© All Rights Reserved

147 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Aircraft Design - Corke
- Finite Wing- Vortex Lattice Methods
- TUTORIAL Xflr5 Tutorial
- Mesh-Intro 15.0 L07 Mesh Quality and Advanced Topics
- A Review of Trailing Edge Bluntness and Tip Noise Mechanism Prediction From Wind Turbine Blades
- Safety- Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)
- Guia XFLR5
- XFLR5 and Stability Analysis
- Aircraft Design Project Eight Seater Short Range Business Jet Aircraft
- High Lift Aerodynamics
- Copy of Raymer Simplified Aircraft Design Spreadsheet (SAM)
- Tutorial on 2d Hybrid Meshing in ICEM CFD for 2d Airfoil
- Aircraft Design - Aerofoil and Geometry Selection
- Digital feedback systems
- Is There a Way to Estimate the Drag Coefficient Using Thin Airfoil Theory
- How Airplanes Fly_ a Physical Description of Lift
- Abbas Edition
- Contra‐rotating propeller for fixed wing MAV
- 43706772 Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout
- 5 Wing Design

You are on page 1of 51

Software

Outline

Basic Concepts

Boundary conditions on the mean surface Vortex Theorems, Biot-Savart Law The Horseshoe Vortex Selection of Control Point and Vortex Location The Classical Vortex Lattice Method

Software

VLM (Fortran program) TORNADO (in MATLAB) AVL (Fortran/C program)

Applications

Examples of the use of VLM method Insights into wing and wing-canard aerodynamics

Xiongqing Yu

Under the Guidance of Prof. Stephen Batill at the University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana, USA February, 1998

Introduction

Objectives

VLM is a FORTRAN computer program estimating the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of complex planforms.

Predicting lift and pitch moment coefficients, maximum lift coefficient, induced drag coefficient and distributions of span load for the complex configurations.

Background

VLM is a modified version of the NASA-Langley Vortex Lattice Computer Program that had been used at the Langley Research Center and in industry. The original program has been modified to provide a useful tool for the aircraft design class in the university level.

To simplify the input and output file for the fixed wing configuration. To display the panel arrangement presenting the platforms

Program Description

The VLM consists of three subroutines:

geomtr matxso aerody

Program Description

Geomtr

When the total approximate panel number is specified

it is used to determine the number of chordwise horseshoe vortices the number of spanwise rows at which chordwise horseshoe vortices the panel aspect ratio is kept between 0.5 and 4

When two planforms are used to describe a wing-tail configuration, this subroutine is used to handle with panel match between two planforms.

Program Description

matxso

It is used to calculate the circulations which is required to satisfy the tangent flow boundary condition. The circulations is determined by solving a matrix equation.

Program Description

aerody

To obtain the lift and pitching moment data for configurations by using Kutta-Loukowski theorem. The final form of the output data is computed and printed by this subroutine.

Modeling planforms

The planforms can be modeled with one or two lifting surfaces

where wing planform can consists of up to three segments, that is inboard, mid-board and out-board segments, and tail planform is modeled with a trapezoid.

Modeling dihedrals

The wing can have up to three dihedral angles corresponding to three segments of the wing. Winglets can be modeled, but the dihedral angle must be greater than -90.0 degrees or less than 90.0 degrees. The dihedral of the horizontal tail can be modeled with one dihedral angle.

Modeling twist

The wing can have up to three twist angles corresponding to three segments of the wing.

For inboard segment, the angle of its tip section with respect to its root section is used to define the twist of the inboard segment

The twists are assumed to be small and can have effect on the local angle of attack of lifting surfaces, but no effect on displacements of control points.

Modeling camber

When the airfoil of the wing is specified, its camber can be modeled with a curve determined based on tabulated data by least-square-distance curve fit

coordinates of ten points on mean camber line of the airfoil

Modeling elevator

It is assumed that the elevator can have effect on local angle of attack of the control point on the horizontal tail the effect on displacements of control points is neglected when the elevator is up or down.

The input data setup

The following is the input data required to be specified.

