Towards an Integral Morphology

By MICHELLE O’CARROLL

A TERMINAL PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF THE ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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Copyright 2008 by Michelle O’Carroll

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To those who have inspired me to reflect upon the inherent unity of the life that I am.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 7 LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................ 11 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: “EXISTENTIAL DIALECTICS” .................................................. 16 Architectural Structures Reflect Structures of Consciousness ................................ 16 Structures of Consciousness Emerge in a Developmental Sequence .................... 16 Architectural Structures Archive the Evolution of Consciousness through the Development of our Species .................................................................................. 16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: “THE INTEGRAL PARADIGM” ....................................... 17 An Overview ........................................................................................................... 17 The Four Domains of the Manifest World .............................................................. 17 The Correlative Nature of Interior and Exterior Domains ..................... 17 The Correlative Nature of Individual and Collective Domains .............. 18 The “Sentient Being” ............................................................................. 18 On Holons and Holarchy ......................................................................................... 18 The Patterns that Connect .................................................................... 18 An Evolutionary Impulse ......................................................................................... 18 The Great Chain of Being: From Matter to Life to Mind to Spirit ........... 19 The Four Faces of Spirit-in-Action......................................................... 19 3 METHODOLOGY: “THE FOUR QUADRANTS MODEL” ....................................... 22 The Focus of the Study ........................................................................................... 22 An Adaptation of the Four Quandrants Model ........................................................ 22 ---INTERLUDE--- THE NOOSPHERE Human Holons: EMERGENTS in All Four Quadrants ................................................. 23 Human Holons: MUTATIONS in All Four Quadrants ................................................... 24 Human Holons and the Architectural Artifact ................................................................. 27 4 RESULTS “CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS” ............................................................................................................... 28 4.1 Archaic MUTATION Physiology ........................................................................................... 30

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Ontology ............................................................................................... 31 Ideology ................................................................................................ 34 Morphology ........................................................................................... 36 4.2 Magical MUTATION Physiology ............................................................................................ 40 Ontology ............................................................................................... 41 Ideology ................................................................................................ 44 Morphology ........................................................................................... 47 4.3 Magical/Mythic MUTATION Physiology ............................................................................................ 51 Ontology ............................................................................................... 52 Ideology ................................................................................................ 55 Morphology ........................................................................................... 57 4.4 Mythic/Rational MUTATION Physiology ............................................................................................ 64 Ontology ............................................................................................... 65 Ideology ................................................................................................ 68 Morphology ........................................................................................... 72 4.4 Scientific/Rational MUTATION Physiology ........................................................................................... 82 Ontology ............................................................................................... 83 Ideology ................................................................................................ 86 Morphology ........................................................................................... 91 4.6 Pluralistic MUTATION Physiology ........................................................................................... 98 Ontology ............................................................................................... 99 Ideology .............................................................................................. 102 Morphology ......................................................................................... 106 INTERLUDE- THE THEOSPHERE Beyond Human Holons: EMERGENTS in All Four Quadrants ................................. 114 4.7 Integral MUTATION Physiology ......................................................................................... 117 Ontology ............................................................................................. 118 Ideology .............................................................................................. 122 Morphology ......................................................................................... 125 5 6 7 DISCUSSION “LIMITATIONS OF STUDY” ................................................................. 132 CONCLUSION “THE BODY OF THE GODDESS” ............................................... 134 FUTURE WORK “WHAT IS THE BASIS OF SPATIOTEMPORAL ORGANIZATION?............................................................................................................. 135

APPENDIX A “SCRIPTURA UNIVERSALIS” .............................................................. 136

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LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 139 FIGURES ................................................................................................................................... 142

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Bejleri for agreeing to chair a rather unconventional project, Dr. Isenberg for introducing me to the works of Ken Wilber and continuing to mentor me well into his retirement, and Professor Sanders for her guidance and expertise in the field of architecture. I would also like to thank my parents- Sam and Lori Conable- as well as my dearest friend John Begeman, whose unconditional support has helped me through this challenging but greatly rewarding process.

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LIST OF TABLES Figure 0A page An Overview ............................................................................ See Attachment

CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 3A EMERGENTS of the Noosphere ................................................................... 23 CHAPTER 4.1: RESULTS- ARCHAIC MUTATION 4.1A Archaic Physiology: the Limbic System ........................................................ 30 4.1B Archaic Identity (Individual): Pre-personal ..................................................... 32 4.1C Archaic Perception of Space and Time: 0-Dimensional ................................ 33 4.1D Archaic Identity (Collective): Ego-Centric ...................................................... 35 4.1E Archaic Urban Morphology: Survival Clans .................................................. 36 CHAPTER 4.2: RESULTS- MAGICAL MUTATION 4.2A Magical Physiology: the Limbic System ........................................................ 40 4.2B Magical Cognitive Style: Sensorimotor.......................................................... 41 4.2C Magical Identity (Individual): Early Ego Formation ........................................ 42 4.2D Magical Perception of Space and Time: 1-Dimensional ................................ 43 4.2E Magical Cosmology: Animistic....................................................................... 44 4.2F Magical Deity: Nature Spirits ......................................................................... 45 4.2G Magical Identity (Collective): Ethnocentric..................................................... 46 4.2H Magical Urban Morphology: Ethnic Tribes .................................................... 47 4.2I Magical Architectural Morphology ................................................................. 48 4.2J Case Study- the Cave Dwelling (Primitive Inhabitation) ................................ 48 CHAPTER 4.3: RESULTS- MAGICAL/MYTHIC MUTATION 4.3A Magical/Mythic Physiology: Neocortical Activation ....................................... 51 4.3B Magical/Mythic Cognitive Style: Preoperational ........................................... 52 4.3C Magical/Mythic Identity (Individual): Ego Formation ..................................... 53 4.3D Magical/Mythic Perception of Space and Time: 2-Dimensional..................... 54 4.3E Magical/Mythic Cosmology: Chthonic ........................................................... 55 4.3G Magical/Mythic Deity: Mother Goddess ......................................................... 55 4.3G Magical/Mythic Collective Identity (Collective): Socio-Centric ....................... 56 4.3H Magical/Mythic Urban Morphology: From Early Permanent Settlements to Chiefdoms to City-States. ............................................................................. 57 4.3I Magical/Mythic Architectural Morphology ..................................................... 58 4.3J Case Study- Stone Pillar Architectures (The Chthonic Object) .................... 59 CHAPTER 4.4: RESULTS- MYTHIC/RATIONAL MUTATION 4.4A Mythic/Rational Physiology: Neocortical Activation ...................................... 64 4.4B Mythic/Rational Cognitive Style: Concrete Operational ................................ 65 4.4C Mythic/Rational Identity (Individual): Late Ego Formation ............................. 66 4.4D Mythic/Rational Perception of Space and Time: 3-Dimensional (Elementary).................................................................................................. 67 8

4.4E 4.4F 4.4G 4.4H 4.4I 4.4J 4.4K

Mythic/Rational Cosmology: Celestial ........................................................... 69 Mythic/Rational Deity: Father God .............................................................. 70 Mythic/Rational Identity (Collective): Socio/World-Centric ........................... 71 Mythic/Rational Urban Morphology: Feudal Empires/Early Nations .............. 72 Mythic/Rational Architectural Morphology .................................................... 73 Case Study- The Greek Temple (The Celestial Object) ............................... 74 Case Study- The Gothic Cathedral (The Celestial Object) ........................... 77

CHAPTER 4.5: RESULTS- SCIENTIFIC/RATIONAL MUTATION 4.5A Scientific-Rational Physiology: Dominated by Left Hemisphere of Neocortex ..................................................................................................... 82 4.5B Scientific-Rational Cognitive Style: Formal Operational ................................ 83 4.5C Scientific-Rational Identity (Individual): Fully Developed Ego Structure ........ 84 4.5D Scientific-Rational Perception of Space and Time: 3-Dimensional (Advanced) .................................................................................................... 85 4.5E Scientific-Rational Cosmology: Mechanistic .................................................. 88 4.5F Scientific-Rational Deity: Atheistic ................................................................ 89 4.5G Scientific-Rational Identity (Collective): World-Centric .................................. 90 4.5H Scientific-Rational Urban Morphology: Globalized Nations (Exclusive). ........ 91 4.5I Scientific-Rational Architectural Morphology ................................................ 92 4.5J Case Study- The International Style (The Mechanistic Object) ................... 93 CHAPTER 4.6: RESULTS- PLURALISTIC MUTATION 4.6A Pluralistic Physiology: Dominated by Right Hemisphere of Neocortex ......... 98 4.6B Pluralistic Cognitive Style: Early Vision-Logic .............................................. 99 4.6C Pluralistic Identity (Individual): Transcending Ego ...................................... 100 4.6D Pluralistic Perception of Space and Time: 4-Dimensional (Elementary) ..... 101 4.6E Pluralistic Cosmology: Relativistic ............................................................... 103 4.6F Pluralistic Deity: Nihilistic ............................................................................ 104 4.6G Pluralistic Identity (Collective): World-Centric (Inclusive) ............................ 105 4.6H Pluralistic Urban Morphology: Globalized Nations (Inclusive) ..................... 106 4.6I Pluralistic Architectural Morphology ............................................................ 107 4.6J Case Study- Postmodernism (The Pluralistic Object) ................................. 108 4.6K Case Study-Deconstructivism (The Deconstructed Object) ........................ 110 4.6L Case Study- Topology (The Topological Event) .......................................... 112 CHAPTER 4.7: RESULTS- INTEGRAL MUTATION 4.7A EMERGENTS of the Theosphere .............................................................. 114 4.7B Integral Physiology: Integration of Right and Left Hemispheres of Neocortex ................................................................................................... 117 4.7C Integral Cognitive Style: Late Vision-Logic ................................................. 118 4.7D Integral Identity (Individual): Transcending Ego ......................................... 119 4.7E Integral Perception of Space and Time: 4-Dimensional (Advanced) ........... 120 4.7F Integral Cosmology: Hyperspatial ............................................................... 122 4.7G Integral Deity: Self-Actualized ..................................................................... 123 4.7H Integral Identity (Collective): Being-Centric ................................................. 124

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4.7I 4.7J 4.7K

Integral Urban Morphology: Supranational Organization of Planetary Consciousness ............................................................................................ 125 Integral Architectural Morphology ............................................................... 126 Case Study- Genetic Architecture (The Morphogenetic Event) .................. 127

APPENDIX A.1 Comparison: The Genetic Code and the I Ching......................................... 137

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1A The Spectrum of Consciousness ................................................................ 142 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2A Ken Wilber’s Four Quadrant’s Model .......................................................... 143 2B The Correlative Development of Interior and Exterior Domains ................. 144 2C The Correlative Development of Individual and Collective Domains .......... 145 2D “Wolf”: Different Perspectives of a Sentient Being ...................................... 146 2E The Sentient Being as a Holon ................................................................... 147 2F Agency and Communion ............................................................................ 148 2G The EMERGENCE of the Physiosphere, Biosphere, Noosphere, and Theosphere ................................................................................................. 149 The Correlative Evolution of the Four Domains (General) .......................... 150 2H The Correlative Evolution of the Four Domains (Specific) ........................... 151 2I CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3A Focus of Study ............................................................................................ 152 3B An Adaptation of the Four Quadrant’s Model. ............................................. 153 3C Each Quadrant will be evaluated through Pre-Modern, Modern, PostModern, and Integral MUTATIONS of Consciousness. ............................... 154 INTERLUDE- THE NOOPSHERE (AN OVERVIEW) 3D EMERGENTS of the Noosphere. ................................................................ 155 3E Isomorphic Streams of Development in the Noosphere .............................. 156 3F The Correlative Evolution of the Four Domains in the Noosphere .............. 157 3G Scales of Development: Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny ..................... 158 3H The Correlative Evolution of Human Consciousness and Architectural Morphology ................................................................................................. 159 CHAPTER 4.1: RESULTS- MAGICAL MUTATION 4.1A Homo Erectus ............................................................................................ 160 4.1B The Limbic System ...................................................................................... 160 4.1C Egocentric, Survival-Based Existence ......................................................... 161 4.1D Survival Clans ............................................................................................. 161 4.1E Morphologies of the Physiosphere and Biosphere ...................................... 162 CHAPTER 4.2: RESULTS- MAGICAL MUTATION 4.2A Neanderthal ................................................................................................ 162 4.2B The Limbic System ...................................................................................... 163 4.2C Ochre Stained Rocks of Quafzeh Cave ...................................................... 163 4.2D Early Representation of the Human Face .................................................. 164 4.2E Nature Spirits .............................................................................................. 164 4.2F Monadic Tribal Structures ........................................................................... 165 11

4.2G

Interior Rotunda of Hall of Bulls. Lascaux, France ..................................... 165

CHAPTER 4.3: RESULTS- MAGICAL/MYTHIC MUTATION 4.3A Neocortical Activation ................................................................................. 166 4.3B The Agricultural Revolution ........................................................................ 166 4.3C The Emergence of Symbolic Language ..................................................... 167 4.3D The Emergence of Intuitive/Inductive Reasoning ....................................... 167 4.3E Anthropocentric Imagery in a Cave Painting .............................................. 168 4.3F Spatial Depth in Cave Painting ................................................................... 168 4.3G Polar Awareness of Earth and Sky (Spatial) ............................................... 169 4.3H Awareness of Natural Cycles (Temporal) .................................................... 169 4.3I Mother Goddess of the Earth ..................................................................... 169 4.3J Early Permanent Settlements ..................................................................... 170 4.3K Stonehedge. Wiltshire, England ................................................................. 170 CHAPTER 4.4: RESULTS- MYTHIC/RATIONAL MUTATION 4.4A Neocortical Activation (Cont’d) ................................................................... 170 4.4B The Emergence of Deductive Reasoning ................................................... 171 4.4C Anthropocentric Imagery in Greek and Medieval Sculpture and Architecture ................................................................................................ 171 4.4D Spatial Depth in Greek and Medieval Sculpture and Architecture ............. 172 4.4E The Emergence of Linear Time ................................................................... 172 4.4F The Greek Cosmological Scheme............................................................... 173 4.4G Music of the Spheres .................................................................................. 174 4.4H The Medieval Cosmological Scheme .......................................................... 175 4.4I Father God in Heaven ................................................................................. 176 4.4J The Parthenon ............................................................................................ 176 4.4K Floor Plan of the Parthenon ....................................................................... 176 4.4L Sculptural Ornamentation in the Parthenon: The Birth of Athena ............... 177 4.4M Chartres: A Gothic Cathedral ..................................................................... 177 4.4N The Floor plan of Chartres ......................................................................... 177 4.4O Religious Symbolism in Chartres ............................................................... 177 CHAPTER 4.5: RESULTS- SCIENTIC-RATIONAL MUTATION 4.5A Dominated by Left Hemisphere of Neocortex ............................................. 178 4.5B The Scientific Method ................................................................................. 178 4.5C The Fully Developed Ego Structure ........................................................... 178 4.5D Cartesian Depiction of Perception .............................................................. 179 4.5E The Heliocentric Model of Copernicus ........................................................ 179 4.5F Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion .............................................................. 180 4.5G Moon drawn by Galileo ............................................................................... 180 4.5H The Mechanical Universe ........................................................................... 180 4.5I La Villa Savoye (Le Corbusier) ................................................................... 181 4.5J The Farnsworth House (Mies van der Rohe) ............................................. 181 CHAPTER 4.6: RESULTS- PLURALISTIC MUTATION

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4.6A 4.6B 4.6C 4.6D 4.6E 4.6F 4.6G 4.6H 4.6I 4.6J 4.6K 4.6L 4.6M 4.6N 4.6O 4.6P 4.6Q 4.6R 4.6S 4.6T 4.6U 4.6V 4.6W

Dominated by Right Hemisphere of Neocortex .......................................... 182 Contextualized Knowledge Claims ............................................................. 182 The Subject Co-creates Reality................................................................... 182 The Deconstruction of Euclidian Space ..................................................... 183 Plasticized Time ......................................................................................... 183 The Relativistic Cosmos .............................................................................. 183 A Representation of Time at 5mph.............................................................. 183 A Representation of Space at 5mph .......................................................... 184 An Object Observed at 5mph ...................................................................... 184 A Representation of Time as an Observer Approaches the Speed of Light 185 A Representation of Space as an Observer Approaches the Speed of Light ............................................................................................................ 185 An Object Observed while approaching the Speed of Light ........................ 186 Piazza d’Italia (Charles Moore) .................................................................. 187 Sony Building (Philip Johnson and John Burgee) ....................................... 187 Portland Service Building (Michael Graves) ............................................... 188 Vitra Design Museum (Frank Gehry) ........................................................... 188 Santa Monica Residence (Frank Gehry) ..................................................... 189 Wexner Center for the Arts (Peter Eisenman) ............................................ 189 The Mobius House (Stephen Perrella and Rebecca Carpenter .................. 190 City of Culture of Galicia (Eisenman Architects).......................................... 190 BMW Event and Delivery Center (Asymptote) ............................................ 190 Yokohama International Port Terminal (Foreign Office Architects) ........... 191 Taekwando Park (Weiss/Manfredi) ............................................................. 191

