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Research : Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner s Dictionary of !"rrent #nglish lays down the meaning of research as $a caref"l investigation or in%"iry specially thro"gh search for new facts in any &ranch of knowledge.' &y means of logical and systematic techni%"es aims to : a. Discover new facts or verify and test old facts &. Analy(e their se%"ences, inter)relationships and ca"sal e*planations c. Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which wo"ld facilitate relia&le and valid st"dy of h"man &ehavior. d. +erlinger defines research as a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions a&o"t the pres"med relations among nat"ral phenomena. The p"rpose of research therefore is to discover and develop an organi(ed &ody of knowledge in any discipline. Research is a ,o"rney of discovery. It is a sol"tion)oriented in%"iry that m"st &e o&,ective and repeata&le. Research will provide practical &enefits if it can provide advanced "nderstanding of a discipline or s"ggest ways to handle some sit"ations that we confront.
In the conte*t of statistical analysis, we often talk a&o"t n"ll hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. If we are to compare method A with method - a&o"t its s"periority and if we proceed on the ass"mption that &oth methods are e%"ally good, then this ass"mption is termed as the n"ll hypothesis. As against this, we may think that the method A is s"perior or the method - is inferior, we are then stating what is termed as alternative hypothesis. The n"ll hypothesis ./01 refers to a hypothesis which the researcher tries to re,ect, disprove, or n"llify. The 2n"ll often refers to the common view of something, while the alternative hypothesis is what the researcher really thinks is the ca"se of a phenomenon. The simplistic definition of the n"ll is as the opposite of the alternative hypothesis ./31. An e*periment concl"sion always refers to the n"ll, re,ecting or accepting /0 rather than /3. /owever, many researchers ignore the n"ll hypothesis when testing hypotheses, which is poor practice and can have adverse effects. #*ample: A social researcher may post"late a hypothesis as follows: /3: 4eople e*hi&it a greater inclination for n"clear family if they have st"died in convent schools rather than in government schools. /e wo"ld post"late a n"ll hypothesis as follows: /0: 4eople do not e*hi&it a higher inclination for n"clear family if they have st"died in convent schools rather than in government schools It is significant to ca"tio"sly choose the wording of the n"ll, and ens"re that it is as specific as possi&le. The researcher might post"late, for e*ample, the n"ll hypothesis: /0: 4eople show no difference in their inclination for n"clear family when ed"cated in convent schools rather than government schools.
5"ndamental research foc"ses on finding generali(ations and form"lating theories. $6athering knowledge for knowledge s sake is termed 2p"re or 2&asic research.' Research concerning some nat"ral phenomenon or relating to p"re mathematics are e*amples of f"ndamental research. It is the research done for knowledge enhancement7 the research which does not have immediate commercial potential7 and the research which is done for h"man welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. 5or e*ample, research on the instit"tion of marriage came into &eing is an e*ample of &asic or f"ndamental research. /ere the main motivation is to e*pand man s knowledge and not to create or invent something. -asic research lays down the fo"ndation for the applied research.
>=1 is the middle val"e &etween the median and the highest val"e of the data set. /owever. Quartiles In descriptive statistics.1 ? median ? @0th percentile .designated >=1 ? upper quartile ? B@th percentile . • Likert Scale .Review of Literature A literat"re review is a te*t written &y someone to consider the critical points of c"rrent knowledge incl"ding s"&stantive findings. reso"rces. Also. a literat"re review "s"ally precedes a research proposal and res"lts section. technologies1 that can &e "sed to solve the pro&lem: Does the client want awhite paper: A we&)tool: A new feat"re for a prod"ct: A &rainstorming on a topic: The primary p"rpose of a pro&lem statement is to foc"s the attention of the pro&lem solving team.>. The third %"artile . Literat"re reviews are a staple for research in nearly every academic field. 8ost often associated with academic)oriented literat"re.splits off the highest . if the foc"s of the pro&lem is too narrow or the scope of the sol"tion too limited the creativity and innovation of the sol"tion can &e stifling. a literat"re review can &e interpreted as a review of an a&stract accomplishment. A %"artile is a type of %"antile. s"ch as a thesis or peer)reviewed article. .c"ts data set in half1 third quartile .designated >. The second %"artile . provide them with a pro&lem statement.in time. 9ho has the pro&lem or who is the client<c"stomer: This sho"ld e*plain who needs the sol"tion and who will decide the pro&lem has &een solved. A good pro&lem statement sho"ld answer these %"estions: 3.or created &y them1 &efore they try to solve the pro&lem.@A of data from the lowest B@A1 The difference &etween the "pper and lower %"artiles is called the interquartile range.splits off the lowest .designated >31 ? lower quartile ? . =. Literat"re reviews are secondary so"rces. the quartiles of a ranked set of data val"es are the three points that divide the data set into fo"r e%"al gro"ps. each gro"p comprising a %"arter of the data. and as s"ch. Statement of Research Problem A pro&lem statement is a concise description of the iss"es that need to &e addressed &y a pro&lem solving team and sho"ld &e presented to them . • • first quartile .1 is the median of the data.@th percentile . 9hen &ringing together a team to achieve a partic"lar p"rpose. 9hat form can the resol"tion &e: 9hat is the scope and limitations .>31 is defined as the middle n"m&er &etween the smallest n"m&er and the median of the data set. 9hat is the pro&lem: This sho"ld e*plain why the team is needed. money. The first %"artile . as well as theoretical and methodological contri&"tions to a partic"lar topic. do not report any new or original e*perimental work.. Its main goals are to sit"ate the c"rrent st"dy within the &ody of literat"re and to provide conte*t for the partic"lar reader.@A of data from the highest B@A1 second quartile .
