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COMMUNICATION Communication is the base of any society, without communicating no person can survive in a society.

Without communicating no one can understand the nature of any person. So, communication is like roots of our society. Why Need Communication Survival The foremost reason to communicate to others for the human beings in particular is their own survival. There is hardly any sense in believing that a person can all alone live a life by fulfilling its daily life needs. The fact is that every next moment a person is dependent on others to survive. Hence it is inevitable for all of us to bank on communication. Co-operation There is a very genuine instinct in all the living creatures to cooperate with each other to keep the cycle of life running. Humans need this more cautiously as to keep their hard felt sense of superiority. Relationships Feeling of keeping a range of relationship from an individual to family and tribe was strong from early days of human civilization. It would have been extremely difficult to promote a life style without acknowledging the relationships among people living together for some time. Communication was essential to identify relations among people to accomplish different tasks. Persuasion Communication proved handy in the course of persuasion and influence others to keep the human civilization grow. The task is done even today, though, with different techniques and in a rather complex world of communication. Power Better communication helped people and tribes to command power over others. This phenomenon is more evident in the fields of conflict and to bring the enemy down. To muster support by using better communication skills has always been the hallmark of human interactivity. Effective Communication Skills Today, effective communication skills have become a predominant factor even while recruiting employees. While interviewing candidates, most interviewers judge them on the basis of the way they communicate. They believe that skills can be improvised on the job; but ability to communicate well is important, as every employee becomes the representing face of the company. Nobody is born knowing how to communicate exceptionally well. The truth is that good communicators learned that skill through years of practice. With a little effort you too can

hone your communication skills and improve your competence in the workplace. Follow these simple tips on becoming a better communicator. Try to see what the other person means You want other people to agree with you, but that is not always possible. Conflicts in the workplace and relationships can be avoided to a great extent by trying to see things from the other persons point of view. Start with you You cannot change the way other people communicate, but you can change the way you communicate. You may have colleagues with a short fuse. Instead of expecting them to change that behavior altogether what you need to do is to learn to exercise restraint. By retaining your composure at all times you will be able to stay in charge of the situation. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Pay close attention to the non-verbal cues you give. It is said that words account for only 7-11% of a communication. Your body language conveys much more information. Be clear Be clear about what you mean and what your intentions are. This way you can avoid getting misinterpreted. Your language is a reflection of the way you think and feel about yourself and others. So be aware of the apologies, excuses and justifications you make. Dont act on assumptions Dont make assumptions before you fully understand a message. If you must, tell the other person I have assumed that Is that true? Remember that unconfirmed assumptions very often spoil good communication in the workplace. You cant be right all the time Stop getting obsessed with the idea of being right all the time. The purpose of communication skills is to present a piece of information or a point of view. You dont necessarily have to beat other people with your arguments. Let people decide whether they want to agree with you or not. BEHAVIOURAL COMMUNICATION Behavioural Communication is a psychological construct that addresses peoples use of day-to-day behaviors as a form of communication. Specifically, it refers to peoples tendency to express feelings, needs and thoughts by means of indirect messages and behavioural impacts. Behavioral Communication is defined as a variable of individual differences concerning the use of behaviours that indirectly express ones feelings, needs, and thoughts, as a substitute for more direct and open forms of communication.

Behavioural Communication thus, provides a conceptual framework to account for many instances of day-to-day behavior from communication standpoint. Basically, any behavior may be judged as communicative if it has the intent to convey a message. SCOPE When we communicate, we do not actually swap ideas, we swap symbols that stand for ideas. Words are just symbols that do not have inherent meaning; we simply use them in certain ways to convey an idea or give it a meaning, and no two people use the same word in the same sense at all instances.

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Personal communication begins when two people are aware of each other. There is communication for business, and then there is personal communication (for pleasure). Some businesses restrict your personal communication while you are at work (no phone calls to friends, no personal emails, etc.) during working hours. Also there are some people that you may not like. You would probably not engage in personal communication with them, but you may have to do business communication with them as part of your job.

IMPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The term impersonal means something which is not personal or without reference or connection to a particular person. Impersonal communication is a kind of communication that we normally have with sales persons. It is actually a form of I - It Communication where the person who you are communicating to, is taken as an object. The interaction is purely based on their social roles. The conversation is superficial and impersonal. It is only business talk and is limited to bare necessities. Impersonal Communication is the communication between individuals that have no shared history or dependency on each other. It is a form used only when necessary. A type of communication or interaction that is based specifically on social roles, such as communication between a sales representative and a potential customer.

The manner of communication is informal and superficial, covering topics necessary to instigate a sale or similar transaction. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Interpersonal communication is the universal form of communication that takes place between two individuals. Since it is person-to-person contact, it includes everyday exchange that may be formal or informal and can take place anywhere by means of words, sounds, facial expression, gestures and postures. In interpersonal communication there is face-to-face interaction between two persons, that is, both are sending and receiving messages. This is an ideal and effective communication situation because you can get immediate feedback. You can clarify and emphasize many points through your expressions, gestures and voices. In interpersonal communication, therefore, it is possible to influence the other person and persuade him or her to accept your point of view. Since there is proximity between sender and receiver. Interpersonal communication has emotional appeal too. It can motivate, encourage, and coordinate work more effectively then any other form of communication. Also, in a crisis, through interpersonal channel, flow of information is tremendous e.g. news of violence, famine or disaster. Interpersonal messages consist of meanings derived from personal observations and experiences. The process of translating thoughts into verbal and nonverbal messages increases the communicators self-concept. In fact, effective interpersonal communication helps both participants strengthen relationships through the sharing of meaning and emotions. Interpersonal communication is the process that we use to communicate our ideas, thoughts, and feelings to another person. Interpersonal Communication is the process we use to build relationships with others through communication by effectively doing the following: Understanding the others situation we cant build relationships with others if we dont take time to listen and be fully aware of where the person we are speaking with is coming from. Communicating in the right manner its not what we say that matters but also the tone we use and how we say it based on our understanding of them that can help the person we speak with listen and understand our intentions and ideas Influencing them to listen and/or take action as needed - at the end of the day, the purpose of communication is to reach a common understanding, build a better relationship, and/or agree on what to do next if action is required.

FUNCTIONS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION We use interpersonal communication for a variety of reasons. For example, interpersonal communication helps us understand our world better. It helps us understand a situation in a better way. We also use interpersonal communication to think and evaluate more effectively. Often it is used to change behavior also. The three specific functions are: 1. Linking function 2. Mentation function and 3. Regulatory function. The linking function connects a person with his or her environment. The mentation function helps us conceptualize, remember, and plan. It is a mental or intellectual function. The regulatory function serves to regulate our own and others behavior. Through interpersonal communication we are nurtured as infants, physically, emotionally and intellectually. Again through interpersonal communication we develop cultural, social and psychological links with the world. In fact, interpersonal communication is the very basis of our survival and growth as it helps us to function more practically. EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS Listen carefully A crucial parameter ignored in communicating; listening is vital for understanding and deciphering what the other party is trying to say. Be in office meetings or while talking to our friends and family members, ensure that you're listening carefully to what the other person is trying to say. Besides that, be impartial while listening. Don't jump into conclusions and express your views without listening to the other person. You have the liberty to ask questions to the person communicating to you but don't interrupt in the middle of his sentences. Get Involved Treat people with respect and admire their views. The person or the audience talking to you expects that you're involved in the discussion. That makes him feel comfortable and he can communicate in a much better way. Ignoring or not paying attention to the other party sends a very negative signal and creates lack of communication and often misunderstanding. Exude Positive Body Language According to researchers, nonverbal communication forms more than half of our communication. For interpersonal communication, it is crucial to understand the value of body language. The way one speaks, voice modulation, movements of hands and sitting/standing posture of our body convey a lot about our confidence levels. Embrace Criticism While communicating and addressing people, you might encounter some who

don't agree with your views. We all can agree to disagree and so it is should never be a problem. What you can do is, you can accept criticism as a part of life and just keep giving your best. Criticism is not always negative. In fact, it conveys much about areas where you need to improve and work harder. Being calm and composed while debating and talking to peer groups reflects poise and maturity of personality. Be Assertive Confidence in what you speak backed by immaculate facts and figures is always a sign of good communicator. This is vital especially in workplace because in office meetings, project discussions and working schedule, if you have to present your views, confidence matters to a great extent. Confidence stems from knowledge about the subject and your experiences. Standing on your viewpoint, even if you have to face some criticism is a sign of confidence of a clear communicator. Being assertive always help, both in professional and personal life. Value Your Words one should also be true to his words as that forms the basis of resoluteness in the personality. If one is not true to his own words, there is breach of trust and the flow of effective communication is hampered. A person, who values his words, is always looked up as a responsible communicator. MODELS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION A model is a representation of a phenomenon. Models often show how a phenomenon works.