CHAPTER 4.7: RESULTS- INTEGRAL MUTATION 4.7A EMERGENTS of the Theosphere ............................................................... 192 4.7B The Integration of the Right and Left Hemispheres of the Neocortex.......... 193 4.7C Consciousness No Longer Restricted to the Body ..................................... 193 4.7D Structures of Thought Integrated into a Complex Whole ............................ 194 4.7E Dimensions Organized in Orders of Increasing Complexity ........................ 194 4.7F Space a Plastic Medium Enacted by the Subjects it Contains ................... 195 4.7G “God”-(Consciousness) Becoming .............................................................. 195 4.7H Caltrans District 7 Headquarters Building (Morphosis) ............................... 196 4.7I El Monte Sangrado Resort (Living Designs Group) ................................... 196 4.7J ADA Space (ETH) ...................................................................................... 197 4.7K Industrial Muscles (Festo Company) .......................................................... 197 4.7L Grafisoft Slider (ONL) ................................................................................. 198 4.7M Tower of Winds (Toyo Ito) .......................................................................... 198 4.7N L-Systems (Aristid Lindenmayer) ............................................................... 199 4.7O The Hyposurface (Mark Goulthourpe) ........................................................ 199 CHAPTER 7: FUTURE WORK 7A Evolution: Self-Transcendence through Self-Organization ......................... 200 APPENDIX A

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A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7 A.8 A.9

The Fundamental Structure of the Genetic Code ....................................... 201 Genetic Codons (“Words”) and their Corresponding Amino Acids .............. 202 The Two Polarities of Yin and Yang ............................................................ 203 The Four “Letters” of the I Ching ................................................................. 203 The Four “Letters” of the I Ching Correspond to the Four “Letters” of the Genetic Code .............................................................................................. 204 The 64 Hexagrams of the I Ching ............................................................... 204 The Correlative Nature of the 64 Hexagrams of the I Ching and the 64 Codons of the Genetic Code ....................................................................... 205 The Correlative Nature of the 64 Hexagrams of the I Ching and 20 Amino Acids ........................................................................................................... 206 The 64 Hexagrams Arranged Spatially on the Bagua Compass ................. 207

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Abstract of Terminal Project Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of M.A.U.R.P. TOWARDS AN INTEGRAL MORPHOLGY By Michelle O’Carroll December 2008 Chair: Ilir Bejleri Cochair: Shaya Isenberg Major: Nancy Sanders This study will use an adaptation of Ken Wilber’s four quadrant model to evaluate the parallel evolution of human consciousness and architectural morphology from its inception through pre-modern, modern and post-modern periods. To conclude, it will postulate that we are on the brink of integral consciousness and set forth the theoretical framework for an integral morphology.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
EXISTENTIAL DIALECTICS
ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES REFLECT STRUCTURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS There is a dialectical relationship between our internal realities- our structures of consciousness- and our external patterns of spatial and temporal relationship- our architectural structures. The physical forms that we evolve reflect the way that we organize our experience. STRUCTURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS EMERGE IN A DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE Structures of consciousness unfold in a developmental1 sequence, from complete unconsciousness at one end of the spectrum, through the various levels of egoism, existentialism and transpersonalism, all the way to complete consciousness or enlightenment at the other end of the spectrum (See Figure 1A). This applies to all scales of development, from the maturation of an individual organism to the evolution of a species as a whole. ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES ARCHIVE THE EVOLUTION OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR SPECIES As humanity progresses through this spectrum of consciousness, it archives each developmental stage (characterized by a particular way of perceiving space, time, self and origin) in architectural structure. This study will use Ken Wilber’s “Integral” Paradigm- a comprehensive evolutionary theory that charts the correlative ontogeny of consciousness and the world of form- as a context to evaluate the relationship between the various eras of human development and the architectures they have enacted.

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Development: the progression from a simple structure to a more complex structure. 16

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
THE INTEGRAL PARADIGM
AN OVERVIEW In Integral Theory, reality is a non-dual union of emptiness and form with form innately subject to development over time. Emptiness, or “spirit”, is the timeless and eternal ground state of all being. The world of form is “spirit-in-action”- the unfolding of this sentience as it comes to know itself through its own incarnation. Ken Wilber’s four quadrants model attempts to describe how form undergoes change and how sentient beings in the world of form participate in this change until they realize their true identity as emptiness. THE FOUR DOMAINS OF THE MANIFEST WORLD There are 4 primary domains in Wilber’s model of manifest existenc: subjective2, inter-subjective3, objective4, and inter-objective5. These dimensions, represented graphically, are the upper-left, lower-left, upper-right, and lower-right quadrants of Wilber’s Four Quadrant Model. (See Figure 2A) In the subjective—or upper-left (UL)—quadrant, we find the world of our individual, interior consciousness: our thoughts, emotions, memories, states of mind, perceptions, and immediate sensations—in other words, our “I” space. In the intersubjective—or lower-left (LL)—quadrant, we find the world of our collective, interior consciousness: our shared values, identities, meanings, relationships, and cultural background—in other words, our "we" space. In the objective—or upper-right (UR)—quadrant, we find the world of individual, exterior things: our material body and anything that you can see or touch in time and space—in other words, our “it” space. In the interobjective—or lower-right (LR)—quadrant, we find the world of collective, exterior things: systems, networks, technology, the constructed and natural environment-in other words, our “its” space. The Correlative Development of Interior and Exterior Domains The development of consciousness (UL) coevolves with the complexification of matter (UR). Atoms, whose exterior forms are physical entities such as neutrons, protons and electrons, have an interior prehension of proto-feelings; primitive cells exhibit irritability; organisms with neural cords have perception; animals with the reptilian brain stem have impulses and instincts, and the triune brain is the exterior form of an interior consciousness that contains linguistic capacities and formal cognition (Wilber, Integral Spirituality 222). Consciousness exists in some form (however rudimentary) at all organizational levels- every body has a mind. (See Figure 2B)

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Subjective: existing in the mind. Inter-subjective: existing between minds. 4 Objective: existing in form. 5 Inter-objective: existing between forms. 17

The Correlative Development of Individual and Collective Domains Each body-mind exists in a culture (LL) and community (LR) of other body-minds at a similar level of complexity. As physical complexity increases and individual consciousness expands, the consciousness of the culture as a whole expands. As the consciousness of the culture expands, the inter-objective, exterior forms -the social structures and physical morphologies- that support the culture reflect the complexification. (See Figure 2C) The “Sentient Being” Each quadrant offers a unique perspective of a single occasion, of a “sentient being”. Take for example, the occasion of a “wolf” (See Figure 2D). A wolf possesses a limbic system (UR), the interior correlate of which is certain basic emotions (UL). The wolf shares this emotional worldspace with other wolves (LL) and physically orients itself in relation to its pack through the use of a sophisticated emotional sign system (LR) (Wilber, Theory of Everything 28). ON HOLONS AND HOLARCHY Each sentient being is both a distinct, living entity- a whole in itself- and is also a part of some greater order: it is a whole-part, a system within a system. This whole-part is known in integral theory as a “holon”. For instance, a whole atom is a part of a whole molecule; a whole molecule is part of a whole, cell; a whole cell is part of a whole organism and so on (See Figure 2E). The whole of one level becomes part of the whole of the next level. The integral “kosmos”6 are a “holarchy” of holons- a series of nests within nests within nests-indefinitely expressing a greater and greater holistic embrace (Wilber, Brief History 17). The Patterns that Connect Because every holon is both a whole and a part, it has two fundamental tendencies or drives: it has to maintain both its “agency”- its individual identity, and its “communion”- its relation to greater wholes (See Figure 2F). If the holon fails to maintain both its agency and communion, it dissolves into subholons: for example, cells decompose into molecules, molecules decompose into atoms. If the holon maintains agency and communion, it will evolve into greater and greater levels of complexity: new holons will emerge which transcend and include lower level components while adding their own distinctive character and EMERGENTS7. (Wilber, Brief History 19). AN EVOLUTIONARY IMPULSE The desire to self-transcend appears to be built into the very fabric of the Kosmos: there is an inherent compulsion, an obscure sort of will in matter, to arrange itself in increasingly complex holons which exhibit higher and higher levels of coherence Kosmos: the patterned nature or process of all (interior and exterior) domains of existence; this stands in contrast to the word “cosmos” which refers only to the exterior, physical domain of existence (a Wilberian term). 7 Emergents: characteristics of systems which arise unexpectedly and are more complex than the sum of their parts.
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and consciousness. Integral theory regards evolution as a sequence of progressive synthesis converging towards an “omega point8”- the unification of the manifest universe- in which an all inclusive “supermind” emerges. The Great Chain of Being: From Matter to Life to Mind to Spirit Through the course of evolution, physical, inanimate matter has passed through sequential stages of increasing organization, structuralization, and complexification. Primordial particles aggregated into simple groups in complex, geometrical patterns forming molecules and then larger and more complex organic compounds (the physiosphere9). So complex were these forms that they started to reproduce themselves, and out of matter arose life (the biosphere10). Cells combined into a multitude of living and ever more complex organisms, from primitive life to invertebrates, fish, amphibia, reptiles, mammals. With the emergence of the early hominids another critical threshold was crossed: out of life arose mind (the noosphere11). Cosmic evolution became conscious of itself-it not only “knows”, but it “knows that it knows”. Beyond the noosphere lays the potential of the theosphere12- the realm of incarnated “divinity”- whereby consciousness awakens to the process of its own evolution and recognizes itself as the ground state of all being. (See Figure 2G) "...Evolution is moving through the links in the Great Chain of Being - starting with the lowest, or matter, and moving to biological structures, then to mind, then to subtle and causal realms, and finally to supermind or omega point. It's not that the absolute or supermind only comes into existence at that last stage - it existed all along, but could only be realized when consciousness itself evolved to its highest state." (Wilber, SES 48). The Four Faces of Spirit-in-Action The four quadrants of the manifest world are different perspectives of the same underlying pattern of growth; as such, they show correlative development. (See Figure 2H and 2I) The Evolution of the Brain and Organism (UR) Cosmic evolution contains a full-spectrum of exterior development, from subatomic particles, atoms, molecules and other elementary structures of the physiopshere, to the prokaryotic, eukaryotic, nueronal, reptilian and paleo-mammalian structures of the biosphere, to the neo-mammalian structures of the noossphere and beyond. Each level of increasingly complexity emerges in a developmental progression

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Omega Point: a predicted point of evolution in which humanity will have evolved into a planet wide superorganism whose organizational power will come to dominate inanimate matter and energy (an idea of Tielhard de Chardin). 9 Physiosphere: the domain of evolution that contains inanimate matter. 10 Biosphere: the domain of evolution that contains organic life. 11 Noosphere: the domain of evolution that contains self-consciousness. 12 Theosphere: the domain of evolution that contains self-actualized consciousness. 19

upon the evolutionary stratum below and enables more and more complex modes of cognition and consciousness. The Evolution of the Self and Consciousness (UL) Cosmic evolution contains a parallel spectrum of interior development, from prepersonal to personal to transpersonal consciousness. Primordial particles embedded in the material prima of the physiosphere exhibit a pre-personal unity structure of consciousness which exists beneath subject/object differentiation. The organismic lifeforms of the biosphere begin to sense a boundary between their own form and biological currents. With the emergence of the noosphere, the organism distinguishes itself from the rest of the world: inside and outside become clearly differentiated and personal consciousness is clearly formulated. Beyond this point, evolution proceeds into the transpersonal domains of the theosphere which are characterized by a continuous decline in egocentrism. Eventually, all relative selves are transcended and included and there is only the pure self, the “empty opening through which spirit speaks” (Wilber, Integral Spirituality132). The Evolution of Culture and Worldview (LL) The collective mind, or culture, is the interaction of individual minds at a particular stage of development. Just as the individual mind progresses through a developmental sequence of expanded identification and relation (from pre-personal unity to personal differentiation to transpersonal unity), collective culture progresses through a developmental sequence of pre-personal, subconscious immersion and participation in the “group mind” (the physiosphere and biosphere- the hive mentality of ants and bees for example) to personal differentiation and conscious participation in human culture (the noosphere), to transpersonal unification and conscious participation in the “group mind of the theosphere. The Evolution of Social Systems and Environment (LR) As culture evolves, it requires a corresponding evolution in the complexity of the collective, external structures that contain it. The morphologies of the physiosphere and the biosphere are natural, self-organizing living systems with their own, semiindependent holonic reality: they are the products of genetic13 design and have arisen autopoietically14 through natural selection (Wilber, Theory of Everything 166). With the emergence of self-reflectivity, humans set themselves apart from nature; by doing so, they obtain the ability to structure, control and transform it. In the noosphere, the externally visible structures that are the process of social evolution become less holonic and increasingly subject to human design. This is the inception of allopoiesis15 (architecture) - externally sustained, planned systems which in and of Genetics: dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment. 14 Autopoiesis: (“auto”- Greek for “self”, “poiesis”- Greek for “to make”) living systems that are self-organizing, self-regenerating, and self-reproducing. 15 Allopoiesis: (“allo”- Greek for “other”, “poiesis”- Greek for “to make”) systems that are created by an external agent; an artifact.
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themselves do not evolve but serve as residual, objective containers for intersubjective development. When transpersonal consciousness awakens and the theosphere emerges, a correlative morphology will be enacted. Speculations on this are to follow in the results section.

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CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
AN ADAPTATION OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS MODEL
THE FOCUS OF THE STUDY This study will focus on the development of the LR quadrant- the world of collective, exterior form- after the critical point of self-reflectivity (the inception of Ken Wilber’s “noosphere”) (See Figure 3A). It will use an adaptation of the four quadrants model to evaluate the co-evolution16 of consciousness and architectural morphology through the significant phases of human evolution, paying particular attention to the ways that the various dualisms inherent in personal consciousness have been manifested in the external world (especially in the rise and fall of “sacred” architectures). To conclude, it will suggest that we are approaching another critical point in the evolution of consciousness- the brink of the transpersonal- which will transcend these dualisms and set the precedence for an integral design morphology. AN ADAPTATION OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS MODEL The adaptation of the four quadrants model that will be used for this study will to allocate “physiology” to the objective (UR) quadrant, “ontology” to the subjective (UL) quadrant, “ideology” to the intersubjective (LL) quadrant, and “morphology” to the interobjective (LR) quadrant. Each quadrant will be evaluated through pre-modern, modern, post-modern, and integral MUTATIONS17 of personal consciousness. (See Figures 3B and 3C) Brain and Organism→ “Physiology” (UR) • The form and structure of the organism Self and Consciousness→ “Ontology” (UL) • The consciousness of the organism Culture and Worldview→ “Ideology” (LL) • The consciousness of the culture Environment and Social System→ “Morphology” (LR) • The form and structure of culture

Co-evolution: the simultaneous, parallel evolution of two or more categories where variations and adaptations in one set evoke an adaptive response in the other set. 17 Mutation: an event that changes or alters compositional structure. 22

16

INTERLUDE: THE NOOSPHERE
HUMAN HOLONS: EMERGENTS IN ALL FOUR QUADRANTS
As evolution awakens from the prepersonal slumber of the biosphere EMERGENTS are enacted in all four quadrants. (See Figure 3D). QUADRANT GROUND BIOSPHERE UR PHYSIOLOGY Structuration of brain complex Pre-personal, unconscious unity Pre-personal unconscious participation in the “group-mind” (unity) (Natural) Pre-Architecture Unconscious -“Genetic”(unity) EMERGENTS NOOSPHERE Neurological activation Personal, conscious differentiation Personal conscious participation in human culture (differentiation) (Mental) Architecture Conscious -Artifactual”(differentiation)

UL

ONTOLOGY

LL

IDEOLOGY

LR

MORPHOLOGY

Table 3A- EMERGENTS of the Noosphere.

23

INTERLUDE: THE NOOSPHERE
HUMAN HOLONS: MUTATIONS IN ALL FOUR QUADRANTS
ISOMORPHIC18 STREAMS OF DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 3E) Since the EMERGENCE of the humankind and the noosphere, our species has traversed a series of cognitive leaps, or MUTATIONS of consciousness. These jumps and transformations involve structural changes that manifest in all domains of existence (all four quadrants). In the “results” section, each mutation of consciousness will be evaluated (with particular attention as to how it informs that epoch’s morphology) as follows: (See Figure 3F and Chart 0A) PHYSIOLOGY- (UR) The biological structure of the human brain has remained the same for past 10,000 years (from primitives to moderns) but there have been increasing levels of electrical activity and neurological activation, which have actuated increasingly advanced forms of cognition and consciousness. This study will track the MUTATIONS of human physiology through the complexification of our species, from the elementary structure of the hominid limbic system in the archaic stage of development to the synchronization of the neocortical hemispheres in the integral stage of development, drawing relations between the physical/electrical structure and the cognitive capacities that they enable. ONTOLOGY- (UL) ***It should be noted that structures of thought evolve through the same sequential progression regardless of scale (timing may vary but sequence does not). The collective evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny) exactly mirrors the development of the organism from birth to maturity (ontogeny). For this study, the ontological structures outlined below will be applied to the macro-scale of the evolution of the human species as a whole. (See Figure 3G) Epistemological Structures- “Cognitive Style of Development” As the human brain develops, new epistemological structures emerge. This study will use Piaget’s stages of cognitive development from childhood to adulthood in conjunction with Ken Wilber’s stages of cognitive development beyond adulthood and through enlightenment to chart the MUTATIONS of human consciousness as it evolves through the complexification of our species, from the primitive cognition of simple images which represent only one thing or event, to symbols and concepts which represent whole groups or classes of things or events, to rules which organize and
18

Isomorphism: A one-to-one correspondence between the elements of two sets such that the result of an operation on elements of one set corresponds to the result of an operation on elements of the other set.

