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Chemical Bonding, Part II Covalent Bonding

Candidates should be able to a. describe, including the use of 'dot-and-cross' diagrams, i. Covalent bonding, as in hydrogen; oxygen; chlorine; ii. Hydrogen chloride; carbon dioxide; methane and ethene *(ii) co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, as in !".#H" *ex$lain the sha$es of, and bond angles in, molecules by using the %ualitative model of electron-$air re$ulsion (including lone $airs), using as sim$le exam$les ! " (trigonal); C&' (linear); CH( (tetrahedral); #H" ($yramidal); H'&( non-linear); )!* (octahedral) describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overla$, giving and bonds *ex$lain the sha$e of, and bond angles in, the ethane, ethene and ben+ene molecules in terms of and, bonds describe, inter$ret and- or $redict the effect of different ty$es of bonding (ionic, covalent, hydrogen and intermolecular interactions) on the $hysical $ro$erties of substances deduce the ty$e of bonding $resent from given information sho. an understanding of chemical reactions in terms of energy transfers associated .ith the ma/ing and brea/ing of chemical bonds.


c. d. e.

f. g.

* enhanced curriculum for SMTP


Molecules and Covalent Bonds

0 covalent bond is the electrostatic force of attraction that t.o neighbouring nuclei have for a localised $air of electrons shared bet.een them. Covalent bonds are formed usually bet.een non-metals and these elements are commonly from grou$ IV, V, VI, VII. 1his arises because t.o non-metals both need to share electrons in order to achieve the stable noble gas configurations. 1he bonding $air of electrons s$ends most of its time bet.een the t.o atomic nuclei, thereby screening the $ositive charges from one another and enabling the nuclei to come closer together than if the bonding electrons .ere absent. 1he negative charge on the electron $air attracts both nuclei and holds them together in a covalent bond. !rom an energy stand$oint, .hen .e say t.o atoms are chemically bonded .e mean that the t.o atoms close together have lower energy and therefore are more stable than .hen se$arated. 2nergy is given off .hen atoms form a bond, and energy is ta/en in .hen bonds are bro/en. 3hen atoms combine by sharing electrons, molecules are formed. 2xam$les of sim$le covalent molecules include4 3ater (H'&) hydrogen molecule ( H') Hydrogen chloride (HCl) methane (CH()

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'Dot and Cross diagrams' o covalent molecules

1he dot and cross structure of a covalent molecule sho.s ho. the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule to sho. the connectivity of the atoms. 1he diagram sho.n does not indicate sha$es of molecules. 2xam$les a) Hydrogen chloride molecule (HCl)4 2ach chlorine and hydrogen atom contributes 5 electron for sharing. Hence the t.o atoms share t.o electrons so that each atom can achieve the stable noble gas configuration - the chlorine atom achieves the octet structure (< valence electrons) .hile the hydrogen atom achieves du$let structure (' electrons in the outer shell, =ust li/e helium) 1he t.o electrons that are shared constitute a single covalent bond.

H " Cl H

)tructural formula of hydrogen chloride4 b) 3ater molecule ;ot cross diagram4

)tructural formula4

H "& "H
Practice 1


H &

;ra. dot and cross diagrams to sho. the arrangement of electrons in each of the molecules. 0lso include structural diagram. Molecule 5. hydrogen '. methane, CH( Dot cross diagram !tructural ormula H-H

H "H
H " " " H H C " H
" H H# " H " ""


". ammonia

# H H H

(. oxygen

" "

&" " &




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>. carbon dioxide

& C &
" "

" "

" "



*. nitrogen

# #

" " "

#"ce$tion to the octet rule a) &dd electron molecules i) #itrogen oxide ii) #itrogen dioxide


" # " & ""

" & & #" " "


8olecules .ith incom$lete octet (electron deficient) i) !"

0fter bonding .ith !, boron only has * electrons in its outer shell and hence is said to be electron deficient.