Models of Interpersonal Communication

Linear Model

Interactive Model

Transactional Model

1. Linear Model The first model of interpersonal communication (Laswell, 1948) depicted communication as a linear, or one-way, process in which one person acts on another person.

This was a verbal model that consisted of five questions describing a sequence of acts that make up communication: Who? Say what? In what channel? To whom? With what effect? The linear model of communication assumes that communication is an action that moves from sender to receiver. A year later, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949) offered a revised model that added the feature of noise. Noise is something that causes a loss of information as the information flows from source to destination. Noise might be spam in online communication, regional accents, or background conversations in the workplace.

Information Source

Message

Transmitter

Signal

Received Signal

Receiver

Message

Destination

Noise Source

Sender

Message

Receiver

THE LINEAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION

These early linear models had serious shortcomings. They portrayed communication as flowing in only one direction- from a sender to a passive receiver. This implies that listeners never send messages & that they absorb passively what speakers say. But this is not how communication really occurs. Listeners nod, frown, smile, look bored or interested, & so forth, & they actively work to make sense of others messages. Linear model also erred by representing communication as a sequence of actions in which one step (listening) follows an earlier step (talking). In actual interaction, however, speaking & listening often occur simultaneously or they overlap. On the job, coworkers exchange ideas, & each listens & responds as one person speaks; those who are speaking are also listening for cues from others. Online, as we compose our messages, instant messages pop up on our screens. At any moment in the process of interpersonal communication, participants are simultaneously sending and receiving messages & adapting to one another. 2. Interactive Model Interactive model portrayed communication as a process in which listeners give feedback, which is response to a message. Interaction model suggests that the presence of feedback makes communication an interaction between people. In addition, interactive models recognize that communication create & interpret messages within personal fields of experience. The more communicators fields of experience overlap, the better they can understand each other. When fields of experience dont overlap enough, misunderstandings may occur. Although the interactive model is an improvement over the linear model, it still portrays communication as a sequential process in which one person is a sender & another is a receiver. In reality, everyone who is involved in communication both sends & receives messages. Interactive model also fail to capture the dynamic nature of interpersonal communication and the ways it changes over time. For example, two people communicate more openly after months of exchanging e-mail messages than they did the first time they met in a chat room. Two coworkers communicate after months of working together on a project team

3. Transactional Model Transactional model of communication (Barlund, 1970; Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson, 1967) underscores the fact that giving & receiving messages is simultaneous & mutual. In fact, the word transactional indicates that the communication process is cooperative. In other words communicators (sender & receiver) both are responsible for the effect & effectiveness of communication. In a transactional encounter, people do not simply send meaning from one to the other & then back again; rather, they build shared meaning. A unique feature of the transactional model is its recognition that messages build upon each other. Further, both verbal & non-verbal behaviours are necessarily part of the transactional process.
Communicator As Field of Experience

Communicator A

Shared field of experience

Noise

Symbolic interactions over time Communicator B

Communicator Bs Field of Experience

Communication

TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION

TRANSACTIONAL MODEL

ELEMENTS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION


Source-receiver is the person who sends and receives interpersonal messages simultaneously. Encoding-decoding refers to the act of putting meaning into verbal and nonverbal messages and deriving meaning from the messages you receive from others. Competence is the knowledge of and ability to use effectively your own communication system. Messages are the signals that serve as stimuli for a receiver; metamessages are messages that refer to other messages.