Group one:

mach alpd plan nseg Mach number Angle of attack at root section of main wing (degree) The number of lifting surface (1 or 2) The number of wing segments(1,2 or3)

cg Center of gravity location with respect to the origin of the coordinate system. Pitch moment computation is referenced to this location.

b1 Span of in-board segment of the wing b2 Span of mid-board segment of the wing b3 Span of out-board segment of the wing cr Root chord of the wing ct1 Tip chord of inboard segment of the wing ct2 Tip chord of mid-board segment of the wing ct3 Tip chord of outboard segment of the wing sweep1 Sweep angle of inboard segment (leading line, in degree) sweep2 Sweep angle of mid-board segment (leading line, in degree) sweep3 Sweep angle of out-board segment (leading line, in degree) theta1 Twist angle of inboard segment ( positive for washout, in deg. ) theta2 Twist angle of mid-board segment ( positive for washout, in deg. ) theta3 Twist angle of out-board segment ( positive for washout, in deg. ) dih1 Dihedral angle of inboard segment (in degree) dih2 Dihedral angle of mid-board segment (in degree) dih3 Dihedral angle of out-board segment (in degree) alp_wing Wing incidence angle at root section clmax2d Max. lift coefficient of wing airfoil

b0 cr0 ct0 sweep0 dihtail alp_tail Semi-span of the horizontal tail or canard Root chord of the horizontal tail or canard Tip chord of the horizontal tail or canard Sweep angle of leading edge Dihedral angle of the horizontal tail Horizontal tail incidence angle

ielevator Control variable: set 1 if elevator is up or down; otherwise set 0 be cer cet delta_e Elevator span Elevator root chord Elevator tip chord Rotate angle of elevator (positive when it is up)

Group 4: Relative position definition between the wing and the horizontal tail

distx Distance between leading edge of the root section of the wing and leading edge of the root section of the horizontal tail in X-axis; Use 0 if only wing is specified (i.e. plan = 1) If canard is specified, distx should be negative; distz Vertical distance of the horizotal tail planform with respect the wing planform root chord height (in Z direction) use 0 if only wing is specified.

iairfoil Control variable use 1 for camber airfoil; use 0 for symmetric airfoil stat yupper ylower Chordwise station location; range from 0 to 100 Upper surface coordinates of the specified airfoil Lower surface coordinates of the specified airfoil

Run the executable file "vlm" The interface options

Input the name of input data file: Input the approximate panel numbers of semi-wing.

Note: generally, this number ranges from 40 to 190 for single wing, and from 40 to 120 for wing-tail configuration.

Enter name of output file: Enter 0 for brief output. Usually use this option. Enter 1 for detail output. This option is rarely used.

You can check input file to verify its correction by displaying panel arrangement. Under the MATLAB environment, run M-file "panelshow", and the panel arrangement will be displayed on a window.

Two options

brief output

total panel layout aerodynamic characteristics of total configuration

detail output

each panel information

x c/4 X location of quarter-chord at the horseshoe vortex midspan. x 3c/4 X location of three-quarter-chord at the horseshoe vortex midspan. This is location of the control point. y z s Y location of the horseshoe vortex midspan. Z location of the horseshoe vortex midspan. Semiwidth of horseshoe vortex

c/4 sweep angle Sweep angle of the quarter-chord of the elemental panel and horseshoe vortex. dihedral angle Dihedral angle of elemental panel local alpha in radians Local angle of attack in radians at control point. delta cp Cp normal to the surface at dihedral for each elemental panel under the flight condition. This is located across the panel as an average. It corresponds to the incremental lift associated with the bound vortex strength of the particular panel ref.chord c average Reference chord of the configuration Average chord, cav, true configuration area divided by true span

total area

reference area User input reference area ( wing area ) b/2 Maximum semispan of all planforms listed in second group of geometry data ref. ar Reference aspect ratio computed from the reference planform area and wing span. mach number Mach number CL Lift coefficient under the flight condition / ( q reference area ) Angle of attack ( input data ) angle of attack