2x$anded octet ( Com$ounds .ith more than < electrons in the outershell $er atom) i) 9Cl> ii) )!*

Cl Cl Cl 9 Cl Cl
0fter bonding .ith Cl, 9 has 5: electrons in its outer shell.

! ! ! ! ) ! !

0fter bonding .ith !, ) has 5' electrons in its outer shell.

%ote& 5. 9eriod ' elements can only accommodate a maximum of < electrons in its outershell and thus, cannot ex$and their octet. '. &nly elements of 9eriod " and beyond can ex$and their octet to accommodate more than < electrons.

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Co-ordinate (Dative Covalent ) Bonding 0 covalent bond is formed by t.o atoms sharing a $air of electrons. 1he atoms are held together because the electron $air is attracted by both of the nuclei. ?n the formation of a sim$le covalent bond, each atom su$$lies one electron to the bond. ?f both the electrons in a covalent bond come from only one of the atoms, the bond is called a co-ordinate bond or dative bond. &nce the bond has formed, it is identical to any other covalent bond. ?t does not matter .hich atom the electrons come from. ?n the formation of a dative bond4 5) one atom has a lone $air of electrons in the outer shell; 2g 5 nitrogen atom in ammonia has a lone $air of electrons.

2g ' 3ater molecule has ' lone $airs of electrons. ') 1he other atom has an em$ty orbital in the outer shell ") 1he t.o orbitals overla$ so that the electron $air is shared bet.een the t.o atoms. #"am$le 1 - *he ammonium ion, %+,-

H H x# xH x H


H H # H H

0 dative bond is indicated by an arrow $ointing a.ay from the source of the electrons

dot-and-cross diagram

structural formula

1he hydrogen ion in ammonium ion is electron de icient. 1hus the em$t. 1s orbital of this hydrogen ion acce$ts a lone $air o electrons from the nitrogen atom, forming a dative/coordinate bond and ac%uiring a stable du$let con iguration.

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#"am$le ' - 0luminium chloride

Cl 0l Cl

Cl 0l Cl

Cl Cl

0l'Cl* dimer is formed because 0lCl" is electron de icient (t.o electrons short of a com$lete octet) and so, forms a dative bond .ith another 0lCl" by using its em$t. 1$ orbital to acce$t a lone $air of electrons from Cl atom. ?n this .ay, aluminium atom .ould ac%uire a stable octet configuration.

#"am$le 1 - B21.%+1

! ! ! #


?n !", there are only six electrons around boron and boron is said to be electron deficient. 1hus the boron atom can use its em$ty '$ orbital to acce$t a lone $air of electrons from nitrogen atom and so, forms a dative bond .ith #H". ?n this .ay, the boron atom ac%uires the octet configuration and becomes stable.

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!igma and Pi bonds

Covalent bonds are formed .hen the orbitals of t.o neighbouring atoms overla$ so that both nuclei attract the $airs of electrons bet.een them. 1his can ha$$en in t.o different .ays ma/ing t.o different /inds of covalent bonds4 a) !igma ( ) bond 0 sigma bond is formed .hen the orbitals from t.o atoms overla$ end-on (i.e. collinear or head-to head overla$$ing). 2xam$les4 ?nternuclear axis

?nternuclear axis

?nternuclear axis

?n a bond, the electron density is concentrated in the region bet.een the t.o nuclei and is res$onsible for holding the atoms together against the mutual re$ulsion of the nuclei. ?t is a bond that lies along the internuclear axis. 0ll single bonds in molecules are sigma bond. b) Pi ( ) bonds

0 $i bond is formed .hen the $ orbitals of the t.o atoms overla$ side.ays (i.e. collateral or side-toside overla$$ing). 2lectron density lies to$ and belo. the internuclear axis. ;iagram4

efore a $i bond is form, a sigma bond must be $resent. 0ll molecules .ith double bonds .ill have one sigma bond and one $i bond. 8olecules .ith tri$le bonds have one sigma and t.o $i bonds.