G All items are assumed to be replications of each other or in other words items are considered to be parallel instrumentsG !uttman Scale In statistical s"rveys cond"cted &y means of str"ct"red interviews or %"estionnaires. and the other a*is represents a discrete val"e. items are arranged in an order so that an individ"al who agrees with a partic"lar item also agrees with items of lower rank)order. Largely %"antitative varia&les are contin"o"s. The &ars can &e plotted vertically or hori(ontally.. honest.1 GI am willing to smell ice creamG7 .ect matter concerning which he wishes to pose a pro&lem. It is the most widely "sed approach to scaling responses in s"rvey research. . for a rational respondent. a series of items co"ld &e .F1 GI love to eat ice creamG. e. Pilot Survey 5irst of all the pro&lem sho"ld &e stated in a &road general way. Likert scaling ass"mes that distances on each item are e%"al."s"ally eight or more1.c1 /eight is a varia&le dependent on age where age is an independent varia&le .gro"ped &ar graphs1.g. One a*is of the chart shows the specific categories &eing compared.g. the range capt"res the intensity of their feelings for a given item. on a 6"ttman scale. Importantly. respondents specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree)disagree scale for a series of statements. In other words. which emerges from collective responses to a set of items . it is considered advisa&le to do some field o&servation and as s"ch the researcher may "ndertake some sort of preliminary s"rvey or what is often called pilot survey. A vertical &ar chart is sometimes called a col"mn &ar chart.. . Technically speaking. The difference &etween these two concepts has to do with the distinction Likert made &etween the "nderlying phenomenon &eing investigated and the means of capt"ring variation that points to the "nderlying phenomenon.D=E9hen responding to a Likert %"estionnaire item. "ar !raph A bar chart or bar #raph is a chart with rectang"lar &ars with lengths proportional to the val"es that they represent.. Agreement with any one item implies agreement with the lower)order items. This contrasts with topics st"died "sing a Likert scale or a Th"rstone scale.=1 GI am willing to eat ice creamG7 and . e. >"alitative "nits are attri&"tes. The scale is named after its inventor. a s"&set of the s"rvey items having &inary . 5or e*ample.e.stacked &ar graphs1. psychologist Rensis Likert.DFE A scale can &e created as the simple s"m %"estionnaire responses over the f"ll range of the scale. and others show the &ars divided into s"&parts to show c"m"late effect .D.&1 A conse%"ent varia&le is a dependent varia&le. and the format in which responses are scored along a range.g. In so doing. In case of social research. age is a contin"o"s varia&le while 2st"dents is a non)contin"o"s varia&le.g. keeping in view either some practical concern or some scientific or intellect"al interest. etc.. height.E Likert disting"ished &etween a scale proper. shy. a Likert scale refers only to the former. the response pattern can &e capt"red &y a single inde* on that ordered scale.<ˈlɪkCrt<D3E1 is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs %"estionnaires. 5or this p"rpose. or more acc"rately the Likert type scale. . the researcher m"st immerse himself thoro"ghly in the s"&. A &ar graph is a chart that "ses either hori(ontal or vertical &ars to show comparisons among categories. $ariable A varia&le is any "nit that can have different %"antitative val"es.31 GI am willing to &e near ice creamG7 . e*troverted. lo"dness etc. Iome &ar graphs present &ars cl"stered in gro"ps of more than one . Th"s.. even tho"gh the two are not synonymo"s.named after Lo"is 6"ttman1 if they can &e ranked in some order so that.A Likert scale .a1 An antecedent varia&le is an independent varia&le. H#I or JO1 answers forms a !uttman scale. e. s"ch that the term is often "sed interchangea&ly with rating scale.
positive skew: The right tail is longer7 the mass of the distri&"tion is concentrated on the left of the fig"re. Iecondary Data . It is "nder the control of the e*perimenter. . The distri&"tion is said to &e right-skewed. . It has relatively few low val"es.a1 warranty cards7 .iii1 thro"gh %"estionnaires. and .3003.o&servations1: 3.. left-tailed.g1 depth interviews.iv1 thro"gh sched"les. negative skew: The left tail is longer7 the mass of the distri&"tion is concentrated on the right of the fig"re.o&servations1: 3. The skewness val"e can &e positive or negative.300=.ective techni%"es7 .D3E #*ample ..d1 cons"mer panels7 .=.v1 other methods which incl"de . . 9e can o&tain primary data either thro"gh o&servation or thro"gh direct comm"nication with respondents in one form or another or thro"gh personal interviews. The &ars on the right side of the distri&"tion taper differently than the &ars on the left side. right-tailed. and they provide a vis"al means for determining which of the two kinds of skewness a distri&"tion has: 3. The distri&"tion is said to &e left-skewed. . so height is a dependent varia&le.d1 /eight is se* related.c1 pantry a"dits7 . !onsider the distri&"tion in the fig"re. or skewed to the left. .ected to processing or any other manip"lation and are also referred to as Raw data. . The effect of the e*perimental varia&le is reflected Skewness In pro&a&ility theory and statistics. .h1 content analysis. This varia&le is also called the e*perimental varia&le.IK1 is the one that is manip"lated.ii1 interview method.. These tapering sides are called tails.g1 The independent varia&le . It has relatively few high val"es.e1 "sing mechanical devices7 . and .f1 -ehavior changes as a f"nction of the manip"lation is an independent varia&le. Primary %ata vs Secondary %ata 4rimary data refers to the data collected directly from the so"rce. skewness is a meas"re of the e*tent to which a pro&a&ility distri&"tion of a real) val"ed random varia&leGleansG to one side of the mean. or skewed to the right. generally.300.D3E #*ample . Iome of the important methods for o&taining primary data are as follows: ..&1 distri&"tor a"dits7 .3000.. or even "ndefined. These data has not &een s"&.f1 thro"gh pro.i1 o&servation method.e1 Age and se* are independent varia&les.