Feedback messages are messages that are sent back by the receiver to the source in response to other messages. o Feedforward messages are messages that preface other messages and ask that the listener approach future messages in a certain way. o Messages can quickly overload the channels, making meaningful interaction impossible. Channels are the media through which messages pass and which act as a bridge between source and receiver, for example, the vocal-auditory channel used in speaking or the cutaneous-tactile channel used in touch. Noise is the inevitable physical, physiological, psychological, and semantic interference that distorts a message. Context is the physical, social-psychological, temporal, and cultural environment in which communication takes place. Ethics is the moral dimension of communication, the study of what makes behavior moral or good as opposed to immoral and bad.
o

STEPS TO IMPROVE INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Address People by their Names Knowing the names of the people you talk to, and using their names, give you power. People like hearing their name because it shows that you acknowledge their presence. Besides, everyone has been trained to respond to their name since birth. For example, when asking for an update on a company project, say, Hey [insert name], whats the latest on Project X? Using peoples names also makes them feel more at ease with you. Just dont overdo it since that might give people the wrong idea. Be More Relatable One way to improve interpersonal communication skills are to become more relatable or at least, foster an appearance of being more relatable. Why? Because when people find something in common with you, they are more inclined to trust you. Be Appreciative Another good practice to improve your interpersonal communication skills is showing your appreciation. Being appreciative not only gives others a really good impression, it also paves the way for a smooth sailing relationship.

Acknowledge Feelings Whether or not you agree with another person's perspective, you can show respect by validating the person's feelings. Try a simple nod or a phrase like, "I see." This may be all it takes to communicate empathy. Focus on the Positive People have a tendency to believe and remember negative feedback more than the positive, but a little bit of positive feedback can go a long way toward diffusing defensiveness. When you want to offer some constructive criticism, speak calmly and respectfully. Start out by telling the listener what she does well. This will increase the chances that she is willing to listen and evaluate what you have to say. Use Silence to Your Advantage Hesitate a bit before blurting out a comment or jumping to a conclusion. When you are quiet, you may encourage reflection---both your own and the other person's. A bit of silence may also encourage the speaker to give you more information. Make it a two way street You can't just talk at another person; you have to talk with them. This means you adjust your manner of communicating according to the situation and the person. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
A relationship is normally viewed as a connection between two individuals, such as a romantic or intimate, or a parentchild relationship. Individuals can also have relationships with groups of people, such as the relation between an uncle and a family, or a mayor and a town. Finally, groups or even nations may have relations with each other. Life is all about relationships. A relationship, specifically, human relationship, is a specific connection between two or more human beings. We, the human beings are social animals. Everyone is looking forward to have a good rapport with others so that it becomes easier to live with. The relationships are very crucial in a person's life. Relationships play a pivotal role in a person's success. As the good relationships with others can take you a mile ahead, similarly, some bad relationships can lead you towards the failure.

Inter-personal relationship may be simply defined as that relationship that exists between two or more persons. It differs from a person's association, or relating, to impersonal objects. Types of inter-personal relationship range from intra-family relationship (by birth, marriage, etc) to friendship, romantic love-relationship, business relationship, etc. An interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from fleeting (brief) to enduring (lasting). This association may be based on inference, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences. The context can vary from family relations, friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, and places of worship. They may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole. Interpersonal relationships usually involve some level of interdependence. People in a relationship tend to influence each other, share their thoughts and feelings, and engage in activities together. Because of this interdependence, most things that change or impact one member of the relationship will have some level of impact on the other member. The study of interpersonal relationships involves several branches of the social sciences, including such disciplines as sociology, psychology, anthropology, and social work. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Research has proved that like individual personalities, interpersonal relationships also evolve over time through our experiences, acquired knowledge and environmental factors. The phases through which interpersonal relationships develop are:

Initiating Experimenting Intensifying Integrating and Bonding

Initiating is the first phase during which we make conscious and unconscious judgments about others. In fact, sometimes it takes us as little as 15 seconds to judge a person. Then communication is started either verbally or nonverbally (through eye contact, being closer to the other person, etc.) The next phase is experimenting. Here, we start small-talks (talking about general things rather that about specific things), while attempting to find out common interests. During this stage we try to determine whether continuing the relationship is worthwhile. The third stage is intensifying. Here the awareness about each other is increased and both the persons start participating more in conversation. Self-disclosure by both participants results in trust and creates a rapport. Experiences, assumptions and expectations are shared and we start becoming more informal. Also there is increased nonverbal behavior with more touching, nodding, etc. The next step is integrating. Here we try to meet the expectations of the person. We also start sharing interests, attitudes, etc. The final stage is bonding. Here serious commitments and sacrifices are made. One example of commitment is to decide to remain as friends. Another is marriage. All these phases can take a few seconds to develop (as in case of love at first sight) or may take days or weeks or more time. STAGES OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Contact: This is the first stage of Interpersonal relationships where you come contact with the individual. There must have some characteristics that have attracted each other. Involvement: After the Contact, the relationship starts to grow. You interact with each other more; try to know each other well. Intimacy: The intimacy begins. Here you already have known each other well. You have come close to each other. Now, it is the time to take your relationship ahead. VARIABLES AFFECTING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Many variables affect the interpersonal relationships. These are self-disclosure, feedback, nonverbal behavior and Interpersonal attraction. Our success or failure in handling these variables, determine how satisfying our interpersonal relationships will be.

Self-disclosure lets others know what we are thinking, how we are feeling and what we care about. Self-disclosure helps reduce anxiety, increase comfort, and intensify interpersonal attractions. Feedback is the response of a receiver that reaches back the sender. It involves agreeing; asking questions and responding through feeling statements. Nonverbal behavior plays an important role in interpersonal communication. A smile, a hug, a pat, a firm handshake, etc. can achieve much more than words in certain situations. Eye contact, gestures, posture, facial expressions, etc. are also important elements of our nonverbal behavior. Interpersonal attraction is the ability to draw others towards oneself. Some people are said to have magnetic personalities. People are drawn to them. It is this special chemistry that causes love at first sight.

TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Interpersonal relationships can be classified into the following types in terms of relational contexts of interaction and the types of expectations that communicators have towards others. a) Friendship: Since the childhood days the friendships star to develop. We tend to be attracted to each other and like each others presence. Day by day, this friendship develops. Friends are one of the biggest helps that one can ever get in his entire life. Friendship grown between two like-minded people, or it should involve some chemistry that attracts each other. There also exists some invisible communication between the friends that connects each other well. Strong Interpersonal relationships are extremely important to develop an everlasting friendship. b) Family: We all come from a family and live like a family. As the charity begins at home, similarly, if you have to build good Interpersonal relationships with others, start it from your family. To be happy in your personal life, it is the bare minimum requirement to have a healthy relationship with your family members. c) Romantic: Romantic relationships are the one of the most delicate relationships as the two individual involved here come from completely two different family, culture and environment. So there is no family bond between the two before they get married. The completely two different individuals try to be one and act like one in this relationship. Therefore, it is utmost important to build a strong Interpersonal relationships here. It would help them to understand each other well and to develop a long lasting relationship. d) Professional Relationships: Professional relationships are very important for a person to grow in term of his career. Your success in your profession majorly

depends upon how successful you are in maintaining your professional relationships. e) Interpersonal Competence: It is the ability to assess the interpersonal effectiveness in different types of relationships and contexts.

THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF SATISFYING RELATIONSHIPS The fundamental elements essential in a strong and satisfying relationship, originate with these five main qualities: Love Honesty Respect Trust Commitment

Love is emphatically the beginning of a healthy relationship. With love as the foundation, a common bond develops and inspires a union to begin. As the relationship grows, mutual honesty becomes essential. Honesty enhances the foundation of love by affirming your partners importance. Honesty reveals each partners personal values and attitudes toward life, and humanity. The presence of honesty manifests self-worth and respect. Respect contributes by powerfully expressing the mutual equality shared in this relationship, while emphasizing the value of your partners feelings, thus reaffirming their personal importance. As this foundation continues to evolve, a deep connection of love becomes apparent and intensifies. Gradually, trust begins to develop and strengthen. Trust fearlessly emerges and begins to flourish, invoking empathy and passion towards your partner. As trust continues to deepen, the relationship embraces an intense, nourishing vulnerability inherent in true passion. The strength this induces, harmonized with the other essential elements, invokes an intense level of passion and trust that inspires commitment. Commitment is ultimately the final element inherent in a healthy, loving relationship. The vivid feelings of love, honesty, respect and trust generate an atmosphere of contentment. Subsequently, arousing a strong desire for the perpetual solace and satisfaction which is lovingly embraced in a dedicated, lifelong union.

