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MAE 3272 - Lecture 4 Notes Supplement - Strain Gages

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Force

Force

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages

Elastic Member

1

M&AE 3272: Mechanical Property

and Performance Laboratory

Excitation

Signal Conditioning

and Processing

Display and Analysis

via LabVIEW

Strain

Gage

Load Cell

WSachse; 2/2012;

Resistance Strain Gage Brief History:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 2

The electrical resistance of a conducting wire increases

with elongation and decreases with compression.

Lord Kelvins Experiments:

Strain and electrical resistance of wires

1856

WSachse; 2/2012;

Resistance Strain Gage Brief History 2:

1936-1938

Ruge (MIT) and Simmons (CalTech) plus 2 Students!

SR-4 (Simmons+Ruge+4 Others) joined with DeForest

Ruge-DeForest Partnership; SR-4 Gages distributed

SR-4 Strain Gages distributed by Baldwin

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 3

Simmons

Patent, 1944

Hes a familiar figure around the CalTech campus,

which he considers a suitable local amusement

park.

Simmons: Near Genius;

Brilliant EE; Lab Rat ;

64 V/ ! Failed to

realize the significance

of his invention.

Ruge: Bonded wire

gage; Stymied by

low-level signals;

Realized at once the

significance of their

invention.

WSachse; 2/2012;

Resistance Strain Gage Brief History 3:

1952 Development of foil gage by Saunders-Roe, UK

1960-70s Improved Control and understanding of gage materials,

design, photolithography, chemical etching; vacuum

deposition; manufacturing

Today Used in most applications; Many, many configurations

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 4

Single-element foil gages

WSachse; 2/2012;

Foil Strain Gages - Various:

(a)-(c)

Single-element

gages

(d)-(e)

Two-element

rosette

(f)

Two-element,

stacked rosette

(g)-(h)

Three-element

rosette

(i)

Three-element,

stacked rosette

(j)

Torque gage

(k)

Diaphragm gage

(l)

Stress gage

(m)

Gages for use

on concrete

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 5

WSachse; 2/2012;

Semi-conductor Strain Gage Brief History:

1954 Piezoresistive properties of Si and Ge discovered

1957 Mason and Thurston (Bell Labs); Transducer

development (theory and experiment)

1960 Commercial piezoresistive strain gages available

1990s -

Current

Development of MEMS strain gages with electronics

(analog/digital); telemetry

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 6

Usually have a larger Gage Factor (-50 to -200) than foil

gages (typically +2.0 to 2.5)

Highly non-linear resistance/strain behavior (Calibration?)

More expensive

More sensitive to temperature changes

More fragile than foil gauges.

Characteristics:

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage Specifications:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 7

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage Operation:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 8

http://www.rdpe.com/ex/hiw-sglc.htm

Essential Assumption:

The deformation of the gage

accurately mimics the

deformation of the material to

which it is attached.

Minimal loading effect of the

gage on the test specimen

Strain sign tensile/compressive)

Strain magnitude

Secondary effects negligible or

accounted for

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage Applications:

Material property sensor

Monitor and control loads/deformations in mechanical

systems; e.g. Scales, Tools, Thermal sensor, Flow,

Motion, etc.; Multi-B$ industry.

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 9

Real-time Computer Graphics for Character Animation. we use strain gages as the input

device. By using this, we can get the relative moving data between two human surfaces with no

pains.

17(55) pp.31-36 19930930

Alinghi; Americas Cup

(IEEE Trans Neural Sys Rehab Eng, 2009)

New Minneapolis I-35WBridge

Green: Strain Gage Monitoring System

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gages Desired Characteristics:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 10

Low mass: Minimal loading eect in dynamic

measurements

Low stiness: Minimal loading eect on deformation

Gage calibration stable wrt temperature and time

Wide operating temperature range

High Gage resolution: 1 m/m

Large Dynamic range: 5% strain (50, 000 m/m)

(High -sensitivity)

Gage length small point-like measurement

Linear response: Simplied data process

Good fatigue life - in dynamic measurements

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage Sensitivity:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 11

Factional Change of Gage Resistance with Strain:

R

R

= (1 + 2)

axial

. .

