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WSachse; 2/2012;

Load Measurement System:


Force
Force
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages
Elastic Member
1
M&AE 3272: Mechanical Property
and Performance Laboratory
Excitation
Signal Conditioning
and Processing
Display and Analysis
via LabVIEW
Strain
Gage
Load Cell
WSachse; 2/2012;
Resistance Strain Gage Brief History:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 2
The electrical resistance of a conducting wire increases
with elongation and decreases with compression.
Lord Kelvins Experiments:
Strain and electrical resistance of wires
1856
WSachse; 2/2012;
Resistance Strain Gage Brief History 2:
1936-1938
Ruge (MIT) and Simmons (CalTech) plus 2 Students!
SR-4 (Simmons+Ruge+4 Others) joined with DeForest
Ruge-DeForest Partnership; SR-4 Gages distributed
SR-4 Strain Gages distributed by Baldwin
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 3
Simmons
Patent, 1944
Hes a familiar figure around the CalTech campus,
which he considers a suitable local amusement
park.
Simmons: Near Genius;
Brilliant EE; Lab Rat ;
64 V/ ! Failed to
realize the significance
of his invention.
Ruge: Bonded wire
gage; Stymied by
low-level signals;
Realized at once the
significance of their
invention.
WSachse; 2/2012;
Resistance Strain Gage Brief History 3:
1952 Development of foil gage by Saunders-Roe, UK
1960-70s Improved Control and understanding of gage materials,
design, photolithography, chemical etching; vacuum
deposition; manufacturing
Today Used in most applications; Many, many configurations
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 4
Single-element foil gages
WSachse; 2/2012;
Foil Strain Gages - Various:
(a)-(c)
Single-element
gages
(d)-(e)
Two-element
rosette
(f)
Two-element,
stacked rosette
(g)-(h)
Three-element
rosette
(i)
Three-element,
stacked rosette
(j)
Torque gage
(k)
Diaphragm gage
(l)
Stress gage
(m)
Gages for use
on concrete
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 5
WSachse; 2/2012;
Semi-conductor Strain Gage Brief History:
1954 Piezoresistive properties of Si and Ge discovered
1957 Mason and Thurston (Bell Labs); Transducer
development (theory and experiment)
1960 Commercial piezoresistive strain gages available
1990s -
Current
Development of MEMS strain gages with electronics
(analog/digital); telemetry
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 6
Usually have a larger Gage Factor (-50 to -200) than foil
gages (typically +2.0 to 2.5)
Highly non-linear resistance/strain behavior (Calibration?)
More expensive
More sensitive to temperature changes
More fragile than foil gauges.
Characteristics:
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage Specifications:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 7
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage Operation:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 8
http://www.rdpe.com/ex/hiw-sglc.htm
Essential Assumption:
The deformation of the gage
accurately mimics the
deformation of the material to
which it is attached.
Minimal loading effect of the
gage on the test specimen
Strain sign tensile/compressive)
Strain magnitude
Secondary effects negligible or
accounted for
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage Applications:
Material property sensor
Monitor and control loads/deformations in mechanical
systems; e.g. Scales, Tools, Thermal sensor, Flow,
Motion, etc.; Multi-B$ industry.
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 9
Real-time Computer Graphics for Character Animation. we use strain gages as the input
device. By using this, we can get the relative moving data between two human surfaces with no
pains.
17(55) pp.31-36 19930930
Alinghi; Americas Cup
(IEEE Trans Neural Sys Rehab Eng, 2009)
New Minneapolis I-35WBridge
Green: Strain Gage Monitoring System
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gages Desired Characteristics:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 10
Low mass: Minimal loading eect in dynamic
measurements
Low stiness: Minimal loading eect on deformation
Gage calibration stable wrt temperature and time
Wide operating temperature range
High Gage resolution: 1 m/m
Large Dynamic range: 5% strain (50, 000 m/m)
(High -sensitivity)
Gage length small point-like measurement
Linear response: Simplied data process
Good fatigue life - in dynamic measurements
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage Sensitivity:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 11
Factional Change of Gage Resistance with Strain:
R
R
= (1 + 2)
axial
. .
Dimensional
+

. .
piezoresistive
The fractional change of gage resistance per unit strain
Strain gage Sensitivity :
R
R