24

integrate numerous classes and groups into entire networks and beyond, while paying particular attention to how these structures inform the organization and content of architectural form. Particular relationship between “self” and “other”- “Individual Identity” Each stage of cognitive development is characterized by a particular relationship between the subject and the object, self and other. This study will track the MUTATIONS of human consciousness as it evolves through the complexification of our species, from pre-personal, pre-differentiated unity with the environment through embryonic forms of separateness to the emergence of the full-fledged, personal separate ego, and beyond to the transpersonal realms of subtle, causal and absolute unity, while paying particular attention to how these developmental structures inform the constructed relationships between nature and culture, inside and outside. Particular mode of spatial and temporal perception- “Perception of Space and Time” Each stage of cognitive development is revealed by its conceptions of and relationship to space and time- increases in consciousness are accompanied by the appearance and effectuality of a new dimension. This study will track the MUTATIONS (structuration and spatialization) of human consciousness through the complexification of our species as it emerges from the 0-dimensional structure of pre-personal unity, unfolds through 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional structures of personal differentiation, and awakens to the transpersonal transparency of 4-dimensional structure, while paying particular attention to how these conceptions of space and time have informed architectural constructions. IDEOLOGY (LL) Particular relationship between “us” and “them” - “Collective Identity” As consciousness awakens from pre-personal, unconscious participation in the “group mind” it consciously organizes itself through human culture. This study will track the MUTATIONS of human culture through the complexification of our species as it progresses through increasingly inclusive structures of collective thought and social identification, from its egocentric inceptions through ethnocentric, socio-centric, worldcentric, and finally being-centric dimensions, while paying particular attention to the ways in which these internally inclusive identifications have yielded externally inclusive urban morphologies. Conceptual model of reality- “Cosmology” Each collective mind, or culture, at its specific stage of cognitive development, creates a conceptual model of reality which reflects their mental capacity and their perception of space, time, and relation to source or origin. This study will track the MUTATIONS of these increasingly inclusive, spatialized, and abstracted conceptual models of reality through the complexification of our species, from the localized 1– dimensional cosmology of primitive hominids, to the polarized, 2-dimensional cosmology of Paleolithic humans, through the spatialized, 3-dimensional cosmology of rational humans, to the temporalized and relativisitc 4-dimensional cosmology of postmodern humans, and into the holarichal, hyperdimensional cosmologies of integral

25

humans, while noting the correlation between such internal structures and the organization and structuration of architectural form. Relationship to source- “Deity” As mind awakens from the undifferentiated unity of the slumbering subconsciousness shared with the rest of nature, it experiences self-consciousness- a “separate self” seemingly disconnected from origin. In response, it projects a succession of substitute structures for superior consciousness (“Gods”) which are incorporated into the conceptual models of reality (cosmologies) above. This study will track the MUTATIONS of the “God” structure in human culture through the complexification of our species, from its inception at the onset of personal consciousness and into the transpersonal territories (where God-consciousness is actualized as the archetypical summit of one’s own development), while paying particular attention to the ways that these various structures have informed “sacred” morphologies. MORPHOLOGY (LR) Social organization of collective identity- “Urban Morphology” Urban morphology (LR) is a cultural product which reflects the collective identity of the culture. This study will track the MUTATIONS of social systems through the complexification of our species, from the autonomous and differentiated tribal culture (spread around the global with little contact to on another) to the integration and assimilation of societies into successively larger units of increasing wholeness, culminating finally in the coalescence of a supranational, globalized system of planetary intelligence. “Architectural Morphology” Architectural morphologies reflect MUTATIONS consciousness- epistemological structures, conceptions of selfhood, perceptions of space and time, collective identity and cultural meaning, cosmological hierarchies, and notions of the sacred. This study will situate architectural morphology in the context of the other domains of evolution as listed above.

26

HUMAN HOLONS AND THE ARCHITECTURAL ARTIFACT19
Through the early development of our species (archaic and mythic eras) humans were embedded in nature and lived off of the land, much like other animals. As humans evolved self-consciousness, they began to set themselves apart from the world and reflect upon, conceptualize, and analyze their experience. In time, we became less and less alive to the ever-present ground state of being until finally, the separated “ego” no longer identified with the rest of creation and experienced only “other”. The dichotomization of self (subject) and other (object) that is inherent in selfconsciousness is the interior correlative (UL) of “architectural” morphology20 (LR): through the construction of walls and partitions we created bounded domains- “forts of egocentricity”- which separate interior from exterior, self from other. Pre-modern, modern, and post-modern spatiotemporal schemes emphasized the stability and permanence of the architectural “object”, a finite complex which is set apart from the greater metabolism, negligent of the fact that it is a node in a larger ecology. The expression of the architectural “object”, however, has changed as self- consciousness progressed through magical/mythic, mythic/rational, scientific-rational, and pluralistic stages of consciousness. (See Figure 3H)

INTERLUDE: THE NOOSPHERE

Artifact: a substance that is not naturally present but is the product of an extrinsic agent.

19

27

CHAPTER 4.1: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Archaic Mutation--(Up to 2 million years ago)

28

---Archaic Mutation--OVERVIEW

(Up to 2 million years ago)

Biospheric Fusion State. Archaic consciousness has been predominate mode of being in all forms of life since the beginning of evolution up to and including the first hominids. In this mode, spirit is unconscious, instinctually embedded in a dreamy immersion and oneness with the material world; the organism lives in a fusion state of oceanic adualism, of primitive indifferentation, in which there is no distinction between self and environment, subject and object, inner an outer. Experience is unmediated- there is no split between feeling (body) and thinking (mind), experiencing and observing, being and doing (Earley 3). This mode of consciousness is the structure behind the universal myths of the “Garden of Eden”- the paradisiacal, primal state before “the fall” into the separation. As such, it is not a “transpersonal haven” but a “pre-personal” slumber (Wilber, Up from Eden 143).

29

---Archaic Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

Australopithecus, Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus. • Consciousness remains centered in the limbic system. (See Figures 4.1A and 4.1B) LIMBIC SYSTEM Instincts- Feeding, Fighting, Sexual Behavior Affective Functions- Emotions and Feelings
Table 4.1A- Archaic Physiology: the Limbic System.

30

---Archaic Mutation--ONTOLOGY
COGNITIVE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT Pre-cognition.

(Up to 2 million years ago)

31

---Archaic Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Pre-personal. In the archaic stage of development, the self is fused with the natural world; there is no distinction between self and environment, subject and object, inner and outer, body and mind. PRE-PERSONAL No distinction between self and environment No distinction between subject and object, inner and outer No distinction between body and mind
Table 4.1B- Archaic Identity (Individual): Pre-personal.

32

---Archaic Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 0-Dimensional. In the archaic stage of development, awareness is zero-dimensional; reality is rendered as a spaceless and timeless whole. 0-DIMENSIONAL Unperspectival Objectless Spaceless Timeless

PERSPECTIVE OBJECTHOOD SPACE TIME

Table 4.1C- Archaic Perception of Space and Time: 0-Dimensional .

33

---Archaic Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

COSMOLOGY/DEITY None. In the archaic stage of development, the organism is directly connected to origin so there is no need for mediation. Further, it lacks the mental capacity to reflect upon the nature of existence.

34

---Archaic Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Ego-Centric. In the archaic stage of development, the organism starts to emerge from preconscious participation in the pre-personal “group mind”; in this primitive phase, existence is egocentric and survival based. (See Figure 4.1C) EGOCENTRIC Survival Based
Table 4.1D-Archaic Identity (Collective): Egocentric.

35

---Archaic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY Survival Clans. In the archaic stage of development, hominids are embedded in nature; they group together in small scale survival clans and gain their subsistence from gathering plants or hunting and scavenging wild animals. (See Figure 4.1D) Survival Clans Population <10
Table 4.1E- Archaic Urban Morphology: Survival Clans.

36

---Archaic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(Up to 2 million years ago)

ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY Organic. The archaic, internal state corresponds to the external morphology of the physiosphere and the biosphere- the atomic/molecular structures of chemistry and the cellular/organismic structures of biology (the “natural” or “organic” world as it is normally conceived) (See Figure 4.1E). In Hegelian terms, the “concept is infused in the material”; there is no separation of thought and form, the finite and the infinite coexist in synthesis (Hendrix 187).

37

CHAPTER 4.2: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Magical Mutation--(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

38

---Magical Mutation--OVERVIEW

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

Emergence of the Noosphere. In the magical stage of development, the slumbering consciousness that was present through the entire unfolding and enfolding of the physiosphere and the biosphere is slowly awakened. The distinct self begins to emerge from the environment and for the first time, spirit becomes vaguely conscious of itself.

39

---Magical Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

Neanderthal/ Cro-Magnon. • Consciousness remains centered in limbic system (See Figures 4.2A and 4.2B) LIMBIC SYSTEM Instincts- Feeding, Fighting, Sexual Behavior Affective Functions- Emotions and Feelings
Table 4.2A- Magical Physiology: the Limbic System.

40

---Magical Mutation--ONTOLOGY
COGNITIVE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor. (See Figure 4.2C)

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

SENSORIMOTOR Behaviors limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli Sensations coordinated into schemas Repeats action in order to trigger a response from environment (goal directed behavior) Towards end of stage, beginning of symbolic thinking
Table 4.2B- Magical Cognitive Style: Sensorimotor.

41

---Magical Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Early Ego Formation. (See Figure 4.2D) In the magical stage of development, the newly emerging self is coming into a primitive awareness of an external world; the being, however, is only vaguely interiorized and fragments of internal experience cling to the external world while fragments of the external world cling to the self. Subject and object are confusedmental images are identified with the physical objects they represent, leading the subject to believe that he has special power over the object (magic) and that the object has subjective qualities (animism). This leads the subject to believe that the he can magically alter, control, create and govern the world. From PRE-PERSONAL No distinction between self and environment To EARLY EGO FORMATION Subtle distinction between self and environment ---self and environment confused--Subtle distinction between subject and object, inner and outer No distinction between body and mind

No distinction between subject and object, inner and outer No distinction between body and mind

Table 4.2C- Magical Identity (Individual): Early Ego Formation.

42

---Magical Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 1-Dimensional. In the magical stage of development, consciousness emerges from the whole, no longer a zero-dimensional structure of unitary identity but a 1-dimensional centering which is not entirely localized but rather spread over the world of phenomenon. The undifferentiated wholeness of experience is broken down into parts which are not connected in any logical way, only through “magic”; the world is plastic- images transform into one another and events are experienced blindly and confusedly, as in the world dreams (O’Sullivan 71). From 0-DIMENSIONAL Unperspectival Objectless To 1-DIMENSIONAL Unperspectival Objects in field of awareness, Dream-like plasticity (Immediate View) Awareness of movement and sensation Subtle perception of interior and exterior Centering of experience Registration of movement but no temporal division

PERSPECTIVE OBJECTHOOD

SPACE

Spaceless

TIME

Timeless

Table 4.2D- Magical Perception of Space and Time: 1-Dimensional.

43

---Magical Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

COSMOLOGY Animistic. In the magical stage of development, the “universe” is extremely localized. The organism conceives the objects and beings in the immediate environment and transfers to those objects and beings the qualities with which he is familiarly acquainted and intimately conscious. (Hume 224). Impersonal nature is conceived as “alive”, possessing not just prehension but explicitly personal intentions. From NO COSMOLOGY To ANIMISTIC “I” can control nature Nature is “Alive” Universe Extremely LocalizedImmediate view, immediate present

---

Table 4.2E- Magical Cosmology: Animistic.

44

---Magical Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

DEITY Nature Spirits. (See Figure 4.2E) In the magical stage of development the tribe is interwoven in nature and its elemental powers; they are represented spiritually an animal (a totem) of other naturalistic figure. Cultic rites center on identification with wild animals and appeasing the spirits, often the hunted. From NO DEITY To NATURE SPIRITS Totem Polytheistic Spirits reside within manifest world Humanity a part of nature

Table 4.2F- Magical Deity: Nature Spirits.

45

---Magical Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Ethno-Centric. In the magical stage of development, collective identity remains “close to the body” through blood-bound, kinship relations; individuals trace their descent to a common ancestor and thus, in the framework of their worldview, assure themselves a common cosmogenic origin (Habernas111-12). From EGOCENTRIC Survival Based To ETHNOCENTRIC Kinship Relations Held together by Common Blood

Table 4.2G- Magical Identity (Collective): Ethno-Centric.

46

---Magical Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY Ethnic Tribes. In the magical stage of development, humans do not distinguish between natural and socio-cultural reality: they are a part of nature rather than superior to or separate from it. They live off of the land in small, mobile nomadic tribal structures with biological relatives. (See Figure 4.2F)

From SURVIVAL CLANS Population <10

To ETHNIC TRIBES Population 10’s-100’s

Table 4.2H- Magical Urban Morphology: Ethnic Tribes.

47

---Magical Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY From ORGANIC “Natural” World

(2 Million-10,000 B.C.)

To PRIMITIVE INHABITATION Cave Dwelling

Table 4.2I- Magical Architectural Morphology.

Case Study- The Cave Dwelling (Primitive Inhabitation) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Subtle Beginning to set self Identity Distinction apart from “nature”between self inhabitation in rock and shelters and natural environment caves Subtle Evidenced in imagesdistinction no people (indicates only between primitive levels of selfconsciousness, if any, subject and object, inner have emerged), only and outer animals “objects of attention” Cognitive Symbolic Evidenced in imagesArt/symbols to represent Development thinking activities that occur in daily life on cave walls Goal directed Evidenced in imagesaction depict “the hunt” Perception of Unperspectival Evidenced in imagesSpace simple, flat, no spatial depth IDEOLOGY Cosmology Animistic Live in harmony with natural forces, cultic Deity Nature Spirits ceremonies to appease the spirits of nature
Table 4.2J- Case Study- The Cave Dwelling (Primitive Inhabitation)

Case Study- The Cave Dwelling (Primitive Inhabitation) In the magical stage of development, the environment starts to become an object of awareness which can be acted upon. Here we see the first signs of “setting apart”inhabitation in rock shelters and natural caves- as well as the exploration of the emerging self-consciousness through the art and symbols on their walls. (See Figure 4.2G)

48

CHAPTER 4.3: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Magical/Mythic Mutation--(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

49

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--OVERVIEW

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

Initial Distinction between Biosphere and Noosphere. In the magical/mythic stage of development, spirit continues to awaken from the unconscious slumber of pre-historical Eden; the self has already begun to differentiate its own organism from the environment and will now begin to distinguish between its body and its mind.

50

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY
• Neocortical Activation (See Figure 4.3A) From LIMBIC SYSTEM InstinctsFeeding, Fighting, Sexual Behavior Affective FunctionsEmotions and Feelings

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

To NEOCORTICAL ACTIVATION Rational BrainConscious Thought Language Spatial Awareness

Table 4.3A- Magic/Mythic Physiology: Neocortical Activation.

51

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--ONTOLOGY
COGNITIVE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT Preoperational. (See Figure 4.3B, 4.3C and 4.3D) From SENSORIMOTOR Behaviors limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli Sensations coordinated into schemas Repeats action in order to trigger a response from environment (goal directed behavior) Towards end of stage, beginning of symbolic thinking

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

To PREOPERATIONAL

Operates on world of objects

Masters symbolic thinkingManifests language Begins intuitive reasoning Harmony of complementary, polar opposites Comes into an awareness of other minds (culture) Still egocentricDoes not realize that other people do not know, think, and perceive the same as him

Table 4.3B- Magical/Mythic Cognitive Stage of Development: Preoperational.

52

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Ego Formation. In the magical/mythic stage of development, the organism firmly roots itself within the body and clearly differentiates between the interior and exterior world. It begins to subtly distinguish between its body and its mind. (See Figure 4.3E) From EARLY EGO FORMATION Subtle distinction between self and environment Subtle distinction between subject and object, inner and outer No distinction between body and mind To EGO FORMATION Greater distinction between self and environment Greater distinction between subject and object, inner and outer Subtle distinction between body and mind

Table 4.3C- Magical/Mythic Identity (Individual): Ego Formation.

53

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 2-Dimensional. In the magical/mythic stage of development, the unitary, non-directional point of 1-dimensional consciousness expands to an awareness of earth and sky (enclosed space) and with it, the rhythmic cycles of day and night, the four seasons, and cosmic periodicity (extended, cyclical time getting nowhere but going perpetually around in circles). (See Figures 4.3F, 4.3G and 4.3H) From 1-DIMENSIONAL Unperspectival Objects in field of awareness, Dream-like plasticity (Immediate View) Awareness of movement and sensation Subtle perception of an interior and exterior Centering of experience Registration of movement but no temporal division To 2-DIMENSIONAL Unperspectival Objects in field of awareness, Object permanence Awareness of earth and sky (polarity21) Greater awareness of interior and exterior Spatial Enclosure Awareness of Natural Cycles (temporocity22)

PERSPECTIVE OBJECTHOOD

SPACE

TIME

Table 4.3D- Magical/Mythic Perception of Space and Time: 2-Dimensional.

Polarity: the doctrine that reality consists of two basic complementary principles that account for all that exists. 22 Temporocity: the perception of time in the magical/mythic structure of consciousness which registers the comings and goings of natural cycles but does not yet perceive time linearly (a Gesberian Term).

21

54

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

COSMOLOGY/DEITY Chthonic/Mother Goddess. In the magical/mythic stage of development, the primitive fusion between the self and the environment begins to break down; the organism develops a rudimentary egoan independent, structured existence in space and time- but is not yet able to detach itself completely from nature and the body. Such structures of being are found in the peoples of the Neolithic, ancient world; each such culture worshipped some variant of the great goddess or “earth mother” as an expression of natural, biological dependence. (See Figure 4.3I). With the development of polar consciousness, the “earth mother” Goddess is complemented by the “sun father” God. The continuation of life (the fertility of the great earth womb) depended union of these two cosmic, polar forces: through the luminary light of the sun god penetrating the passageways of earth goddess through given intervals of time. From ANIMISTIC “I” can control nature Nature is “Alive” Universe extremely localizedImmediate view, immediate present To CHTHONIC “I” can’t control nature but something else does Nature ruled by “Mother Goddess” and “Father God” 2:Dimensional Universe spatialized according to polar conception of earth and sky Mythologies of rhythmic, cyclical time To MOTHER GODDESS Matriarchal- Fertility Goddess (Dominated) Polytheistic Spirits reside within manifest world Humanity a part of cosmic perpetuation (Fertility rites, man and woman)

Table 4.3E- Magical/Mythic Cosmology: Chthonic.

