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Ammonia Plant
Here Kellogg Ammonia Process is designed to produce ammonia from natural gas, steam and air in three steps. Firstly natural gas, which has been free from sulfur compounds, is catalytically reacted with steam to produce hydrogen rich gas to which nitrogen is added in the form of air. Secondly, the gas is purified by the removal of carbon oxide and water formed in the first stage. Thirdly, the high purity gas is converted into ammonia in a synthesis reactor operated at high pressure.

This plant produces 96 metric tons of ammonia per day from a natural gas which is composed of 9!" methane. #arbon dioxide is made as by product and either used in other parts of the fertili$er complex, vented to atmosphere. The plant is designed to use centrifugal compressor as much as possible, in order that the total horsepower for compression re%uirements is &ept to a minimum. 'n addition there is as high degree of waste heat recovery so that maximum use is made of the steam generated. This steam is used to drive turbines and compressors in the plant. (aximum use is made of the inlet pressure of the gas from the pipeline, so that in the first two sections of plant no recompression is necessary. The

Sulfur )emoval

Steam )eforming

Secondary )eforming

Shift #onversion

+mmonia #onversion

Synthesis *as


compress ion
+mmonia .urification +mmonia Transfer +mmonia Storage

#,- )emoval

diagram shows the (ultan ammonia production plant schematically divided into process units, utilities and auxiliary units. Utilities 2ater Treatment /eminerali$ation #ondensate .olisher

2aste Heat 0oiler

+uxiliary 0oiler

Steam /istribution

1x .ac&age Auxiliary 0oilers units

1 x Turbo 0oilers

#ooling 2ater System


Process Description
'nstrument +ir 'nert *as

5.1. Sulfur Removal

The feed gas arrives at the battery limit at pressure 3!- &g4cm5-6 g sufficient to force it through the process as far as the synthesis gas compressor. The gas contains approximately 9! " methane and ! " nitrogen and up to 7 pop of organic sulfur. This is converted to hydrogen sulfide using a hydrogen rich gas from another part of the process, in presence of (olbebdenum catalyst. )HS 8 3exothermic6 #,S 8 3exothermic6 HH)H #H.1,H 8 8 H-S H-S

This H-S is desulfurised by absorbing in two reactors in series which are filled with 9n,. 9n, 8 H-S 9nS 8 H -,

'f the level of sulfur compounds in the feed gas should rise in future, sufficient space has been left for installation of two activated carbon absorbers before the catalytic desulfuri$ation stage. The gas should leave this section of plant containing less than .-:ppm of sulfur.

5.2. Steam Reforming

The next stage of process is the partial reforming of hydrocarbons in the purified gas using steam and heat. This is carried out in the radiant section of the primary reformer. The desulfuri$ed gases are mixed with steam and after preheating in the mixed feed coil in the convection section of the primary reformer the mixture is then distributed to the catalyst tubes suspended in the radiant section of

the primary reformer. The vertical tubes are pac&ed with a metallic ;ic&el catalyst and the reforming reaction temperature is <- = #. 'n these tubes, the methane gas in the feed gas reacts with steam to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. #H! 8 H-, #, 8 H-, #, 8 1H- 3endothermic6 #,- 8 H- 3exothermic6

There are 1>< tubes in the furnace which are heated by 7 rows of each fuel gas burner firing downwards from the roof. )eformed gases from each ban& of catalyst tubes pass upwards through riser, out from radiant section of the reformer, to water cooled external manifold along which it is transfer to the next stage of the process.

5.3. Secondary Reforming

Here basically the ;2 gas is supplied in form of air. +nd the oxygen present in air is used to get H 2 gas from methane in presence of ;ic&el ,xide catalyst. #H! 8 -H- 8 #H! 8 ,,H-, #,- 8 -H-, #, 8 1H-H-

5.4. Shift Reduction

The reformed gas at this stage of process contains approximately >.: " carbon dioxide and 7-.: " carbon monoxide. 0oth these oxides of carbon are poisons for the ammonia conversion catalyst later in the

process. The carbon monoxide is conveniently removed by shift reaction by means of residual steam which is already present in the reformed gas. 't is carried out in two stages, at high and low temperatures, over two different catalysts. 'n the first reactor, the carbon monoxide content is reduced to 1.7 " over a catalyst of )educed 'ron at 1> =#. The reaction is exothermic and outlet temperature of gas is about !1 =#. #, 8 H-, #,- 8 H- 3exothermic6

The gas is cooled by heat exchange before entering the low temperature shift reactor which uses #opper catalyst. *as enters the low temperature shift reactor at -!- =# and leaves at -:: =#. Since the catalyst is very sensitive towards sulfur compounds, so it is protected by a guard bed of Zinc Oxide in the reactor top section. The carbon monoxide content is reduced here to about .: ".