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?n a bond, there are t.o regions of electron density alongside the t.o nuclei (i.e. above and belo. the orbital, se$arated by a nodal $lane - a region .ith +ero electron density). 0 $i bond is .ea/er than sigma bond because the overla$$ing of charge clouds is less than that in a sigma bond. 2xam$les4 5) ethane molecule, C'H* ') ethene molecule, C'H(




1here are E sigma bonds in a molecule of ethane

1he C-H bonds are sigma bonds. et.een the t.o carbon atoms, there is one sigma bond and one $i bond


ben+ene molecule, C*H* 1he six '$ orbitals of carbon overla$ side.ays and the electron cloud is above and belo. the $lane of the ring, forming $i molecular orbitals all round the ring. 1he electrons .ithin the $i orbitals can move throughout the ring and are thus delocali+ed.

?n ben+ene, bond length of each bond is bet.een a double bond and a single bond. 2ach bond is .ea/er than a double bond but stronger than a single bond.


Bond #nerg., Bond 3ength and Bond Polarit.

1.,.1 Bond energ. 1he strength of a covalent bond is measured by the bond energy. ond energy is the energy re%uired to brea/ one mole of a covalent bond bet.een t.o atoms in the gaseous state. 2xam$les4 H' (g) H (g) A H (g) r' (g) r (g) A r (g) HCl (g) H (g) A Cl (g) ond energy B A("* /C-mol ond energy B A5D: /C-mol ond energy B A(": /C-mol

1he greater the bond energy, the stronger is the bond.

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1.,.' Bond 3ength


1he covalent bond length is the distance bet.een the nuclei of t.o atoms =oined by a covalent bond. 2xam$le4 H-Cl bond length in hydrogen chloride


ond length B r5 A r'

ond length-nm ond energy-/C mol-5

Cl-Cl :.5DD '((

r- r :.''< 5D"

?-? :.'** 5>5

C-C :.5>( ">:

CBC :.5"" *5:

C C :.5': <(:

!rom the table, the bond strength is in the order4 Cl-Cl F r- r F ?-? and CC F CBC F C-C ond strength increases as bond multi$licity increases. 1his means that tri$le bond is stronger than a double bond, .hich is in turn stronger than a single bond $rovided that the t.o ty$es of atoms in the bond are the same. ?n general, the shorter the bond length, the stronger the covalent bond .

1.,.1 Bond Polarit. 3hen a covalent bond is formed bet.een t.o identical atoms, the electrons are e%ually shared and the bond is said to be non-$olar. 2g4 H-H, Cl-Cl

2lectron cloud is symmetrical due to e%ual sharing of electrons. 3hen a covalent bond is formed by t.o atoms of different electronegativities, a $olar covalent bond is formed. 2lectronegativity is a measure of the attractive $ of atoms for electrons in chemical bonds. ?t is a number bet.een : and (.:. #lectronegativit. #a :.D 8g 5.' 0l 5.> )i 5.< 9 '.5 ) '.> Cl ".: H '.5 & ".> C '.>

!rom the table, metals have lo. electronegativities and thus have small attraction for electrons. 1hus metals have a great tendency to lose electrons

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#on-metals have high electronegativities and thus have a large attraction for electrons. 1hus non-metals have a large tendency to gain electrons. 2xam$le 4 bond formed bet.een hydrogen and chlorine


0 di$ole moment K is re$resented by an arrow .ith the tail at the $ositive centre and the head at the negative centre.