From NATURE SPIRITS Totem Polytheistic Spirits reside within manifest world Humanity a part of nature

Table 4.3F- Magical/Mythic Deity: Mother Goddess.

55

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Socio-Centric. In the magical/mythic stage of development, verbal, communicative culture provides the framework to evolve beyond the conflicting interests of genetically related tribe into a social structure based on shared perceptions, sentiments, and descriptive realities. Collective identity is secured through the acceptance of the prevailing mythological belief structure (Wilber, SES 123). From ETHNO-CENTRIC To SOCIO-CENTRIC

Kinship RelationsEthnic Tribe

Held together by common blood

Territorial RelationsChiefdoms

Held together by common perceptions, language, and mythology

Table 4.3G- Magical/Mythic Identity (Collective): Socio-Centric.

56

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY From Early Permanent Settlements to Chiefdoms to City-States. In the magical/mythic stage of development, Neolithic humans begin to separate themselves from nature and create permanent settlements and civilizations. Social integration takes place through the identification with a common political ruler whose legitimacy is given because of their connection and privileged access to mythological powers. (See Figure 4.3J) From ETHNIC TRIBES Population 10’s-100’s (2 Million BC-10,000 BC) To EARLY PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS Population 100’s-1000’s (10,000BC-5,000 BC) To CHEIFDOMS Population 1,000’S-10,000’S (5,000 BC-3,000 BC) To CITY-STATES Population 10,000-100,000 (3,000BC-1,000 BC)

Table 4.3H- Magical/Mythic Urban Morphology: From Early Permanent Settlements to Chiefdoms to City-States.

57

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY From PRIMITIVE INHABITATION Cave Dwelling

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

To CHTHONIC OBJECT Stone Pillar Architectures

Table 4.3I- Magical/Mythic Architectural Morphology.

General Humankind first uses indestructible materials to erect large structures not to live in but to worship their gods. Construction is carried out in respect to the idea of the divine and the way that it manifests in mortal cycles of generations, years, seasons, days, and nights.

58

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

Case Study- Stone Pillar Architectures (The Chthonic Object) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Greater Continuing to set self Identity distinction apart from “nature”between self permanent civilizations and environment Greater Greater sense of selfdistinction consciousness as between evidenced in the subject and anthropocentric cave art object, interior of the early Neolithic and exterior period Ego structure is forming but the self has not completely detached from nature. First permanent structures exhibit spatial holismuse polar elements to define space but no strict definition between inside and outside (no walls) and no spatial enclosure (no roof) Cognitive Development Operates on world of objects Inductive Reasoningknowledge based on observation/ patterns of phenomenon Polar Awareness of Earth and Sky Operates on nature/the landscape, agricultural revolution Metrology- architecture used as a monumental calendar to measure natural cycles of time

Perception of space

2-Dimensional, columnar architectures reflect polar awareness of earth and sky

59

Perception of time IDEOLOGY Collective Identity Cosmology

Cyclical

Mythology Perpetuation of life through the union of two polar, cosmic forces Earth Goddess/ Sun God/ Constellations

Architecture charts nocturnal/lunar/solar periodicity Symbolic form Phallic symbol (pillar) penetrates the body of the earth goddess, configurations measure cycles of fertility Live in harmony with nature/understand and chart natural forces

Deity

Table 4.3J- Case Study- Stone Pillar Architectures (The Chthonic Object).

60

---Magical/Mythic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY

(10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.)

Case Study-Stone Pillar Architectures (The Chthonic Object) The sky represents the cosmic male domain but a seed of femininity pervades that region in the form of the moon. Equally in harmony, the cosmic male equivalent on the earth goddess's domain is the stone pillar- a cosmic phallic symbol penetrating the body of the Earth Goddess. These symbols were carefully arranged to chart nocturnal and lunar periodicity (cycles of fertility). Stonehenge in England is the best known of these complexes (See Figure 4.3K). The stones were set up by several successive peoples inhabiting the region between 3000 and 1600 BC. Because they are arranged to align with the sun at the summer and winter solstices, it is generally assumed that the complex served as a monumental calendar in which rites were performed on significant days of the year. Similar circles of stones were set up elsewhere in England, at Avebury most particularly, and in France at Carnac.

61

CHAPTER 4.4: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Mythic/Rational Mutation--(1000 BC-1400 AD)

62

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--OVERVIEW

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

Progressive Differentiation between Biosphere and Noosphere. In the mythic/rational stage of development, the mind has significantly differentiated from nature and the body, creating a schism between self and world. The organism, for the first time, begins to experience the “human condition” as an “insufferable state of sin, exile, or delusion” (Wilber, Up from Eden, pg. 134).

63

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY
• NEOCORTICAL ACTIVATION Rational BrainConscious Thought Language Spatial Awareness

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

Increasing levels of neocortical activation (See Figure 4.4A)

Table 4.4A- Mythic/Rational Physiology: Neocortical Activation.

64

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--ONTOLOGY
COGNITIVE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT Concrete Operational. (See Figure 4.4B) From PREOPERATIONAL Operates on world of objects Masters symbolic thinkingManifests language Begins intuitive reasoning Harmony of complementary, polar opposites Comes into an awareness of other minds (culture) Still egocentricDoes not realize that other people do not know, think, and perceive the same as him

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

To CONCRETE OPERATIONAL Operates on thought Learns analytical skills Begins deductive reasoning Quantification and dichotomization of polar opposites Can mentally reconstruct the perspective of another organism (Perceptions can be compared)

Table 4.4B- Mythic/Rational Cognitive Style: Concrete Operational.

65

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Late Ego Formation. (See Figure 4.4C) In the mythic/rational stage of development, the organism completely identifies with its interior and turns towards the world of objects; the ego-structure emerges and the subject finds himself in confrontation with an alien world, a dualism which must be bridged by a synthesis in thought. From EGO FORMATION Greater distinction between self and environment Greater distinction between subject and object, inner and outer Subtle distinction between body and mind To LATE EGO FORMATION Even greater distinction between self and environment Even greater distinction between subject and object, inner and outer Greater distinction between body and mind

Table 4.4C- Mythic/Rational Identity (Individual): Late Ego Formation.

66

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 3-Dimensional (Elementary). (See Figure 4.4D) In the magical/mythic stage of development, the organism is unaware of past, present and future; time had not yet been spatialized and was devoid of directionality. The emerging rational mind (capable of deductive reasoning) mentally splits apart the rhythms of cyclical, polar reality, breaking its fusion with natural temporocity. This marks the birth of directed, linear “time” (-to “divide”, to ”take apart”) (See Figure 4.4E) and objectified, Euclidian space, both of which man will attempt to conquer with his thinking. From 2-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE OBJECTHOOD Unperspectival Objects in field of awareness, Object permanence Awareness of earth and sky (polarity) To 3-DIMENSIONAL (ELEMENTARY) Early Perspectival Subject turns towards objects of awareness Awareness of orientation in space “in here” vs. “out there" (duality23) Distinction between interior and exterior Euclidian Space: Orientation, Direction Extended Time: Past, Present, Future

SPACE

Greater awareness of interior and exterior Spatial Enclosure TIME Awareness of Natural Cycles (temporocity)

Table 4.4D- Mythic/Rational Perception of Space and Time: 3-Dimensional (Elementary).

Duality: the doctrine that reality consists of two basic, opposed, and irreducible principles that account for all that exists.

23

67

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

COSMOLOGY Celestial. In the mythic/rational stage of development, the self rises above nature forming a rift between the organism and the rest of the cosmos. Since origin is no longer experienced directly, it must be somewhere “beyond” the physical- it must be metaphysical. Such metaphysical dualism is evident in the spatial dualism of late Greek and medieval cosmologies: their essential feature was the belief that the terrestrial, physical domain of humans was qualitatively distinct from the celestial, sacred domain of the planets and stars. Late Greek Cosmology (1100BC-100BC) Centermost in Greek cosmology was the Earth. The sublunary sphere- the realm of generation, change and corruption- was comprised of the four elements (earth, water, fire, and air). Beyond the moon was the unchanging and eternal celestial region; it was not made of earthly material but of a mysterious, divine ‘fifth element’. (See Figure 4.4F) Concentric crystalline spheres carried the 7 planets (which included the sun and the moon), the circle of fixed stars (the zodiac), and the Primum Mobile (divided into three spheres of the Crystalline Heaven, the First Moveable, and the Empyrean, or highest heaven) around the stationary, stable Earth. The spheres were related to one another through pure, whole-number ratios, creating the heavenly “music of the spheres”. (See Figure 4.4G) Medieval Cosmology (200AD-1400AD) In time, Greek cosmology was adapted to fit medieval theology. The Prime Mover became the Christian God, the outermost sphere became heaven, and the earth was the center of God's attention. The cosmos was ordered according to spatial hierarchy along the axis of sin and grace. Hell was a chasm inside of earth, purgatory a mountain on the surface of earth, and heaven was located in the Celestial realm. The heavenly spheres, moved by the Prime Mover, existed and rotated in perfect harmony, but humans, habitant of the sublunary sphere corruptible since Adam's fall, could no longer hear this music. (See Figure 4.4 H)

68

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY
COSMOLOGY (Cont.) From CHTHONIC 2-Dimensional: Universe spatialized according to polar conception of earth and sky Spirits reside within manifest world

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

To CELESTIAL 3-Dimensional: “Music of the Spheres” Geocentric Metaphysical- spirit resides beyond manifest world Heterogeneous space Spatial dualismDistinct realms for physical (terrestrial) and sacred (celestial) space Universe as an instrument Spheres geometrically (harmonically) related Linear: Temporally directed cosmologies: creation, the beginning of time, subsequent fall, work of evolutionary restoration Static Universe

Mythologies of rhythmic, cyclical time

Table 4.4E- Mythic/Rational Cosmology: Celestial.

69

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

DIETY Father God. (See Figure 4.4I) A monotheistic, metaphysical God is the spiritual counterpart of the awakened ego. Humans are “here”, god is “there”- the two no longer stand as polar correspondences or complements, but in dualistic opposition. From MOTHER GODDESS Matriarchal (Dominated) Polytheistic Goddess/God as natural elements (Earth, sun, constellations) Spirits reside within manifest world To FATHER GOD Patriarchal (Entirely) Monotheistic God as a mental abstraction Metaphysical (Spirit elevated to the “heavens”- beyond the physical domain) God as separate from humanity, divine and all-powerful perfection outside of space and time. Humans with independent “souls” severed from source.

Humanity a part of cosmic perpetuation (Fertility rites, man and woman)

Table 4.4F- Mythic/Rational Deity: Father God.

70

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Socio/World-Centric. In the mythic/rational stage of development, rationality provides the framework to evolve beyond the conflicting mythologies of socio-centric chiefdoms into a world-centric social structure based on mutual understandings. Collective identity is secured by way of doctrines with a universal claim; religions emerge, which place humanity in relation to a supreme, transcendental God or universal essence. From SOCIO-CENTRIC To SOCIO/ WORLD-CENTRIC

Territorial RelationsChiefdoms

Held together by common perceptions, language, and mythology

Territorial RelationsFeudal Empires/ Early Nations

Held together by common rationale and universal claims of mythic doctrine

Table 4.4G- Mythic/Rational Identity (Collective): Socio/World-Centric

71

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY Feudal Empires/Early Nations. Mythologies, propped up by rationality, form the feudal empires and early nations which attempt to conquer as many people as possible. Since such mythologies can not be supported entirely by shared evidence, they are supported imperialistically by the military. Empires with conflicting ideologies are incompatible with one another and maintain no diplomatic relations. From EARLY PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS Population 100’s-1000’s (10,000BC-5,000 BC) To CHEIFDOMS Population 1,000’S-10,000’S (5,000 BC-3,000 BC) To CITY-STATES Population 10,000-100,000 (3,000BC-1,000 BC) To FEUDAL EMPIRES/ EARLY NATIONS Population 100,000’s-1,000,000’s (1,000BC-1400AD)

Table 4.4H- Mythic/Rational Urban Morphology: Feudal Empires/Early Nations.

72

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY From CHTHONIC OBJECT

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

To CELESTIAL OBJECT

Stone Pillar Architectures

The Greek Temple The Gothic Cathedral

Table 4.4I- Mythic/Rational Architectural Morphology.

General The Use of Symbolism. Mythic/rational consciousness is for the most part, still pre-rational- truth is based on the doctrines of religion and is inherently unscientific. The architecture of the premodern era is adorned with symbolic figures-statues, sculptural decoration, and muralswhich detail the myths of creation and their implied significance for humanity. A Sacred Order: Geometry, Ratio, and Proportion. The architecture of the Greek and Medieval periods symbolized the sacred harmony of the cosmos. The "music of the spheres" vibrated through the world- when humanity made earthly architecture according to the ratio of the heavens, they participated in the harmony of the universe. Their temples and Cathedrals intended to bridge the separation between humans and deity, to bring God and celestial harmony closer to earthly life.

73

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

Case Study- The Greek Temple (The Celestial Object) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Even greater Continuing to set self Identity distinction apart from “nature”between self and environment Even greater Even greater sense of distinction self-consciousness as between evidenced in subject and anthropocentric object, interior sculptures and and exterior ornamentation in the Greek temple Ego structure has almost completely developedpolar elements used to define geometrical space which registers depth, still lacks strict definition between inside and outside (walls), however, it reflects spatial enclosure (roof) Analytical skills, Mathematically deductive proportioned, geometrical reasoning spaces Early Evidenced in relief perspective sculpturesregistration of spatial depth Linear, Evidenced in relief Extended sculpturesdepict temporally extended creation stories Mythology Symbolic form/ ornamentation Music of the Proportion: Spheres whole number ratios in accordance

Cognitive Development Perception of space

Perception of time

IDEOLOGY

Collective Identity Cosmology

74

Deity

Zeus, God of Thunder and Sky- Ruler of the 12 Gods of Olympus

Temples dedicated to the 12 Gods (i.e. Athena Parthenos) Each city associated with a God/Goddess (i.e. Athens)

Table 4.4J- Case Study- The Greek Temple (The Celestial Object).

75

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

Case Study- The Greek Temple (The Celestial Object) The Greek temple became a symbol of universal order through geometry. Emphasis was placed on exact, whole number ratios (the chords of the music of the spheres), particularly unitary fractions that had 1 as the numerator. (See Figures 4.1J, 4.1K and 4.1L)

76

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

Case Study- The Gothic Cathedral (The Celestial Object) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Even greater Continuing to set self apart Identity distinction between from “nature”self and environment Even greater Even greater sense of selfdistinction between consciousness as evidenced in subject and object, anthropocentric paintings and interior and stained glass windows of the gothic cathedral exterior Ego structure has completely developed- spatial dualismstrict definition between inside and outside (walls), spatial enclosure (roof), architectural “object”, a “fort of egocentricity” Cognitive Development Perception of space Perception of time Analytical skills, deductive reasoning Early perspective Mathematically proportioned, geometrical spaces Evidenced in perspective paintingsregistration of spatial depth Evidenced in ornamentationDepict temporally extended creation stories Symbolic Form Relationship between interior and exterior- stained glass windows depict religious mythology, filtered perception (only semi-rational) Proportion: whole number ratios in accordance Loftiness and huge

Temporally extended, linear

IDEOLOGY

Collective Identity

Mythologies with universal claim (only semi-rational)

Cosmology

Music of the Spheres Christian God 77

Deity

dimensions convey great glory of the Christian god
Table 4.4K- Case Study- The Gothic Cathedral (The Celestial Object).

78

---Mythic/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1000 BC-1400 AD)

Case Study- The Gothic Cathedral (The Celestial Object) The Gothic cathedral represented the universe in microcosm; each architectural concept, including its loftiness and the huge dimensions of the structure- were intended to convey the great glory of the Christian God. Mathematics and geometry, “the fundamental harmonizer of the universe and human life” formed the foundation of the design process and were used to convey religious significance (Harvey 68). (See Figures 4.4M, 4.4N and 4.40)

79

CHAPTER 4.5: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Scientific/Rational Mutation--(1400 AD-1960AD)

80

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--OVERVIEW

(1400 AD-1960AD)

Differentiation/Disassociation between Biosphere and Noosphere In the scientific-rational stage of development, the mind completely crystallizes from the body; they become so differentiated that they tend towards disassociation.

81

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY
• From NEOCORTICAL ACTIVATION Rational BrainConscious thought

(1400 AD-1960AD)

Dominated by left hemisphere of neocortex (See Figure 4.5A) To LEFT HEMISPHERE Rational Logical Analytical/Reductionistic MathematicsAlgebra (Study of structure, relation, and quantity) LanguageGrammar/Vocabulary (Literal) Linear Temporal Cartesian

Language

Spatial Awareness

Table 4.5A- Scientific-Rational Physiology: Dominated by Left Hemisphere of Neocortex.

82

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--ONTOLOGY
STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Formal Operational. (See Figure 4.5B) From CONCRETE OPERATIONAL Operates on thought

(1400 AD-1960AD)

Learns analytical skills Begins deductive reasoningQuantification and dichotomization of polar opposites Can mentally reconstruct the perspective of another organism (Perceptions can be compared)

To FORMAL OPERATIONAL Operates on/discriminates thought Beyond conformity Comes up with alternatives Draws conclusions with experimental evidence (Scientific Method) Learns abstract thinkingEntertains hypothetical possibilities Continues deductive reasoningQuantification and dichotomization of polar opposites Uses rationality to establish common, universal perspective Concerned with exteriors, surface and objectivity

Table 4.5B- Scientific-Rational Cognitive Style: Formal Operational.