la&o"r &"rea"s and other p"&lic< private individ"als and organisations.f1 reports prepared &y research scholars. ' sample is a subset of units in a population( selected to represent all units in a population of interest) It is a partial enumeration &eca"se it is a co"nt from part of the pop"lation. letters. the res"lts cannot &e generali(ed to any larger gro"p. the res"lts can &e very representative of the act"al pop"lation &ons of a S'.7 .Iecondary data. !ommon so"rces of secondary data for social science incl"de cens"ses. is data collected &y someone other than the "ser. which means a complete co"nt. %escriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics incl"des statistical proced"res that we "se to descri&e the pop"lation we are st"dying. Iecondary data analysis saves time that wo"ld otherwise &e spent collecting data and. 4rimary data.g1 p"&lic records and statistics. provides larger and higher)%"ality data&ases that wo"ld &e "nfeasi&le for any individ"al researcher to collect on their own. &y contrast. stock e*changes.no sampling error1 &enchmark data may &e o&tained for f"t"re st"dies detailed information a&o"t small s"&)gro"ps within the pop"lation is more likely to &e availa&le &ons of a &*NS+S • • may &e diffic"lt to en"merate all "nits of the pop"lation within the availa&le time higher costs. "niversities. . partic"larly in the case of %"antitative data.ect to MsamplingM error decreased n"m&er of "nits will red"ce the detailed information availa&le a&o"t s"&)gro"ps within a pop"lation • Pros of a S'.PL* • • • costs wo"ld generally &e lower than for a cens"s res"lts may &e availa&le in less time if good sampling techni%"es are "sed.a1 vario"s p"&lications of the central. since it is impossi&le to cond"ct a new s"rvey that can ade%"ately capt"re past change and<or developments.PL* • • • • %escriptive statistics vs -nferential statistics Itatistical proced"res can &e divided into two ma. &anks. Iecondary data may either &e p"&lished data or "np"&lished data. etc. That is.&1 vario"s p"&lications of foreign governments or of international &odies and their s"&sidiary organisations7 .or categories: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. "np"&lished &iographies and a"to&iographies and also may &e availa&le with scholars and research workers.o"rnals7 . in different fields7 and . Ls"ally p"&lished data are availa&le in: . &"t the res"lts help "s organi(e and descri&e data. Descriptive statistics can only &e "sed to descri&e the gro"p that is &eing st"dying. The data co"ld &e collected from either a sample or a pop"lation. the data are s"&. partic"larly where the sample si(e is small often not s"ita&le for prod"cing &enchmark data as data are collected from a s"&set of "nits and inferences made a&o"t the whole pop"lation. historical doc"ments. process. The so"rces of "np"&lished data are many7 they may &e fo"nd in diaries. &oth in staff and monetary terms.c1 technical and trade . analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential. than for a sample generally takes longer to collect. In addition. and release data than from a sample data may not &e representative of the total pop"lation. state are local governments7 . organisational records and data collected thro"gh %"alitative methodologies or %"alitative research. are collected &y the investigator cond"cting the research. trade associations.d1 &ooks. Pros of a &*NS+S • • • provides a tr"e meas"re of the pop"lation . maga(ines and newspapers7 .e1 reports and p"&lications of vario"s associations connected with &"siness and ind"stry. economists. &ensus method vs Samplin# method ' census is a study of every unit( everyone or everythin#( in a population) It is known as a complete enumeration. and other so"rces of p"&lished information. etc.
respondents happen to &e illiterate. Questionnaire Schedule F. s"&.ethods .ects from a pop"lation thro"gh "npredicta&le means. necessary. %"estionnaire. also spent in preparing sched"les. en"merators and not &y respondents. en"merators. =. This is not possi&le when collecting data thro"gh Along with sched"le o&servation method can also &e "sed. however. >"estionnaire is generally sent thro"gh mail to informants to A sched"le is generally filled &y the research worker or &e answered as specified in a covering letter.Jo 3. In its simplest form. 8oney is to respondents. -ias d"e to non response often remains -"t even in this their remains the danger of interviewer indeterminate. %ifference between Schedule and Questionnaire) I. &ias and cheating. P. Random sampling incl"des choosing s"&. The s"ccess of %"estionnaire methods lies more on the %"alityIt depends "pon the honesty and competence of of the %"estionnaire itself. That is. en"merators The physical appearance of %"estionnaire m"st &e %"ite This may not &e the case as sched"les are to &e filled in &y attractive. 30. Risk of collecting incomplete and wrong information is The information collected is generally complete and relatively more "nder the %"estionnaire method. . faced &y respondents in correctly "nderstanding the %"estions. In order to do this. Random Samplin# One of the &est ways to achieve "n&iased res"lts in a st"dy is thro"gh random sampling. 9ider and more representative distri&"tion of sample is There remains the diffic"lty in sending en"merators over a possi&le. we can take the res"lts of an analysis "sing a sample and can generali(e it to the larger pop"lation that the sample represents. @. 3. relatively wider area. B. O.. This method can &e "sed only when respondents are literate The information can &e gathered even when the and cooperative. Identity of respondent is not known. 33. It is not clear that who replies. when peopleacc"rate as en"merators can remove diffic"lties if any are "na&le to "nderstand %"estions properly. N. &"t otherwise en"merator. who can interpret the %"estions when witho"t f"rther assistance from the sender. Data collection is cheap and economical as the money is Data collection is more e*pensive as money is spent on spent in preparation of %"estionnaire and in mailing the sameen"merators and in imparting trainings to them. Jon response is "s"ally high as many people do not respondJon response is very low &eca"se this is filled &y and many ret"rn the %"estionnaire witho"t answering all en"merators who are a&le to get answers to all %"estions. As a res"lt the information collected thro"gh sched"le is relatively more acc"rate than that o&tained thro"gh %"estionnaires. %"estions. it is imperative that the sample is representative of the gro"p to which it is &eing generali(ed.-nferential Statistics Inferential statistics is concerned with making predictions or inferences a&o"t a pop"lation from o&servations and analyses of a sample. The %"estionnaire method is likely to &e very slow sinceInformation is collected well in time as they are filled &y many respondents do not ret"rn the %"estionnaire. Jo personal contact is possi&le in case of %"estionnaire as theDirect personal contact is esta&lished %"estionnaires are sent to respondents &y post who also in t"rn ret"rns the same &y post.ects all have an e%"al chance of &eing selected o"t of the pop"lation &eing researched. ..