1he more electronegative atom chlorine $ulls the electrons of the covalent bond to.ards itself and so, ac%uire a small negative charge (-) .hile the other atom ac%uires a small $ositive charge (A). 1his une4ual sharing o electrons is /no.n as $olarisation and the bond is /no.n as $olar covalent bond. 9olar covalent bond has a di$ole. (i.e there are t.o se$arate regions of charge). ond strength increases as differences in electronegativity increases. Bond H-! H-Cl H- r H-? Di erence in electronegativit. (.: G '.5 B5.D ".: G '.5 B:.D '.< G '.5 B :.E '.> G '.5 B :.( Bond energ.(56/mol) >*> (": "*: 'D>

;ifference in electronegativity bet.een t.o atoms can be used to $redict the ty$e of bonding. 0 covalent bond is formed if the difference in electronegativity is small (usually H 5.>). 0n ionic bond is formed if the difference in electronegativity is large (usually F 5.>).

Practice ' Ise the electronegativity values on $age E, $redict .hether the com$ounds .ould be ionic or covalent. a) sodium chloride ".:-:.D B '.5 ionic b) c) d) e) f) methane, CH( aluminium chloride magnesium oxide sulfur dioxide carbon dioxide '.> G '.5 B :.( covalent ".: G 5.> covalent ".> G 5.' B '." ionic ".> G '.> B 5.: covalent ".> G '.> B 5.: covalent

?n general, ionic com$ounds are usually formed bet.een atoms of metals and non-metals. 2xce$tions are4 0lCl", )nCl( and 1iCl(. Covalent com$ounds-molecules are formed bet.een atoms of non-metals. 0 alternative and better .ay to $redict .hether a com$ound is ionic or covalent is to stud. its melting and boiling $oint. ?onic com$ounds have high melting-boiling $oint .hile sim$le covalent molecules have lo. melting-boiling $oint. 2xam$les4 )ublimation $oint of 0l!" B 5'E:JC. 0l!" is ionic. )ublimation $oint of 0lCl" B 5E<JC. 0lCl" is covalent

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1in (?L) chloride has melting $oint of -""JC and boiling $oint of 55(JC. ?t is covalent.

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!ha$es o Molecules

)ha$es of molecules or ions that contain only non-metals can be $redicted by the V!#P8 *heor. (Valence !hell #lectron Pair 8e$ulsion). 1his theory states that4 5. 1he electron $airs distributed around a central atom .ill arrange themselves as far as $ossible in s$ace to minimi+e their mutual re$ulsion. 2lectron $airs may be lone $airs (non-bonding $airs) or bond $airs. 2g. #H"

'. Mone $air - Mone $air electron re$ulsion F Mone $air - ond $air electron re$ulsion F ond $air G bond $air electron re$ulsion

1his is due to the lone $air of electrons being s$read out more broadly than bond $airs and re$ulsions are greatest. ;ifferent ty$es of electron $air re$ulsions result in differences in bond angles. 2g. Com$are bond angles in CH(, #H" and H'&



# H



CH( has ( bond $airs and : lone $airs

#H" has " bond $airs and 5 lone $air. 1hus bond angle in #H" is smaller than that in CH( due to the greater bond $air-lone $air re$ulsion, .hich forces the bond $airs closer together.

H'& has ' bond $airs and ' lone $airs. 1hus bond angle in H'& is smaller than that in #H" due to the even greater lone $air-lone $air re$ulsion, .hich forces the bond $airs even closer together.

Determining !ha$es o Molecules using V!#P8 *heor. )te$ 54 )te$ '4 )te$ "4 ;etermine the central atom ;ra. the diagram (include the lone $airs) Count the number of electron $airs around the central atom; differentiate the bond $airs and lone $airs.