83

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(1400 AD-1960AD)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Fully Developed Ego Structure. In the scientific/rational stage of development, the conscious subject continues to experience itself as standing apart from the contents or “objects” of his awareness. This rigid dichotomy between the subject and the “external”, objective world of form provides the framework for rational thought- all valid knowledge consists of the subject making internal maps of the one true external world. (See Figure 4.5C) From LATE EGO FORMATION Even greater distinction between self and environment Even greater distinction between subject and object, interior and exterior Greater distinction between body and mind To FULLY DEVELOPED EGO STRUCTURE Complete distinction/disassociation between self and environment Complete distinction/disassociation between subject and object, interior and exterior Complete distinction/disassociation between mind and body (Cartesian)

Table 4.5C- Scientific-Rational Identity (Individual): The Fully Developed Ego Structure.

84

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(1400 AD-1960AD)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 3-Dimensional (Advanced). The scientific-rational stage of development masters perspectival vision and representation. Two lines extend from the eyes and meet at the object being viewed; the image formed by the isolated sector locates the subject, the object, and the space in-between. Such distance between humans and world is an indication of fully developed, objectified, ego-consciousness; experience is confined to a linear sequence of fragmented spatial segments. (See Figure 4.5D) From 3-DIMENSIONAL (ELEMENTARY) Early Perspectival To 3-DIMENSIONAL (ADVANCED) Late PerspectivalSingle, fixed perspective Subject confronts objects of awareness Disassociation between “in here” vs. “out there”

PERSPECTIVE

OBJECTHOOD SPACE

Subject turns towards objects of awareness Awareness of orientation in space “in here” vs. “out there" (duality) Euclidian Space: Orientation, Direction Extended Time: Past, Present, Future

TIME

Concretizes Euclidian Space: Orientation, Direction Extended Time: Past, Present, Future

Table 4.5D- Scientific-Rational Perception of Space and Time: 3-Dimensional (Advanced).

85

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY
COSMOLOGY Mechanistic.

(1400 AD-1960AD)

Rationality Collapses the “Heavenly Spheres” Heliocentrism and the Copernican Revolution. In the pre-modern world view, the universe is bound by the outer sphere of heaven, which is centered about the Earth. In 1543 Nicholas Copernicus proposed to switch the places of the Earth and the Sun; he put the Sun in the center of the universe and placed the Earth in revolution around it. To account for the daily motion of the heavens, he set the Earth rotating about its own axis. The crystalline sphere of stars was no longer needed- the “heavenly” bodies were scattered through a vast open space, freed to move like normal physical objects. (See Figure 4.5E) Discordant Music. Belief in the uniform, circular motion of the “spheres” had been a fundamental aspect of Western astronomy for two millennia. This belief was broken early in the 17th century when Kepler proved that the Earth and the other planets all travel around the Sun in elliptical orbits. The “music of the spheres” was not harmonious, it was discordant. (See Figure 4.5F) The Mutability of the Heavens. With the invention of the telescope, Galileo observed that the moon was not a perfectly smooth celestial orb but that its surface was uneven and rough. He also observed that the sun had sunspots. Change and imperfection could occur, both on Earth and in “Heaven”. (See Figure 4.5G) Gravitation in the Celestial Realm. A new explanation of how the planets continued to retrace the same elliptical paths forever around the Sun remained a central problem of cosmology until Isaac Newton explained how objects move under gravity. Gravity is a force of attraction between two physical masses; if the planets’ orbits are elliptical because of gravitational forces operating between the sun and the planets, celestial bodies must be concrete materials. The motions in the heavens obey the same laws that determine the movement of bodies on Earth. The ancient distinction between the physics of our earthy sphere below the Moon and the celestial physics of a higher realm was shattered. The Cosmological Principle. The ancients regarded our universe as finite, extending no larger than our solar system. Modern science revealed that our solar system is immersed in a much larger stratum of stars. Other island universes are scattered throughout infinite, unbounded space. Neither the earth nor any other celestial body is center: every place is the same as every other place, all cosmological positions are equal.

86

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY
COSMOLOGY (Cont.)

(1400 AD-1960AD)

The Unification of Celestial and Terrestrial Space In the mythic/rational world, the spiritual realm had been secured by its intimate relation with the cosmology of the time- Greek and medieval cosmologies accommodated a spatial domain for both the physical and the metaphysical. Homogenous, physical space, however, can only sustain one kind of reality; in the Newtonian cosmos, the celestial and the terrestrial are united in one continuous physical domain. The “heavenly spheres” collapse; the great dualistic medieval “Kosmos” are reduced to the physical cosmos, setting modern humanity in a new spatial scheme. A Mechanical Universe The modern universe is conceived as a static, Euclidean space extending equally in all directions, holding small and indestructible parts. Each object is a concrete, material entity, inpenetratable and separate, connecting to other objects through external forces of power and influence. These parts interact in determined, causal ways, like gears in a machine (See Figure 4.5H).

87

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY
COSMOLOGY (Cont.) From CELESTIAL 3-Dimensional: “Music of the Spheres” Geocentric Metaphysical Heterogeneous space Spatial dualismDistinct realms for physical (terrestrial) and sacred (celestial) space

(1400 AD-1960AD)

To MECHANISTIC 3-Dimensional: Collapse of “Heavenly Spheres” Heliocentric Metaphysical Homogenous space Spatial MonismUnification of terrestrial and celestial space

Universe as an instrument Spheres geometrically (harmonically) related Linear: Temporally directed cosmologies: creation, the beginning of time, subsequent fall, work of evolutionary restoration

Space an inert, passive arena, unaffected by objects it contains Universe as machine

Linear: Scientific twist Creation: Big Bang Evolution: Darwinian

Cosmological principle: properties of space and time same absolute and universal, rate of change invariant at all locations Static Universe Static Universe

Table 4.5E- Scientific-Rational Cosmology: Mechanistic.

88

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1400 AD-1960AD)

DIETY Atheistic. Scientific-rational consciousness is skeptical of all supernatural beings and cites a lack of empirical evidence for the of existence deities. From FATHER GOD Patriarchal (Entirely) Monotheistic God as a mental abstraction Metaphysical (Elevated to the “heavens”- beyond the physical domain) God as separate from humanity, divine and all-powerful perfection outside of space and time. Humans with independent “souls” severed from source. To ATHESTIC Atheism SkepticismLack of empirical evidence of supernatural being(s) Denial of all irrational knowledge claims (both pre-rational and post-rational)

Table 4.5F- Scientific-Rational Deity: Atheistic.

89

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1400 AD-1960AD)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY World-Centric (Exclusive). In the scientific/rational stage of development, increasing levels of rationality provide the framework to break with the all-encompassing grip of religious myth and determine that which is universal and eternal through the scientific method. Blind faith in authority and religious dogmas which claim divine support are abandoned- everything is questioned, examined, and explored logically. The rational sciences and philosophy (both of which depend on reason as a platform) emerge. Truth is not forced or ideologically imposed, but is available to anyone who wishes to share evidence. This secures a common and mutual understanding for people of all colors, races, and creeds. From SOCIO/ WORLD-CENTRIC To WORLD-CENTRIC (EXCLUSIVE)

Territorial RelationsFeudal Empires/ Early Nations

Held together by common rationale and universal claims of mythic doctrine (Religion)

Territorial RelationsGlobalized Nations (Exclusive)

Held together by rationalityphilosophy and the sciences

Table 4.5G- Scientific-Rational Identity (Collective): World-Centric.

90

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(1400 AD-1960AD)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY Globalized Nations (Exclusive). In the scientific/rational stage of development, rationality frees social systems from particular, divisive mythologies; church and state are separated and a global market economy emerges, all grounded in universalistic reason and global forms of intellectual intercourse. Primitive social structures, on the other hand, are considered “irrational” and are repressed, preventing a truly “world culture” from emerging. From FEUDAL EMPIRES/ EARLY NATIONS Population 100,000’s-1,000,000’s (1,000BC-1400AD) To GLOBALIZED NATIONS Population 1,000,000’S-10,000,000 (1400AD-1900AD)

Table 4.5H- Scientific-Rational Urban Morphology: Globalized Nations (Exclusive).

91

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY From SACRED/MYTHIC OBJECT The Greek Temple The Gothic Cathedral

(1400 AD-1960AD)

To MECHANISTIC OBJECT International Style

Table 4.5I- Scientific-Rational Architectural Morphology.

General Modern Architecture: The Project of the New. In attempt to break with the mythic consciousness of the pre-modern era, modern architecture denies all traditional metaphysics and explicit reference to inherited or conventional meaning. Its objective is to transcend regional, national and continental identity and reference only universals, pure rationality, and absolute truth. Traditional forms are erased and replaced with a new, rational order. From Typology to “Form follows Function”. In the mythic/rational era, a building had been designed from a prototype (such as temple or a cathedral) - a basic building typology that had proven serviceable in the past and carried specific symbolic meaning. Modern architects design from the program: they start with a list of activities, their spatial requirements, and their relationships to one another. This list leads to diagrams of spaces and relationships, which then leads to the shape of the building. Modern architecture fulfills its direct utilitarian purpose and no others. This approach is designed to assure that anything intangible or symbolic (not scientific) will not be considered; a beauty similar to that of a machine results.

92

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1400 AD-1960AD)

Case Study- The International Style (The Mechanistic Object) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Complete Completely setting self Identity distinction/ apart from “nature” disassociation between self and environment Complete Even greater sense of distinction/ self-consciousness, attention turns from disassociation creating temples for the between gods to creating subject and architecture for human object, interior life and exterior Ego structure has completely developedspatial dualism- strict definition between inside and outside (walls), spatial enclosure (roof), architectural “object”, a “fort of egocentricity” Cognitive Development Uses rationality to establish common, universal perspective Perfected perspective Elimination of symbolic content/ornamentation

Perception of space

IDEOLOGY

Collective Identity Cosmology

One universal, scientific truth Mechanistic

3-dimensional objects stand in void of 3dimensional, Euclidian space “International” Style Building as a machine Designing from program Form follows function “Forts of egocentricity” No metaphysical

Deity

Atomistic Atheism

93

reference
Table 4.5I- Case Study- The International Style (The Mechanistic Object).

94

---Scientific/Rational Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1400 AD-1960AD)

Case Study- The International Style (The Mechanistic Object) The elements of classical architecture, falling subject to the purification of the machine, are reduced to their simplest form and purest function; ornamentation is eliminated, interior walls are disposed of, and materials are used in their clearest and most honest expression (Jenks 19). Buildings display their construction and structure, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces rather of hiding them behind traditional forms. The architectural object is decontextualized- conceived of independently of location, context, and climate- forming a truly “international style”. (See Figures 4.5I and 4.5J)

95

CHAPTER 4.6: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Pluralistic Mutation--(1960-Present)

96

---Pluralistic Mutation--OVERVIEW

(1960-Present)

Attempts for Reconciliation between the Biosphere and the Noosphere. In the pluralistic stage of development, the rifts between the biosphere and the noosphere, the body and the mind, break down.

97

---Pluralistic Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY
• From NEOCORTEX Rational BrainConscious Thought

(1960-Present)

Dominated by right hemisphere of neocortex (See Figure 4.6A) To RIGHT HEMISPHERE Abstract Intuitive Holistic MathematicsCalculus (Study of change/variation) LanguageIntonation/Pragmatic (Contextual) Non-linear Spatial Post-Cartesian/ Non-Euclidian

Language

Spatial Awareness

LEFT HEMISPHERE Rational Logical Analytical/Reductionistic MathematicsAlgebra (Study of structure, relation, and quantity) LanguageGrammar/Vocabulary (Literal) Linear Temporal Cartesian/ Euclidian

Table 4.6A- Pluralistic Physiology: Dominated by Right Hemisphere of Neocortex.

98

---Pluralistic Mutation--ONTOLOGY
STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Early Vision-Logic. (See Figure 4.6B) From FORMAL OPERATIONAL Operates on/discriminates thought Beyond conformity Comes up with alternatives Draws conclusions with experimental evidence (Scientific Method) Learns abstract thinkingEntertains hypothetical possibilities Continues deductive reasoningQuantification and dichotomization of polar opposites Uses rationality to establish common, universal perspective

(1960-Present)

To EARLY VISION-LOGIC Operates on structures of thought Contextualizes knowledge claims

Learns systemic thinkingSees connections between isolated “parts” Reasoning is dialectical and dialogicalUnifies opposites Reconciles fragments Rejects rationality No absolute truth All knowledge/realities constructed by subject or culture Many perspectives Must be interpreted and contextualized Concern with interiors, depth and subjectivity

Concerned with exteriors, surface and objectivity

Table 4.6B- Pluralistic Cognitive Style: Early Vision-Logic.

99

---Pluralistic Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(1960-Present)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Transcending Ego. In the scientific-rational stage of development, the world is “out there”. This detached, externalized mode emphasizes the separation and distance between the organism and the rest of the cosmos. The pluralistic stage of consciousness challenges the Cartesian dualism and enlightenment epistemology, suggesting that the rational mind (the “mapmaker”) is not a disengaged, fully autonomous subject who represents an objective, empirical world- he is a performance of that which he seeks to know. From FULLY DEVELOPED EGO STRUCTURE Complete distinction/disassociation between self and environment Complete distinction/disassociation between subject and object, interior and exterior Complete distinction/disassociation between mind and body (Cartesian) To TRANSCENDING EGO Questioning distinction between self and environment Questioning distinction between subject and object, interior and exterior Questioning distinction between mind and body (Post-Cartesian)

Table 4.6C- Pluralistic Identity (Individual): Transcending Ego.

100

---Pluralistic Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(1960-Present)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 4-Dimensional (Elementary). (See Figure 4.6C) When things are viewed in a scientific-rational, perspectival way (objectified space experienced in linear time) reality is rendered in detached, 3-dimensional, temporal fragments/perspectives (slices of “presence”). Pluralistic consciousness deconstructs objective space (See Figure 4.6D) and plasticizes linear time (See Figure 4.6E); crystallized forms unfold into the temporal domain of 4-dimensional space. From 3-DIMENSIONAL (ADVANCED) Late PerspectivalSingle, fixed perspective To 4-DIMENSIONAL (ELEMENTARY) Multiperspectival: Considers various deformations and configurations of 3dimensional space in time Subject co-creates objects of awareness Breaks down dichotomy of interior and exterior Counterposes preconceived notions of space and structuredeconstructs Euclidan space Concretion of timeSpatial plasticity unfolding into the temporal dimension

PERSPECTIVE

OBJECTHOOD SPACE

Subject confronts objects of awareness Disassociation between “in here” vs. “out there” Concretizes Euclidian Space: Orientation, Direction

TIME

Extended Time: Past, Present, Future

Table 4.6D- Pluralistic Perception of Space and Time: 3-Dimensional (Advanced).

101

---Pluralistic Mutation--IDEOLOGY
COSMOLOGY Relativistic.

(1960-Present)

General Relativity The modern “cosmological principle” stated that the properties of the universe were the same at all locations. Time was considered absolute and universal, its rate of change forever invariant. Space was a passive arena- the formal background of the universe- homogenous, inert, and unaffected by the objects it contained. The theory of general relativity overthrows absolute notions of space and time, unifying the two constructs into a dynamic, cosmological terrain which is bent by the presence of the objects it contains. Relativistic space-time is nothing like a machine- it is a heterogeneous, plastic medium subject to transformation. (See Figure 4.6F). Special Relativity In the Newtonian model, time and space exist independently of the subject. At any given moment, a simultaneous occurrence of events takes place in an absolute frame-of-action. The theory of special relativity suggests that the properties of spacetime are functions of a particular frame of reference- when and where an event takes place, as well as the way that it appears, depend on that observers relative velocity to the universal constant- the speed of light (c). At 5 mph, an observer will experience time as a linear sequence of past, present and future (See Figure 4.6G) and space as expanded and 3-dimensional (See Figure 4.6H); from this frame of reference, all objects appear 3-dimesional and fixed (See Figure 4.6I). As an observer approaches the speed of light the temporal dimension expands to include more and more of the eternal present (See Figure 4.6J) and the spatial dimension collapses (See Figure 4.6K); the three-dimensional object contracts into a two-dimensional, flat plane, then into a one-dimensional, flat line, and then ceases to exhibit spatial extension (Shlain 34). (See Figure 4.6L) Special relativity reveals that there is no absolute coordinate system at rest, no fixed frame-of-reference in the universe that can be considered absolute- everything of substance exists relative to everything else. There are an infinite number of ways that the world can be seen and each is equally valid.

102

---Pluralistic Mutation--IDEOLOGY
COSMOLOGY (Cont.) From MECHANISTIC 3-Dimensional: Collapse of “Heavenly Spheres” Heliocentric Metaphysical Homogenous space Spatial MonismUnification of terrestrial and celestial space Space an inert, passive arena, unaffected by objects it contains Universe as machine To RELATIVISTIC 4-Dimensional Space-time

(1960-Present)

A-centric “Death of metaphysics” No divine order Heterogeneous Space

Space a plastic medium, bent by the objects it contains Universe as cosmological terrain

Linear Time: Scientific twist Creation: Big Bang Evolution: Darwinian Properties of spacetime a function of frame Cosmological principle: of reference properties of space and time same absolute and universal, rate of change invariant at all locations Static Universe Expanding universe
Table 4.6E- Pluralistic Cosmology: Relativistic.

103

---Pluralistic Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1960-Present)

DIETY Nihilistic. Nihilism denies the absolute values and meta-narratives upon which western culture has based it’s “truths”; it argues that all meaning is constructed and that existence is without objective purpose or intrinsic value. From ATHEISTIC Atheism To NIHILISTIC NihilismExistence is without meaning, purpose and value “Death of God” “Death of Metaphysics” No divine/cosmic order No absolute values or truths Nothing can be known No reasonable proof or argument for the existence of a higher creator. If one does exist, humanity has no obligation to worship them.

SkepticismLack of empirical evidence of supernatural being(s Denial of all irrational knowledge claims (both pre-rational and post-rational)

Table 4.6F- Pluralistic Deity: Nihilistic.