It is only a way of categori(ing them as team mem&er. It s necessary to organi(e the information that has &een gathered &efore analy(ing the data.ects are o&vio"sly randomi(ed. three methods are most common when cond"cting s"rveys. Risks As with any s"rvey.ersey no 30 and another @. Response options/ 3. it is the &est way to ens"re that res"lts are "n&iased. one player of cricket team is given . 5or e*ample. Iome data are meas"red at the ordinal level.In random sampling. which co"ld &e as simple as a deck of playing cards or an electronic device called #RJI#. more recently known as random n"m&er generators. This is neither a rank or distance &etween them. One e*ample is a Likert scale: Statement/ e. 8athematical algorithms for pse"do)random n"m&er generators may also &e "sed. Despite the pro&lems associated with this method. it s important to remem&er that every s"rvey comes with meas"res of "ncertainty. It s important to determine the confidence and error levels in the s"rvey as well to make s"re the data is as acc"rate as possi&le. random sampling consistently provides res"lts that are valid. These are merely convenient la&els and do not have any special meaning or significance. -eca"se many other methods of s"rveying can come with a h"ge risk of &ias. Despite the margin of error that comes with any s"rvey. there is no way to g"arantee that the res"lts that come from a sample in a random s"rvey are 300A acc"rate. and the res"lts from s"rveying the samples wo"ld &e later "sed to infer how the pop"lation as a whole may have responded and to draw concl"sions a&o"t the larger gro"p. . random sampling is often a top choice when designing s"rveys. making it easy for researchers to draw concl"sions a&o"t large pop"lations. Random n"m&er ta&les. Types of rating scales All rating scales can &e classified into one of three classifications:) 3. GI co"ld not live witho"t my comp"terG. Ratin# Scale A ratin# scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information a&o"t a %"antitative or a %"alitative attri&"te. which can inc"r a sampling error.hen to +se Random Samplin# 9hen s"rveying a large pop"lation it may not make sense to s"rvey everyone in the pop"lation. Additionally. as this wo"ld &e very time cons"ming and often %"ite e*pensive. &"t the chance of this occ"rring can &e determined early in the s"rvey &y mathematical theories. altho"gh the res"lts do tend to &e more acc"rate than those o&tained thro"gh other methods. tell researchers to select s"&. The sample may not &e representative of the larger pop"lation. &y ranking and comparing res"lts. random sampling is the &est way to get the most acc"rate information.ects at an interval generated randomly. since s"&. -nterpretin# %ata Once the random sampling s"rvey has &een cond"cted. . It is also m"ch faster and often less e*pensive to "se random sampling and as a res"lt is a m"ch more efficient way to o&tainres"lts. J"m&ers indicate the relative position of items. common e*amples are the Likert scale and 3)30 rating scales in which a person selects the n"m&er which is considered to reflect the perceived %"ality of a prod"ct. Random sampling in this case wo"ld &e proportionate to the si(e of the pop"lation. In the social sciences. Random sampling is a %"ick and easy way to o&tain "n&iased res"lts a&o"t a pop"lation &eing s"rveyed. &"t not the magnit"de of difference.. the ne*t step is to interpret the data received from the selected gro"p. known as 6a"ssian distri&"tion. Itrongly disagree . Another method "sed is physical randomi(ation devices. The n"m&ers assigned to not have any %"antitative va"e.g. "enefits One of the &iggest &enefits of "sing random sampling in a s"rvey is the fact that. Jominal Icale: this is a system of meas"rement where a n"m&er is given to la&el an event. Ho" may interpret that data as following a certain distri&"tion.