5.5. Car on !io"ide Removal

'n this section of plant the carbon dioxide content, which has now risen to 7>.: ", is reduced to .7 ". There are many processes for the carbon dioxide removal and the one chosen here is the CATACARB system. The gas is first cooled down, saturated with water and carbon dioxide removal is carried out in two absorption stages, by counter current contacting the gas with catacarb solution in a pac&ed bed absorber. The catacarb solution flows downwards by gravity while the gas flow upwards through the tower. The catacarb solution consists of an a%ueous solution containing the e%uivalent of -:" potassium carbonate which combines chemically with carbon dioxide. +dditives are present to enhance the absorption rate, inhibit the corrosion and control foaming of the solution. The

?rich@ catacarb solution, from the bottom of the absorber is regenerated by, flashing under low pressure into stripping tower and by heating. The carbon dioxide is driven off and ?lean@ catacarb solution from the bottom of stripping tower is returned to the top of absorber for reAuse. 'n addition to these ?rich@ and ?lean@ circulation streams there is a ?semiAlean@ catacarb stream, consisting of partially regenerated catacarb solution, ta&en from a side stream draw off section o f the stripper tower and delivered to the midAsection of the absorber tower.

5.#. $ethanator
The raw synthesis gas still contains a small percentage 3 .6"6 of carbon monoxide which was not oxidi$ed in the shift reaction, and a small percentage 3 .7"6 of carbon dioxide which was not removed by catacarb solution. 0oth these oxides are poisons for the ammonia synthesis catalyst. These gases are now removed by reaction with hydrogen to form methane and steam over a ;ic&el catalyst. These reactions are highly exothermic. This reaction, it will be noted, is the opposite of the reforming reaction with which we started. #,8 3exothermic6 #, 8 3exothermic6 #,8 ! H1 H- H#H! #H! -H-, 8 8 - H-, H-, 3exothermic6

The gas is first preheated to 17:=# and leaves the reactor at 16:=#. ;ow the total oxides of carbon in the gas should be less than 7 ppm. The gas is then cooled to 1<=# at about -6 &g4cm5next stage of the process.

is ready for the

5.%. Synthesis &as Com'ression

'n order to bring the synthesis gas up to reaction pressure it is necessary to compress it up to 7!> &g4cm5- g. this is carried out in two case barrel type compressors. 'n the first case, the raw synthesis gas is compressed from -6 &g4cm5- g up to > .! &g4cm5- g. it is then cooled to <=# and enters the second casing where it is compressed to 7:! &g4cm5- g. The ma&e up gas which is discharged from the first stage of second case of the compressor at 7!7 &g4cm5- g( is cooled down and then recombines with recycling gas from the system and is compressed up to7:! &g4cm5- g and the last wheel of the compressor. The two case #lar&e compressors are driven by two +B*ACains turbines in tandem. The first turbine is powered by H. steam at 7 :.: &g4cm5- g and exhausting at the (. 319.: &g4cm5- g6 steam main pressure. The second turbine powered by (. steam, is a condensing one. The two turbines are connected by a gear coupling.

5.). Ammonia Conversion

This is highly exothermic reaction which ta&es place over a )B/D#B/ '),; #+T+EFST which has been modified by +luminum, .otassium and (agnesium ,xides. ;8 1 H- ;H1 8 Heat

There is normally one reactor for this purpose but because of transportation limitations, it has been necessary to supply with two, which operate in parallel. The reactors are vertical pressure vessels approximately - meters high x - meter diam, containing a bas&et with four beds of catalyst. *as flow is from the top downwards through each bed. + %uench stream of cold synthesis gas inGected above each bed to ensure that the bed temperature do not exceed : =#.

)ecycle gas in the synthesis gas loop, is recompressed by a two casing ammonia compressor. This is manufactured by *HH and driven by +B*ACanis (. steam condensing turbine. 'n the first casing ammonia gas is compressed up to -.- &g4cm5- g. in the second casing, there are two stages arranged bac& to bac& minimi$e axial thrust. 'n the compressed ammonia gas from the second casing at 76.< &g4cm5- g is condensed at A!1=# and the li%uid ammonia is further refrigerated by expansion in three stages. The gas from these stages flows bac& to the compressor and li%uid ammonia, at varying temperatures, is used to cool various parts of the synthesis gas loop. The li%uefied ammonia produced is stored in a new single insulated storage tan& at atmospheric pressure. This tan& is -7m in diameter and --m high. 't can hold :, metric tons of +mmonia. +mmonia which boils off the tan& is pic&ed up by separate pac&age refrigeration unit, compressed and condensed and returned to the tan&. 't can also be stored in the existing spherical tan&s.