1

axial
Gage Factor S
gage
= (1 + 2) +

axial
When 0.3 : the Gage Factor is given by
S
gage
1 + 0.6 + (0.4 to 2.0) Metallic conductors
S
gage
1 + 0.6 + (125 to 175) Semiconductors
P type (e. g. Boron) S
gage
> 0
N type (e. g. Arsenic) S
gage
< 0
S
gage
> 0 R
g
+ > 0 [T] S
gage
< 0 R
g
< 0 [C]
Numerical Example : Metal foil gage, 120 ; S
gage
2.0 ,
then for
axial
= 1 (i. e. 1 10
6
in/in) :
R
g
= S
g
R
g

axial
212010
6
2.410
4
[] = 240 []
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 1
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 12
Installation - It is assumed that a properly selected gage has
been correctly bonded to the material under test.
Transverse Sensitivity - Sensitivity of a gage to transverse
strains (non uniaxial)
R
R
= S
gage
(
axial
+ K
t

trans
) where: K
t

S
trans
S
axial
S
gage
= S
axial
(1 K
t
)
True :
axial
=
R/R
S
gage
1 K
t
1 + K
t
(
axial
/
axial
)
App :

axial
=
R/R
S
gage
Error in neglecting
trans
: Error =

axial

axial

axial
100 %
Percent error of actual axial strain as a function of
trans
/
axial
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 2
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 13
Cyclic Straining -
May result in
nonlinearity, hysteresis
and zero-shift.
Possible results
of strain cycling
Temperature Sensitivity - Important if measurements are
made over a large T . Possible eects:
1. Gage Factor S
axial
changes
2. Gage dimensions change: L/L = T
3. Specimen dimensions change: L/L = T
4. Gage resistance changes: R/R = T
#1 is relatively small; Mismatch between #2 and #3 leads to
thermal straining of gage (unable to separate from specimen).
Apparent
strain for
two gage
alloys
Corrections - For measurements over a broad range of
temperature measured strains must be corrected.
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 3
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 14
Power Dissipation - Depends on gage size; design; material properties;
adhesive/thickness; specimen material/thermal properties; coating; cooling.
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage: Performance Factors - 4
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 15
Loading Eects - The gage/backing has an eective modulus,
E
gage
= 7 20 GPa (1 to 3 10
6
psi).
Eect of mechanical behavior of specimen under test is
aected locally and globally .
Example of local eect:
Eective gage modulus: 1.1510
6
psi (8.0 GPa);
Thickness of gage installation: 0.0023 in (0.06 mm)
Global eects of the gage also arise aecting the entire
cross-section of the specimen.
Solution - Use the lowest modulus gage; smallest in size
or use optical, capacitive techniques.
WSachse; 2/2012;
Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Static Measurements:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 16
Constant voltage (or current) excitation; Resistors R
1
, R
2
, R
3
and
R
4
and load resistance R
M
.
Constant voltage circuit
Output Voltage:
E
0
=
R
1
R
3
R
2
R
4
(R
1
+ R
2
))R
3
+ R
4
)
E
i
At balance :
E
0
= 0 when R
1
R
3
= R
2
R
4
Static Measurements
WSachse; 2/2012;
Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Dynamic Measurements:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 17
Dynamic Measurements: R
1
R
1
+ R
1
;
R
2
R
2
+ R
2
; R
3
R
3
+ R
3
and R
4
R
4
+ R
4
then . . .
E
0
=
R
1
R
2
(R
1
+ R
2
)
2
_
R
1
R
1

R
2
R
2
+
R
3
R
3

R
4
R
4
_
E
i
+ h. o. t.
The omitted higher-order-terms lead to an error given by
Error : =