&heck list A checklist is a type of informational . instit"tions.ectives in general can &e categori(ed into the following &road categories: • *2ploratory or formulative research studies/ These are aimed at gaining familiarity with a partic"lar phenomenon or at gaining new insights into it. #*amples incl"de age.ective of any research is to find answers to %"estions thro"gh the application of scientific proced"res. sit"ated &etween concrete data taking techni%"es and methodologic paradigms. relies on m"ltiple so"rces of evidence. D3ED.ective. • %escriptive research studies/ These are aimed at acc"rately portraying the characteristics of a partic"lar event. income. Iome data are meas"red at the ratio level. decisions.D. • %ia#nostic research studies/ These st"dies try to determine the fre%"ency with which something occ"rs. can incl"de %"antitative evidence. . pro. F. =. #*amples are attit"de scales and opinion scales.in which criteria are esta&lished for selecting cases from historical records for incl"sion in the st"dy1. sales vol"me and market share.E DFE This is also s"pported and well)form"lated in . an empirical in%"iry that investigates a phenomenon within its real)life conte*t. !ase st"dies sho"ld not &e conf"sed with %"alitative research and they can &e &ased on any mi* of %"antitative and %"alitative evidence.or case report1 is a descriptive. policies. phenomenon. gro"p or event.ects.. periods. Disagree Agree Itrongly agree =. !hecklists are often presented as lists with small check&o*es down the left hand side of the page.o& aid "sed to red"ce fail"re &y compensating for potential limits of h"man memory and attention.G A more advanced checklist wo"ld &e a sched"le. &"t there is no a&sol"te (ero point. It helps to ens"re consistency and completeness in carrying o"t a task. &ase Study In the social sciences and life sciences. a case study . individ"al or sit"ation. price. Iome data are meas"red at the interval level. events. e*ploratory or e*planatory analysis of a person..G 0b1ectives of Research The o&. J"m&ers indicate the magnit"de of difference &etween items.ect researchprovides the statistical framework for making inferences from %"antitative case)st"dy data. sales reven"e. F. and &enefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions.E !ase st"dies may &e prospective . #ven tho"gh each research st"dy has a specific o&. costs. The main aim of any research is e*ploring the hidden or "ndiscovered tr"th.Lamnek. A small tick or checkmark is drawn in the &o* after the item has &een completed. the research o&. ThomasD=E offers the following definition of case st"dy: G!ase st"dies are analyses of persons. A &asic e*ample is the Gto do list. J"m&ers indicate magnit"de of difference and there is a fi*ed (ero point. An e*planatory case st"dy is "sed to e*plore ca"sation in order to find "nderlying principles. Iingle)s"&. !ase st"dy research can mean single and m"ltiple case st"dies.in which criteria are esta&lished and cases fitting the criteria are incl"ded as they &ecome availa&le1 or retrospective . . which lays o"t tasks to &e done according to time of day or other factors. or other systems that are st"died holistically &y one or more methods.00@1: GThe case st"dy is a research approach. Ratios can &e calc"lated. The case that is the subject of the in%"iry will &e an instance of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame Q an object Q within which the st"dy is cond"cted and which the case ill"minates and e*plicates.G Another s"ggestion is that case study sho"ld &e defined as a research strategy.
the general o&. where and for what purpose. The #eneral ob1ective of a st"dy states what researchers e*pect to achieve &y the st"dy in general terms.• Hypothesis testin# research studies/ These st"dies test a hypothesis and determine a ca"sal relationship &etween the varia&les. 5or e*ample. the needs of AIDI patients and their relatives for care and s"pport have &een defined in the first o&. To determine the e*tent to which formal and informal s"pport systems address these needs from the viewpoint of service providers as well as patients. N.. To relate the calc"lated costs to the %"ality of care provided to the patient &y the family and to the family<patient &y the !/-! programme. A hypothesis m"st &e meas"ra&le and %"antifia&le • . . and to whom the res"lts and recommendations of the st"dy will &e fed &ack. These are : • A hypothesis m"st &e form"lated in simple.!/-!1 pro. In the e*ample given. donors and other concerned organisations. for e*ample. F. especially when a pro&lem has &een defined . in order to find sol"tions. A &road hypothesis might not &e empirically testa&le. To identify the f"ll range of economic. It is possi&le . =.and advisa&le1 to &reak down a general o&. o /igh organi(ational commitment will lead to lower t"rnover intention. This is necessary in many st"dies.or ca"ses have to &e identified. incl"ding government.ectives sho"ld &e closely related to the statement of the pro&lem.ectives: 3. cost and %"ality of care provided whereas the last two o&.odule 51 and the key factors that are ass"med to infl"ence or ca"se the pro&lem. Any ass"mption that the researcher makes on the pro&a&le direction of the res"lts that might &e o&tained on completion of the research process is termed as a hypothesis. +erlinger .ectives which follow concentrate on ade%"acy. clear. and declarative form.ective "s"ally foc"ses on %"antifying or specifying the pro&lem.ects in Rim&a&we provide ade%"ate. They sho"ld specifywhat yo" will do in yo"r st"dy. To determine the economic costs of !/-! to the patient and family as well as to the formal !/-! programmes themselves. O&. health<n"rsing care and other needs of patients and their families affected &y AIDI. the hypothesis are always in a sentence form. and to identify ways in which these services can &e improved. The first specific o&. developed at an /IR workshop. and to &e tested only one relationship &etween only two varia&les at a time. Lnlike the research pro&lem that generally takes on a %"estion form. o !ons"mers liking for the electronic advertisement for the new diet drink will have positive impact on &rand awareness of the drink.ective into smaller. if the pro&lem identified is low "tilisation of child welfare clinics.ectives sho"ld systematically address the vario"s aspects of the pro&lem as defined "nder 2Itatement of the 4ro&lem . this rate sho"ld first &e esta&lished. had as its general o&.ect"ral statement of the relationship &etween two or more varia&les..ective: To e*plore to what e*tent comm"nity home)&ased care . 9hile designing any hypothesis there are a few criteria that the researcher m"st f"lfill. To determine how improved !/-! and informal s"pport networks can contri&"te to the needs of persons with AIDI and other chronically and terminally ill patients. logically connected parts. To "se the findings to make recommendations on the improvement of !/-! to home care providers.&"t not %"antified1 for which s"&se%"ently the ma. "sing the records. These are normally referred to as specific ob1ectives) Ipecific o&. The o&. *2tra/ -) R*S*'R&H 0"3*&4-$*S The 0"3*&4-$*S of a research pro. psychosocial. Often "se can &e made of availa&le statistics or of the health information system. Th"s it might &e advisa&le to make the hypothesis "ni)dimensional .ect s"mmarise what is to &e achieved &y the st"dy.patients. The statement th"s made can then &e empirically tested. and only then wo"ld the contri&"ting factors to defa"lting &e analysed. A st"dy into the cost and %"ality of home)&ased care for /IK<AIDI patients and their comm"nities in Rim&a&we.ectives specify possi&le improvements with respect to !/-!. In the st"dy on the high defa"lter rate of T. afforda&le and s"staina&le care of good %"ality to people with /IK<AIDI. @.3PON1 defines a hypothesis as $ S a con. It was split "p in the following specific o&.ective. Formulatin# the Research Hypothesis The 4ro&lem identification process ends in the hypotheses form"lation stage.ective of the st"dy co"ld &e to identify the reasons for this low "tilisation.