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)te$ (4 )te$ >4 *otal no. o electron $airs ' " ( >

Classify the general sha$e of the molecule by the total number of electron $airs ;etermine the actual sha$e of molecule (refer to table on $g 5:) 9eneral !ha$e (!te$ ,) Minear 1rigonal 9lanar 1etrahedral 1rigonal i$yramidal %o. o bond pairs o electrons ' ' " ' " ( ' " ( > ' " ( > * %o. o lone pairs o electrons : 5 : ' 5 : " ' 5 : ( " ' 5 : !ha$e o molecule (!te$ 7) Minear ent 1rigonal 9lanar ent 1rigonal 9yramidal 1etrahedral Minear 1-sha$e )ee-sa. 1rigonal i$yramidal Minear 1-sha$e )%uare $lanar )%uare $yramidal &ctahedral


Practice 3 Using VSEPR Theory, determine the shapes of the following: Molecule !5etch o 3ewis !tructure *otal no. o electron $airs around central atom %o. o bond $airs around central atom " %o. o lone $airs around central atom : !ha$e

!" " 1rigonal $lanar











# H H H


1rigonal $yramidal

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& H
! ! ) ! ! ! !




* : * octahedral



Molecule Polarit.

0 molecule is $olar and thus, has a di$ole moment () if 5. its bonds are $olarised, and '. it is not symmetrical (i.e the individual di$oles do not cancel each other out). 2xam$les4 5) H-! ') C&' ") H'& polar


1he t.o di$oles cancel out; non-$olar






!tructure and Pro$erties o !im$le Covalent Molecules

)im$le covalent molecules are said to have sim$le molecular structures. 2xam$les4 iodine Str ct re of !odine solid

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!tructure o molecular substances ?ntermolecular forces are defined to be the electrostatic interactions bet.een atoms and molecules that act to hold the $articles together. 1he forces bet.een the molecules , intermolecular orces, are .ea/ but the covalent bonds bet.een the atoms are strong. 2xam$le4 covalent bonds45>:-55:: /C-mol ?ntermolecular forces4 5->: /C-mol 3hen covalent molecules boil, only the .ea/ intermolecular forces are overcome, not the covalent bonds.

Ph.sical Pro$erties o sim$le covalent molecules& i. have lo. melting and boiling $oints (boiling $oints of sim$le covalent com$ounds are usually belo. '::C). )im$le covalent substances (2.g H'&, #H", &', C&' ) exists as sim$le discrete covalent molecules. &nly a small amount of energy is re%uired to overcome the wea5 intermolecular orces, hence the boiling $oints of sim$le covalent molecules are lo.. Mi%uids .ith lo. boiling $oint and va$orise easily at room tem$erature are said to be volatile. do not conduct electricity in any states. 3hyN )im$le covalent substances exist as molecules. 1hey are not charged and do not have mobile ions. 0lso there are no mobile electrons as all the electrons are either used u$ to form covalent bonds or are located in electron shells. iii. usually insoluble in .ater but soluble in organic solvents. 2xce$tions4 Oases such as HCl, )&', #H" can dissolve in .ater because of chemical reactions. 2.g.


)&' A H'& #H" A H'&

H')&" #H(A A &H-

)ugar and ethanol are soluble in .ater because of their ability to form hydrogen bonds .ith .ater molecules.


I%*#8M<3#C=308 2<8C#! 2lectrostatic interactions bet.een atoms and molecules that act to bind the $articles together are intermolecular forces. ?ntermolecular forces are .ea/er than chemical bonds. Chemical bonds4 5>:-55:: /C-mol ?ntermolecular forces4 5->: /C-mol


*.$es o Intermolecular 2orces a) +.drogen bond

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2lectrostatic attraction bet.een a hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine and the lone $air of a neighbouring nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom is called a hydrogen bond.


+ H & H +

+ H &

& + H

+ H H +

H'& forms an average of ' hydrogen bonds $er molecule


+ # H H H + +

+ # + H H H +

#H" forms an average of 5 hydrogen bond $er molecule


+ H

+ H

+ H

H! forms an average of 5 hydrogen bond $er molecule

ond )trength of hydrogen bond 4 oiling $oints 4

H-! F H'& F #H" as ! is most electronegative, follo.ed by &, then # #H" ; -""."oC H H! ; 5D.EoC H H'& ; 5::oC

#otice that in each of these molecules; i. 1he hydrogen is attached directly to one of the most electronegative elements (%, <, 2) causing the hydrogen to ac%uire a significant amount of $ositive charge. 2ach of the elements (> B #, &, !) to .hich the hydrogen is attached also has at least one PactiveQ lone $air. H-> has a very $olar bond due to the large electronegativity difference. 3hen > is bonded to H they $ull the bonding $air .ell a.ay from H, ma/ing H $ositive and $oorly shielded. H carries the RA and > the R-. Mone $airs at level n B ' ('p orbitals) have the electrons contained in a relatively small volume of s$ace .hich therefore has a high density of negative charge.



