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CHAPTER 7 | FLOOD ROUTINGS




LEARNING OBJECTIVES










INTRODUCTION

Routing the process of the determining the spatial and temporal distribution of flowrate and flow
depth along a watercourse such as a river or storm sewer. Routing sometimes called flow
routingof flood routing

Routing Models generally classified as either hydrologic-routingmodels or hydraulic-routing
models.

Model routings
ROUTING MODEL
HYDRAULIC ROUTING HYDROLOGIC ROUTING
FLOOD/FLOW ROUTING
LAKE DETENTION RESERVOIR POND STREAM CHANNEL
CHANNEL ROUTING RESERVOIR ROUTING
Muskingum Routing
Modified Puls Routing
Muskingum Cunge Routing
Kinematic Routing
Level Pool Routing
Diffusion Routing
Appriximate Method
Kinematic Routing
Diffusion Routing
Continuity Equation / Momentum equation / etc
At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:

Route the models according to two types of flood routings : Hydraulic routing and
hydrologic routing.


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CHANNEL ROUTING

- Simulate the movement of water through a channel
- Used to predict the magnitudes, volumes and temporal patterns of the flow (often a flood
wave) as it translates down a channel.
- 2 types of routing: hydrologic and hydraulic.
- Both of these methods use some form of the continuity equation.

Continuity Equation

- The change in storage (dS) equals the difference between inflow (I) and outflow (O) or,

dS
I O
dt
=

- For open channel flow, the continuity equation is also often written as:
A Q
q
t x
c c
+ =
c c

where;
A = the cross-sectional area
Q = channel flow
q = lateral inflow


RESERVOIR ROUTING

Reservoir acts to store water and release through control structures later.
Result- Inflow and outflow hydrographs. S-Q relationship

Outflow peak are reduced and outflow timing is delayed.





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Inflow outfall day 3 = change in storage / time.

( ) ( )
3 2
2 3 2 3
/ 2 / 2
S S
I I Q Q
dt

+ + =


HYDROLOGIC ROUTING | ( ) Q f t =

Hydrologic routing models based on the simultaneous solution of the continuity equation and a
second equation which usually expresses the storage volume within a channel reach as a function
of inflow and outflow.

Method combines the continuity equation with some relationship between storage, outflow and
possibly inflow.

These relationships are usually assumed, empirical, or analytical in nature. An example of such a
relationship might be a stage-discharge relationship.

Stage is also related to the outflow via a relationship such as Mannings equation,

2/3 1/2
1.49
Q AR S
n
=

The basic equation used (continuity equation):

( ) ( )
dS
I t O t
dt
=

where;

S = storage between upstream and downstream sections
t = time
( ) I t = the inflow at the upstream section
( ) O t = the outflow at the downstream section


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Hydrologic routing - frequently applied to storage reservoirs and stormwater detention basin.












Routing concept

The application of hydrologic routing to rivers and drainage channels is also well established, in
many of these cases hydraulic routing is preferable.

Storage reservoir- function of the outflow Modified puls method
Channel routing inflow and outflow Muskingum method


HYDRAULIC ROUTING | ( , ) Q f t space =

Hydraulic routing models are based on the simultaneous solution of the continuity equation and
momentum equation for open channels.

Hydraulic routing methods combine the continuity equation with some more physical relationship
describing the actual physics of the movement of the water.

The momentum equation is common relationship employed.

In hydraulic routing analysis, it is intended that the dynamics of the water or flood wave movement
be more accurately described.

Hydraulic routing models - more accurate than hydrologic routing models, the simplicity and
acceptable accuracy of hydrologic routing models in some circumstance make them appealing,
particularly in the design of storage ponds and reservoirs.

MomentumEquation

Expressed by considering the external force acting on a control section of water as it moves down
a channel.


( )
( )
2
o f
yA
v v g vg
V g S S
t x A x A
c
c c
+ + + =
c c

( ) I t ( ) O t
S
Rivers
Streams
Drainage channels

Spillways
Weirs
Orifice-type outlets
Reservoir


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Momentum equation as,

1
f o
y v v v
S S
x g x g t
c c c
= +
c c c


Combinations of equations,

1
f o
y v v v
S S
x g x g t
c c c
= +
c c c
unsteady nonuniform

f o
y v v
S S
x g x
c c
=
c c
steady nonuniform

f o
y
S S
x
c
=
c
diffusion or noninertial

f o
S S = Kinematic


ROUTING METHODS

(1) Modified Puls
(2) Muskingum
(3) Muskingum Cunge
(4) Kinematic Wave
(5) Dynamic
(6) Level Pool


MODIFIED PULS METHOD
This methodology, often referred to as storage-indication routing, is conceptually equivalent to
modeling a reach routing as a stepwise routing between a series of equal volume reservoirs
located along the routing reach.
The Modified Puls routing method is most often applied to reservoir routing (storage related to
outflow).