5or e2ample. eval"ation and synthesis of evidence in order to esta&lish facts and draw concl"sions a&o"t past events it involves7 • 9here the event took place: • 9ho were involved • 9hen the event occ"rred • 9hat kind of h"man activity was involved . !ase st"dy is also a form of %"alitative research that is foc"sed on providing a detailed acco"nt of one or more cases Library skills required for thorou#h survey of Literature 4roficient li&rary skills are paramo"nt for any position in the work force. it is a case of phenomenological research. in)depth interviews and foc"s gro"ps. it is a waste of time and effort to cond"ct the research pro. >"antitative research "sing statistical methods &egins with the collection of data. Historical( *2perimental and descriptive methods of Research /istorical 8ethod The systematic and o&.ective and "ses very different methods of collecting information. In %"antitative research. The literature review appears at the &eginning and introd"ces the st"dy serving several p"rposes: T Reviews thoro"ghly the pertinent research related to the topic T Organi(es the articles yo" have identified as most important T Iets the theoretical fo"ndation for yo"r topic T #*plains why c"rrent st"dy is val"a&le<needed T Itates the specific hypotheses<goals of the c"rrent st"dy Jote: If a thoro"gh literat"re review is not cond"cted. &ased on the hypothesis or theory.• • A hypothesis is a con. a thoro"gh literat"re review is cond"cted first.@ victims of the -hopal Tragedy a&o"t their e*perience of the tragedy. s"ch as weight loss. 5or e2ample. 9hy: T Others may have already investigated the topic in the proposed manner. #thnography is another form of %"alitative research. metaphors and description of things.ect. Qualitative and quantitative research In social sciences. %"antitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of %"antitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. 4henomenology is a type of %"alitative research in which the researcher attempts to "nderstand how one or more individ"als e*perience a phenomenon. It is m"ch more s"&. >"alitative research can &e f"rther classified into many s"&)types. The process of meas"rement is vital to %"antitative research since it esta&lishes f"ndamental connection &etween empirical o&servation and mathematical e*pression of %"antitative relationships. small n"m&ers of people are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small n"m&er of foc"s gro"ps are cond"cted. T Learn from others past mistakes<limitations T 8"st "nderstand the theory well &efore one can make a coherent contri&"tion. if the researcher interviews . In this type of research. sym&ols. which foc"ses on descri&ing the c"lt"re of a gro"p of people. is an e2ample of %"antitative research. The st"dy of the relationship &etween dietary intake and meas"ra&le physiological effects. primarily individ"al.ect"ral statement &ased on the e*isting literat"re and theories a&o"t the topic and not &ased on the g"t feel of the researcher The validation of the hypothesis wo"ld necessarily involve testing the statistical significance of the hypothesi(ed relation. >"alitative research is a non)%"alitative type of analysis. definitions. economic and commercial research. statistics is the most widely "sed &ranch of mathematics. In any type of p"&lished research.ective location. characteristics. the researcher might decide to go and live with the tri&al in the north)east region of the co"ntry and st"dy the c"lt"re and the ed"cational practices prevalent in the region. It refers to the meanings. Itatistical methods are "sed e*tensively for social.
The format for listing these references is to &e written in keeping with the style of the Manual of the American Psychological Association. reports and other so"rces that have &een cons"lted for "ndertaking the st"dy. the insights. .if any1. sho"ld &e prepared with tho"ght and care7 • Itep =: The final o"tline sho"ld &e developed. Preparation of the rou#h draft/ This is the step of p"tting down what one did in the st"dy. • Itep F:This can then &e polished and refined. List all the proced"res followed 4he preparation of the biblio#raphy/ This refers to all the &ooks. maga(ines. A"thor s name and affiliation: The a"thor. It is clearly laid down in the p"&lication. There is a standardi(ed convention that has &een "niversally accepted for the p"rpose of writing a research report.s1 to &e presented on this page. 'P' format for writin# reports . It can have a ma*im"m of @0 characters7 &.following a chronological se%"ence1 Iometimes.i1 -y ens"ring that the topics follow one another in a logical.: A ro"gh or preliminary draft of the o"tline of the proposed research.Descriptive research • Instead of e*amining records or artifacts. %"estionnaire. Iome of the steps involved in the planning of writing a good report are as follows: • Itep 3: The entire st"dy sho"ld &e analysed very logically in a thoro"gh manner. • Itep @: This can &e followed &y the compiling of the &i&liography. • Itep . The other a"thors of the st"dy sho"ld then . Also. 4he lo#ical analysis process This can &e carried o"t in one of the following two ways: . starting with the principal investigator and the designation and the instit"tional affiliation . the str"ggles and the limitations. Preparation of the final outline/ This step involves caref"l reporting of the st"dy along with the theoretical framework for the st"dy. selective o&servation of events #*perimental research • Researchers try ot isolate and control every relevant condition which determines the events investigated. se%"ential and rational manner . in the order in which it was carried o"t. Manual of the American Psychological Association. • Itep N: Then the final draft can &e written. Format of Research Report This is the str"ct"re or format of a research report. so as to o&serve the effects when the conditions are manip"lated. the process of designing the st"dy. The A4A man"al has divided research report writing into eight parts.ii1 -y writing a report on the &asis of the se%"ence of happenings . Different types of e*perimental methods are as follows: o 4re)e*perimental : "n relia&le ass"mptions are made despite the lack of control over varia&les o Tr"e #*perimental U rigoro"s check of the identical nat"re of gro"ps &efore testing the infl"ence of a varia&le on a sample of them "nder controlled circ"mstances o >"asi)#*perimental U not all conditions of tr"e e*perimental design can &e f"lfilled &"t the short comings are identified o !o relational and e* post facto: !o) relation looks for the ca"se and effect relationships &etween two sets of data7 e*)post facto reverse e*perimentation U interprets the ca"se of phenomenon &y o&serving its effects Steps in writin# Research report Iince research is a demanding and painstaking effort. the controls and varia&les sho"ld &e "tili(ed and the &road findings and directions of generali(ations possi&le sho"ld &e identified. a com&ination of these two strategies is "sef"l. This co"ld incl"de the motivations. descriptive research relies on o&servation as a means of collecting data • Attempts to e*amine sit"ation in order to esta&lish what is the normal ) 9hat can &e predicted to happen again "nder the same circ"mstances • O&servation are written down or recorded in some way in order to &e s"&se%"ently analysed • Depends on h"man o&servations and responses U distortions in data can occ"r is &iased %"estions in interviews. 