Boiling $oints o h.drogen bonded molecules

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H!, H'& and #H" have higher than ex$ected melting $oints and boiling $oints com$ared .ith the hydrides of other elements in their res$ective Orou$.


Van der ?aals' orces 0rises from induced di$ole or $ermanent di$ole. i) Permanent di$ole-$ermanent di$ole interaction

9ermanent di$ole-$ermanent di$ole forces exist bet.een t.o molecules .ith $ermanent di$ole moments. #egative end of one $olar molecule attracts the $ositive end of another e.g. CH"Cl have net dipole moment.


Induced di$ole or 3ondon dis$ersion orces 1he second ty$e of van der 3aals' forces is the instantaneous di$ole-induced di$ole forces or dis$ersion forces. ?t is a .ea/, short range electrostatic force of attraction bet.een non-$olar molecules .ith tem$orary di$oles. ?t arises from the .ea/ attractive force of the electrons on one molecule for the nuclei of another molecule.

Cl'(s) Cl'(g) '> /C-mol (dis$ersion force bro/en) Cl'(g) 'Cl(g) '(( /C-mol (covalent bond bro/en) <rigin o 3ondon dis$ersion orces (VD?) A "n instantaneo s dipole

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&riginal temporary dipole

!nd ced temporary dipole

electrons are in constant motion instantaneous di$ole moment forms .hen there are more electrons on one side of the molecule instantaneous di$ole moment induces an instantaneous di$ole moment in a neighbouring molecule. 1he result is that $articles .ill then attract each other

"rray of molec les which ha'e temporary dipole

Marger atom has a greater electrostatic attraction (bet.een electrons of one atom and the nuclei of an ad=acent atom) Weak dispersion forces are always present in all molecules . !or non-$olar molecules, these are the only forces $resent. e.g. argon, only instantaneous di$ole-induced di$ole or dis$ersion forces e.g. HCl molecules has $ermanent di$ole-$ermanent di$ole and instantaneous di$oleinduced di$ole interactions. 2actors in luencing the strength o dis$ersion orces& i) !i@e (number o electrons) oiling $oint is used to indicate the strength of intermolecular forces. ?n boiling only van der 3aalsS forces are bro/en (for substances made of sim$le, discrete molecules only) Molecule H' #e #' 0r Cl' %o o electrons ' 5: 5( 5< "( b.$. / oC - '>" - '(* - 5D* - 5<* - ">


)trength of van der 3aalsS forces increases .ith the number of electrons contained in a molecule. 1he greater the electron cloud, the greater the magnitude of momentary distortion ($olarisability of an atom or molecule) and the greater the instantaneous di$ole-induced di$ole interaction-dis$ersion forces.

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!ha$e o molecules Molecule n-$entane (C>H5')

()3 ()* ()* ()* ()3

b.$. / oC "* '<

) ( ) )

densit. :.*'* :.*':

'-meth.lbutane (C>H5')
) ) ( ) ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) )

','-dimeth.l$ro$ane (C>H5')
) ) ) ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) ) )


!or molecules .ith similar molecular formula but different structural formula, the boiling $oint of straight chain molecules are higher than branched molecules. 0ttraction bet.een linear molecules is stronger than bet.een s$herical molecules because of larger surface area of contact bet.een the molecules and thus greater dis$ersion of electrons and greater the strength of induced di$ole-induced di$ole interaction. %ote& Instantaneous di$ole-induced di$ole interaction or dis$ersion orces are $resent in all s.stems, but onl. become more signi icant i there are no stronger intermolecular orces $resent to mas5 their e ect.


