?"

4igure '*; 27% Dlick and drag the angry rabbit down to A37% ]ust like magic Excel assumes you want to add by 3 because the attern of the number 3 and 2 is to always add 3% >)igure 327?" 4igure '*< 63% $t is much more efficient to use the &LI function# ,H&LI>A36"A37?-# than it is to ty e in ,HA36NA34NA35NA3BNA37-% $n addition there is an added bonus to using a function that uses a range such as A36"A37% Eet@s take a look

4igure '*7

62% 2oint to the row heading 35 and click to highlight the whole row >)igure 360?"

67% Dlick in cell A35 and ty e the number ,300and hit enter >)igure 364?"

4igure '.( 66% 7ith the row highlighted click on the .ome Cibbon and oint to $nsert icon in the Dells 0rou without clicking >)igure 363?" 4igure '.4 6G% Fotice that the sum function u dated 69% Dlick in cell A39 and click the )2 key >)igure 365?% e!boar" s#ort$ut :or H2ange &in"erI % &2

&creen *i 4igure '.' 64% Fotice that a screen ti o s u to tell you what this icon button does% 65% Dlick the $nsert icon button and then click the $nsert &heet Cows button >)igure 362?" 4igure '.5 40% Cange )inder allows us to audit a formula after it is created% Eook at the range we have in )igure 365 >A36"A3G?% Fow look at the range in )igure 329% Aur conclusion" by using a function with a range our formula will u date when we insert rows or columns% $f we had used the formula ,H A36 N A34 N A35 N A3B N A37-# it would not have u dated when we inserted a row% Rule #1+ ) =sing functions with ranges instead of a collection of individual cells allows structural updating to spreadsheets more easily/ Example of Rule #1+: =se 0)%=,3*1+:*1.41 instead of 0) *1+>*17>*18>*1:>*1.1 4igure '..

Eote:

2007 e!boar" s#ort$ut 7nsert 2o8 % A*t 5 + 7 + 2 2003 e!boar" s#ort$ut 7nsert 2o8 % A*t 7 + 2

4igure '.* 6B% *he result is that you have inserted a row >)igure 366?"

43% )or more ractice with )unctions go to the sheet tab named ,)unctions >2?42% .over your ,thick# white-cross- cursor over cell A2# then click in cell A2# hold the click# and drag your cursor to cell ]9% *his is how you highlight a range% *he range you have highlighted is A2"]9% >)igure 36B?"

4igure '.7 44% After you click in the name box it will highlight the cell A2% 45% *y e over ,A2- and re lace it with ,sd- >,sd- will stand for sales data?% >)igure 36G?"

4igure '.$ 4B% *hen hit Enter to register the newly named cell range% *he cell range A2"]9 now has the name ,sd- 7hen we create functions that look at that range we can now sim ly ty e in ,sd- instead of highlighting the range A2"]9 47% Dlick in cell E33 and see if you can find a function that can count the number of cars that were sold last month at &eattle *oyota% 7hen you find it# your formula result should look like this >)igure 369?"

4igure '.<

4G% &ee if you can find the remaining functions using your new ,function hunting skills49% 7hen you are done you should see the same results that you see in column E in )igure 340 by using the formulas that you see in column F in )igure 340%

4igure '4( 50% 7e have been using cell references so often# that it is now time to investigate the different ty es of cell references

#ell References

7hen we copy formulas that contain cell references to other cells# then we need to understand that there are four ty es of cell references" 3% Celative 2% Absolute 6% ,Iixed Dell Ceference with Dolumn Eocked- also known as ,Dolumn Absolute# Cow Celative4% ,Iixed Dell Ceference with Cow Eocked- also known as ,Cow Absolute# Dolumn Celative$t will only be ossible to understand these if we look at a few exam les% Fevertheless# here are the crucial facts about cell references" 3% Celative Dell Ceferences Exam le" A3 Fo dollar signs Ioves relatively throughout co y action ,Celatively- means that if the formula is looking at a cell reference that is three cells to the left# when you co y the formula to any other cell# the cell reference will still be looking three cells to the left% 2% Absolute Dell Ceferences Exam le" \A\3 +ollar signs before both" Dolumn designation H A Cow designation H 3 ,Absolute- means that if the formula is looking at a articular cell reference# when you co y the formula to any other cell# the cell reference will still be looking at that articular cell reference% $f the Absolute Dell reference is \A\3# the formula will always look at cell A3% $t is as if the formula is locked on the cell A3 throughout co y action ,Eocks cell reference when co ying it hori9ontally and vertically6% ,Iixed Dell Ceference with Dolumn EockedExam le" \A3 +ollar sign before column designation Cemains absolute or locked when co ying across columns Cemains relative when co ying across rows ,Eocks cell reference when co ying it hori9ontally# but not vertically4% ,Iixed Dell Ceference with Cow EockedExam le" A\3 +ollar sign before row designation Cemains absolute or locked when co ying across rows Cemains relative when co ying across columns ,Eocks cell reference when co ying it vertically# but not hori9ontallyOeyboard shortcut )4 key" *oggles between the four ty es of cell references 7hen creating formulas with cell references# ask two 1uestions of every cell reference in formula" M3" 7hat do you want it to do when you co y it hori9ontally8 $s it a relative reference8 AC $s it an absolute or locked reference8 M2" 7hat do you want it to do when you co y it vertically8 $s it a relative reference8 AC $s it an absolute or locked reference8

Here are the steps to learn about the four cell references(

3% 0o to the sheet tab named ,Dell Ceferences- and click in cell D6 and create the formula shown in )igure 343% *he formula calculates a ro ortion or ercentage of the whole >de ending on how it is formatted?% $n our exam le we are com aring *ina@s score >G2 arts of the 300 whole? and com aring it to the total ossible oints >300 oints ; the whole?% $f you look ahead to creating the formulas for &ue and Dhin and .ien# all their , arts- will have to be com ared to the ,whole-%

4igure '4' 2% .old Dtrl# then ta Enter% =ou should see that the ro ortion of oints that *ina earned is %G2 >)igure 342?"

4igure '4* 6% *o format the number ,%G2- as a ercentage# highlight cell D6# click the .ome Cibbon and then click the W icon button in the Fumber 0rou % >)igure 346?% Cemember G2W is not a number% Lnderneath in Excel@s code >:ust like any other calculator?# Excel sees the number ,%G2- even though it is formatted with a W symbol and even though what we see in the s readsheet is G2W"

4igure '4.9 ?otice the !creen "i5 that letIs us now the e3#oard shortcut for this format.

4% .ighlight the range D4"D9 and then use the keyboard shortcut to add the W style >Dtrl N &hift N W?" this re-formats the cells with the ercentage format >)igure 344?"

4igure '44 5% Dlick in D4 and create the formula for calculating &ues@ ercentage grade >)igure 345?"

4igure '45 B% Dontinue until you have created the ercentage grades >)igure 34B?" Name 4ra"e Tota*s -er$entage =a< s$ore 100 100.00J Tina 82 82J Sue 65 65J (#in 64 64J 5ien 96 96J Dennis 87 87J 7saa$ 75 75J S#o 95 95J 4igure '4; 7% 7hat we :ust com leted did not re1uire that we know anything about the four different cell references% .owever# what we did was inefficient% *here is a way to create all those formulas by :ust creating one formula in cell D2 and then co ying it down through our range% 7e will have to learn how to ,EADO- or make ,A!&AEL*E- some of our cell references% $f we can learn how to do this# it will make tasks such as this easier to com lete and will result in few errors% $n addition# many of the most advanced Excel )eatures and tricks are only ossible if we learn about these four cell references%

G% .ighlight the range D2"D9 and then hit the delete key ( e!boar" s#ort $ut? De*ete /e! % "e*ete $e** $ontent but not :ormat' ()igure 347'?

4igure '47 9% Dlick in cell D2 and create the following formula >)igure 34G?"

4igure '4$ 30% )igure 34G shows a fraction !2'!2% )or clarification of terms" Fumerator means the to of the fraction and +enominator means the bottom of the fraction% 33% Fow think about this" the numerator !2 needs to always look one cell to my left and the denominator !2 always needs to be locked on !2% 7e have to let Excel know that the two !2s are different% )he numerator !2 needs to always loo/ one cell to my left i% *his is called a relative cell reference ii% Celative to the cell the formula sits in# the cell reference always needs to look one cell to the left iii% )or our exam le the ,one-to-the-left- !2 will be entered into the formula as !2 )he denominator !2 always needs to be loc/ed on !2 i% *his is called a locked or absolute cell reference ii% *he secret code we need to ut into our cell reference to let Excel know that the cell is locked in the ,\- sign% 7hy the dollar sign8 Fo reason ; :ust think of it as the secret code?% iii% !ut where do we ut the secret code8 *he answer de ends on which direction you will be co ying the formula% $n our case we will be co ying u -and-down >vertical direction?# across the rows >and rows are numbers?# so the secret code goes in front of the Fumber 5% iv% )or our exam le the ,EADOE+- !2 will be entered into the formula as !\2 32% Jery carefully# lace your cursor in the middle of the denominator !2 and click the )4 key twice% *he first ta of the )4 key will ut two dollar signs into the cell reference# then the second ta of the )4 key will toggle to the next cell reference which has only one dollar sign in front of the number 2% &ee )igure 349"

4igure '4<

36% .old Dtrl# then ta Enter% =ou should see this >)igure 350?"

4igure '5( 34% 2oint to the fill handle and with your angry rabbit# double-click the fill handle to co y the formula down to cell D9 >)igure 353?"

4igure '5' 35% $n )igure 353# notice that it co ied the yellow cell fill color formatting down with the formula% *ake you cursor and click on the blue smart tag# then click on )ill 7ithout )ormatting >this great feature co ies only the formula? >)igure 352?"

*hese are called &mart *ags and a ear only until you erform a new action% 4igure '5* 3B% Dlick in cell D9 and audit the formula >)2 key? to make sure that you actuality did create G formulas# but only had to create one formula which you then co ied down >)igure 356?"

4igure '5.

37% Dlick in cell 02 and create the formula seen in )igure 354% !ecause the ]anuary 3000 amount will be increased by 30W each month# we need to multi ly >3 N %30? or 3%30 by each revious month@s amount% !ut notice that the cell reference )2 is actually always going to be looking at the cell ,one-to-the-left>relative cell reference H )2? and the cell reference )4 will always be ,locked- on )4 when co ying it side-to-side# across the columns >columns are letters?# so the secret code goes in front of the letter >locked co ying it across the columns H \)4? +on@t confuse these cell references >)2 and )4? with the keyboard buttons )2 key and )4 4igure '54 key% 3G% Jery carefully# lace your cursor in the middle of the )4 and click the )4 key three times >)igure 355?"