Harmonizing the essential elements of love, honesty, respect, trust and commitment

is vital to continually nurture a lasting and loving relationship. With diligent involvement and attention from both partners, a satisfying journey will perpetuate. Love will flourish from this powerful foundation, thus encouraging and arousing an intense, passionate union which will endlessly evolve and strengthen relationships.

RELATIONAL CONTROL Relational control refers to who, within a relationship, is in control of it. How we respond to others shows the depth of a relation. There are different responses of individuals to others assertions, basically divided into three kinds, which are as follows: One-down response One-up response One-across response One-up responses are submissive to, or accepting of anothers assertions One-down responses are in opposition to, or counter, anothers assertions One-across responses are neutral in nature Patterns - Complementary, Symmetrical, and Parallel
Complementary relations are established when the pattern of interaction is defined by

two people responding to one & other in opposing ways. An example of such a relationship would be when one person is argumentative while the other is quite. Complementary exchange occurs when a partner asserts a one-up message which the other partner respond to with a one-down response. In Symmetrical Relationship, people respond to one another in the same way. Common pattern of interaction within power struggle. One-up ----------One up

One down

------------

One-down

RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT The term, relationship management itself makes out the meaning, i.e., managing the relationships at its best. Understanding the power of quality relationship management depends on a good deal of awareness of peoples behavior and preferences. RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT THEORY Relationship management theory is a developing field. Prior to the 1990s, public relations revolved around a management concept; however, now public relations is perceived as relationship management. Public relations are classified as a management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends. In addition, public relations create understanding for both the organization and the benefitting publics. Public relations are primarily viewed with a communication function, whereas relationship management is conceptualized as a management function that utilizes communication strategically. DISCONFORMING BEHAVIORS/RESPONSES Disconfirming Responses show that you dont care about: 1) The person, 2) What he or she has to say, or 3) The interaction Disconfirming responses can negatively affect a persons sense of self-worth. Verbal Silence: Failing to acknowledge that the other person has said something to you. Nonverbal Indifference: Having a blank expression, or lack of any nonverbal response to the others message. Turning Away: Physically withdrawing from the interaction. Engaging in Other Activities: Reading the paper, stopping to talk to others, watching TV, etc. rather than attending to the person who is trying to talk to you. Monologue or Stage-hogging: Talking all the time as though what you have

to say is important and the other persons are not. Impervious Response: No responseseemingly oblivious to what was said. Interrupting and Completing: Interjecting your comments while the other person is talking. Finishing the other persons statements. Irrelevant: Giving a response that has nothing to do with what the other person had just said. Tangential Response: Starting to respond to the other persons statement, but then changing the topic. Yesbut . Impersonal Response: Intellectualizes or uses third person to trivialize the others comments. Incoherent Response: Rambling and unintelligible response. Incongruous Response: When verbal and nonverbal messages are inconsistent.

CONFORMING BEHAVIORS/RESPONSES Confirming Responses show that you value: 1) The person, 2) What he or she has to say, and 3) The interaction. Confirming Responses show other people that you are listening to them, that you are listening to them, that you value what they say, and have a positive effect on their sense of self value. Expressions of Direct Interest: Asking for more information; asking probing questions. Tell me more Reflecting or Paraphrasing: Feedback in your words what you think the other person has said. So what youre saying is that .. Nonverbal Confirmers: Good eye contact, body oriented toward the other person, providing full attention, responsive facial expressions and gestures. Summarizing: Provide summaries of what you heard the other person saying to you. Statements of Genuine Concern: Stating that you value and are concerned about the other. Direct Acknowledgment: Responding directly to what the other has said. Agreement about Judgments: Confirm someones evaluation of something. Supportive Response: Express reassurance and understanding. Clarifying Response: Seeking greater understanding of the others message.

Expression of Positive Feelings: Agree/acknowledge another persons

expressions of joy/excitement.