Com$aring the strength o di erent t.$es o intermolecular orces ?n general, Hydrogen bonds is usually stronger than van der .aals forces ($ermanent di$ole G $ermanent di$ole or instantaneous di$ole-induced di$ole)


9iant Covalent/Molecular !tructures (Macromolecules)

0 macromolecule is a giant molecule made by large number of atoms covalently bonded together. 2xam$les of macromolecules include diamond, gra$hite, silicon, silica, and $oly(ethene).

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Diamond ;iamond and gra$hite are allotro$es of carbon. 0llotro$es are different forms of the same element. !tructure o diamond ?n diamond, each carbon atom is =oined to four others by strong covalent bond. 1his is called the tetrahedral arrangement of atoms. 1he tetrahedral net.or/ structure is re$eated and forms a giant molecule /no.n as macromolecule.

Deducing $ro$erties o diamond rom its structure 5. ;iamond is the hardest substance /no.n because a large amount of energy is needed to brea/ the strong covalent bonds o$erating in "-dimensions. '. ;iamond has a very high melting $oint (">::JC) and boiling $oint ((<::JC) . 1his is because diamond contains millions of carbon atoms =oined by strong covalent bonds. 0 large amount of energy is needed to brea/ the strong covalent bonds throughout the structure before melting occurs. ". ;iamond does not conduct electricity. ?n diamond, all the four valence electrons are used to form covalent bonds. Hence there are no mobile electrons that move through the structure. (. ;iamond is not soluble in .ater because the attractions bet.een solvent molecules and carbon atoms are not strong enough to overcome the strong covalent bonds in diamond. >. ;iamond is trans$arent. =ses o diamond ;iamonds are used for gemstones in =e.ellery ecause diamond is very hard, they are used as ti$s for drills and other cutting tools. ;iamonds are used for drilling, grinding and $olishing very hard surfaces. 9ra$hite Ora$hite is made of flat layers of carbon atoms. 3ithin each layer, each carbon atom is bonded to three carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. 1his forms rings of six carbon atoms that =oin together to form t.odimensional flat layers. 1he layers of carbon atoms lie one on to$ of the other and are held by .ea/ forces /no.n as van der 3aals forces.


Deducing $ro$erties o gra$hite rom structure 5. Ora$hite has a very high melting $oint and boiling $oint. 1he covalent bonds bet.een the carbon atoms .ithin each layer are strong and re%uire a lot of energy to brea/ it.

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Ora$hite is soft and sli$$ery. 1he layers of atoms are held by .ea/ van der 3aals' forces, the layers of atoms to slide over one another, hence causing gra$hite to be soft and sli$$ery. 0 carbon atom has four outer shell electrons. ?n gra$hite, each carbon atom only uses three valence electrons to form covalent bond, leaving one electron that is free. 1hese free electrons are said to be delocalised as they can move along the layers from one carbon atom to the next .hen gra$hite is connected to a battery. 1his ex$lains .hy gra$hite can conduct electricity. Ora$hite is blac/. Ora$hite is insoluble in .ater, for the same reason as diamond.


(. >.

=ses o gra$hite Ised as a dry lubricant as it is sli$$ery, thermally stable unli/e oil and does not attac/ rubber. Ora$hite is ba/ed .ith clay and made into $encil lead. 0s it is soft, the carbon layers fla/e off and stic/ to the $a$er .hen .e .rite. ecause of gra$hite is a good conductor of electricity, it is used to ma/e inert electrodes for batteries and for electrolysis. ?t is also used as brushes for electric motors. !ilicon dio"ide or silicon (IV) o"ide, !i<'


)ilicon (?L)oxide is commonly called silica. ?t is the main com$onent in sand. 2ach silicon atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral structure and each oxygen atom is bonded to t.o silicon atoms. )ilicon (?L) oxide is a hard solid, has high melting and boiling $oints and does not conduct electricity. 9o.dered silicon dioxide is a mild abrasive used in tooth$aste.