4igure '55 39% .it Dtrl N Enter% 2oint to the fill handle and co y to formula to ]2 >)igure 35B?"

4igure '5; 20% Dlick in cell ]2 to audit the formula with the )2 key >)igure 357?"

4igure '57

23% Eook in )igure 35G at the table titled ,7hat will your 2ension be worth when you retire8- 7e would like to estimate what our ension will be de ending on the annual rate that we earn and how many years we save for retirement% *he trick here is that we don@t want to ty e 54 formulas% 7e would like to create the whole ,sea of formulas-# 036 to E23# by creating only one formula in cell 036 and then co ying it to the remaining cells% 22% Dlick in cell 036 and ty e ,H)J>,% *he screen ti will come u to hel you with the arguments for this function% *o calculate our retirement funds we will need to assume an annual rate ,rate-# the number of years that we de osit money ,nper- and a yearly de osit amount ,pmt- >)igure 35G?"

4igure '5< 24% Dan you see in )igure 359 that we will need to use the 30W for all the formulas in column 08 Dan you also see that when we co y the formula over to column . we need to use the 33W8 *his means that we need the cell reference locked >absolute? when we are co ying the formula down# or vertically# or across the rows" the row reference needs to be locked/ .owever# when we co y the formula to column . the cell reference should not be locked >absolute? when we are co ying the formula to the side# or hori9ontally# or across the columns% *he column reference is not locked" it is relative%

25% !ecause we want to lock >absolute? this cell reference when we co y the formula down# across the rows# we need the ,\- sign in front of the number% !ecause we want this cell reference to move relatively as we co y the formula to the side# across the columns# we do not need the ,\- sign in front of the letter% Dell reference H 0\32 hit )4 twice >)igure 3B0?"

4igure ';( 2B% *y e a comma# click on )36# and hit )4 three times% 27% 7e hit )4 three times because we want this cell reference to move relatively as we co y the formula down# across the rows# and we want the cell reference locked >absolute? as we co y the formula to the side# across the columns% Dell reference H \)36 >)igure 3B3?"

4igure ';'

2G% *y e a comma# ty e a minus sign# click on cell )26# and hit )4 once# ty e a close arenthesis% 29% !ecause we want to use the cell reference )26 in every cell when we co y this formula# we want the cell reference locked in all directions% *he dollar sign in front of the column reference ,)- locks the cell reference when co ying the formula to the side# across the columns% *he dollar sign in front of the row reference ,26- locks the cell reference when co ying the formula down# across the rows% Dell reference H \)\26 >)igure 3B2?"

4igure ';* 60% .old Dtrl# and then ta Enter% 2oint to the fill handle and double-click the fill handle to co y the formula down to cell 023 >)igure 3B6?"

4igure ';.

63% +on@t be alarmed by the ound signs% *hey are :ust saying" ,2lease ex and the column so this big number has room to show itself%- 2oint between the two column headings 0 and . and double click to ex and the columns% =ou should see this >)igure 3B4?"

4igure ';4 62% Fow oint to the fill handle in the lower right corner for the entire range# then click and drag to E23% Fotice that many ound signs a ear% .ighlight the column headings from . to E by clicking on the columns heading . and dragging to E% *hen double-click between the column headings . and $ to ex and the columns >)igure 3B5?"

4igure ';5

66% Aur result is that 54 formulas were created by enter :ust one formula# adding the correct cell references and then co ying the formula in two-ste s >first down# then over? >)igure 3BB?"

4igure ';; 64% )or more ractice with cell references# click on the sheet tab named ,Iulti lication *able and see if you can create 344 formulas by enter :ust one formula# adding the correct cell references and then co ying the formula in two-ste s% Rule # 17 ) =se of relative, a'solute and mixed cell references reduces spreadsheet setup time, allows uick updating to setup structure, and will allow us to use many of ExcelBs advanced features and tricks Rule # 18 ) !hen you use the fill handle to copy a formula across the rows and then across the columns, it is a two9step process/ @irst copy it down, then let go of mouse, then copy it over 3or visa9versa4 $n the last few exam les we saw what ha ens to cell references when we co y a formula that has cell references% Fow we need to see what ha ens when we move a formula that contains cell references% Do y means co y the formula from a cell or range of cells# leave the formula in the original location# and then aste the formula in some other location% Iove means cut the formula from a cell or range of cells# it will no longer be located in the original location# and then aste the formula in some other location%

Here are the steps to learn about the difference between copyin and movin a formula with cell references9

3% Dlick on the sheet tab named ,Do y and Iove%- Dlick in cell !B and follow the instructions listed in cell !5 >)igure 3B7?"

4igure ';7 2% )igure 3BG# )igure 3B9 and )igure 370 illustrate that when you co y a cell reference that has a relative cell reference com onent# the cell reference changes relatively% $n )igure 3BG we see a formula that is looking into cell !3% $n )igure 370 we see a formula that is looking into cell !6% 7hen we co ied the formula# the cell reference moved relatively ; it actually did exactly what we told it to do# namely# ,always look five above-% 4igure ';<

4igure ';$

4igure '7( 6% Fow let@s look at what ha ens when we cut a formula with a relative cell reference and aste it somewhere else%

4igure '74 4igure '7' 5% .old Dtrl# then ta Enter >)igure 372?" G% .it )2 >)igure 375)igure 374?"

4igure '75 4igure '7* B% Dtrl N K >keyboard shortcut for Dut?# hit *ab >)igure 376?" 9% Dom are )igure 373 and )igure 375% 7hen you cut a formula with a relative cell reference com onent and aste it into a new cell# the formula does not change ; it actually moves the cell references exactly as they were in the original cell and astes them in the new location% *his is because when you move# you do not change anything< you sim ly ut the formula# intact# in a new location% Rule # 1: !hen you copy a formula that has a relative cell reference component, the relative cell reference changes relatively/ !hen you cut a formula with relative cell references component, the relative cell reference does not change/ 30% 7ow/ Onowing the difference between moving and co ying formulas is very hel ful in our ursuit of efficient s readsheet construction% Eet@s ractice co ying a formula with relative cell references another time before we move on to the next to ic

4igure '7.

33% Favigate back to the sheet tab named ,*he E1ual &ign- by holding the Dtrl key# and then ta ing the 2age L key nine times% =ou should see this >)igure 37B?"

4igure '7; 32% Dlick in cell F2% .it the F2 /ey >)igure 377?% Eook at the formula in cell )2% Dan you say what ty e of cell references they are8 Dan you say what will ha en to the formula when you co y it down from )2 to )B8 *he formula in cell )2# ,H!2-E2-# uses relative cell references and so when you co y it down the cell references will move relatively% *he formula actually reads" ,always look four to the left and subtract one to the left-%

4igure '77 36% .old Dtrl# then ta the Enter key% 2oint to the fill handle and with your cross hair >angry rabbit? and then double click the fill handle% *he double click on the fill handle tells the formula to co y down as long as there is cell content in the cell directly to the left >)igure 37G?"

4igure '7$

34% Dlick in cell )B and hit the )2 key >)igure 379?% !ecause the cell references are relative and because we co ied the formula# the formula# ,H!B-EB-# looks different# but really it is the same formula# namely" ,always look four to the left and subtract one to the left-%

4igure '7< 35% Eook at )igure 379% 7hat is the word ,Assum tions- across DG and +G mean8 3B% Dlick the Esc key to remove the range finder in cell )B% Dlick in cell D2 and then hit the )2 key >)igure 3G0?% 7e can see in our formula that +eduction 3 is calculated by taking &uix Dhin@s 0ross 2ay and multi lying it by the tax rate of B%20W% !ecause the tax rate of B%20W can change we have laced it in a cell and had our formula refer to it using a cell reference% 7e have assumed that our tax rate is B%20W and thus have laced it into an assum tion table% $n our next section we will discuss the ama9ing ower of assum tion tables" when you should use them# what to ut in them# and how to ro erly orientate them/

4igure '$(

*ssumption &a'lesF%heets

Aur golden rule for assum tion tables is" All data that can vary >variable data? goes into a ro erly orientated assum tion table% An exam le of data that can vary is a tax rate% An exam le of that data that will not vary is 32 months in a year% Cemember" we don@t want to ty e data that can very into a formula for three reasons" 3% $t is easier to edit or change our formula later if the variable data it is not ty ed into the formula >exam le" tax rate changes? 2% $t is more olite for the s readsheet user if the variable data can be seen on the face of the s readsheet% >)or exam le# even if we were to create a formula with variable data ty ed into the formula >such as ,H\!2U%0B2-?# when we came back tomorrow to use the worksheet# we as the creator might not even remember which formulas have variable data and'or what the variable data is? 6% 7hat-if or scenario analysis is significantly easier when an assum tion table is used% 7hatif'scenario analysis is sim ly when you change the variables to see different formula results% $n addition to the ease with which we can edit or locate variable data# assum tion tables that are ro erly orientated can reduce the number of formula that we will be re1uired to ty e into our s readsheet% 2ro er orientation means the labels in the main table are orientated >hori9ontally or vertically? in the same way as the labels in the assum tion table >hori9ontally or vertically?# and that there is at least one blank row or column between the main table and the assum tion table% Also# you can format the assum tion table differently to distinguish it from the main table% $n this section about assum tion tables we will learn" 3% 7hen to use them 2% 7hat to ut in them 6% .ow it is easier to locate and edit variable data 4% .ow to ro erly orientate them/ 5% .ow to conduct 7hat-if'scenario analysis easily B% .ow to bask in the ama9ing ower of assum tion tables// $t will hel if we work through an exam le

3% Favigate to the sheet tab named ,Assum tions- >)igure 3G3?% *his table will be used to calculate the Fet take home ay for a number of em loyees% Fotice that the calculated amounts for Dommission on &ales# and 0ross 2ay have already been calculated% Aur goal is to calculate the three ayroll deductions >)$DA# Iedicare# and sim lified )ederal? and the Fet 2ay%

4igure '$'

2% Dlick in cell D6 and hit the )2 key% 7e can see the formula ,H!6UE\32- > )igure 3G2?% Aur first 1uestion we want to answer is" when do we use an assum tion table8 7e use an assum tion table when our formula contains variable data such as a commission rate or tax rate% $n cell E6 we are calculating the commission on sales that we ay each em loyee% Dan this commission rate change8 =ou bet/

4igure '$* 6% .it the Esc key% Dlick in cell E32% Aur second 1uestion is" what do we ut into an assum tion table8 7e ut the variable data that we need for our formulas into an assum tion table% $n )igure 3G6 we can see that the commission rate of 3%25W# which we used in our formula# has been laced into an assum tion table% *his enables easy editing and formula u dating later%