4
i=1
R
i
/Ri

4
i=1
R
i
/Ri + 2
When R
1
= R
4
and R
2
= R
3
= 0
or : R
2
= R
3
and R
1
= R
4
= 0 Error equals zero.
WSachse; 2/2012;
Common Strain Gage Wheatstone Bridge Circuits:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 18
4-Arm Active
(4X Output)
1-Arm Active
(Quarter Bridge)
2-Arm Active
(Temp Comp)
2-Arm Active
(Temp Comp)
WSachse; 2/2012;
Common Strain Gage Wheatstone Bridge Circuits:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 19
Dummy Gage:
Temperature
Compensation
WSachse; 2/2012;
Amplification of Bridge Signals:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 20
Pressure Sensor Application:
Circuit compensates for sensor-to-
sensor offset and gain variations
Functional Block Diagram:
WSachse; 2/2012;
Measurement/Analysis of Dynamic Effects with Strain Gages:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 21
Strain gage
detecting a
stress pulse :
Transmission of
dynamic strains
from specimen
into gage
Dynamic response
of the strain gage
Time-spatial signal
convolution:
R(t) = S
gage
(
0
/C) (t) R
0
Examples - Dynamic, Axial Impact Loadings
Shock tube generated stress waves in rods; (a) Measurement
system; (b) Longitudinal strain record at 1.51 m from impact
(Fox and Curtis, 1958)
Pneumatic rie pellet excitation of stress wave in a rod; (a)
Measurement system; (b) Longitudinal strain record showing
compressive and tensile pulses (Pao and Kowal, 1965)
WSachse; 2/2012;
Strain Gage as a Dynamic Pressure Sensor:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 22
Experiment : Two strain gages were bonded to the sides of a full can (Aluminum) of
soda. The can was opened and the voltage signals from each gage were recorded using a
digital waveform recorder.
Recorded unloading strains when opening a can of soda.
We only used one gage measuring the hoop strain,
hoop
, of the can during unloading
to evaluate the internal pressure p prior to opening. The relationship is
Released Pressure, p =
E t
r (1 /2)

hoop
where

hoop
Measured hoop strain dierence 800
E Materials Youngs modulus 10.5 10
6
[psi]
Materials Poissons ratio 0.33
t Can wall thickness = 0.0040 [in]
r Can inside radius = 1.3125 [in]
_

_
= 28.8 [psi]
Principle : A uid (gas or liquid) under pressure inside of a can results
in stresses and strains (deformations) in the material making up the can.
Stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel. (from Gere, Mechanics of Materials (2004))

hoop


axial
Biaxial State of Stress:
Hoop stresses :
hoop
2
hoop
(t x) p (2r x)

hoop
=
p r
t
Axial stresses :
axial

axial
(2r t) p (r
2
)

axial
=
p r
2 t
Procedure : A strain gage is used to measure the hoop strain,
hoop
, of the can.

hoop
=

hoop
E


axial
E
For an aluminum can :
0.33
E 10.5 10
6
[psi]
Gives . . .
Pressure, p =
E t
r (1 /2)

hoop
WSachse; 2/2012;
Measuring Large (Plastic) Strains with Elastic Strain Gages:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 23
Permits measurement of large, inelastic
deformations.
Useful for measurements in hostile environments.
Re-useable gage.
Semi-circular,
thin beam
extensometer
Applied Load, P , deection :
Bending Stress:
b
=
6 P R
b h
2
Bending Strains:
b
=
6 P R
b h
2
E
Castiglianos 2nd Theorem to nd
bending strain energy:
U =
_

0
(P R sin )
2
2 E I
Rd =
3 P
2
R
3
b h
3
E
Axial deection: =
U
P
=
6 P R
3
b h
3
E
Deection Sensitivity:

b
=
R
2
2 h
When connected to a
quarter-bridge Wheatstone
bridge for which the excitation
is E
i
gives the Output Signal :
E
0
E
i
=
_
_
_
S
g
h
2 R
2
_
_
_
Extensometer Sensitivity:
S

=
E
0

=
S
g
h
2 R
2
WSachse; 2/2012;
Hot, New Ideas with Strain Gages:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 24
Silver Ink: Before/After Sintering 350^C, 60-min
A Digital MEMS-Based Strain Gage for
Structural Health Monitoring
B. J. MacLean, M. G. Mladejovsky, M. R. Whitaker, M. Oliver, S. C. Jacobsen
Mat Res Soc Symposium Procedings, 503, 309-320 (1998)
Arthroscopically
Implantable
Force Probe: -
Forces
Fiber-Optic Strain Gage
WSachse; 2/2012;
Back to us and M&AE 3272:
M&AE 3272 - Supplementary Lecture Materials: Strain Gages 25
Were going to learn how to
mount strain gages onto an
elastic member in order to
fabricate a Load cell, or
Force transducer.