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# AMEM 316: Machine Elements I

## FASTENERS - BOLTED CONNECTIONS 1. FASTENERS

A set of n bolts is to be used to provide a clamping force of F between two components. The load is shared equally among the bolts. Specify suitable bolts, including the grade of the material, if each is to be stressed to K % of its proof strength. The variable K is called the demand factor. The load on each screw is to be

P=

F n

Specify a bolt made from a SAE grade steel, having a proof strength [] MPa. Then the allowable stress is
a = K []

## The required tensile stress area for the bolt is then

At = P
a

From a table find the required tensile stress area for the thread. The required tightening torque will be
T =K D P

where D - nominal outside diameter of threads P - clamping load K- constant dependent on the lubrication present 1.1 Constant Dependent On The Lubrication Present

For average commercial conditions, use k1 = 0.15 if any lubrication at all is present. Even cutting fluids or other residual deposits on the threads will produce conditions consistent with k1 = 0.15. If the threads are well cleaned and dried, k1 = 0.20 is better. Of course, these values are approximate, and variations among seemingly identical assemblies should be expected. Testing and statistical analysis of the results are recommended.

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## MDESIGN SOFTWARE - Example Fasteners

Input Data:

Clamping force Number of bolts Demand factor Constant dependent on the lubrication present Results SAE steel grade Proof strength Allowable stress Required tensile stress area Thread type 12-24 UNC Basic major diameter Tensile stress area Required tightening torque [] a At

F= n= k= k1 =

10000 4 50 % 0.15

= = = = = = =

D At(table) T

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## AMEM 316: Machine Elements I

2.

BOLTED CONNECTIONS

The basic approach to the analysis and design of eccentrically loaded joints is to determine the forces that act on each bolt because of all the applied loads. Then, by a process of superposition, the loads are combined vectorially to determine which bolt carries the greatest load. The following equations are used: Determination of the direct shear force on the bolt pattern and on each individual bolt, assuming that all bolts share the shear load equally:
FS = P / N

Computation of the force on each bolt required to resist the bending moment from the relation
Fi =

r 2

Mri

where r i = radial distance from the centroid of the bolt pattern to the ith bolt F i = force on the ith bolt due to the moment. The force acts perpendicular to the radius. A vector summation of forces acting on each bolt can be performed either analytically or graphically, or each force can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. The components can be summed and the resultant can be computed. Lets use the latter approach for this problem. The x- and y-components of F i are
Fix = Fi sin Fiy = Fi cos

## The total force in the x- (y-) direction is then

Fix + Fsx , or Fiy + Fsy

## Then the resultant force on bolt I is

Ri =

(Fix

+ F sx )2 + Fiy + Fsy 2

R As = i
a

## The required diameter of the bolt would be

D =
4As

This module determines the minimum required diameter of the bolts in a connection subjected to direct shear and shear due to a moment applied to the member. See the graphic aid Geometry of bolted joint.

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## AMEM 316: Machine Elements I

This module facilitates the design of a bolted connection comprised of any array of bolts for which the distance from the centroid of the array to any individual bolt is the same. Examples are a rectangular array of four bolts or a circular array of any number of bolts. The analysis considers only a single force to be applied to the connection. If more than one force is applied, the resultant of all applied forces must be determined by the user for input to the program. Both the magnitude and the orientation of the line of action of the force must be known. The program assumes that the bolts are subjected to single shear. If they are in double shear, the applied force should be divided by 2.0. 2.1 Allowable stresses for bolts ASTM grade A307 A325 and A449 A490 Allowable shear stress 69 MPa 121 MPa 52 MPa Allowable tensile stress 138 MPa 303 MPa 372 MPa

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## Distance to the Centroid, a

The user must determine the perpendicular distance, a, from the centroid of the bolt array to the line of action of the applied force. If the line of action of the applied force acts through the centroid, a = 0 and the bolts carry only direct shear. Angle of inclination,

2.3

The user must determine the angle of inclination, , of the line of action of the applied force relative to a perpendicular to the centerline through the array.

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## MDESIGN SOFTWARE - Example bolted connection

Input data: Bolted Connections Bolt material type Allowable shear stress for bolt Shear load Number of bolts Distance to the centroid Radial distance for bolt(s) x-distance from bolt to centroid y-distance from bolt to centroid Angle of inclination Results Load per bolt in x-direction Load per bolt in y-direction Moment to be resisted Force required to resist the bending moment Total force in x-direction Total force in y-direction Required area for the bolt Required diameter Resultant force on bolt Nearest standart bolt diameter Fsx Fsy M Fi Ftx Fty As Dr Rs D = = = = 2286.4 3147 4.74 106 9335.8 mm N N N mm2 mm N mm = A307 a = 68 P= N= a= r= 15564 4 304.8 127 MPa N mm mm mm mm

x = 101.6 y = 76.2 = 36

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