4igure '$. 4% Fow# imagine that the boss :ust gave everyone a raise from 3%25W commission to 2W/ *his leads to our third 1uestion" .ow easy is it to locate and edit variable data8 Jery easy/ 5% *y e 2# then hit Enter >because the cell was reformatted with the ercent style# we did not have to ty e the W symbol?% =ou should see the entire column of ,Dommission on &ales changes >)igure 3G4?% *.A* 7A& EA&=// $t is easier to change the variable data when it is on the face of the s readsheet that it is to look for it# hidden underneath# inside a formula/ $ can already feel that vacation time adding u with all the time $ will be saving/

4igure '$4

B% Dlick in cell E32 and change the rate back to 3%25W% Aur goal is still to calculate the deductions and calculate take home ay 7% Dlick in cell )6 and create the formula for calculating the )$DA deduction% !ut wait/ 7hich assum tion table should we use8 G% $s the formula ,HE6U)\3B- >)igure 3G5? the one to use8

4igure '$; 30% *he answer to which formula to use >which formula is more efficient? leads to the fourth 1uestion" what is the ro er orientation for our assum tion table8 $f we were to use the formula as seen in )igure 3G5# ,HE6U)\3B- we would have to create three se arate formulas to make all our deduction calculations% $f we were to use the formula as seen in )igure 3GB# ,H\E6U)\32- we would have to create only one formula to make all our deduction calculations% *his sort of efficiency is exactly what we are striving for% !ut why does the formula using the variable data from the assum tion table that is orientated hori9ontally allow us to create only one formula that will work for all our deductions8 *o see this# let@s try both formula and see which works best%

33% =ou should still have cell )6 highlighted% Dreate this formula" ,HE6U)\3B- >)igure 3G7?"

4igure '$7 32% .old Dtrl# then ta Enter% 2oint to the fill handle# and with the Angry Cabbit cursor# co y the formula down through the range )6")7% *hen click in cell )7 and hit the )2 key >)igure 3GG?% =ou can see that the formula worked when we co ied it down%

4igure '$$

36% .it Esc% Dlick back into cell )6% Do y the formula to cell 06% Dlick in cell 06 and hit the )2 key to show the Cange )inder% $n )igure 3G9 we can see that the range finder shows that the cell reference for our tax rate moved and is now looking into the cell 03B% !ecause the orientation of the assum tion table is vertical >the labels for )$DA# Iedicare and )ederal are located one on to of the other? and the orientation of our main table is hori9ontal# we would have to create three individual formulas in the cells )6# 06 and .6% Fotice that in )igure 3G9 that the range finder moved to the right when we co ied our formula to the right% *his indicates that if we had used the hori9ontally orientated assum tion table that formula would have calculated correctly

4igure '$< 34% Dlick Esc% *hen .old Dtrl# and ta the ^ key three times >undo?% *hen create the formula ,H\E6U)\32in cell )6 >)igure 390?"

4igure '<(

35% .old Dtrl# ta Enter% Dtrl N D >to co y formula?% .old &hift# then ta the +own Arrow key 4 times and the Cight arrow key 2 times >highlights the range?% Dtrl N J > astes formula?% Dlick in cell .7 and hit the )2 key% $n )igure 393 we can see that because we orientated our assum tion table correctly# it worked like IA0$D/ 7e created the sea of formulas in the range )6".7# 35 formulas# but we only had to ty e in one formula/ *his sort of efficiency is our goal/

4igure '<' 3B% .it Esc% .ighlight the range )6"$G >)igure 392?"

4igure '<* 37% .old Alt# and then ta the E1ual sign key ,H- >Alt N H is keyboard shortcut for Auto&um?% As you can see in )igure 396# by highlighting a range of values and one blank row below and to the right# the Auto &um feature knew what to add u % $t doesn@t always add u the correct amount# so let@s check to be sure% After selecting cells with the Auto&um and verifying# the last cell we will check is cell $G >)igure 396?"

4igure '<.

3G% .ighlight the range ]6"]G >)igure 394?% Fotice that when you highlight a range that one of the cells is white and the rest are a light steel-blue color% *he white cell is waiting for you to ut a formula into it% $f you ut a formula into cell ]6 and then hold Dtrl and ta Enter# you formula will go into all the cells highlighted

4igure '<4 39% Dreate the formula that will always take the value ,five to the left and then subtract one to the left in cell ]6% *y e QH-# ta the left arrow key five times# *y e ,-,# ta the Arrow key once% =ou should see this >)igure 395?"

4igure '<5 20% .old Dtrl# and then ta Enter% 7e see here that i: !ou #ave a range #ig#*ig#te" an" !ou )*a$e a :ormu*a into t#e 8#ite $e**; 8#en !ou #o*" (tr* an" ta) @nter; t#e :ormu*a is )*a$e" into a** t#e $e**s t#at are #ig#*ig#te"/ =ou should see this >)igure 39B?"

4igure '<;

23% Aur fifth 1uestion is" .ow easy is what-if'scenario analysis when we use assum tion tables8 22% Dlick in cell E32 and change the Dommission rate to 2W% Dlick in cell .32 and change the sim lified )ederal 7ithholding rate to 20W% Dan you see how easy it is to say" ,7hat if $ changed this< what would ha en to our calculations and our results8- >)igure 397?"

4igure '<7 26% Aur final 1uestion about assum tion tables is how can we bask in the ama9ing ower of assum tion tables8 24% $magine your boss comes in and says" ,we :ust added a new 2W deduction can you u date our calculating table8- =ou look over your shoulder and say" ,Ah you mean like this8//- And with blistering s eed you com lete these ste s 25% Dlick in any cell in column .# Ta) A*t; t#en ta) 7 an" t#en ta) ( (A*t + 7 + ( is t#e /e!boar" s#ort$ut :or 7nsert (o*umn' >)igure 39G?" Few column was inserted

4igure '<$9 < G I G C is the e3#oard shortcut for inserting a column 2B% Dlick in cell .33 and ty e 2ension% .it Enter# then ty e 2W >)igure 399?"

4igure '<<

27% .ighlight the range 02"0G and oint to the fill handle in the lower right-corner% 7hen you see your Angry Cabbit# click and drag one column to the right% =ou are done/ 30 clicks and you have com letely u dated the table and you have ama9ed your boss >who then rom tly gives you a romotion?/ >)igure 200?"

4igure *(( 2G% $n )igure 200 we can see that the deduction formulas u dated because we used a ro erly orientated assum tion table and mixed cell references< we can see that the &LI function for totals in row G u dated because they were always looking to add the five above< and we can see that the totals for *otal +eduction u dated when we inserted a column because it utili9ed a range in its arguments/ 7ow# now we can have extra vacation time and bask in the ama9ing romotion we received ; all because of efficient use of assum tion tables# mixed cell references and range functions/

Rule #1.: *ll data that can vary goes into a properly orientated assumption ta'le that is at least one 'lank rowFcolumn away from the main ta'le 3it can also 'e placed on an entirely separate sheet4/ *n example of data that can vary is a tax rate/ *n example of that data that will not vary is 1( months in a year/ *lthough a properly orientated assumption ta'le is not always possi'le, the idea is to have the la'els in the ta'le orientated 3horiGontally or vertically4 in the same way as the assumption ta'le If we do this, editing formulas, what9if analysis and formula creation is dramatically more efficient than if we do not utiliGe assumption ta'les/ Rule #1?: Hroperly orientated assumption ta'les allow for mixed cell use and results in reduced time creating formulas 29% .ighlight the range O6"OG% *o $ncrease the decimals# click on the $ncrease +ecimal icon in the Fumber 0rou on the .ome Cibbon# or use the key board shortcut Alt N . N 0 twice% >)igure 203?% Fotice that the total Fet 2ay is \36#7B2%B4%

4igure *('

60% Dlick in cell OG and then hit the )2 key >)igure 202?% *here is no way that \39#5B6 - \5#G00 H \36#7B2%B4% 7hat is going on here8 *his is one of the most common mistakes that eo le make in Excel% $t is our :ob as &oon-*o-!e Excel Efficiency Ex erts >EEE?# to know that this is caused by formatting% 7hat we often see in Excel is not actually what sits in the cell% 7e must investigate furtherP%

4igure *(* 63% *o rove to ourselves that what is in the cell is different than what we are seeing on the surface of the s readsheet# highlight the range !6"OG and increase the decimals so that we see the decimals to the enny >)igure 206?% 7e can see that what was really in the cell was numbers with more decimal laces than we were allowed to see/

4igure *(. 62% As you learn to work with Excel you must be vigilant in the endeavor to always match the ro er formatting with what actually sits in the cell% *his leads us to our next section about formatting%

#ell @ormatting

7e format cells with color# number formats >such as currency?# borders and other format so that we can better articulate the message of our s readsheet or rintout of the s readsheet% )or exam le in )igure 204 we can see that formatting can hel to communicate im ortant information" 3% *he ercentage format hel s to communicate the number of arts for every 300 arts 2% *he accounting >similar to currency? format indicates that the Cevenues# Ex enses and Fet $ncome are in L&A dollars 6% *he double line under the Fet $ncome communicates that this is the ,bottom line-% 4% *he color hel s to communicate that there are labels indicating what the numbers mean

4igure *(4

3% Favigate to the sheet named ,)ormatting >2?-% Dlick in cell E2% 5o*" (tr*; t#en ta) t#e HBI /e! on t#e number )a" (t#is se*e$ts t#e tab*e' >)igure 205?"

4igure *(5

2% Dlick the dro -down arrow to the right of the !order icon button in the )ont 0rou on the .ome Cibbon% *hen select the ,All !orders icon from the dro -down list >)igure 20B?"

4igure *(; 6% .ighlight the range A3"E3% .old Dtrl key and ta ,3- key >use the ,3- below the )3 key not the ,3- on the number ad?% (tr* + 1 o)ens t#e &ormat (e**s "ia*og bo< >you could also right-click the highlighted range and oint to )ormat Dells? Ance you have the )ormat cells dialog box o en click on the Alignment tab% &ee >)igure 207?"

4igure *(7

4% 7ith the Alignment tab selected# click the down arrow under .ori9ontal and select ,Denter Across &election- >)igure 20G?"

7% Dlick on the 2atterns tab and select a dark blue >)igure 230?"

4igure *'( 4igure *($ 5% 7e chose ,Denter Across &election- instead of the more widely used ,Ierge and Denter-% ,Denter Across &election- allows move universal structural changes such as inserting columns'rows and moving# whereas the ,Ierge and Denter- sometimes will disallow such actions% B% Dlick the )ont tab% &elect ,2oor Cichard- font >or some other font?# !old style# &i9e H 34# Dolor >of font? H 7hite >)igure 209?" G% Dlick AO >)igure 233?"