CL (wing only) That portion of desired lift coefficient developed by the planform with the maximum span when multiple planforms are specified. When one planform is specified, this is the desired lift coefficient CL alpha Lift-curve slope per radian, and per degree CM Pitching-moment coefficient about the reference point (cg) = Pitching-moment / ( q reference area ref. chord ) alpha at CL=0 Angle of attack at zero lift in degrees; nonzero only when twist and/or camber and/or elevator is specified

y cp Spanwise distance in fraction of semispan from root chord to center of pressure on the left wing panel CM/CL Longitudinal stability parameter based on a moment center about the reference point CM0 Pitching-moment coefficient at CL=0 For each spanwise station, the following data are presented; from the left tip towards the root: 2y/b Location of midpoint of each spanwise station in fraction of wing semispan. c/cav Ratio of local chord to average chord cl c/cav Distribution of span-load coefficients at the computed CL cl Section life coefficients = lift per unit length of span / ( q c) x location The X location of the local center of pressure for the resulting span load at cl , as a function of 2y/b cdi induced drag coefficient clmax maximum lift coefficient of complete configuration

Example

Step 1: Set up input data:

See Appendix A.

Input the approximate panel number of semi-wing. Note: generally, this number ranges from 40 to 190 for single wing, and from 40 to 120 for wing-tail configuration. 100 Enter name of output file: example.out

Example

Enter 0 for brief output. Usually use this option. Enter 1 for detail output. This option is rare used.

0

Under the MATLAB environment, run M-file "panelshow"

See Appendix B

Verifications (1)

Result comparisons between VLM and Wing Design

VLM Lift coef. Cl 0.4923 -0.106 0.0111 Wing Design 0.4860 -0.107 0.0110 discrepancy 1.28 % 0.94 % 0.90 %

Verifications (2)

Result comparisons between VLM and LinAir

case 1 twist=4 dihedral =3

VLM Cl Cm Cdi 0.6286 -0.5627 0.02023 LinAir 0.6186 -0.5602 0.01948 discrepancy 1.59 % 0.44 % 1.85 %

VLM 0.7652 -0.6375 0.02737 LinAir 0.7544 -0.6313 0.02644 discrepancy 1.41 % 0.97 % 3.4 %

Limitations

A maximum of two planforms may be specified. A maximum of three segments with different twists and dihedrals may be used to define the wing of a configuration, but only one segment with one dihedral can be used to define the horizontal tail of the configuration. The maximum number of the panels on the left side is 200. when you input the panel number more than 200, an error information will display on monitor. The variation in local chord must be continuous from the tip chord to the root chord of each planform specified. The panel number in each chordwise row must be at least two.

Convergence

You may use different panel number to run VLM, and make sure that the computed results reach the convergence. Some common rules of thumb may be used in selecting the panel number as indication in the interface when you run VLM.

References

Margason, R.J., and Lamar, J.E., Vortex-Lattice FORTRAN Program for Estimating Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Complex Planforms, NASA TN D-6142, Feb., 1971. Lamar, J.E.and Gloss, B.B., Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristic of Interacting Lifting Surfaces with Separated Flow around Sharp Edges Predicted by a Vortex-Lattice Method, NASA TN D-7921, Sept., 1975.

TORNADO

Background

Tornado is a vortex lattice program developed by Tomas Melin at the Royal Institute of Technology. It was developed as a part of a masters thesis Tornado allows a user to define most types of aircraft designs The method is implemented in MATLAB (R12)

TORNADO

Wing features

Sweep. Dihedral. Twist. Taper. TE control surface Camber (NACA 4D)

TORNADO

Design features

Multiple wings Full 3D orientation Multiple control surfaces Cranked wings

TORNADO

Solver features

Explicit forces in Newtons. Stability derivatives with respect to:

Pitch Roll Yaw Angular rates

Cp Distribution

Result Summary

Stability Analysis

Jointed-Wing Stability Analysis

STRVLM

NACA

Developed by Drs. H. Youngren and M. Drela, MIT Inviscid, VLM method code Rapid aircraft configuration analysis http://web.mit.edu/drela/Public/web/avl/

VLM/2004 The VLM , TORNADO and AVL all have been used in the design of EPUAV projects at NUAA.