4itle and runnin# head) The title is the pro&lem investigated &y the st"dy while the r"nning head is a short description of the Title. s"fficient time and attention sho"ld &e devoted to writing the report of the work carried o"t. This man"al also gives s"ggestions on how to present concepts with &revity and clarity. &efore &eing re)written.a1 4itle pa#e/ This page has three main sections: a.s1 name .o"rnals. the method of data collection.
The s"pported hypothesis.g1 . /ere. A small paragraph co"ld &e devoted to the limitations of the st"dy and how some of these limitations can &e overcome can also &e mentioned.f1 .any apparat"s. The ma. An introd"ction is not written simply as an introd"ction. it is to &e given in a meaningf"l ta&"lated way.d1 . It has three divisions: a. This sho"ld refer to the st"dies related to the field of the present in%"iry. c. etc. the res"lts are to &e reported in terms of the hypothesis st"died. The control conditions sho"ld &e e*plained caref"lly. There are several s"§ions that make "p this section. It sho"ld incl"de the pro&lem st"died. can &e offered. the methods "sed. It incl"des a very precise acco"nt of how the st"dy was cond"cted. The total n"m&er of s"&. any statistical treatment. were "sed for the st"dy &"t do not fit into the report d"e to length and other considerations. Any new hypothesis can &e s"ggested when the res"lts are not along the predicted lines. This sho"ld incl"de the operational definition of the hypothesis that is proposed. articles. The different treatments sho"ld &e clearly descri&ed. It is e*pected that anyone who reads the report and wishes to "ndertake a similar st"dy sho"ld &e a&le to do so. If the raw data is significant for &eing presented. The statistical significance of the res"lts needs to &e given. the entire proced"ral information has to &e given. Any implications of the findings can &e indicated. ii. The disc"ssion sho"ld state whether the hypothesis is s"pported or re. Their designations and affiliations can &e given s"ita&ly.&1 'bstract/ This is a synopsis of the research in f"ll detail. are to &e presented in the most s"ita&le manner. A part of this section needs to incl"de the motivation for st"dying the partic"lar pro&lem and the theoretical or practical orientations "nderlying the st"dy "ndertaken. 9hether the hypothesis is s"pported or re. s"ggestions for f"t"re research sho"ld &e mentioned. se*. can &e mentioned here. The independent and dependent varia&les sho"ld &e identified and the design sho"ld &e shown in a diagram. Results/ This refers to providing the data o&tained from the st"dy. the man"fact"ring company and other details need to &e given. The design: #very st"dy has a &l"eprint on the &asis of which any st"dy is proposed to &e carried o"t. 'ppendi2/ This can &e incl"ded where tests. the findings and the concl"sions. Ipecial characteristics like age. etc. it wo"ld &e helpf"l. The statistical treatment carried on and the levels of significance for the data sho"ld &e clearly stated. Any fa"lts in the form"lated hypothesis can &e modified on the &asis of the res"lts o&tained. if possi&le. etc. iii. fig"res.ected. &oth need to &e e*plained on the &asis of some theoretical ass"mptions. These can &e disc"ssed s"ita&ly. Any form of s"pport in terms of finances or instit"tional help. etc. if "sed1.h1 . along with the e*perimental and control conditions. The citations sho"ld &e presented in accordance with the man"al of the American 4sychological Association.&e listed in the order of their importance to the contri&"tion. the model. This is the proced"ral part of the report. It sho"ld have a detailed acco"nt of the st"dy related to other st"dies in the field. also the controls that have &een "sed in the st"dy. The first part is the statement of the pro&lem that was st"died. This is the design of the st"dy. The ideal length wo"ld &e a&o"t 3@0 words. charts. The steps in the introd"ction of the independent varia&le have to &e dealt with at length and clearly. the statistical treatment. the research design adopted .. diagrams. If a photograph of the e%"ipment can &e given.ects incl"ded for the st"dy is very significant. Io.ected one. References/ This incl"des all &ooks. for the st"dy. The hypothesis is to &e clearly stated and the scientific proced"res involved in testing it need to &e specified.or findings can &e s"mmari(ed and presented. . These help in &ringing to foc"s different parts of the method: i. In short. comments. reports. the entire proced"re of the cond"ction of the st"dy. listed in alpha&etical order. The third part of this section is devoted to the form"lation of the hypothesis. 9herever possi&le. comp"ter program. Internet links for references. any s"ggestions regarding the ways in which the pro&lem that has &een st"died.o"rnals. the te*t sho"ld &e s"pported &y vis"al material for greater emphasis. that are relevant to the st"dy need to &e identified precisely. Ta&les. c. The second part of this section sho"ld contain a description of the review of the previo"s literat"re availa&le in the field. need to &e ela&orately presented. as well as the re. secretarial<editorial assistance etc. #%"ipment "sed: If any special apparat"s was "sed for the st"dy. so that its replication is possi&le &y another interested researchers. &"t in an a&ridged form. . Otherwise.c1 -ntroduction/ This is the &eginning of the report and thereafter the entire report follows a se%"ence. . Acknowledgements: This can &e the third part of the title. %"estionnaires. Detailed disc"ssion a&o"t the findings can &e presented. as well as its applications<implications. . A good rationale and a logical relationship &etween the earlier st"dies and the present investigation needs to &e developed. The sample: This re%"ires that the sample &e clearly specified. needs to &e resolved.e1 . the nat"re and type of meas"rement of the dependent varia&le sho"ld &e clearly mentioned. &y following the method s section closely..ethod/ This constit"tes the main &ody of the report to &e written. &. . Also. %iscussion of results/ The p"rpose of this section is to interpret the res"lts of the st"dy.ected sho"ld &e clearly mentioned. along with the type of sampling proced"re "sed. 5inally.