Dimensional

+

. .

piezoresistive

The fractional change of gage resistance per unit strain

Strain gage Sensitivity :

R

R

1

axial

Gage Factor S

gage

= (1 + 2) +

axial

When 0.3 : the Gage Factor is given by

S

gage

1 + 0.6 + (0.4 to 2.0) Metallic conductors

S

gage

1 + 0.6 + (125 to 175) Semiconductors

P type (e. g. Boron) S

gage

> 0

N type (e. g. Arsenic) S

gage

< 0

S

gage

> 0 R

g

+ > 0 [T] S

gage

< 0 R

g

< 0 [C]

Numerical Example : Metal foil gage, 120 ; S

gage

2.0 ,

then for

axial

= 1 (i. e. 1 10

6

in/in) :

R

g

= S

g

R

g

axial

212010

6

2.410

4

[] = 240 []

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 1

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 12

Installation - It is assumed that a properly selected gage has

been correctly bonded to the material under test.

Transverse Sensitivity - Sensitivity of a gage to transverse

strains (non uniaxial)

R

R

= S

gage

(

axial

+ K

t

trans

) where: K

t

S

trans

S

axial

S

gage

= S

axial

(1 K

t

)

True :

axial

=

R/R

S

gage

1 K

t

1 + K

t

(

axial

/

axial

)

App :

axial

=

R/R

S

gage

Error in neglecting

trans

: Error =

axial

axial

axial

100 %

Percent error of actual axial strain as a function of

trans

/

axial

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 2

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 13

Cyclic Straining -

May result in

nonlinearity, hysteresis

and zero-shift.

Possible results

of strain cycling

Temperature Sensitivity - Important if measurements are

made over a large T . Possible eects:

1. Gage Factor S

axial

changes

2. Gage dimensions change: L/L = T

3. Specimen dimensions change: L/L = T

4. Gage resistance changes: R/R = T

#1 is relatively small; Mismatch between #2 and #3 leads to

thermal straining of gage (unable to separate from specimen).

Apparent

strain for

two gage

alloys

Corrections - For measurements over a broad range of

temperature measured strains must be corrected.

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 3

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 14

Power Dissipation - Depends on gage size; design; material properties;

adhesive/thickness; specimen material/thermal properties; coating; cooling.

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 4

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 15

Loading Eects - The gage/backing has an eective modulus,

E

gage

= 7 20 GPa (1 to 3 10

6

psi).

Eect of mechanical behavior of specimen under test is

aected locally and globally .

Example of local eect:

Eective gage modulus: 1.1510

6

psi (8.0 GPa);

Thickness of gage installation: 0.0023 in (0.06 mm)

Global eects of the gage also arise aecting the entire

cross-section of the specimen.

Solution - Use the lowest modulus gage; smallest in size

or use optical, capacitive techniques.

WSachse; 2/2012;

Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Static Measurements:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 16

Constant voltage (or current) excitation; Resistors R

1

, R

2

, R

3

and

R

4

and load resistance R

M

.

Constant voltage circuit

Output Voltage:

E

0

=

R

1

R

3

R

2

R

4

(R

1

+ R

2

))R

3

+ R

4

)

E

i

At balance :

E

0

= 0 when R

1

R

3

= R

2

R

4

Static Measurements

WSachse; 2/2012;

Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Dynamic Measurements:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 17

Dynamic Measurements: R

1

R

1

+ R

1

;

R

2

R

2

+ R

2

; R

3

R

3

+ R

3

and R

4

R

4

+ R

4

then . . .

E

0

=

R

1

R

2

(R

1

+ R

2

)

2

_

R

1

R

1

R

2

R

2

+

R

3

R

3

R

4

R

4

_

E

i

+ h. o. t.

The omitted higher-order-terms lead to an error given by

Error : =

4

i=1

R

i

/Ri

4

i=1

R

i

/Ri + 2

When R

1

= R

4

and R

2

= R

3

= 0

or : R

2

= R

3

and R

1

= R

4

= 0 Error equals zero.