4igure *'' 9% .ighlight the range!2"E2# .old Dtrl# .ighlight A6"AB >!y holding the Dtrl key you can select cells that are non-ad:acent% Dlick the )ill color button in the )ont 0rou on the .ome Cibbon >)igure 232?"

4igure *(<

4igure *'*

36% Dlick the down arrow under color and select a color >)igure 23B?"

4igure *'. 33% .old Dtrl and ta 3% 2oint to the Fumber tab% &elect Accounting with no dollar sign# click AO >)igure 234?"

4igure *'; 34% Dlick the to line in the !order area >,2review +iagram- area? >)igure 237?"

4igure *'4 32% .ighlight AB"EB# Dtrl N 3# click the !orders tab% $n the Eine'&tyles box# click the medium thick line >second column# fifth down? >)igure 235?"

4igure *'7 35% *he most im ortant oint that you must memori9e to get this tab to work is this" AC+EC IA**EC& ; you must click Eine'&tyle )$C&*# Dolor &EDAF+# and then draw your line in the !order area *.$C+/

4igure *'5

3B% Fow# use the method :ust discussed to add a +ark !lue +ouble line to the bottom border of our highlighted range >)igure 23G?"

4igure *'< 3G% Fow that we have seen how to a ly formatting# we need to look at how formatting can sometimes trick us% $f we are to become efficient with Excel we need to be able to match the ro er formatting with what actually sits in the cell/

4igure *'$

Dell Fumber )ormatting is the fa_ade that sits on to of data and formulas% 7hat you see is not always what sits in the cell% )or exam le" 3% $f you see 6%00W# Excel more than likely sees 0%06 2% $f you see \5B%70# Excel may see 5B%B95 6% $f you see 07'2B'2005# Excel more than likely sees 6G559 4% $f you see 9"60 AI# Excel more than likely sees 0%695G66666666666 Eet@s look at an exam le

Here are the steps to learn how to distin uish between 8umber Formattin and actual cell content!!!!

39% Favigate to the sheet named ,)ormatting >6?-% =ou should see what is in >)igure 220?% Cead the labels in column A and ty e in the number in column !% Dolumn D tells you what is actually in the cell% *he key strokes for ty ing the numbers in are as follows" i% !2 3# 6# "# 6# 9# Dtrl N Enter >that is to say" *y e the number one# the number three# a colon# the number three# the number nine# and then hold Dtrl and then ta Enter? 3% Each time you hit Dtrl N Enter# look at what you see in the cell and com are that to what you see in the formula bar ii% !6 3# 0# '# 2# 5# '# 2# 0# 0# 5# Dtrl N Enter iii% !4 3# 0# Dtrl N Enter >Fotice that you did not have to ty e in the dollar sign ; the cell is reformatted? iv% !5 3# 0# Dtrl N Enter v% !B 6# Dtrl N Enter vi% !7 7BG# Dtrl N Enter vii% !G 7BG# Dtrl N Enter

4igure **(

20% 7hen you are done you should see this >)igure 223?"

4igure **'9 ?otice that although we see the word +Rad,, the formula #ar shows us that the num#er 7;$ actuall3 sits in the cell. 23% *he keyboard shortcut to see the worksheet in ,formula view- is Dtrl N ` >*he ` key is to the left of the ,3- key and above the *ab key?% )ormula view shows you what is actually in the cells# whether it is data# formulas% .old Dtrl and ta ` key >)igure 222?"

4igure *** 22% 7hat you see in )igure 223 is the fa_ade% 7hat you see in )igure 222 is what actually is in the cells% $n addition# what is actually there in the cell is what Excel will use for any formulas >whether calculating# text or other formulas?% 26% Dtrl N ` to remove formula view >Dtrl N ` is a toggle that switches between )ormula view and Formal view?% *hen click on each cell in column ! and using the )ormat Dells dialog box look at what Fumber format each cell is using )or Exam le in )igure 226 you can see that !2 has a time format

4igure **.

ii% $n )igure 224 you can see the custom format >Dustom formatting is not a to ic that is book addresses?"

4igure **4 Rule #1A: #ell @ormatting is the faIade that sits on top of data and formulas/ !hat you see is not always what sits in the cell/ *he next age reminds you that there are six tabs in the )ormatting Dells dialog box% *wo ages ahead we have an exam le of the formatting fa_ade getting in the way of accurate calculations/

Iake a note that there are six tabs in the )ormat Dells dialog box as seen below >)igure 225?"

4igure **5

Here are the steps to learn how to use the =?@8' Function in Excel to insure accurate payroll calculations when roundin to the penny is reAuired

3; Favigate to the sheet named ,Cound for +eduction-% !efore you make any calculations on this sheet# follow the calculations in ste 2 and make the deduction calculations by hand with a encil% 2; .ow to use a formula to calculate a tax deduction 3% )igure 22B shows the *axable earnings and short descri tion of how to calculate a deduction% Lse )igure 227 to make a calculation by hand using a encil# an eraser and the rules of rounding to a enny/

Ta<ab*e @arnings De"u$tion K 2;322.00 K2;322.00 B 6.20J. 6e sure to roun" to t#e )enn! K 1;201.50 K1;201.50 B 6.20J. 6e sure to roun" to t#e )enn! Sum o: (K2;322.00 B 6.20J' an" (K1;201.50 B 6.20J' De"u$tion J 6.20J

4igure **;

De"u$tion J 6.20J

4igure **7

4; Fow we can try it in Excel 5; .ow to use a formula to calculate a tax deduction 3% !efore we create a formula to calculate the deduction# let@s look at the Accounting Fumber format already a lied in the cell range !2"!4% .ighlight the range and hold the Dtrl key# then ta the 3 key% =ou will see the )ormat Dells dialog box >)igure 22G?"

4igure **< 6% 7ith the thick white cross cursor# click on cell A2 >*he cell reference A2 will a ear in the formula? >)igure 260?"

4igure *.(

4%

4igure *.' 5% Dlick on the cell with the deduction W as seen below >)igure 262?"

4igure *.* B% Dlick the )4 key twice to lock the ercent >)igure 266?"

4igure *.. 7% .old the Dtrl key# then ta the Enter key to lace the formula in the cell >Fotice that you can still see the formula in the formula bar >)igure 264?" )ormula !ar

Fame !ox

4igure *.4

G%

2oint to the fill handle >Eittle black box in lower right corner of highlighted cell? >)igure 265?"

)ill .andle

4igure *.5 9% 7ith fill handle selected# co y formula from !2 to !6 >)igure 26B?"

4igure *.; 30% $n cell !4 add a &LI function by holding the Alt key and ta ing the e1ual sign% Jerify that the &LI function selected the correct cells >)igure 267?"

4igure *.$

32% 0o down to the area with the yellow instructions and verify that you entered the correct formula to calculate your ayroll deductions% $n cells E9 and E30 ty e what you see in cells !2 and !6# res ectively >+A FA* L&E DEEE CE)ECEFDE&?% Dreate a &LI function in cell E33 that adds the two cells above% >)igure 269?"

4igure *.< 36% Muestion" 7hat is the roblem here888//8 34% Answer" Excel did its art erfectly# but we did not/ 7e forgot to make sure that the formatting and the calculating formulas are doing the same thing/ *o see how these are different# select the cell range !2"!4 and increase the decimals to three laces% *he Accounting Fumber format was only allowing us to see two decimals# but what was actually in the cells was more than :ust two decimals% =ou should see this after you increased the decimals to three laces >)igure 240?"

4igure *4( 35% 7hat has ha ened here8 *he formulas underneath have calculated without rounding# but the formatting on to has made it a ear as if it has been rounded% *he &LI function does not look at formatted numbers# but instead looks at the unrounded numbers% 3B% *he solution is to make the format and the calculated numbers exactly the same by using the CALF+ function%

37% +ecrease the decimals to two laces to restore the format to its original state% =ou should see this >)igure 243?"

4igure *4' 3G% Add a CALF+ function to our formula by clicking in cell !2% *o edit the formula click the )2 keyboard button% =ou will see this >)igure 242?"

4igure *4* 39% 7ith your cursor oint in between the e1ual sign and the letter ,A- and click to insert your cursor into the formula% *hen ty e the letters and characters ,CALF+>, as seen here >)igure 246?"

4igure *4.

20% *hen oint your cursor to the formula bar and click at the end of the formula as seen here >)igure 244?"

4igure *44 23% *y e the characters and numbers" ,#2?- as seen here >)igure 245?"

4igure *45 22% .old the Dtrl key and then ta the Enter key% *hen co y the formula to cell !6% Fow you are done and you should see this >)igure 24B?"

4igure *4; 0; Donclusions" because formatting >such as currency? is like a fa_ade that sits on to of the number# when you have a formula that has the otential to yield more decimal laces than the format dis lays# use the CALF+ function% 3% )or a ayroll calculation that must be rounded to the enny# instead of HA2U!\7# use HCALF+>A2U!\7#2?< where the second argument ,2- means round to the second decimal% 2 means round to the enny >2ayroll? 0 means round to the dollar >$ncome *axes? -6 means round to the thousands osition% >)inancial &tatements? Rule #(-: 5ecause formatting 3such as currency4 is like a faIade that sits on top of the num'er, when you have a formula that has the potential to yield more decimal places than the format displays, use the R$=E; function/ Fext we will look at how to work with +ate formatting%

7ith +ate number format# dates show the number of days since +ecember 63st 3G99# where +ecember 63st 3G99 is day 9ero >0?# ]anuary 3st# 3990 is day one >3?# ]anuary 2nd# 3990 is day two >2?# etc% )or exam le" ]anuary 3# 3900 is re resented by the serial number 3< ]anuary 2# 3900 is re resented by the serial number 2< and A ril 26# 200B is re resented by the serial number 6G#G60%

Here are the steps to learn how to understand the 'ate number format and to ma/e date calculations -Excel date math;

3% Favigate to the sheet named ,+ate Iath-% =ou should see this >)igure 247?"

4igure *47 2% .old Dtrl and ta on the ` key >this reveals what is actually in the cell< this is called formula view?% =ou should see what is in )igure 24G% Lnderstanding the +ate format re1uires that you know that when you ty e ,4'26'200B- >)igure 247?# Excel sees 6GG60 >)igure 24G?% *he ,4'26'200B- is the fa_ade that we see% *he 6GG60 is the serial number that Excel sees% *his serial number is very useful for making date calculationsP

4igure *4$ 6% .old Dtrl and ta on the ` key to remove formula view 4% &elect cell !2# 5o*" (tr* an" ta) L (semi $o*on' to )ut To"a!Ms "ate in t#e $e** >)igure 249?% >+on@t worry if your day is different?%

4igure *4<

5% &elect cell !6# enter the formula ,H!2-!3-# then hold Dtrl and ta Enter >Fi ure 200?"