ective techni%"es7 .iv1 thro"gh sched"les.c1 technical and trade .. i. in different fields7 and . the area "nder the c"rve to the right of W is e%"al to the area "nder the c"rve to the left of W e%"als X.h1 content analysis.v1 other methods which incl"de .d1 &ooks. historical doc"ments. The methods of collecting primary and secondary data differ since primary data are to &e originally collected. 9hen the researcher "tilises secondary data. state are local governments7 . then he has to look into vario"s so"rces from where he can o&tain them.e1 reports and p"&lications of vario"s associations connected with &"siness and ind"stry. etc. W. "niversities. and . The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time.d1 cons"mer panels7 . The so"rces of "np"&lished data are many7 they may &e fo"nd in diaries. =. . COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA Iecondary data means data that are already availa&le i.. It has inflection points at W)Y and WZY. F. economists. then we can o&tain primary data either thro"gh o&servation or thro"gh direct comm"nication with respondents in one form or another or thro"gh personal interviews. Important ones are: . "np"&lished &iographies and a"to&iographies and also may &e availa&le with scholars and research workers. The researcher wo"ld have to decide which sort of data he wo"ld &e "sing .ii1 Interview method. 9e descri&e the different methods of data collection.&1 vario"s p"&lications of foreign governments or of international &odies and their s"&sidiary organisations7 . Ls"ally p"&lished data are availa&le in: .a1 vario"s p"&lications of the central.o"rnals7 .. and th"s happen to &e original in character. One half of the c"rve is a mirror image of the other half. The secondary data. &anks.e.f1 reports prepared &y research scholars.ethods of &ollectin# %ata The task of data collection &egins after a research pro&lem has &een defined and research design< plan chalked o"t. partic"larly in s"rveys and descriptive researches. primary and secondary.e1 "sing mechanical devices7 . are those which have already &een collected &y someone else and which have already &een passed thro"gh the statistical process.7 .a1 warranty cards7 . stock e*changes. la&o"r &"rea"s and other p"&lic<private individ"als and organisations.th"s collecting1 for his st"dy and accordingly he will have to select one or the other method of data collection. Iecondary data may either &e p"&lished data or "np"&lished data. on the other hand. The highest point occ"rs at *?W. It is symmetric a&o"t the mean. The total area "nder the c"rve e%"als one.g1 depth interviews.f1 thro"gh pro. . In this case he is certainly not confronted with the pro&lems that are "s"ally associated with the collection of original data. letters. maga(ines and newspapers7 .g1 p"&lic records and statistics. etc.iii1 thro"gh %"estionnaires. @. while in case of secondary data the nat"re of data collection work is merely that of compilation. Properties of Normal Probability curve 3.. . the researcher sho"ld keep in mind two types of data vi(.V This..i1 o&servation method. with the pros and cons of each method.e. they refer to the data which have already &een collected and analysed &y someone else. trade associations. .&1 distri&"tor a"dits7 . COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA 9e collect primary data d"ring the co"rse of doing e*periments in an e*perimental research &"t in case we do research of the descriptive type and perform s"rveys. in other words.c1 pantry a"dits7 . whether sample s"rveys or cens"s s"rveys. . and . means that there are several methods of collecting primary data. The c"rve is asymptotic to the hori(ontal a*is at the e*tremes. and other so"rces of p"&lished information. 9hile deciding a&o"t the method of data collection to &e "sed for the st"dy.
Reliability implies the consistency with which a test meas"res what it seeks to meas"re. 5or e*ample. &esides the interpretation. Practicality refers to the costs involved in administering a test. Sub1ectivity/ Disc"sses a s"&. past e*perience and e*pectation of the res"lt . the time needed. $alidity is the most important of these three criteria.ected to the tests of validity. then speed is what that test sho"ld meas"re. the convenience and the ease of carrying o"t the meas"rements as well as the "sef"lness of the o&tained data. feelings.ect and his or her perspective. It means that the test m"st meas"re what it p"rports to meas"re. if a test is a meas"re of speed.$alidity( Relaibility and 0b1ectivity #very good meas"ring tool m"st &e s"&. &eliefs and desires 0b1ectivity/ Lsed to descri&e h"mans as 2seeing the "niverse e*actly for what it is from a standpoint free from h"man perception and its infl"ences. relia&ility and practicality. h"man c"lt"ral interventions.
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