104

---Pluralistic Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(1960-Present)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY World-Centric (Inclusive). Pluralistic consciousness recognizes that all perceptions of the world are highly nuanced; it posits that there are no norms of reason that transcend what is accepted by a society or an epoch- all knowledge is partial and no one interpretation is superior to another. Rather than allowing only one (rational) structure to be valid, all structures are recognized, presented, and accepted as relativistically valid. From WORLD-CENTRIC (EXCLUSIVE) To WORLD-CENTRIC (INCLUSIVE)

Territorial RelationsGlobalized Nations (Exclusive)

Held together by rationalityphilosophy and the sciences

Territorial RelationsGlobalized Nations (Inclusive)

Held together by tolerance for all cultures and perspectives

Table 4.6G- Pluralistic Identity (Collective): World-Centric (Inclusive).

105

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(1960-Present)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY Globalized Nations (Inclusive). Pluralistic consciousness transcends a purely rational orientation; all structures of knowledge are considered equal and all cultures, from primitive to modern, are accepted. This enables, for the first time in history, the emergence of a truly inclusive world culture. From GLOBALIZED NATIONS (EXCLUSIVE) Population 100,000’s-1,000,000’s To GLOBALIZED NATIONS (INCLUSIVE) Population 1,000,000’s-100,000,000’s

Table 4.6H- Pluralistic Urban Morphology: Globalized Nations (Inclusive).

106

---Pluralistic Mutation--ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY From MECHANISTIC OBJECT To PLURALISTIC/ DECONSTRUCTED OBJECT Postmodernism Deconstructivism

(1960-Present)

To TOPOLOGICAL EVENT

International Style

Topological Architecture

Table 4.6I- Pluralistic Architectural Morphology.

General (Pluralistic/Deconstructed/Contextualized Object) Pluralistic morphologies deny the simplicity of modernity: pure form, pure meaning, and pure truth do not exist. There is no direct correspondence between reason and reality - everything is conditioned and relative. The essentialist justification for the austere language of modernism dissolves; multiplicities of meanings are favored over objective, ultimate truths of principles (Conrads 76).

107

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1960-Present)

Case Study- Postmodernism (The Pluralistic Object) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Cognitive Post-rational, Development contextual, meaning is not universal but Combines and grafts styles and symbols from determined by culture various eras and cultures IDEOLOGY Collective All knowledge Identity is partial, no system better than another Cosmology Incorporates Multiple time periods evidenced in a single the element of frame of reference time in spatial dimension Deity Culturally Meanings from the relative- all are various epochs of history acceptable combined
Table 4.6J- Case Study- Postmodernism (The Pluralistic Object).

108

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1960-Present)

Case Study- Postmodernism (The Pluralistic Object) The pluralistic language of the postmodern morphology celebrates the differences that modernity sought to erase. It combines and grafts historical and contemporary styles in new and ironic ways, opening alternative readings or meanings. The functional and formalized shapes of the international style are replaced by unapologetically diverse aesthetics; styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and spaces abound. Architecture is steeped in popular symbolism and designs that exaggerate or stylize cultural icons (Jenks 81). The modern functionalist maxim “less is more” is replaced by “more is more” and “less is a bore!”. Piazza d’Italia. (Charles Moore) Perhaps the best example of irony in postmodern buildings is Charles Willard Moore’s Piazza d’Italia. Moore quotes architectural elements from the Italian renaisance and Roman antiquity. He does so with a twist- the irony is noted when it is observed that the pillars are covered with steel (Conrads 131). (See Figure 4.6M) Sony Building. (Phillip Johnson and John Burgee) “Double Coding”- the use of symbols which convey many meanings simultaneously- is prevalent in post-modern architecture. The Sony Building in New York is a skyscraper, which alludes to modern technology, yet the ornamental top alludes to elements of classical antiquity. (Jenks 100). (See Figure 4.6N) Portland Service Building. (Michael Graves) Borrowing heavily from the past, Graves uses columns, pediments, arches, and other historic details. (See Figure 4.6O)

109

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1960-Present)

Case Study- Deconstructivism (The Deconstructed Object) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Questioning Dismantle/destabilize Identity distinction form to reveal inner between subjectivity that was subject and present all along object, interior and exterior Ego structure is started to be questioned- strict definition between inside and outside (walls and roof) are challenged through the manipulation of structure and building envelope IDEOLOGY Collective Identity All knowledge is partial, no system better than another Relativistic Nihilism- no order, no meaning No absolute truthDeconstruct “pure form”

Cosmology Deity

Deformed space, nonEuclidian geometry Challenges postulates of order (proportion and ratio). Calls for incoherence, confusion, disjuncture, fragmentation, and lack of sense/meaning

Table 4.6K- Case Study- Deconstructivism (The Deconstructed Object).

110

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1960-Present)

Case Study- Deconstructivism (The Deconstructed Object) Rather than combining forms to open new interpretations, the deconstructivists exploit the weakness hidden within the traditional. They dismantle “pure form” to reveal the inner deformation (subjectivity) that was present all along. New forms are generated not by proposition but by constantly destabilizing existing forms. Deconstruction challenges the postulates of rationality (harmony and proportion); it calls for incoherence, confusion, disjuncture, fragmentation, and lack of sense. It is committed to modes of representation that emphasize the discontinuities and incommensurable aspects of a given object (Jenks 109). Vitra Design Museum. (Frank Gehry). The Vitra Design Museum takes the typical unadorned white cube of modernist art galleries and deconstructs it; this subverts the functional aspects of modernist simplicity while taking modernism, particularly the international style, of which its white stucco skin is reminiscent, as a starting point (Conrads 93). (See Figure 4.6P) Santa Monica Residence (Frank Gehry). Any architectural deconstruction requires the existence of a particular archetypal construction, a strongly-established conventional meaning to play flexibly against. The Santa Monica Residence uses the prototypical suburban house as a starting point. Gehry alteres its massing, spatial envelopes, planes and other expectations in a playful subversion, an act of "deconstruction" (Conrads 65). (See Figure 4.6Q) Wexner Center for the Arts (Peter Eisenman). The Wexner Center deconstructs the archetype of the castle and renders its spaces and structure with conflict and difference. A three-dimensional grid runs arbitrarily through the building. The grid, as a reference to modernism, collides with the medieval antiquity of a castle. Some of the grid's columns intentionally don't reach the ground, hovering over stairways creating a sense of neurotic unease and contradicting the structural purpose of the column (Conrads 142). (See Figure 4.6R)

111

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1960-Present)

Case Study- Topological Architecture (The Topological Event) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Questioning Dissolution of dichotomy Identity distinction between figure and between ground, interior and subject and exterior: folded space, hypersurfaces object, interior and exterior Perception of Space-time Concretion of timespace Continuum Unfolding of closed, circumscribed space into Perception of dynamic, spatiotemporal time continuum No longer concerned with metric properties (distances between points) of traditional objects and geometries, rather concerned with topological properties (connectedness, orientability)- which describe internal spatial relationships Replacement of systematic divisions by an open world of interconnections Deformed space, nonEuclidian geometry

IDEOLOGY

Collective Identity

Cosmology

All knowledge is partial, no system better than another Relativistic

Table 4.6L- Case Study- Topology (The Topological Event).

112

---Pluralistic Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(1960-Present)

Case Study- Topological Architecture (The Topological Event) From Object to Event. Transpersonal consciousness calls for a spatiotemporal scheme that transcends the logic of self vs. other. Architecture evades its Cartesian definition: it no longer an “object”- a static, essential form set in conflict with the environment- but an “event”- an open, living system embedded within its ecology. Topological Space. The dynamic, continuous, and heterogeneous nature of topological space signifies a departure from the metric, quantitative and homogenous space of Euclidian and Cartesian geometry. The architectural surface is reconfigured as an enveloping epidermis whose interior and exterior planes intersect, denying the duality of inside/outside, above/below, and right/left. The dichotomy of building/landscape breaks down; in a continuous flux from figure to ground, architecture emerges as a fluctuating figure. The Mobius House (Perrella and Rebecca). (See Figure 4.6S). City of Culture of Galicia (Eisenman Architects). (See Figure 4.6T) BMW Event and Delivery Center (Asymptote). (See Figure 4.6U) Yokohama Port Terminal (Foreign Office Architects). (See Figure 4.6 V) Taekwando Park (Weiss/Manfredi). (See Figure 4.6W)

113

INTERLUDE: THE THEOSPHERE
BEYOND HUMAN HOLONS: EMERGENTS IN ALL FOUR QUADRANTS
We are currently witnessing a major reorganization of our cognitive field; the integral structure of consciousness is emerging and will manifest in all four quadrants. (See Figure 4.7A) QUADRANT GROUND NOOSPHERE UR PHYSIOLOGY Neurological activation Personal, conscious differentiation Personal, conscious participation in human culture (differentiation) (Mental) Architecture Conscious -“Artifactual”(differentiation) EMERGENTS THEOSPHERE Neurological synchronization

UL

ONTOLOGY

LL

IDEOLOGY

LR

MORPHOLOGY

Trans-Personal superconscious Unity Trans-Personal, superconscious participation in the “group mind” (unity) (Fusion of natural and mental) Trans-Architecture Superconscious “Genetic”, Conscious Artifact24 (Unity)

Table 4.7A-- EMERGENTS of the Theosphere.

Conscious Artifact: An artificially created entity that has acquired consciousness or sentience

24

114

CHAPTER 4.7: RESULTS
CROSS-SECTIONS OF THE FOUR QUADRANTS IN HUMAN HOLONS ---Integral Mutation--(Unfolding)

115

---Integral Mutation--OVERVIEW

(Unfolding)

The Emergence of the Theosphere: Transcending and Including the Biosphere and the Noosphere. In the integral stage of development, the biosphere and the noosphere, the body and the mind, are mediated in a state of higher and deeper union; this results in the enaction of the theosphere- realm of incarnated “divinity”- in which the distance between subject and object becomes transparent to itself and spirit directly and consciously recognizes itself as spirit.

116

---Integral Mutation--PHYSIOLOGY

(Unfolding)

Integration/synthesis of right and left hemispheres of neocortex (See Figure 4.7B) INTEGRAL (SYNTHESIS) Rational Abstract Logical Intuitive Analytical/Reductionistic Holistic MathematicsMathematicsAlgebra Calculus (Study of structure, (Study of change/variation) relation, and quantity) LanguageLanguageGrammar/Vocabulary Intonation/Pragmatic (Literal) (Contextual) Linear Non-linear Temporal Spatial Cartesian/ Euclidian Post-Cartesian/ Non-Euclidian

Rational BrainConscious Thought

Language

Spatial Awareness

Table 4.7B- Integral Physiology: Integration of Right and Left Hemispheres of Neocortex.

117

---Integral Mutation--ONTOLOGY
COGNITIVE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT Late Vision-Logic. From EARLY VISION-LOGIC Operates on structures of thought Contextualizes knowledge claims Learns systemic thinkingSees connections between isolated “parts” Reasoning is dialectical and dialogicalUnifies opposites Reconciles fragments Rejects rationality No absolute truth All knowledge/realities constructed by subject or culture Many perspectives Must be interpreted and contextualized Concern with interiors, depth and subjectivity

(Unfolding)

To LATE VISION-LOGIC Integrates structures of thought

Learns cross-paradigmatic thinkingSees connections between systems Reasoning is integrativeSynthesizes contextualized knowledge into greater schemas

Transrational Many relative truths All relative knowledge/realities are enacted by subject or culture at a particular stage of development Integrates all into a hierarchy of enacted perspectives Concerned with mutual relationship between exterior surfaces and interior depths

Table 4.7C- Integral Cognitive Style: Late-Vision Logic.

118

---Integral Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(Unfolding)

INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY Transpersonal/Integrative. In the integral stage of development, absolute subjectivity (emphasized in the pluralistic stage of development) and absolute objectivity (emphasized in the scientific/rational stage) are united again in one absoluteness, one timeless act of selfknowledge, a direct intuition which is not mediated through concept or form. The distance between subject and object, mind and body, becomes transparent to itself as the subject moves into expressive unity with the world, simultaneously retaining selfconsciousness and autonomous will (personal consciousness) while uniting in a communion with the larger order (transpersonal consciousness). Identity is no longer limited to the finite “self”: there is no constriction of consciousness to the head, no binding of attention to the personal body; rather, consciousness becomes one with all that is arising- a vast, open, transparent, radiant, infinitely free and full expanse that embraces the entirety of the manifest world (See Figure 4.7C). From TRANSCENDING EGO Questioning distinction between self and environment Questioning distinction between subject and object, interior and exterior Questioning distinction between mind and body (Post-Cartesian) To TRANSCENDING EGO Distinction between self and environment becomes transparent Distinction between subject and object, interior and exterior becomes transparent Distinction between mind and body becomes transparent (Post-Cartesian)

Table 4.7D- Integral Identity (Individual): Transcending Ego.

119

---Integral Mutation--ONTOLOGY

(Unfolding)

PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND TIME 4-Dimensional (Advanced). The integral structure of consciousness25 transcends and includes all historically proceeding structure; it integrates all spatial and temporal modes and the actualities which they make perceptible (1-dimensional timelessness, 2-dimensional temporicity, and 3-dimensional time) into a space-and-time free, unfixed, aperspectival world where the free consciousness has at its disposal all latent and actual forms of space and time, without having to deny them or be subject to them. Reality is grasped in its plastic structure; what was conceived opaque, crystallized, 3-dimensional, and time-bound becomes transparent, right down to the pre-conscious pre-spatiotemporal origin. The world of form is perceived the expression of spirit becoming. From 4-DIMENSIONAL (ELEMENTARY) Multiperspectival: Considers various deformations and configurations of 3dimensional space in time To 4-DIMENSIONAL (ADVANCED) Aperspectival: Includes all possible deformations and configurations of 3dimensional space in time Free consciousness has at its disposal all latent modes of spatiotemporality Subject enacts specific kinds of objects at various stages in its development The distance between subject and object becomes transparent Morphogenetic Becoming Emergence

PERSPECTIVE

OBJECTHOOD

Subject co-creates objects of awareness

SPACE

Breaks down dichotomy of interior and exterior Counterposes preconceived notions of space and structure; Spatial plasticity Unfolding into the temporal dimension

25

Integral: necessary for the completion of the whole. The integral structure of consciousness integrates all previous structures of consciousness into a composite whole. (See Figure 4.7D) 120

TIME

Concretion of timeTime as spatial dimension

Achronicity Omnipresence

Table 4.7E- Integral Perception of Space and Time: 4-Dimensional (Advanced).

121

---Integral Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(Unfolding)

COSMOLOGY Hyperspatial. All relative perspectives and selves are manifestations of a fundamentally unified, entangled field of intelligence- a background connective tissue tying together the world’s diverse phenomenon. This complex unity unfolds in a nested hierarchy of increasingly inclusive dimensions which are maintained through the process of self-organizing, dynamic systems (holons) that channel or metabolize energy from the environment as a method of developing and maintaining spatiotemporal organization. Evolution can either precede syntropically upwards to more organized, complex and conscious structures, culminating in the actualization of the Godhead itself or it can tend retrogressively towards disorder (complex systems dissolving into subholons). (See Figures 4.7E and 4.7F) From RELATIVISTIC 4-Dimensional Space-time A-centric “Death of metaphysics” No divine order Heterogeneous Space Space a plastic medium, bent by the objects it contains To HYPERSPATIAL MultidimensionalDimensions organized in orders of complexity A-centric “Sacred”, holonic, integral order Heterogeneous space Space a plastic medium, enacted by the subjects (consciousness) it contains Universe as a morphogenetic superorganism Frame of reference a function of level of evolutionary development

Universe as cosmological terrain

Properties of spacetime a function of frame of reference

Expanding Universe

Universe is becoming

Table 4.7F- Integral Cosmology: Hyperspatial.

122

---Integral Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(Unfolding)

DIETY Self-Actualized (God Becoming). The integral structure requires a drastic revision of traditional monotheistic concepts of a supernatural deity as the sole creator of the cosmos. The integral cosmos is a morphogenetic, self-creating, self-organizing and self-renewing system; each organism, at each juncture in the cosmic cycle, is responsible for a small but possibly indispensable contribution to the overall process of cosmic becoming. (See Figure 4.7G) From NIHILISTIC NihilismExistence is without meaning, purpose and value “Death of God” To SELF-ACTUALIZED TeleologicalSpirit comes to know itself through ever-inclusive structures of being God as archetype for highest self (higher states of consciousness) Spirit resides in manifest world Self-organizing cosmic order All truth relative but increasingly inclusive Trans-rational: Higher forms of knowing through higher states of consciousness

“Death of Metaphysics” No divine/cosmic order No absolute values or truths Nothing can be known

Table 4.7G- Integral Deity: Self-Actualized.

123

---Integral Mutation--IDEOLOGY

(Unfolding)

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Being-Centric. In the integral stage of development, the individual realizes that each structure of consciousness is an integral part of their compound individuality; identification with a particular perspective is transcended as attention turns from concern with cultural inflections to the emergence of the next level cultural complexity: a transpersonal “supermind”. From WORLD-CENTRIC (INCLUSIVE) To BEING-CENTRIC (EMERGENT)

Territorial RelationsGlobalized Nations (Inclusive)

Held together by tolerance for all cultures and perspectives

---Emergent--The Global Mind

Identification with a particular culture or perspective is transcended

Table 4.7H- Integral Identity (Collective): Being-Centric.