Fi ure 200

4igure *5' B% $f you see the formula result of 493 days >)igure 250?# everything is working fine and accurate% 7% !ut if you see a formula result that is date formatted >)igure 253? =ou must be asking yourself 7hat is going on here8 7hy is there a date in our cell instead of the number of days the invoice is ast due8 *he answer is this" 7hen you create a formula sometimes it brings the format from the cells that you have referenced to the cell you are creating a formula within% G% To bring t#e :ormat ba$/ to t#e H4enera* :ormat; 5o*" (tr* an" S#i:t an" ta) N >)igure 252?"

4igure *5* 9% )igure 252 reveals the beauty of the serial numbers that lie behind every date" it is easy to do date math/ 7hether you are calculating an overdue invoice# your own age# or an estimate of the number of days to com lete a :ob# date math is ama9ing/ 30% Ane final note about +ate format" Dlick in cell +3 and ty e the number 6GG60# then hold Dtrl and ta Enter >)igure 256?"

4igure *5. 33% .old Dtrl and ta 3# click on the Fumber tab# click on +ate >)igure 254?"

4igure *54

32% Dlick AO% )igure 255 illustrates directly that the number 6GG60 has a fa_ade on to of it for us Excel users to see% $n this way# we understand that it is a date when we see it# but hidden underneath# Excel sees the serial number so it can make date calculations/

4igure *55 36% )or everyday Excel use# you can enter dates such as 4'26'200B# by ty ing the numbers and forward slashes ; Excel automatically enters the serial number behind the scenes% Rule #(1: !ith ;ate num'er format, Excel sees the num'er of days since ;ecem'er +1st 1?AA 3or January 1, 1A-- 3inclusive44/ &his allows us to make date math calculations/ Fow that we have studied the +ate number format fa_ade and how to use it# we can look at the *ime number format fa_ade and how to use it% 7ith *ime number format# Excel sees the ro ortion of one 24 hour day% )or exam le" G"00AI is re resented by the decimal number >also known as serial number or time value? 0%666666666666666< B"23AI is re resented by the decimal number %2B45G6666666666< and 5"35"35 2I is re resented by the decimal number % 73G926B33333333%

Here are the steps to learn how to understand the )ime number format and how to ma/e time calculations -Excel time math;

3% Favigate to the sheet named ,*ime )ormatting >3?-% =ou should see this >)igure 25B?"

4igure *5; 2% 7hen entering times into Excl# you can use the following conventions >)igure 257?"

T!)ing time :ormat into a $e**? 00?00?00 A=C-=. 7: !ou "o not "o it t#is 8a!; @<$e* "oesnFt un"erstan" 8#i$# is #our; minute or se$on".

--?00?00 A=C-= 00? --?00 A=C-= 00?00?-- A=C-= 00?00?00 *,FH, 4igure *57

5ours; :o**o8e" b! $o*on O?O =inutes; :o**o8e" b! $o*on O?O Se$on"s; :o**o8e" b! s)a$e O O t!)e A= or -=

6% Dlick in cell A3 and ty e" G# "# 0# 0# >s ace?# A# I >said another way" ty e G"00 AI?% Dlick in cell !3 and ty e B"23 AI% Dlick in cell D3 and ty e 5"35"35 2I >)igure 25G?%

4igure *5$ 4% .old Dtrl and then ta ` to see what Excel sees >)igure 259?"

4igure *5< 5% $n )igure 259# notice that the decimal number that re resents 5"35"35 2I is greater than the decimal value that re resents G"00 AI% *his insight will allow us to subtract the earlier time from the later time and get the ro ortion of one day that has ela sed between the two times% B% .old Dtrl and then ta ` to return to our normal view% $n order to see that G hours does re resent % 666 or 3'6 of a 24 hour day# click in cell +6 and ty e the formula ,two cells above divided by one cell above- >)igure 2B0?"

4igure *;( 7% .old Dtrl and then ta enter% 2oint to the fill handle and drag the formula from cell +6 through )6 >)igure 2B3?"

4igure *;' G% .ighlight the cells +6"E6# hold Dtrl and then ta 3# click on the number tab# click on the *ime category >)igure 2B2?"

4igure *;*

9% Dlick AO% $n )igure 2B6# we can see that G'24 or 3'6 is %666666666666666# but when we a ly a *ime format# the Excel user sees G"00 AI%

4igure *;. 30% As an extra bonus# click in cell )6 and a ly the )raction format% After you a ly this format you should see this >)igure 2B4?"

4igure *;4 33% 7ith our new understanding of the *ime format# we would like to make some time calculations in Excel% 32% Favigate to the sheet tab named ,*ime )ormatting >2?- =ou should see this >)igure 2B5?"

4igure *;5 36% 7e would like to use Excel to kee track of em loyees work hours and gross ay% Dlick in cell E2 and subtract the earlier time from the later time >,one to my left minus two to my left-? >)igure 2BB?"

4igure *;; 34% .old Dtrl and then ta Enter >)igure 2B7?% 7e see is )igure 2B7 that the *ime format has carried forward into our cell with the formula%

5ours 8or/e" 9?00 A=

4igure *;7 35% .old Dtrl and &hift and ta `% $n>)igure 2BG?9 we see the ro ortion of the day that Euke has worked%

4igure *;$

3B% .old Dtrl and ta 3# select the Fumber tab# click on the *ime category# click on the second time ty e in the list >)igure 2B9?"

4igure *;< 37% Dlick in 02 and ty e the formula as seen in )igure 270"

4igure *7( 3G% .old Dtrl and ta Enter% 7hat is wrong with )igure 2738 Fothing/ $f 7E were trying to multi ly 9 hours times \34%00# we did not accom lish this% 7e made the wrong calculation% Excel did not make the wrong calculation% *he resultant answer# 5%25# is exactly what we asked Excel to calculate# namely" 0%675U34%

4igure *7'

39% +elete the contents of cell 02% $n cell )2 ty e the formula ,H>+2-D2?U24- >)igure 272?% Fotice that we had to know our order of o erations >the subtraction is in arenthesis? and we had to know that 24 is a number that will not vary >thus it is AO to ty e into our formula?%

4igure *7* 20% .it *ab% *y e the formula ,one to my left times four to my left- in cell 02# and then hold Dtrl and ta Enter% *hen 5o*" (tr* an" S#i:t an" ta) t#e K /e! (t#is is t#e /e!boar" s#ort$ut :or t#e (urren$! :ormat'% =ou should see this >)igure 276?"

4igure *7. 23% .ighlight the range E2"02# oint to the fill handle and with your angry rabbit# double click the fill handle to co y the formulas down >)igure 274?"

4igure *74 22% 7ith our knowledge of the *ime format# order of o erations and non-varying numbers# we have created formulas that we can use for timesheet calculations% Rule #((: !ith &ime num'er format, Excel sees the proportion of one (7 hour day/ &his allows us to make time math calculations/ Fext we will turn our attention to Excel@s Dharting ca abilities%

#harts

Dharts and gra hs are a means to visually articulation numerical data% *here are times when a icture >chart or gra h? tells a thousand words% Dharts and gra hs can deliver a message in a more immediate way% Although a chart or gra h lacks the detail of all the numbers# it 1uickly articulates its message in an effective way% Favigate to the sheet tab named ,Dharts >3?-% $n Excel# after highlighting your numerical data and labels# you can initiate chart creation from the Dhart 0rou on the $nsert Cibbon% >)igure 275?"

4igure *75 After you initially create your Dhart from the Dhart 0rou on the $nsert Cibbon# you can use the three Dontext&ensitive Cibbons for Dharts or you can right-click the different elements of the Dhart% >)igure 27B?"

4igure *7;

$n )igure 27B we can see a ,Dolumn- chart ty e% .owever# there are many charts to choose from and choosing the correct one can sometimes be tricky% 7e will look at two chart ty es" 2ie chart and a Dolumn chart with multi le series data% $f you would like to learn about more of the built in chart ty es# Dlick )3 >Iicrosoft .el ? and ty e ,Available chart ty es-% *here is an article that gives an excellent exam le of each chart ty e%

3% Favigate to the sheet named ,Dharts >3?-% =ou should see this >)igure 277?"

4igure *77 2% $n )igure 277 we can see that 7ind& orts &ales are broken a art into categories% Jertically# in Dolumn A# we can see that 7ind& ort has categori9ed the sales according to the roducts that they sell" boomerangs# kites and toys% .ori9ontally# in Cow 2# we can see that 7ind& ort has categori9ed the sales according to the sales channels that they use for selling" $n &tore# 7eb &ite and Iail Arder% $n addition# they have listed totals for each category and an overall total in the lower-right corner% 6% )or our first Dhart we would like to show how each roduct total contributes to the overall total% *his means that we are com aring three , arts- >boomerangs# kites# toys? to the overall total to see what ro ortion or ercentage that each contributes to the whole% Anytime you have this situation >com aring arts to the overall total?# a 2ie chart ty e is an excellent choice% 4% .ighlight the range A6"A5# .old Dtrl# &elect the range E6"E5 >you are selecting two ranges of cells that are not ad:acent to each other?# and then oint to the 2ie chart icon button in the Dharts 0rou on the $nsert Cibbon >)igure 27G?%

4igure *7$

5% Dlick on the 2ie chart icon button and then oint to the first o tion% As you can see in -Fi ure 271;9# Excel gives you a descri tion of what the chart should be used for% As you learn how to make charts# you can read these as you are trying to decide which chart is best for your message%

4igure *7< B% Dlick on this first o tion to create your 2ie chart% $n )igure 2G0 you can see that it laced a ie chart on to of the worksheet and o ened the three context-sensitive Cibbons for charts% Dontext&ensitive Cibbons

L er left corner

4igure *$(

7% *o change the si9e of the chart# hold the &hift Oey and oint to the u er left corner of the chart and when you see a diagonally ointing black arrow# click and drag inward% =ou should change the si9e to about the same si9e as seen in )igure 2G3"

4igure *$' G% Dlick on the ,Muick Eayout- icon button on the Dhart *ools +esign Cibbon and oint to the ,Eayout 3- o tion >)igure 2G2?"

4igure *$*9 9% $n )igure 2G6 you should see that the Muick Eayout added a Dhart *itle# and the category names with ercentages that convey how much each art contributes to the whole%

4igure *$.

30% Dlick on the ,&ee Iore &electionsArrow in the Dhart &tyles 0rou >)igure 2G4?"