!ilicon )ilicon has a giant molecular structure similar to diamond. 2ach silicon atom is bonded to four other silicon atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. 9ro$erties of silicon are similar to those of diamond. )ilicon is a hard substance and has very high melting and boiling $oints. 9ure silicon does not conduct electricity but becomes a semiconductor .hen im$regnated .ith im$urities.


Pol.(ethene) (sel -stud. section)

) (

) (

( ) ) )

9oly(ethene), a $olymer is the sim$lest form of $lastic. ?t contains thousands of carbon and hydrogen ) ) ) atoms =oined together to form a long chain. 2ach carbon atom is surrounded tetrahedrally by t.o ( hydrogen atoms and t.o other carbon atoms. 9oly(ethene) has a high melting $oint, can be ( ( ': easily moulded by heat, and does not conduct ) Chemistry ()819) ':5' electricity. ))67-)ec " )


Com$aring covalent substances with di erent structures (!el -stud.) *.$ical $h.sical $ro$erties Mo. melting and boiling $oints, that is, volatile; usually exist as li%uids or gases at room tem$erature. #ot able to conduct electricity in all states. ?nsoluble in .ater but usually soluble in organic solvents. High melting and boiling $oints, that is, non-volatile, exist as solids at room tem$erature. #ot able to conduct electricity exce$t gra$hite ?nsoluble in all solvents.

*.$e o structure )im$le molecular structure (e.g. hydrogen, .ater, ammonia, iodine) Oiant molecular -covalent structure (e.g. diamond, gra$hite, silica) 5.

Differences between ionic and covalent compounds (Self-study ! Ionic Com$ound Covalent Com$ound (with sim$le molecular structure) Mo. (volatile) ;o not conduct electricity at all. Isually insoluble Isually soluble

Melting/Boiling $oints #lectrical conductivit. !olubilit. in water !olubilit. in organic solvent

High (non-volatile) conduct electricity in a4ueous or molten state. ;o not conduct .hen solid. Isually soluble Isually insoluble


In luence and im$ortance o +-bonding (!el -stud.) 1he structure and $ro$erty of .ater and ice ?n the ice lattice, the &-H hydrogen bond (:.5<: nm) is much longer than the covalent &-H bond (:.:D* nm). 1his results in ice having an o$en but rigid "; tetrahedral structure .hich holds the .ater molecules further a$art than in the li%uid form (hence the larger volume and density of ice) htt$$ubs-=ournals-C&8-DD:'-)chulson-DD:'.html !olubilit. o $olar substances in water 1he ability of other molecules ca$able of hydrogen bonding .ill increase the solubility of that com$ound in .ater. !or exam$le, ethanol and sugar are very soluble in .ater as their molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds .ith .ater molecules. 0lso, ionic com$ounds can also dissolve in .ater due to the favourable ion-di$ole interaction. Ho.ever, non-$olar substances .ill not dissolve in .ater. ?t .ill result in the formation of an immiscible layer. )olubility of one substance in another is de$endent on the forces of attraction bet.een units of the substance. )ubstances .ith similar intermolecular attraction .ould dissolve in one another.

'5 )67-)ec " Chemistry ()819) ':5'

+igh boiling $oint o water (1AABC) due to the $resence o h.drogen bonding 1his is of $articular im$ortance because .ithout the o$eration of hydrogen bonds, .ater .ould be a gas under normal atmos$heric conditions; oceans, la/es and rivers .ould never exist and it .ould never rain. Dimeri@ation o carbo".lic acids

Protein olding in D%0

'' )67-)ec " Chemistry ()819) ':5'