124

---Integral Mutation--MORPHOLOGY

(Unfolding)

URBAN MORPHOLOGY Supranational Organization of Planetary Intelligence. All of today’s tribes, cultures and nations trace their lineage back in an unbroken fashion to the primal tribal holons upon which a human family tree was built. Their original breakthrough- to rise above nature and begin creating the noopshere- was the inception of the very process that would bind all of the people of the world together, gradually and incrementally building an immense superstructure of matter and mind that would creating the scaffolding for the next great leap upwards in the ongoing ascendance of consciousness: the supranational organization of planetary intelligence. From GLOBALIZED NATIONS (INCLUSIVE) Population 1,000,000’s-100,000,000’s To SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATION (EMERGENT) Population 100,000,000’S-1,000,000,000’S +

Table 4.7I- Integral Urban Morphology: Supranational Organization of Planetary Consciousness.

125

---Integral Mutation--ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY From PLURALISTIC/ DECONSTRUCTED OBJECT Postmodernism Deconstructivism From TOPOLOGICAL EVENT

(Unfolding)

To MORPHOGENETIC EVENT

Topology

Genetic Architecture

Table 4.7J- Integral Architectural Morphology. .

126

---Integral Mutation--(Unfolding)

MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.) Case Study- Genetic Architecture (The Morphogenetic Event) QUADRANT MUTATION MORPHOLOGY ONTOLOGY Personal Distinction Applying the “BIOS”- the logic Identity between self of self-organizing, selfand perpetuating, holonic, environment evolutionary systems, to the becomes “NOOS”- the realm of human transparent intellect and culture, enacts “theos”, the divinization/ transmutation of the material realm (Apotheosis26) Biomimicry- The application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology Distinction between subject and object, interior and exterior becomes transparent Perception of space Perception of time Collective Identity Aspatial Atemporal Emergence of global mind/ Superorganism (Post-“Human” Era) Humanity and its artifacts coevolve into a single, global intelligence The relation between inside and outside, enclosed and open is constantly renegotiated based on feedback Figure and ground interweave, reconfiguring dualistic notions of self/non-self Multiple modes of space and time exist simultaneously

IDEOLOGY

26

Apotheosis: (Greek for “to Deify”), glorification to a divine level.

127

Cosmology

Evolutionary

Using algorithmic design processes to generate autonomous forms that grown and learn Morphogenesis as the philosophical basis of design

Deity

Non-dual “God Becoming”

Table 4.JK- Case Study- Genetic Architecture (The Morphogenetic Event)

128

---Integral Mutation--MORPHOLOGY
ARCHITECTURAL MORPHOLOGY (Cont.)

(Unfolding)

Case Study-Genetic Architecture (The Morphogenetic Event) Beyond Topology. The forms that result from generative process of topologising are no longer dynamic when they are constructed architecture. How can the static, inert figure be imbued with intelligence? Can form be programmed with structures/codes that imbue it with the potentiality for life? Modeling the Logic of Self-Organizing Systems. There are generic patterns of organization and change- a hierarchy of spatial and temporal dynamics- to which all systems and organisms conform in their mutual process of becoming. Through science (through rationality-transcend and include), we are beginning to comprehend the logic of autopoietic process: we have broken the genetic code, we have started creating “artificial27” intelligence28 and even “artificial” life29. An integral morphology uses these principles to model artificially constructed holonic systems which elucidate and participating in the evolutionary drive. Some Examples. Although the integral structure of consciousness is still emerging, the following morphologies evidence early indications of its logic. BIOS (the principle) Energy from light (photosynthesis) The application: Photovoltaics directly convert solar radiation into electricity that can be stored or used on demand while producing no pollution. Caltrans District 7 Headquarters Building. (Morphosis). (See Figure 4.7H) BIOS (the principle) Waste=food (wetland metabolism) The Application: Living machines use a sequence of increasingly complex ecosystems to purify wastewater. El Monte Sagrado Resort. (Living Designs Group) (See Figure 4.7I) The El Monte Sagrado Resort has blended architecture, infrastructure and ecology into its prominent biolarium. BIOS (the principle) Code=form

Artificial: made by humans. Artificial Intelligence: the study and design of human-made, intelligent systems which perceive their environment and take actions to optimize their chance of success. 29 Artificial Life: a new science based on the hypothesis that the biochemical processes that energize living matter are actually elaborate forms of computation that are susceptible to simulation in computers.
28

27

129

Successive variations of genetic data create biomass of increasing structural complexity The Application The integration of scripting language into CAD applications has enabled visualization of objects using algorithmic transformations based on circumstantial parameters. Forms and structures can be evolved in morphogenetic processes within computational environments. ADA Space. (ETH) (See Figure 4.7J) In ADA space, each visitor entering the space is given a unique ID number. Lights within interactive floor tiles form a visual tracking system; sounds are created in response to the movement of the visitors. The architectural experience is the outcome of the process of running a script in site-specific and time-specific environment with circumstantial parametric values. BIOS (the principle) Contextually responsive structural elements Application: Pressurized soft volumes are defined by a mesh of tensile, industrial “muscles” which change length, height and width in response to changing wind loads in real-time. Industrial Muscles. (The Festo Company). (See Figure 4.7K) BIOS (the principle) Adaptive forms, climatic responses Organisms are bundles of relationships that maintain themselves by adjusting their own behavior in anticipation or response to the changing patterns of activity around them. Application: Complex, interacting structures slide gently in relation to one another; they are activated by a script which produces different values for the speed and extent of the movements in real time (informed by climatic change). Graphisoft Slider. (ONL) (See Figure 4.7L) The Grafisoft Slider can produce an endless variety of configurations for a variety of purposes. Programmatic elements include a photovoltaic cover, a cage, sunscreens, a living box, a media box, a kitchen cloud, and a sanitary cloud. Tower of Winds. (Toyo Ito). (See Figure 4.7M) The Tower of Winds is covered in acrylic mirrors with over a thousand light bulbs inserted among twelve neon rings with aluminum panels and 30 reflectors at the base. The lights are programmed by a computer to reproduce various designs that arrive from information gathered from the surrounding environment. The surfaces of the panels appear solid or translucent depending on the orientation of the reflectors which vary in response to the direction of the wind. BIOS (the principle) Fractal growth.

130

Fractals are geometric patterns that are repeated at ever smaller scales to produce irregular shapes and surfaces that cannot be represented by classical geometry. Fractals are used especially in computer modeling of irregular patterns and structures in nature. Application: In recent years, the underlying logic and mathematics of nature’s forms are being understood. These can serve as a generative for architectural design. L-Systems. (Aristid Lindenmayer) (See Figure 4.7N) In the 1960’s, theoretical biologist and botanist Aristid Lindenmayer proposed a string-rewriting algorithm which formalizes the mathematical structure of the processes of self-organizing systems. The algorithm models the evolutionary growth of plants and a variety of organisms; by increasing the recursion level, the form slowly “grows” and becomes more complex. BIOS (the principle) Biological forms adapt to changing climatic conditions through transformations of Cartesian coordinate systems. For example, the form of the puffer fish can evolve into that of an ocean sunfish by a transformation of the rectangular coordinate system in (A) (red dots) into a curvilinear system in (B) that "stretches" the posterior portion of the fish. Application: Architectural forms adapt to changing climatic conditions through transformations of Cartesian coordinate systems. The “Hyposurface”. (Mark Goulthorpe). (See Figure 4.7O) HypoSurface uses powerful 'information bus' technology to control thousands of moving actuators which form and deform a pliable surface. Any input, such as sound or movement, can be linked to any output. The surface behaves like a precisely controlled liquid: waves, patterns, logos, and text emerge and fade continually within its dynamic surface, evoking the transformative logic of biological systems.

131

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY Due to the time constraints of this project, generalizations and oversimplifications have been made. Future work will address the following shortcomings: Western Consciousness/Western Morphologies This study concentrates on the correlative development of human consciousness and architectural morphology in the western world. Although the deep features of consciousness structures are universal (each is characterized by a particular way of conceiving space, time, self and origin and each unfolds in the same developmental sequence regardless of scale and context), surface features (such as the rate of progression through the structures of consciousness and the particulars of how they manifest) depend on cultural factors. Future work will extend the four quadrants methodology to the Eastern world, identifying commonalities and noting differences between the two civilizations. Expansive Time Periods Only seven time periods were defined for this study: archaic (up to 2 million years ago), magical (2 million-10,000 B.C.), magical/mythic (10,000 B.C.-1000 B.C.), mythic/rational (1000 B.C.-1400 A.D.), scientific-rational (1400 A.D.-1950 A.D.), pluralistic (1950 A.D.-present) and integral (unfolding); while this is sufficient to establish the basic theoretical framework, it results in the oversimplification of historical eras and architectural styles. As an example, the differences in Greek and medieval schemes are profound, but for the convenience of this study, they have been lumped into the “mythic/rational” structure. Future work will divide chapters into subchapters and explore both the internal and external logic of each epoch in greater detail. “Co-Evolutionary” Streams of Development The time periods that were selected for this study were based on evidence of major shifts in the cognitive capacities of Western consciousness. There is, however, often a time lag between a new discovery, the restructuration of collective thinking, and the translation of this thinking into cultural artifacts. While the scientific discoveries that ushered in the scientific-rational structure of consciousness emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries (with the astronomical observations of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo), it wasn’t until the early 20th century that the implications found their proper expression in the “international style” of architecture. Further, the architectural morphologies that were being produced through the Renaissance (14th-17th centuries) are more adequately characterized by the mythic/rational structure of consciousness. Future work will address such discrepancies by drawing attention to the different rates of development within each domain of the mutation. Definitive Structures

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This study outlined the primary characteristics of each major structure of consciousness in isolation and identified the correlative architectural style which best exemplifies it. More often than not, however, structures of consciousness blend into and overlap one another. As such, morphologies are often hybrids which reflect several ideologies simultaneously. For example, although international style epitomizes the scientific-rational structure of consciousness, not all architecture produced in the modern period denies context. Alvar Alto, an architect of the early 20th century, rejected the machine aesthetic and evidenced consideration of both terrain and climate in his designs (a characteristic of pluralistic consciousness). Future work will focus on contextualizing the nuances found within each major epoch. Urban Morphology While this study addresses the urban scale by evidencing increasingly inclusive and complex social structures through the course of human evolution, it does not look specifically into the relationship between prevailing consciousness structures and urban design. Future work will address the following questions: Is there a relationship between the maturation of the ego-structure in the height of scientific-rational consciousness and the atomization of individual building elements in modern urbanism? Does postmodern urbanism, in its efforts to consider building elements as part of a larger system, evidence a logic which echoes transpersonal consciousness? If an integral consciousness structure does infact emerge, how will this translate into urban form? How might we vision the “supranational organization of planetary consciousness”?

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CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION
THE BODY OF THE GODDESS
“Spiritual perfection and material synthesis are two aspects or connected parts of one and the same phenomenon."- Tielhard De Chardin (Chardin 56). Morphologies are the collective, external manifestation of a particular developmental mode of being; they reflect the sequential stages of the evolving whole through its process of becoming. The world is “the body of the Goddess”; there is no distance between humanity and divinity, creation is drenched in spirituality and meaning. As evolution proceeds and spirit awakens to itself, more and more complex physical forms with more and more integrated and inclusive ways of knowing evolve, until eventually, all relative forms have been transcended and included and a perfectly unified, incarnate mode of being emerges.

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CHAPTER 7: FUTURE WORK
WHAT IS THE BASIS OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION?
Evolution : Self-transcendence through self-organization (See Figure 7A) There is a single pattern- a cosmic “code”- that governs the development and complexification of all domains of existence. Future research will be directed towards understanding and modeling the dynamics of this principle. Topics of exploration will include evolutionary morphology, developmental biology, genetics, autopoietic/systems theory, geometry (particularly phi) and its role in self-organization and growth, fractals, and the use of digital programs to model morphogenetic algorithms/architectures. Of particular interest is the relationship between the I Ching (an ancient text on “becoming” based on the arrangement of 64 hexagrams), DNA (a genetic code for “becoming” based on the arrangement of 64 codons) and feng shui (an eastern methodology of space planning based on the arrangement of the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching). (See Appendix A).

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APPENDIX A: FUTURE WORK
SCRIPTURA UNIVERSALIS
A MORPHOGENETIC SCRIPT Both the genetic code and the I Ching claim to contain the fundamental spatial and temporal principles of ordering, variation and change which govern the developing organization and formative processes of all levels of structure. DNA: THE GENETIC “CODE OF LIFE” An Overview In 1953, Watson and Crick discovered the twisted, double-strand helix of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), which is present in every cell nucleus of every living organism, to be the carrier of the genetic instructions used to direct the life process and program the form, structure, development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of every form of life, including the vegetable, animal and human kingdoms in their myriad of variation. Fundemantal Structure Two strands, one positive and one negative, are joined together at regular intervals. Each rung of the helix consists of a base or “letter” (of which there are four): Thymine (T), Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), and Guanine (G). Three rungs of bases (“letters”) create a codon, or genetic “word” (A-A-A, A-C-G, G-C-A etc.); there are 64 possible combinations of these letters (64 possible “words”), each of which has a recognized meaning. One very precisely defined sequence of hundreds of such codons (“words”) contain the instructions needed for the synthesis of an amino acid, the building block of every living creature. The sum total of all of these code words is the “blueprint” for producing a whole specific plant, animal, or human body with all of its characteristics. (See Figures A.1 and A.2) THE I CHING CODE, A “TEXT ON BECOMING” An Overview The I Ching is a compendium of natural philosophy from ancient China, compiled by Fu-Hsi and edited by Confucius. It is based on the principle that there is a single, unified whole that encompasses everything that exists. Within this unified whole, there is movement, and this movement is created by the workings of the two fundamental, polar forces, yin and yang. The I Ching models the mathematical language of this continual movement; it shows how growth occurs once a basic duality is created from the division of unity. Fundamental Structure The two polar forces of yin and yang, one negative and one positive (See Figure A.3), are joined together in four possible digrams or “letters”: old yin, new yin, old yang, young yang (See Figure A.4). Each of these correspond to a specific base or “letter” of the genetic code (See Figure A.5) When the digrams are taken three at a time, they form the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching (See Figure A.6). The meanings of the

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hexagrams correspond to the 64 codons or “words” of the genetic code (See Figure A.7) which specify the synthesis of a particular amino acid (See Figure A.8). Comparisons between the Genetic Code and the I Ching THE GENETIC CODE 1. Universal Claim: genetic code said to lie at the origin of the whole visible world, operative in its finest details and its patterns. All processes and the development of all living creatures throughout nature are subject to one strictly detailed program (vital process, structure, form, heredity) 2. The basis of the genetic code is the plus and minus double helix of DNA. 3. The double helix consists of four “letters” a. Thymine b. Adenine c. Cystosine d. Guanine 4. Three of these “letters” at a time create a “genetic word” (codon) which specify the synthesis of a particular amino acid 5. There are 64 possible “genetic words” (codons) THE I CHING CODE 1. Universal Claim: I Ching said to be lie at the origin of the whole visible world, operative in its finest details and its patterns. All processes of living development throughout nature are subject to one strictly detailed program (procession of events) 2. The I Ching rests upon the basis of the manifestation of the world principle in the primal poles of polarity: yin (--) and yang (-). 3. Four “letters” suffice for life in all its fullness a. Old yang b. Young yang c. Old yin d. Young yin 4. Three of these “letters” at a time form a hexagram, one primary image of all the possible dynamic effects 5. The I Ching consists of 64 hexagrams which correlate to highly specific, dynamic states (i.e.: repression, breakthrough, etc.) 6. The direction in which the hexagram is read is strictly determined. 7. Two hexagrams have names “before completion” and “after completion”, (frequently opening and closing a sequence of events) 8. Embodies probabilistic principles in the determination of specific 137

6. The direction in which the “genetic words” are read is strictly determined 7. Two codons have names “beginning” and “end”. They mark the beginning and end of a code sentence of some length. 8. Embodies probabilistic principles in the determination of specific

results (amino acid formation)

results (predicting events)

Table A.1- Comparisons between the Genetic Code and the I Ching. Extracted from the work of Yan and Shonberger.

The two codes share a common philosophical attitude (both claim to depict the deep, underlying reality behind and within which all phenomenon, structure and experience unfold) and also share exact analogies (for example, the programming of all of life’s processes by means of 64 code words, each consisting of consisting of four “letters”, of which three are used at a time). Are both codes manifestations of a common principle, a single law running through the whole of nature in its diverse processes? Is human consciousness capable of comprehending this law of nature and reconstructing it? Does this code form the basis for an “evolutionary”, genetic morphology? Can the ancient art/science of Feng Shui (an eastern method of spatial and temporal planning which is based on the arrangement of the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching) inform this process (See Figure A.9)?

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REFERENCES
Amaral, Julio Rocha do and Jorge Martins de Oliveira. The triune brain. Referenced October 26, 2008 at http://lecerveau.mcgill.ca/flash/capsules/articles_pdf/triunebrain.pdf Bertalanffy, L. von. (1968). General systems theory. New York: Braziller. Earley, Jay (1997). The social evolution of consciousness. Albany: State University of New York Press. Conrads, Ulrich (1971). Programs and manifestos on 20th-century architecture. Cambridge: MIT Press. De Chardin, Tielhard. (1959). The phenomenon of man. New York: Harper Perennial. Del Re, Giuseppe. (2000). The cosmic dance: Science discovers the mysterious harmony of the universe. Radnor: Templeton Foundation Press. Di Cristina, Giuseppa. (2001). Architecture and science. West Sussex: Wiley Academy. Ellin, Nan. (2006). Integral urbanism. New York: Routeledge. Feuerstein, G. (1987). Structures of consciousness: the genius of Jean Gebser. Integral Publishing: Lower Lake, CA. Freeman, W.H. (1972). Old world archeology: foundations for civilization. San Francisco: Orisis. Gardner, James N. (2003). Biocosm, A new scientific theory of evolution: intelligent life as the architect of the universe. Inner Ocean Publishing: Makawao. Gebser, Jean. transl. by N. Barstad with A. Mickunas. (1985). The ever–present origin. Ohio University Press: Athens, OH.