WSachse; 2/2012;

Common Strain Gage Wheatstone Bridge Circuits:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 18

4-Arm Active

(4X Output)

1-Arm Active

(Quarter Bridge)

2-Arm Active

(Temp Comp)

2-Arm Active

(Temp Comp)

WSachse; 2/2012;

Common Strain Gage Wheatstone Bridge Circuits:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 19

Dummy Gage:

Temperature

Compensation

WSachse; 2/2012;

Amplification of Bridge Signals:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 20

Pressure Sensor Application:

Circuit compensates for sensor-to-

sensor offset and gain variations

Functional Block Diagram:

WSachse; 2/2012;

Measurement/Analysis of Dynamic Effects with Strain Gages:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 21

Strain gage

detecting a

stress pulse :

Transmission of

dynamic strains

from specimen

into gage

Dynamic response

of the strain gage

Time-spatial signal

convolution:

R(t) = S

gage

(

0

/C) (t) R

0

Examples - Dynamic, Axial Impact Loadings

Shock tube generated stress waves in rods; (a) Measurement

system; (b) Longitudinal strain record at 1.51 m from impact

(Fox and Curtis, 1958)

Pneumatic rie pellet excitation of stress wave in a rod; (a)

Measurement system; (b) Longitudinal strain record showing

compressive and tensile pulses (Pao and Kowal, 1965)

WSachse; 2/2012;

Strain Gage as a Dynamic Pressure Sensor:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 22

Experiment : Two strain gages were bonded to the sides of a full can (Aluminum) of

soda. The can was opened and the voltage signals from each gage were recorded using a

digital waveform recorder.

Recorded unloading strains when opening a can of soda.

We only used one gage measuring the hoop strain,

hoop

, of the can during unloading

to evaluate the internal pressure p prior to opening. The relationship is

Released Pressure, p =

E t

r (1 /2)

hoop

where

hoop

Measured hoop strain dierence 800

E Materials Youngs modulus 10.5 10

6

[psi]

Materials Poissons ratio 0.33

t Can wall thickness = 0.0040 [in]

r Can inside radius = 1.3125 [in]

_

_

= 28.8 [psi]

Principle : A uid (gas or liquid) under pressure inside of a can results

in stresses and strains (deformations) in the material making up the can.

Stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel. (from Gere, Mechanics of Materials (2004))

hoop

axial

Biaxial State of Stress:

Hoop stresses :

hoop

2

hoop

(t x) p (2r x)

hoop

=

p r

t

Axial stresses :

axial

axial

(2r t) p (r

2

)

axial

=

p r

2 t

Procedure : A strain gage is used to measure the hoop strain,

hoop

, of the can.

hoop

=

hoop

E

axial

E

For an aluminum can :

0.33

E 10.5 10

6

[psi]

Gives . . .

Pressure, p =

E t

r (1 /2)

hoop

WSachse; 2/2012;

Measuring Large (Plastic) Strains with Elastic Strain Gages:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 23

Permits measurement of large, inelastic

deformations.

Useful for measurements in hostile environments.

Re-useable gage.

Semi-circular,

thin beam

extensometer

Applied Load, P , deection :

Bending Stress:

b

=

6 P R

b h

2

Bending Strains:

b

=

6 P R

b h

2

E

Castiglianos 2nd Theorem to nd

bending strain energy:

U =

_

0

(P R sin )

2

2 E I

Rd =

3 P

2

R

3

b h

3

E

Axial deection: =

U

P

=

6 P R

3

b h

3

E

Deection Sensitivity:

b

=

R

2

2 h

When connected to a

quarter-bridge Wheatstone

bridge for which the excitation

is E

i

gives the Output Signal :

E

0

E

i

=

_

_

_

S

g

h

2 R

2

_

_

_

Extensometer Sensitivity:

S

=

E

0

=

S

g

h

2 R

2

WSachse; 2/2012;

Hot, New Ideas with Strain Gages:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 24

Silver Ink: Before/After Sintering 350^C, 60-min

A Digital MEMS-Based Strain Gage for

Structural Health Monitoring

B. J. MacLean, M. G. Mladejovsky, M. R. Whitaker, M. Oliver, S. C. Jacobsen

Mat Res Soc Symposium Procedings, 503, 309-320 (1998)

Arthroscopically

Implantable

Force Probe: -

Forces

Fiber-Optic Strain Gage

WSachse; 2/2012;

Back to us and M&AE 3272:

M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 25

Were going to learn how to

mount strain gages onto an

elastic member in order to

fabricate a Load cell, or

Force transducer.

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