TORNADO/2005

AVL/2006

- Aircraft Design - CorkeUploaded bySujith Subramanian
- Finite Wing- Vortex Lattice MethodsUploaded bySumit Malik
- TUTORIAL Xflr5 TutorialUploaded byMarco Aurélio Leonel Matunaga
- Mesh-Intro 15.0 L07 Mesh Quality and Advanced TopicsUploaded byMuralidharan Shanmugam
- A Review of Trailing Edge Bluntness and Tip Noise Mechanism Prediction From Wind Turbine BladesUploaded byVasishta Bhargava
- Safety- Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)Uploaded byAntony Clarance
- Guia XFLR5Uploaded bySusycosta5py
- XFLR5 and Stability AnalysisUploaded byPravin Prajapati
- Aircraft Design Project Eight Seater Short Range Business Jet AircraftUploaded byVignesh Selvaraj
- High Lift AerodynamicsUploaded byVyssion
- Copy of Raymer Simplified Aircraft Design Spreadsheet (SAM)Uploaded bymeysam1215
- Tutorial on 2d Hybrid Meshing in ICEM CFD for 2d AirfoilUploaded byIsraa Yheaa
- Aircraft Design - Aerofoil and Geometry SelectionUploaded byKrishanth Sivanathan
- Digital feedback systemsUploaded byAdrian Arasu
- Is There a Way to Estimate the Drag Coefficient Using Thin Airfoil TheoryUploaded bychirag
- How Airplanes Fly_ a Physical Description of LiftUploaded byTanmay
- Abbas EditionUploaded bysnvijayan
- Contra‐rotating propeller for fixed wing MAVUploaded bynascosannascosan
- 43706772 Aircraft Loading and Structural LayoutUploaded byUroš Roštan
- 5 Wing DesignUploaded byRidhima Kaul
- Lecture 2 - Airfoil and Wing Terminology(3)Uploaded byEhab Wilson
- savoniusUploaded byRudl1
- Young-The Aerodynamics Characteristics of FlapsUploaded byredxus
- T Foil RuddersUploaded bySlavi72
- Thermal Relief ValvesUploaded byKisinda
- Simple XFOIL TutorialUploaded bynova514
- Ada 953012Uploaded byJoão Morgado
- Ahmed AnwarUploaded byEhab Attia Selim
- epplerUploaded bysumon1314

- SVSTUploaded byisaacvox
- X-Plane Installer LogUploaded bymmoo98982334
- FsPassengers print.pdfUploaded byLuis Lagardera
- 3710.8RUploaded bynjslater
- AntonovUploaded byJose Sanchez
- Datasheet.cae.7000.SeriesUploaded byYuvraj Kumar
- Classd BookletUploaded byPaul Saccani
- 90.0021 (AME -LWTR)Uploaded byAbed Almajeed Alowioi
- Unknown 1Uploaded byluke
- RO-1Uploaded byHenry Nguyen
- Aircraft Recognition RecruitUploaded byJulio Troncoso
- Airplanes Airplanes Airplanes Airplanes AirplanesUploaded bymrana_56
- 8222Uploaded byChris Nash
- Somali AirspaceUploaded bymlr83
- eTicket_AUWEHF_182432Uploaded bysatria bajoe
- Aviation Law in IndiaUploaded byPallavi Supehia
- Www.air.Irctc.co.in IndianRailways Af Page Irctc Myaccount PrintERS.doUploaded bybvdas
- Airbus Safety First 17 - Jan2014Uploaded bymikoff
- New 1Uploaded byHitoshi Kun
- 2. How a Cockpit Remembers It SpeedsUploaded byJeison Nova
- 757-767 Study Guide.pdfUploaded byalvaro2005
- aircraft specification a-669.pdfUploaded byLisandro_I
- e-portfolio-110216205120-phpapp02Uploaded byArma Bujok
- Jet airwaysUploaded byprat007rocks
- Aircraft Lighting SystemsUploaded bypann
- Memory Jogger a320Uploaded byVikram Kailthya
- Spin SeminarUploaded byKurt Tank
- avios_albatross_manual.pdfUploaded byAeroinformado
- Dornier 328 Support ServicesUploaded byangelo marra
- Baggage Handling at HeathrowUploaded bynameetamahato6759