34% 5o*" (tr* an" ta) t#e HAI /e! (/e!boar" s#ort$ut :or Se*e$t A**' >)igure 2GG?"

4igure *$4 33% After you click on the ,&ee Iore &elections- Arrow# choose ,&tyle 30- as seen in )igure 2G5"

4igure *$$ 35% *y e ,&ummer &ales%- And then click on the outer edge of the Dhart to register the ,&ummer &ales- *itle% >)igure 2G9?"

4igure *$5 32% After clicking on &tyle 30 you should see this >)igure 2GB?"

4igure *$< 3B% *o change the si9e of the chart# hold the &hift Oey and oint to the u er left corner of the chart and when you see a diagonally ointing black arrow# click and drag outward% =ou should change the si9e to about the same si9e as seen in )igure 290"

4igure *$; 36% Fow we need to Dhange the Dhart *itle% Dlick once on the Dhart *itle# then click a second time so that an $-beam cursor is flashing in the Dhart *itle>)igure 2G7?"

4igure *<(

4igure *$7

37% *o move that chart to below the &ales *able# 5o*" (tr* an" (*i$/ on t#e (#art (T#is se*e$ts t#e $#art so t#at !ou $an move it'. *hen click and drag your 2ie chart as seen in )igure 293% *hen .old Dtrl and ta the )3 key to hide the Cibbons%

4igure *<' 3G% $n )igure 293 we can see that we have created an a ro riate chart that shows how much each roduct contributed to the overall total sales% 7e can clearly see that the *oy roducts contribution the smallest amount to the overall total as com ared to the other two roducts% 39% )or our next chart# Favigate to the sheet tab named ,Dharts >2?-%

4igure *<*

Here are the steps for creatin a *olumn chart with multiple series data

20% *he first 2ie chart we made showed the roduct categories# but we only looked at the totals% Fext we would like see how each of the three roduct categories com ares in each sales channel% Fow we could make three different 2ie charts# but there is a better way than that% $f we use a Dolumn chart we can see the three roducts com ared across the sales channel categories >Dolumn chart with multi le series data?% $n )igure 292 we can see that there are three roduct categories and each one of those categories has a sales number for each sales channel% )or exam le# for *oys we have the numbers \37#540%00# \34#550%00# \27#G90%00% *hese three numbers are called a ,data series- in Excel% *here is a data series for each roduct and a data series for each sales channel% )or exam le# the data series for the $n &tore sales channel would be \22#350%00# \67#522%00# \37#540%00% 23% .ighlight the range A3"+5 and click on the Dolumn icon button in the Dhart 0rou on the $nsert Cibbon >)igure 296?% Dlustered Dolumn

4igure *<. 22% As seen in )igure 296# click on the first o tion in the dro -down icon list named ,Dlustered Dolumn- *he result can bee seen in )igure 294"

4igure *<4

26% An excellent as ect of this chart is that you can 1uickly change the orientation of a Dlustered Dolumn chart by clicking on the &witch Cows'Dolumns icon button in the +ata 0rou on the Dhart *ools +esign Cibbon% )igure 294 shows the icon button to click% )igure 295 shows the ,switched- Dhart%

4igure *<5 24% Dlick the &witch Cows'Dolumns icon button again to switch back% *hen click on the Dharts *ools Eayout Cibbon >)igure 29B?"

4igure *<; 25% As seen in )igure 29B# the Eayout Cibbon has many chart elements that you can add% Eet@s add a Dhart *itle% Dlick on the Dhart *itle icon button in the Eabels 0rou on the Dhart *ools Eayout Cibbon% *hen as seem in )igure 297# click on the ,Above Dhart- item on the icon dro -down list%

4igure *<7 2B% 7hen the Dhart *itle a ears# highlight the words and ty e ,2roduct &ales for Each &ales Dhannel-)igure 29G;(

4igure *<$

27% As seen in )igure 299# we next want to click on the Dhart *ools )ormat Cibbon% *he Dhart *ools )ormat Cibbon allows you to format any of the chart elements after you have selected the element that you want to format% An alternative to using this Cibbon is to select the Dhart Element and then right-click the element% Eet@s try this% Dlick on the vertical axis >also known as the y-axis?% 7hen you click on the vertical axis# a thin black outline will a ear that let@s you know that you have selected it >)igure 600?%

2G% Ance you have the element selected that you want to format# use the /e!boar" s#ort$ut :or t#e &ormatting (#art @*ement "ia*og bo< %? (tr* + 1 ()igure 603'?

4igure *<<

4igure .(' 29% An the Eeft side of the )ormat Axis dialog box# click on ,Fumber-% Iake sure that the Durrency Fumber format is selected# change the decimals to 0# and click Dlose >)igure 602?"

4igure .((

4igure .(*

60%

4igure .(. 63% $n )igure 606 we can see how each of the three roduct categories com ares in each sales channel% *he smallest sales for a roduct are the sales for *oys sold through the web site% $n our nest section# we want to talk about 2age &etu % Favigate to the sheet tab names ,2age &etu -%

Hage %etup

*o see how 2age &etu works# click on the ,2age Eayout- Cibbon% $n )igure 604 you can see that there is a 2ayroll sheet% $magine that your boss asked you to rint out this re ort% *o see what it would look like before you rint it out# click on the Arb%

4igure .(4 After you click on the Arb# oint to the 2rint icon and then to the 2rint 2review icon% Fotice in )igure 605 that a screen ti o s u and let@s us know that there is a faster way to see 2rint 2review" the keyboard shortcut for 2rint 2review is Dtrl N )2% Dlick the Esc key >u er left corner? twice% *hen use you newly discovered keyboard shortcut Dtrl N )2 to o en u 2rint 2review%

4igure .(5 Dtrl N )2 o ens u 2rint 2review% As we can see from )igure 60B# the sheet will rint out in the u er left corner% *his does not look like a rofessional ayroll re ort% 7e need to fix it/ Dlick the Esc key to get back to Formal Jiew%

4igure .(;

Here are the steps for settin up your sheet for printin

3% After you click the Esc key you are back in Formal view% As seen in )igure 607# click on the 2age &etu +ialog Eauncher in the lower right corner of the 2age &etu 0rou on the 2age Eayout Cibbon%

4igure .(7 2% After you click the 2age &etu +ialog Eauncher# you should see this >)igure 60G?" different o tions for the various elements in Excel is because users have different references% &o ultimately you get to decide which method you like better% .owever# in the long-run# it is not dis uted that the fastest and most efficient way to accom lish things is Excel is to use as many keyboard shortcuts as ossible%

4igure .(< 4igure .($ 6% *he advantage of using the 2age &etu dialog box is that you do not need to kee going u to the Cibbon to launch the dialog box% )or exam le# click on the ,&heet tab- >as seen in )igure 609? that contains two arts in the Cibbon all in one dialog box% As seen in )igure 630# the 2rint *itles icon button in the 2age &etu 0rou on the 2age Eayout Cibbon launches the 2age &etu dialog box with the &heet tab showing% As seen in )igure 633# the &heets A tions +ialog Eauncher on the 2age Eayout Cibbon launches the 2age &etu dialog box with the &heet tab showing also% .owever# with all this said about the advantages of the 2age &etu dialog box# the reason Iicrosoft allows users

4igure .'(

4igure .''

4% Dlick the Esc key% *hen use the /e!boar" s#ort$ut :or -age Setu)? A*t + - + S + - (Ta) ea$# /e! in su$$ession'% =ou should see the 2age &etu dialog box% As seen in )igure 632# click the dialog buttons for Eandsca e and ,)it to" 3 age>s? wide by 3 tall%- *his will orientate the rinted age in the same fashion as the 2ayroll table" wider than it is tall% Also# the ,)it to" 3 age>s? wide by 3 tall%- will assure that if the 2ayroll table is bigger than the age Excel will automatically shrink it to fit on one age/

5% Fext# click on the Iargins tab and then click the .ori9ontal checkbox in the Denter on age area as seen in )igure 636% *his will center it on the age hori9ontally for a rofessional look% +o you know what Iargins do8 Iargins are how far in from the edge of the a er the worksheet content can be rinted% )or exam le# if we did not center the 2ayroll table# the left edge of the 2ayroll table would be rinted %7 inches from the left side of the iece of a er% Also in )igure 636 you can see that you have the o tion to change any of the age margins >left# right# to # and bottom? and also you can change the location that .eaders and )ooters are rinted% $n )igure 636 you can see that the .eaders and )ooters will be rinted %6 inches from the to and bottom of the age% $n our next ste we will add .eaders and )ooters%

4igure .'*

4igure .'.

B%

As seen in )igure 634 click on the .eader')ooter tab% .eader 2review +ro -down for built-in .eaders !utton to build Dustom .eader !utton to build Dustom )ooters +ro -down for built-in )ooters )ooter 2review

4igure .'4

8ote( there is a good alternative for creating .eaders and )ooters% $f you choose the .eader R )ooter in

the *ext 0rou on the $nsert Cibbon# you can create .eaders and )ooters% ( e!boar" s#ort$ut :or 5ea"ers an" &ooters is A*t + N + 5 (t#is )uts !ou into -age Pa!out .ie8 8it# t#e 5ea"ers ena$te"'; an" t#e /e!boar" s#ort$ut to get out o: -age Pa!out .ie8 is A*t Q + P (t#is )uts !ou ba$/ in Norma* .ie8' % $f you are only adding .eaders and )ooters this is the better method% .owever# if you are adding many 2age &etu elements all at once# then the 2age &etu dialog box is more efficient%

4igure .'5 7% 7hile still viewing the .eader')ooter tab in the 2age &etu dialog box# click the dro -down arrow for built-in )ooters and select ,2age 3 of 8- as seen in )igure 63B% *his is Excel Dode that will automatically ut the correct age numbers on each age that rints out% >$n our case we have only one age%?

4igure .';

G% Fext# click on the !utton to build Dustom .eaders% A new dialog box o s u on to of the 2age &etu dialog box >)igure 637?"

4igure .'7 9% As seen in )igure 63G# click in the left section and click on the $nsert )ile Fame >this inserts the code that automatically uts the file name in your header ; even if you change the file name# your header will automatically u date?%

4igure .'$ 30% As seen in )igure 639# click in the center section and click on the $nsert &heet Fame >this inserts the code that automatically uts the sheet name in your header ; even if you change the sheet name# your header will automatically u date?%

4igure .'< 33% As seen in )igure 620# click in the right section and click on the $nsert +ate >this inserts the code that automatically uts today@s date in your header ; if you rint it out at a later date# your header will automatically u date?%

4igure .*(

32%

4igure .*' 36% As seen in )igure 622)igure 623# click AO in the 2age &etu dialog box"

4igure .** 34% *o see a review of your 2age &etu before you rint# .old the Dtrl key and ta the )2 key >)igure 626?"

