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All solutions must clearly show the steps and/or reasoning you used to arrive at your result. You will lose points for poorly written solutions or incorrect reasoning. Answers given without explanation will not be graded: “No!Work = No Points”. However you may always use any relation on the 1DMath, 3DMath or exam formula sheets or derived in lecture / discussion. Write your NAME and DISCUSSION SECTION on your solutions. Problem 1 : Drag Coupling ! adapted from Taylor 11.12

So far, whenever we have seen coupled oscillators combined with either a damping or a driving force, we have resorted to normal coordinates to solve it. As the normal coordinates can only be spotted for simple problems, let’s try a different method. The two carts in the ﬁgure have equal masses m. They are joined by identical but separate springs of force constant k to separate walls. Cart 2 rides in cart 1 as shows, and cart 1 is ﬁlled with molasses, whose viscous drag supplies the coupling between the two carts. (a) Assuming that the drag force has magnitude "mv where v is the relative velocity of the two carts, write down the equations of motion of the two carts using as coordinates x1 and x2, the displacements of the carts ! ! 2 ! " + "0 from their equilibrium positions. Show that the EOM can be written in matrix form as 1 "" x + !Dx 1x = 0 , ! where x is the column vector made up of x1 and x2, ! 0 " k / m , 1 is the unit matrix, and D is a certain 2!2 square matrix for you to determine. (b) We have our EOM so the next step is “guess the solution form”. Let’s try normal mode form, but with a slight variation. Normal mode form means a solution where all the coordinates are oscillating at the same frequency and the same phase. This system has damping, however, so its oscillations will decay with time. ! ! ! that is complex That suggests a solution form x (t ) = a er"t where we hypothesize a common “frequency” r instead of the usual i#. Assuming that the drag force is weak ( ! < " 0 ), show that you do get two solutions of ! 2 ! = i! 0 or r = ! " + i # 0 this form with r ! " 2 . HINT: The determinant factorizes, stare at it until you see it! (c) Describe the corresponding motions. Explain why one of these modes is damped but the other is not. Problem 2 : 3 Beads and Springs on a Ring! adapted from Taylor 11.31, Classic Qual Problem

Consider a frictionless rigid horizontal hoop of radius R. Onto this hoop we thread three beads with masses 2m,"m,$and m; between the beads we place three identical springs, each with force constant k. (a) Solve for the three normal frequencies. (b) Find the three normal modes, describe them with sketches, and express them in normalized form, i.e. so that T ˆm a ˆn = a ˆm ˆn = ! mn . their amplitude vectors obey the orthonormality relation a Ma Problem 3 : Suspended Rod ! Taylor 11.29

A thin rod of length 2b and mass m is suspended by its two ends with two identical vertical springs (force constant k) that are attached to the horizontal ceiling. Assuming that the whole system is constrained to move in just the one vertical plane, ﬁnd the normal frequencies and normal modes of small oscillations. Describe and explain the normal modes. Taylor’s Hint: It is crucial to make a wise choice of generalized coordinates. One possibility would be r, %, and &, where r and % specify the position of the rod’s CM relative to an origin half ! way between the springs on the ceiling, and & is the angle of tilt of the rod. My hint: Taylor’s suggestions for q ! may need a tweak or two as our small-oscillation formalism demands that q = 0 be an equilibrium point.

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