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Habernas, J. (1979). Communication and the evolution of society. Boston: Beacon Press. Harvey, John. (1950). The gothic world 1100-1600, A survey of architecture and art. London: Batsford Press. Hendrix, John Shannon. (2005). Aesthetics & the philosophy of spirit. Peter Lang Publishing: New York. Hendrix, John Shannon. (2003). Architectural forms and philosophical structures. Peter Lang Publishing: New York. Hume, David. (2007). Natural history of religion. Nu Vision Publications. Jantsch, E. (1980). The self-organizing universe. New York: Pergamon. Jencks, Charles and Karl Kropf (2006). Theories and manifestos of contemporary architecture. West Sussex: Wiley Academy. Lazlo, E. (1972). Evolution: the grand synthesis. Boston: Shambala. McIntosh, Steve. (2007). Integral consciousness and the future of evolution. St. Paul: Paragon House. O’Sullivan, Edmond (2004). Learning toward and ecological consciousness. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Schwaller de Lubicz (1990). The temple in man. Rochester: First Inner Traditions. Schwaller de Lubicz (1990). Verbe nature. Rochester: First Inner Traditions. Sheldrake, R. (1981). A new science of life. Los Angeles: Tarcher. Shlain. Leonard. (1991). Art and physics: parallel visions in space, time and light. New York: Harper Collins Publishing. Tarthang, Tulku. (1977). Time, space and knowledge: A new vision of reality. Berkeley:

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Dharma Publishing. Valera, F. (1979). The principles of biological autonomy. New York: North Holland. Vialou, Denis (1998). Prehistoric art and civilization. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Wilber, Ken. (2000). A brief history of everything. Boston: Shambhala Publications. Wilber, Ken. (2000). A theory of everything: an integral vision for politics, science, and spirituality. Boston: Shambhala Publications. Wilber, Ken. (2006). Integral spirituality: A startling new role for religion in the modern and postmodern world. Boston: Shambhala Publications/. Wilber, Ken. (2000). Sex, ecology and spirituality: the spirit of evolution. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications. Wilber, Ken. (1981). Up from eden: a transpersonal view of human evolution. Anchor Press: Garden City, NY. Yan, Johnson F. (1991). DNA and the I Ching; the Tao of life. Berkeley: North Atlanta Books.

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FIGURES

Figure 1A- The Spectrum of Consciousness. Extracted from SES, pg. 134.

142

Figure 2A- Ken Wilber’s Four Quadrant’s Model.

143

Figure 2B- The Correlative Development of Interior and Exterior Domains. Adapted from A Brief History of Everything, pg. 57. 144

Figure 2C- The Correlative Development of Individual and Collective Domains. Adapted from A Brief History of Everything, pg. 57.

145

Figure 2D- “Wolf”: Different Perspectives of a Sentient Being. 146

Adapted from A Brief History of Everything, pg. 57.

Figure 2E- The Sentient Being as a Holon.

147

Figure 2F- Agency and Communion. 148

Figure 2G- The EMERGENCE of the Physiosphere, Biosphere, Noosphere, and Theosphere. 149

Figure 2H- The Correlative Evolution of the Four Domains (General). 150

Figure 2I- The Correlative Evolution of the Four Domains (Specific).

151

Figure 3A- Focus of Study.

152

Figure 3B- An Adaptation of the Four Quadrant’s Model.

153

Figure 3C- Each Quadrant will be evaluated through Pre-Modern, Modern, PostModern, and Integral MUTATIONS of Personal Consciousness. 154

Figure 3D- EMERGENTS of the Noosphere.

155

Figure 3E- Isomorphic Streams of Development in the Noosphere.

156

Figure 3F- The Correlative Evolution of the Four Quadrants in the Noosphere. 157

Figure 3G- Scales of Development: Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny.

158

Figure 3H- The Correlative Evolution of Personal Consciousness and Architectural Morphology: An Overview. 159

Figure 4.1A-Homo Erectus. Wikipedia, “Homo Erectus”, extracted October 28th, 2008.

Figure 4.1B- The Limbic System. 160

Figure 4.1C- Egocentric, Survival-Based Existence. Prehistoric Art and Civilization, pg. 19

Figure 4.1D- Survival Clans. Prehistoric Art and Civilization, pg. 22

161

Figure 4.1E- Morphologies of the Physiophere and Biosphere. Wikipedia, “Biology”, extracted December 4th, 2008.

Figure 4.2A- Neanderthal. Wikipedia, “Neanderthal”, extracted December 4th, 2008.

162

Figure 4.2B The Limbic System.

Figure 4.2C- Ochre-Stained Rocks at Quafzeh Cave. Dates back to 100,000 B.C. These rocks were used for burial ceremonies; they indicate that symbolic thinking has emerged. Prehistoric Art and Civilization, pg. 31

163

Figure 4.2D- Early Representation of a Human Face. Dates back to 90,000 B.C. Indicates that elementary forms of self-consciousness have emerged. Prehistoric Art and Civilization, pg. 8

Figure 4.2E- Nature Spirits. Prehistoric Art and Civilization, pg. 98

164

Figure 4.2F- Nomadic Tribal Structures. Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 13.

Figure 4.2G- Interior Rotunda of Hall of Bulls. Lascaux, France. Prehistoric Art and Civilization, pg. 100

165

4.3A- Neocortical Activation.

4.3B- The Agricultural Revolution. Left: The Ruins of Kish. Modern Tell al-Uhaymir. 6000 B.C. Right: The Ruins of Nebuchadnezzar. Babylon. 6000 B.C Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 39.

166

4.3C- The Emergence of Symbolic Language. 3000 B.C. Sumerians created first written language. This ruptures the original unity of humanity and nature- man becomes a master of things by naming them. It also extends the present moment into a sequence of moments (propelling time into the future). Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 49.

4.3D- The Emergence of Intuitive/Inductive Reasoning. 2500 B.C. Tablets depict Sumerian Mathematics. Evidences inductive reasoning capacities (repeated observation used to establish rules of thumb). Elementary mathematics used for metrology (measuring, particularly cycles of time). Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 52.

167

4.3E- Athropocentric Imagery in Cave Painting. 12,000 B.C. -100 A.D. Tadrart Acacus, Libya As consciousness grounds itself in the ego structure, cave art becomes increasingly focused on the human figure. Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 93.

4.3F- Spatial Depth in Cave Painting. 12,000 B.C.-100 AD. Tadrart Acacus, Libya. Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 97.

168

4.3G- Polar Awareness of Earth and Sky (Spatial). Wikipedia, “Constellations”, extracted December 7th, 2008.

4.3H- Awareness of Natural Cycles (Temporal). Early calendars evidence awareness of day and night, seasons, and the movement of the constellations. Wikipedia, “Sumerian Calendar”, extracted December 7th, 2008.

4.3I- Mother Goddess of the Earth. Venus Figures from the Neolithic Period. Wikipedia, “Mother Goddess”, extracted December 7th, 2008.

169

4.3J- Early Permanent Settlements. Old World Archeology: Foundations for Civilization, pg. 111

4.3K- Stonehedge. Wiltshire, England. Stonehedge served as a monumental calendar and was used to chart the sun and moon’s horizon cycle, the measurement of the solstices and celestial phenomenon (such as solar and lunar eclipses). On the 21st of June the rising sun in the North East shines its light in between the Heel Stone onto the Alter Stone. Wikipedia, “Stonehedge”, extracted October 28th, 2008.

4.4A- Neocortical Activation (Cont’d.) 170

4.4B- The Emergence of Deductive Reasoning. Greek mathematics was much more sophisticated than the mathematics that had been developed by earlier cultures. All surviving records of pre-Greek mathematics show the use of inductive reasoning, that is, repeated observations used to establish rules of thumb. Greek mathematicians, by contrast, used deductive reasoning. The Greeks used logic to derive conclusions from definitions and axioms. Upper right: Pythagoreans Theorem. Upper Left: One of Euclid’s postulates. Bottom: Original sketch extracted from Euclid’s Elements. Wikipedia, “History of Mathematics”, extracted December 5th, 2008.

4.4C- Anthropocentric Imagery in Greek and Medieval Sculpture and Architecture. Left: Greek Sculpture. Wikipedia, “Greek Sculpture”, extracted December 5th, 2008. Middle: Caryatid Porch at the Erechtheion on the Acropolis. Wikipedia, “Caryatid”, extracted December 5th, 2008. Right: Stained glass window at Chartres Cathedral. Wikipedia, “Chartres”, extracted December 5th, 2008.

171

4.4D- Spatial Depth in Greek and Medieval Sculpture and Architecture. Left: Spatial Depth. Panatheinic Frieze at the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. 400 B.C. Wikipedia, “Parthenon”, extracted December 5th, 2008. Right: Early Perspective. Giotto’s “Presentation of the Virgin”. 1305 A.D. Wikipedia, “Giotto”, extracted December 5th, 2008.

4.4E- The Emergence of Linear Time. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 163.

172

Figure 4.4 F- The Greek Cosmological Scheme. Wikipedia, “Greek Cosmology”, extracted September 3rd, 2008.

173

Figure 4.4G- The Music of the Spheres. Wikipedia, “Music of the Spheres”, extracted May 9th, 2008.

174

Figure 4.4H- The Medieval Cosmological Scheme. Wikipedia, “Dante’s Inferno”, extracted May 6th, 2008.

175

4.4I- Father God of Heaven. Left: The twelve Greek gods of Mount Olympus, ruled by Zeus, the god of Sky and Thunder. Wikipedia, “Olympian Gods”, extracted December 2nd, 2008. Right: A depiction of the Christian Deity (medieval period). Wikipedia, “History or Religion”, extracted December 2nd, 2008.

Figure 4.4J- The Parthenon. Wikipedia, “Parthenon”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

Figure 4.4K- Floor Plan of the Parthenon. Wikipedia, “Parthenon”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

176

Figure 4.4L- Sculptural Ornamentation in the Parthenon: The Birth of Athena. Wikipedia, “Parthenon”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

Figure 4.4M- Chartres: A Gothic Cathedral. Wikipedia, “Chartres”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

Figure 4.4N- The Floor Plan of Chartres. Wikipedia, “Chartres”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

Figure 4.4O- Religious Symbolism in Chartres. Wikipedia, “Chartres”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

177

4.5A- Dominated by Left Hemispohere of Neocortex.

4.5B- The Scientific Method. Wikipedia, “The Scientific Method”, extracted December 1st, 2008.

4.5C- The Fully Developed Ego Structure. www.bodiestheexhibition.com, extracted November 24th, 2008.

178

Figure 4.5D- Cartesian Depiction of Perception. Wikipedia, “Cartesian Epistemology”, extracted April 14th, 2008.

Figure 4.5E- The Heliocentric Model of Copernicus. Wikipedia, “Copernicus”, extracted June 12th, 2008.

179

Figure 4.5F- Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion. Wikipedia, “Kepler”, extracted June 12th, 2008.

Figure 4.5G- Moon drawn by Galileo. Wikipedia, “Galileo”, extracted June 13th, 2008.

Figure 4.5 H- The Mechanical Universe. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 39.

180

Figure 4.5I- La Villa Savoye. (Le Corbusier) Wikipedia, “Villa Savoye”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

Figure 4.5J- The Farnsworth House. (Mies van der Rohe) Wikipedia, “Farnsworth House”, extracted August 9th, 2008.

181

4.6A- Dominated by Right Hemisphere of Neocortex.

4.6B- Contextualized Knowledge Claims. Euclid’s postulate of parallel lines only applies to flat surfaces. Wikipedia, “Manifolds”, extracted December 2nd, 2008.

4.6C- The Subject Co-Creates Objects of Awareness. Quantum mechanics has successfully challenged the belief that the observer is independent of the reality and has no influence on what is being observed. The Copenhagen Interpretation proposes that the world of real objects are enacted by consciousness, that sub-atomic particles are spread out as a probability wave through the whole of space until they are measured (observed), upon which they take on the properties of a particle. Wikipedia, “Copenhagen Interpretation”, extracted on December 14th, 2008. 182

4.6D- The Deconstruction of Euclidian Space.

4.6E- Plasticized Time.

Figure 4.6F- The Relativistic Cosmos. Wikipedia, “General Relativity”, extracted August 12th, 2008.

Figure 4.6G- A Representation of Time at 5 mph. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 156 183

Figure 4.6H- A Representation of Space at 5 mph. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 156.

Figure 4.6I- An Object Observed at 5mph. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 156.

184

Figure 4.6J- A Representation of Time as an Observer Approaches the Speed of Light. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg.165.

Figure 4.6K- A Representation of Space as Observer Approaches the Speed of Light. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 163. 185

Figure 4.6L- An Object Observed while Approaching the Speed of Light. Art and Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time and Light, pg. 164. 186

Figure 4.6M- Piazza d’Italia. (Charles Moore) Wikipedia, “Piazza d’Italia”, extracted April 9th, 2008.

Figure 4.6N- Sony Building. (Phillip Johnson and John Burgee) Wikipedia, “Postmodernism”, extracted October 16th, 2008. 187

Figure 4.6O- Portland Service Building. (Michael Graves) Wikipedia, “Portland Service Building”, extracted February 30th, 2008.

Figure 4.6P- Vitra Design Museum. (Frank Gehry) Wikipedia, “Frank Gehry”, extracted November 6th, 2008. 188

Figure 4.6Q- Santa Monica Residence. (Frank Gehry) Wikipedia, “Frank Gehry”, extracted November 6th, 2008.

Figure 4.6R- Wexner Center for the Arts. (Peter Eisenman) Wikipedia, “Peter Eisenman”, extracted January 5th, 2008. 189

Figure 4.6S- The Mobius House Study. Stephen Perrella and Rebecca Carpenter. Wikipedia, “Unstudio”, extracted July 2nd, 2008.

4.6T- City of Culture of Galicia. (Eisenman Architects) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 4th, 2008.

4.6U- BMW Event and Delivery Center. (Asymptote) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 4th, 2008. 190

4.6V- Yokohama International Port Terminal. (Foreign Office Architects) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 13th, 2008.

4.6W- Taekwando Park. (Weiss/Manfredi) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 4th, 2008. 191

Figure 4.7A- EMERGENTS in the Theosphere. 192

4.7B- The Integration of the Right and Left Hemispheres of the Neocortex. Extracted from http://lecerveau.mcgill.ca/flash/capsules/articles/triunebrain.pdf on October 14th, 2008.

4.7C- Consciousness No Longer Restricted to the Body. www.alexgrey.com, extracted December 10th, 2008.

193

4.7D- Structures of Thought Integrated into a Complex Whole. www.alexgrey.com, extracted December 10th, 2008.

4.7E- Dimensions Organized in Orders of Increasing Complexity. Cymatics (Dr. Hans Jenny). Inert pastes are infused with pure tones; each higher tone within the octave produces a form exhibiting increased coherence and complexity. Cymatics: A Study of Wave Phenomenon and Vibration, pg. 106 194

4.7F- Space a Plastic Medium Enacted by the Subjects it Contains. Water Crystal Studies (Dr. Masura Emoto). Suggest that human thoughts may affect the molecular structure of water. Left: Projected thought “Love and thanks”. Right: Projected thought “I hate you, you make me sick”. Messages from Water, pg. 32

4.7G- “God”-(Consciousness) Becoming.

195

4.7H- Caltrans District 7 Headquarters Building. (Morphosis) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 4th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; energy from light.

4.7I- El Monte Sangrado Resort. (Living Designs Group) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 12th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; food from waste. 196

4.7J- ADA Space. (ETH). www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 6th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; code-based form.

4.7K- Industrial Muscles. (Festo Company) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 9th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; contextually responsive structural elements.

197

4.7L- Grafisoft Slider. (ONL) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 6th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; climatically responsive, adaptive forms.

4.7M- Tower of Winds. (Toyo Ito) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 6th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; climatically responsive, adaptive forms. 198

4.7N- L-Systems. (Aristid Lindenmayer) Wikipedia, “L-Systems”, extracted on December 8th, 2008. Above: The BIOS; fractal growth.

4.7O- The Hyposurface. (Mark Goulthourpe) www.arcspace.com, extracted on December 6th, 2008. Right: The BIOS; adaptation through transformation of Cartesian coordinate system.

199

FIGURE 7A- Evolution: Self-Transcendence through Self-Organization.

200

Figure A.1 The Fundamental Structure of the Genetic Code. Wikipedia, “Genetic Code”, extracted on October 21st, 2008. 201

Figure A.2 Genetic Codons or ‘Words” and their Corresponding Amino Acids. DNA and the I CHING: the Tao of Life, pg. 153.

202

Figure A.3 The Two Polarities of Ying and Yang.

Figure A.4 The Four “Letters” of the I Ching.

203

Amino Acid

(A) Adenine

(C) Cytosine

(G) Guanine

(U) Uracil

Digram Old Yang Young Yang Young Yin Old Yin

Figure A.5 The Four “Letters” of the I Ching correspond to the Four “Letters” of the Genetic Code. Adapted from DNA and the I CHING: the Tao of Life.

Figure A.6- The 64 Hexagrams of the I Ching. Wikipedia, “I CHING”, extracted July 18th, 2008. 204

Figure A.7-The Correlative Nature of the 64 Hexagrams of the I Ching and the 64 Codons of the Genetic Code. DNA and the I CHING: the Tao of Life, pg. 108.

205

Figure A.8-The Correlative Nature of the 64 Hexagrams of the I Ching and the 20 Amino Acids. DNA and the I CHING: the Tao of Life, pg. 121.

206

Figure A.9- The 64 Hexagrams Arranged Spatially on Bagua Compass. Wikipedia, “Lo Pan”, extracted August 9th, 2008. The Lo Pan compass is used in Feng Shui.

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