4igure .*. 35% *he rint review that we see in )igure 626 is much better than the one we saw in )igure 60B% Fot only that# but with the ability to do 2age &etu # you will be the heroine or hero in many office setting >because usually eo le can@t figure out how to rint their sheet correctly/

3B% $n our next section# we want to take about data analysis to ics such as sorting# subtotals and 2ivot*ables%

*he essential beauty of Excel is that you can make calculations and analy9e'mani ulate data 1uickly and easily ,on the fly/- 7hat-if analysis is easy in Excel% =ou can &ort to see which &ales Ce had the greatest sales# create &ubtotals by Cegion# and do com lex data analysis such as summari9ing on multi le criteria >2ivot*ables?% >*his section is only a brief look at Excel@s infinite Analy9ing ca abilitiesP?% )or this section we will look at &orting# )iltering# automatic &ubtotals and a basic 2ivot*able% *he S3 IA&* $I2AC*AF* *.$F0 *A CEIEI!EC 7.EF =AL &*AC* *A L&E EKDEE@& +A*A AFAE=&$& *AAE& $&" Rule #(7: 5efore you use ExcelBs ;ata *nalysis &ools: the data must 'e in proper Excel 0List1 or 0&a'le1 @ormat/ &his format is as follows: 14 @irst row has field names with formatting that is different from the rest of the data< (4 Eo 'lank field names< +4 #olumns are called @ields< 74 Rows are called records< 84 Eo 'lank columns 3fields4< :4 Eo 'lank rows 3records4< .4 5lank rows and columns andFor ExcelBs column headers 3*, 5K4 andFor row headers 31, (K4 must separate the Excel List from other data Dolumns are called ,)ields-% )ields are the variable data for each record% Cows are called ,Cecords-% Cecords are individual collections of the fields% )or exam le# navigate to the sheet tab named ,Analy9e +ata-# click on the +ata Cibbon% =ou should see this >)igure 624?" 8ote( your data may not be in the same order as the icture%

4igure .*4 $n )igure 624 we can see" 3% 2ro er Excel ,Eist- or ,*able- )ormat# which will refer to as ,Excel@s Eist'*able format- >this is because in Excel 2006 it was called ,Eist- and in Excel 2007 it is called ,*able-? 2% Each row re resents one &ales *ransaction i% Each sales transaction is one new record ii% Each record is an individual collection of the seven fields 6% *he first seven columns re resent fields i% Each field is a variable 3% )or each new transaction it can have a different date or different region or different sales re # etc%

3% *he method of sorting we will look at involves turning on the ,)ilter- with the /e!boar" s#ort$ut :or &i*ter? #o*" (tr* an" S#i:t; t#en ta) t#e HPI /e! % $n )igure 625 you can see that that keyboard short cut added dro -down arrows at the to of each field and turned on the )ilter button in the &ort and )ilter 0rou on the +ata Cibbon%

4igure .*5 2% 2oint to the dro -down arrow for the &ales field and oint to ,&ort Eargest to &mallest- >)igure 62B?"

4igure .*; 6% As seen in )igure 627# instantly# the whole table is sorted by the sales numbers in the &ales field% 7e can easily see that &ales Ce Euke had the two largest sales%

4igure .*7 4% Fext click on the dro -down arrow for the &ales Ce field and click on the ,&ort A to ^- from the dro -down list >)igure 62G?

4igure .*$ 5% As seen in )igure 629# instantly# the whole table is sorted by the names in the &ales Ce field# with Dhin at the to %

4igure .*< B% *o see how to sort without the )ilter turned on# turn off the )ilter with the keyboard shortcut Dtrl N &hift N E# then click in cell !B >)igure 660?"

4igure ..( 7% 7ith only one cell selected in the Cegion field column# click the ,A ^- icon button in the &ort R )ilter 0rou on the +ata Cibbon >)igure 660?

G% As seen in )igure 663# the whole table was sorted by the region names in the Cegion field column%

4igure ..' Rule #(8: 5efore click the 0* L1 icon 'utton in the %ort M @ilter Droup on the ;ata Ri''on, make sure your 'lock of data is in the Hroper Excel ListF&a'le @ormat and highlight only one cell in the field you want to sort/

3% Favigate to the sheet named ,)ilter-% =ou can use this keyboard shortcut to move down two sheets" .old Dtrl and then ta the 2age +own key twice% =ou should see the data as seen in )igure 662% *hen# turn on the )ilter using the keyboard shortcut" Dtrl N &hift N E

.old Dtrl and &hift at the same time and then ta ,E- to turn on the )ilter

4igure ..* 2% *o see the &ales that are Above Average# click the dro -down arrow at the to of the &ales field and in the dro down list oint to Fumber )ilters and then oint and click on Above Average >)igure 666?% are not above average have been hidden% )or exam le# you can see in )igure 664 that rows 7# G# 9# and 30 are hidden%

4igure ... 6% As you can see in )igure 664 Excel 1uickly shows us the results% Fotice two things" 3? the dro -down arrow at the to of the &ales field contains a ,)ilter- icon to let us know that the field has been filtered< 2? the row numbers are the color blue to let you know that the rows with records that

4igure ..4 4% *o clear the filter# click on the dro down arrow at the to of the &ales field and click on the item ,Dlear )ilter )rom &ales-%

4igure ..5

5% *o see a brief exam le of the o tions available for filtering words# click on the dro -down arrow at the to of the Dustomers fields and oint to *ext )ilters >)igure 66B?% Fotice that you can uncheck any customers you would like if you only want to see a selection of Dustomers% $n addition# you can see the *ext )ilters available%

7% Dlick on the dro -down arrow at the to of the +ate fields and oint to &ort by Dolor and then click on the color yellow >)igure 66G?"

4igure ..$ G% $n )igure 669 we can see that very 1uickly our records that we need for auditing are sorted to the to %

4igure ..; B% Fext we want to see how to sort by color% Fotice in )igure 667 that the color yellow is added to some of the dates% *his color was to tag those records for auditing% $nstead of scrolling down and seeing each record one at a time# we can sort by color% 4igure ..< 9% As you can see to our brief introduction to &orting and )iltering# it allows us to do data analysis efficiently% $n addition# you can also see from some of the dro down menus that we only looked at a small fraction of the ossibilities/ 30% $n our next section# we will look at another data analysis tool" &ubtotals% Rule #(:: =sing the %orting or @iltering features in Excel can save a tremendous amount of time as compared to accomplishing the same sorting or filtering tasks manually/

4igure ..7

3% !efore we look at &ubtotals# navigate back to the sheet tab named ,+ata Analysis- >)igure 643?" 4igure .4( 2% &ubtotals are one of the greatest tricks in Excel because using the &ubtotal feature 1uickly goes through the whole table and inserts rows and adds totals for the column that you s ecify% $n our case# we will be able to very 1uickly add totals for all the regions and &ales Ce s/ 6% An im ortant oint to make here is this" +AF@* L&E *.E &L!*A*AE& )EA*LCE )AC A 2AC*$DLEAC )$EE+ LF*$E =AL .AJE &AC*E+ *.A* )$EE+% 4% 7e have already sorted the region and the &ales Ce fields so that we can use the &ubtotal feature% 5% As seen in )igure 643# click on the &ubtotals icon button in the Autline 0rou on the +ata Cibbon%

4igure .4' B% =ou should see &ubtotal dialog box as seen in )igure 642% % Fotice that the whole table was highlighted when you invoked the &ubtotals dialog box >this is because you have your data in ro er Excel Eist'*able format?% Lsing the dro -down arrow for the ,At each change in- textbox# select the Cegion field% )or the ,Lse function"-# use the &um function% )or the ,Add subtotals to"- checkboxes check the &ales field%

4igure .4*

7% Dlick AO% =ou should see something similar to )igure 646% An the left of your screen you should see three little blue-gray boxes with the numbers 3# 2# and 6 in them% *hese are called Autline buttons%

4igure .4. G% Dlick the ,2- Autline button and you should see subtotals similar to those as seen in )igure 644% *he lus and minus symbols are colla se and ex and symbols% =ou can use these to ex ose the data for a articular Cegion% =ou can also use the ,6- Autline button to ex ose all the records% !efore you click on the ,6- Autline button# notice that there are 200 rows of sales transaction data that the &ubtotals feature traversed in less than a second/ *his is an ama9ingly efficient feature in Excel/

4igure .44

9% Dlick on the ,6- Autline button to show all the records again >)igure 645?"

4igure .45 30% O)en t#e Subtota*s "ia*og bo< 8it# t#e /e!boar" s#ort$ut? A*t + A + 6% As seen in )igure 64B# use the dro down arrow next to the ,At each change in- textbox to select the &ales Ce field% )or the ,Lse function"-# use the &um function% )or the ,Add subtotals to"checkboxes check the &ales field% )inally >this is the most im ortant ste when adding a second &ubtotal?# un-check the ,Ce lace current subtotals- checkbox and then click AO% 4igure .4;

33% As seen in )igure 647# a fourth Autline Eevel has been added%

4igure .47 32% Dlick on the ,6- Autline button% As seen in )igure 64G# &ubtotals have been added for both the Cegion and &ales Ce fields% 7ith this &ubtotal +ata Analysis# we can easily ick how each &ales Ce did in each Cegion%

4igure .4$ 36% *o get rid of the &ubtotals# use the keyboard shortcut to o en the &ubtotals dialog box" Alt N A N ! and then click the ,Cemove All- !utton

34% $n our next section we will talk about the most owerful toll in Excel# the 2ivot*able% Rule #(.: 5efore adding automatic %u'totals, sort your field/ If you want to add a %u'total to a %u'total, 5e sure to uncheck the 0Replace current su'totals1 check 'ox/

3% 7hat is a 2ivot*able8 $t is a 1uick way to analy9e data such as summing u data in a rectangular table sha e when you have more than one category to summari9e u on% )igure 649 shows us an exam le of what would like to accom lish from our data% As you can see we have two categories >&ales Ce and Cegion? and we have a rectangular table sha e% *o create this without using the 2ivot*able feature# but instead to use functions# would be very time consuming%

(#in Reri Ron Pu/e 2#on"a S#e*ia"a8n Steven Troung 4ran" Tota* Qest 161;464.09 290;770.33 173;559.67 210;096.98 185;281.95 188;710.09 189;088.14 170;702.25 1;569;673.50 =i"Qest 247;987.69 207;164.71 231;778.99 199;211.40 192;855.38 185;465.42 165;974.78 221;063.19 1;651;501.56 Nort# 257;832.05 169;784.64 258;672.84 231;024.41 156;087.13 169;710.11 235;576.52 227;730.44 1;706;418.14 Nort#@ast 486;840.62 424;234.18 334;794.87 333;815.59 402;080.39 520;169.79 500;920.09 423;634.06 3;426;489.59 Sout#@ast 255;416.43 220;679.39 277;404.03 208;200.24 167;137.03 156;876.25 204;597.69 233;110.32 1;723;421.38 4ran" Tota* 1;409;540.88 1;312;633.25 1;276;210.40 1;182;348.62 1;103;441.88 1;220;931.66 1;296;157.22 1;276;240.26 10;077;504.17

4igure .4< 2% *o create something similar to what we see in )igure 649# make sure you have one cell in your data table selected and that your data is in ro er Excel Eist'*able format# then click on the 2ivot*able icon button in the *able grou on the $nsert Cibbon >)igure 650?"

4igure .5(

6% Fotice that because we are using ro er Excel Eist'*able format and we had selected one cell in the middle of our data# all the data was automatically selected% As we can see in )igure 653 Dreate 2ivot*able dialog box o ens and we can see that the range A3"02000 is selected% $n addition# we want to create our 2ivot*able on a new sheet and so we will acce t the defaults and then click the AO button%

4igure .5' 4% $n )igure 652 we can see that the 2ivot*able )ield Eist *ask 2ane o s u and a new sheet is added to the workbook% All we have to do in order to create a table with the two categories &ales Ce and Cegion is to click on the checkboxes for those two fields >after all this is :ust field list?% 2ivot*able )ield Eist *ask 2ane

4igure .5* 5% As seen in )igure 656# by checking the two fields# both were added as Cow Eabels% Dlick on the Cegion field and drag it to the Dolumn Eabels@ area 4igure .5. B% As seen in )igure 656# because we want the &ales Ce field as a Cow Eabel and our Cegion as a Dolumn Eabel# we will click on the Cegion field in the Cow Eabels@ area# hold the click# and drag it to the Dolumn Eabels@ area

4igure .54 7% As seen in )igure 654# we have our two category labels

G% As seen in )igure 655# we can see our 2ivot*able taking sha e% 7e can see that the &ales Ce labels and the Cegion labels in our worksheet% 7e can see that two context-sensitive Cibbons for the 2ivot*able have a eared >2ivot*able *ools A tions and +esign Cibbons?%

7e can see that two contextsensitive Cibbons for the 2ivot*able have a eared%

7e can see that the &ales Ce labels and the Cegion labels in our worksheet%

4igure .55 9% !ecause we cannot see the whole 2ivot*able# ^oom slider in the &tatus !ar to move down to 90W view% As seen in )igure 65B# click the ,^oom Aut button >minus sign? to move to 90W view%

4igure .5; 30% As seen in )igure 657# we can now see the whole 2ivot*able%

4igure .57

33% Fext# as seen in )igure 65G# click on the &ales field in the 2ivot*able )ield Eist *ask 2ane ; this adds the &ales field to the Jalues area% 2ivot*ables use the &um )unction by default# which is what we wanted in our case% *o see how to change the function and to format the &ales numbers# click the close ,x- button in the to right corner of the 2ivot*able )ield Eist *ask 2ane and then click in cell A6%

4igure .5$ 32% 7ith your cursor in cell A6# right-click and oint to ,Jalue )ield &ettings- >)igure 659?"

4igure .5< 36% As seen in )igure 6B0# the Jalue )ield &ettings dialog box should a ear" $f you were to change the function# you could do so in the ,&ummari9e value field by- function list% !ecause we want to change the Fumber formatting# we will click the Fumber )ormat button% $f you were to change the function# you could do so in the ,&ummari9e value field by- function list%

Fumber )ormatting

4igure .;(

34% *his is another one of those situations when two dialog boxes are o ened% 7hen the )ormat Dells dialog box a ears# select the Durrency Fumber format% *hen click the AO button on the )ormat Dells dialog box% *hen click the AO button on the Jalue )ield &ettings dialog box% >)igure 6B3?"

4igure .;' 35% 7ith only a few clicks# the 2ivot*able is done% Even better than with &ubtotals# we can easily see how each &ales Ce did in each Cegion >)igure 6B2?"

4igure .;* Rule #(?: !hen your data is in Hroper Excel List @ormat, Hivot&a'les are the most powerful tool in Excel/ ;onBt 'e afraid of them, there are Nust ta'les with varia'les on the left 3Row4 and top 3#olumn4 side and an intersecting calculation in the middle 3such as summing4O

I@ function

$n this next section we will talk about a built-in Excel function called the $) function% *he $) function is great for when you need to ut one of two things into a cell% )or exam le# when you are calculating whether or not you get a bonus at work# you would say something like# #If I ma/e sales over or eAual to B0,000, I et a B300 bonus, otherwise I et no bonus9$ Fotice that the words that we use to describe whether or not we get a bonus start with the word ,$f-/ *his is why Excel named the function ,$)-% $n our case the logical test would be" ,.ales CDB0,000- >in words" ,$f $ make sales over or e1ual to \5#000-?% *his logical test will either be *CLE or )AE&E% $f the logical test is )=@E# then we get our bonus of B300% $f the logical test is F+E.E# then we get a bonus of B0 >we did not exceed or e1ual the sales hurdle of \5#000?% *he built-in Excel $) function will automatically tell you whether or not you earned a bonus/ All you have to do is tell the $) function three thin s" 3% 7hat the logical test is 2% 7hat the bonus amount is >Jalue to ut in the cell if the logical test turns out to be *CLE? 6% 7hat the amount is if we don@t make the sales hurdle% >Jalue to ut in the cell if the logical test turns out to be )AE&E? $n Excel language >and math language? the three thin s are called ,arguments-% &o our three arguments for the $) function will be" 3? Eogical test 2? Jalue if *CLE 6? Jalue if )AE&E *he function will look like this"

DIF-lo icalFtest,GvalueFifFtrueH,GvalueFifFfalseH;

*he great thing about the $) function is that whenever you have one of two things to ut in a cell that de end of a logical test that comes out to be *CLE or )AE&E# you can use the $) function% $n addition# the two things that you want to ut in a cell that de end on a logical test can be numbers# text# cell references# or other formulas%

3% Favigate to the sheet named ,$) function-% As seen in )igure 6B6# there are four screen ti s that $ have added to show you the formulas that will hel you see the different ways the $) function can be used% 7e will go ste by ste through the first one and then you can try the remaining ones on your own >there are even two more very com licated $) exam les if you scroll down further in the sheet?%

4igure .;. 2% Dlick in cell !34 and ty e the beginning few characters of our formula" ,H$)>,% $n )igure 6B4 you can see the beginning characters of our formula in the cell !34 and in the formula bar% =ou can also see a function screen ti that gives you a hint of what arguments are re1uired% H$)>

)unction &creen *i

4igure .;4

6% *y e the logical test >)igure 6B5?% *his logical test says ,$f &ales are greater than or e1ual to the &ales .urdle-% *his logical test will come out to be *CLE or )AE&E%

4igure .;5 4% Fext# we ty e a comma% As seen in )igure 6BB# the screen ti highlights with bold the next argument that is needed% 7e can see that we must tell the $) function what to ut in the cell if the logical test comes out to be *CLE%

4igure .;; 5% As seen in )igure 6B7# in order to tell the function what value goes into the cell if the logical test is *CLE# we click on the cell with the \300 bonus# cell !33%

4igure .;7 B% As seen in )igure 6BG# we com lete the formula by adding the last argument and ending arenthesis to our $) function% *his last argument tells the $) function what to ut in the cell if the logical test is )AE&E%

4igure .;$

7% .it control N Enter to enter our formula into the cell% As seen in )igure 6B9# the $) function delivers the \300 bonus to the cell because our &ales number# \5#500# is above the &ales .urdle number# \5#000% !ut what if our mean boss changed the &ales .urdle number to \B#0008 7hat would ha en to our \300 !onus8

4igure .;< G% *o see the $) function in action# retend you are the mean boss and change the &ales .urdle value in cell !30 to the value \B#000 >which is above your &ales number% As seen in )igure 670# the $) function looked at the logical test &alesYH\B#000 >\5#5000YH\B#000?# came to a )AE&E conclusion# and then ut the \0 amount in cell !34%

4igure .7( 9% Fow change your &ales number to \B#000% As seen in )igure 673# because the logical test &alesYH\B#000 >\B#000YH\B#000? was *CLE# the *CLE amount of \300 was ut into cell !34%

4igure .7'

30% !efore you try the remaining $) functions on your own# let@s look at the com leted $) function formula in cell A39 in our formula bar in )igure 672% .ere we can see that the logical test is whether or not &ales are greater than Ex enses >&alesYHEx enses?# if this is *CLE# we want out label to read ,Fet $ncome-# otherwise if it is )AE&E# we want our label to read ,Fet Eoss-%

4igure .7* 33% $n )igure 676 # we can see that if we were to change or Ex enses to be \7#000# the labels u dates because the $) function formula uts the words ,Fet Eoss- in the cell because the logical test evaluates to )AE&E%

4igure .7.

#onclusion:

*his is :ust the beginning of what Excel can do for you% 7e have looked at the following to ics" 3% 7hat $s Excel8 2% Cows# Dolumns# Dells# Cange Af Dells 6% 7orksheet# &heet *ab# 7orkbook 4% &ave As is different than &ave 5% Cibbons B% Muick Access *oolbar >MA*? 7% &croll !ars and &electing Dells G% Oeyboard &hortcuts and the Alt Oey 9% *wo Iagic Dharacters $n Excel 30% Iath 33% )ormulas 32% )unctions 36% Dell Ceferences 34% Assum tion *ables'&heets 35% Dell )ormatting 3B% Dharts 37% 2age &etu 3G% Analy9e +ata" &ort# )ilter# &ubtotals# 2ivot*ables 39% $) function *he key to learning Excel is to learn the theory of how to create Excel s readsheets so that you can accom lish your tasks 1uickly and so that everything is u dateable later% $nevitably# when we create a s readsheet# later when we use the s readsheet again# we need to change it to accommodate some new arameter that we had not initially considered% $f you follow theses Efficient .preadsheet *onstruction %uidelines, your setu # usage and edit time can be reduced significantly% $n addition# you will have more fun with your :ob% &till further# you will become the Excel-master at your :ob and others will look to you for guidance/ *his is great because in this world of ,Excel-$s-*he-+efault-2rogram-*hat-Everyone-Lses-Every-+ay-# you will get romoted more 1uickly and have more time for vacations/ 2lus# this Excel stuff is :ust lain )LF//

<eyboard shortcuts

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