The method may also be applied to river routing for certain channel situations. The Modified Puls
method is also referred to as the storage-indication method.

As a hydrologic method, the Modified Puls equation is described by considering the discrete
continuity equation.

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The heart of the modified puls equation is found by considering the finite difference form of the
continuity equation.
The storage indication between any two time steps, t
1
and t
2
during the reach routing can be
expressed as the left-side quantity:
2 2
( )
t t t
t t t t t t
S S
O I I O
t t
+A
+A +A
+ = + +
A A

where O
1
, O
2
= Outflow at t
1
and t
2
(cfs, m
3
/s)
I
1
, I
2
= Inflow at t
1
and t
2
(cfs, m
3
/s)
Dt = t
2
- t
1
(sec.)
The right side of the equation is known. The solution of the Modified Puls routing is straightforward
given that the discharge versus storage indication relationship can be directly defined once storage
and discharge rating tables are computed or input for the reach.
The solution to the modified puls method is accomplished by developing a graph (a table) of O vs
2S
O
t
(
+
(
A

. In order to do this, a stage-discharge-storage relationship must be known, assumed or
derived.

1 2 1 2 2 1
2 2
I I O O S S
t
+ +
=
A
continuity equation

1 2
1 2 1 2
2 2 S S
I I O O
t t
| |
+ + = +
|
A A
\ .
rewritten



EXAMPLE 1 | MPM

Given the following hydrograph and the 2S / t A +O curve, find the outflow hydrograph for the
reservoir assuming it to be completely full at the beginning of the storm.

(1)The following hydrograph is given:


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(2)The following 2S / t A +Ocurve is also given:



(3)Create the table as:



(4) Next, using the hydrograph and interpolation, insert the (discharge) values. For example at 1
hour, the inflow is 30 cfs.



(5) Next, add the inflow to the inflow in the inflow in the next time step.

(6)For the first blank inflow at 0 is added to the inflow at 1 hour to obtain a value of 30. This is then
repeated for the rest of the values in the column.


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(7)The
1
2 /
n n
S t O
+
A + column can then be calculated using the following equation:

1 2
1 2 1 2
2 2 S S
I I O O
t t
| |
+ + = +
|
A A
\ .


Note: 2 /
n n
S t O A and
1 n
O
+
are set to 0. Example,
1
30 0 2 /
n n
S t O
+
+ = A +



(8)Then, using the curve provided outflow can be determined. In this case, since
1
2 / 30
n n
S t O
+
A + = , outflow = 5 based on the graph provided.

(9)To obtain the final column, 2 /
n n
S t O A , two times the outflow is subtracted from
1
2 /
n n
S t O
+
A + . Example, 30 2 5 20 x = .



(10)The same steps are repeated for the next line. First 90 +20 = 110
From the graph, 110 equals an outflow value of 18. Finally 110 2 x 18 = 74.

(11)This process can then be repeated for the rest of the columns. Now a list of the outflow values
has been calculated and the problem is complete.


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MUSKINGUMMETHOD
The Muskingum method of flood routing is a modified storage routing method. It is premised on the
assumption that, with the exception of the initial time step, the discharges at the upstream and
downstream ends of the routing reach are not identical.
The method assumes a single stage-discharge relationship. This assumption may not be entirely
valid for certain flow situations.
This assumption follows intuitively when you consider that during the rising limb of the flood event
hydrograph, the upstream end of the reach is experiencing greater flows than the downstream end.
Conversely, during the latter portions of the event the downstream end of the reach has higher
flows than upstream, as the flood wave passes down the reach.
This assumption is reflected in a linear storage discharge relationship:
( ) 1 S k xI x O = + (


where k and x = Routing parameters that are entered by you
In other words, for any given discharge, Q, there can be only one stage height.
For instance, the friction slope on the rising side of a hydrograph for a given, Q, may be quite
different than for the recession side of the hydrograph for the same given flow, Q.
This cause an effect known as hysteresis, which can introduce errors into the storage assumptions
of this method.

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Substitute storage equation, S into the S in the continuity equation yields.
| | (1 ) S K XI X O = +
dS
I O
dt
=
2 0 2 1 1 2 1
O C I C I C O = + +
0
0.5
0.5
Kx t
C
K Kx t
A
=
+ A

1
0.5
0.5
Kx t
C
K Kx t
+ A
=
+ A

2
0.5
0.5
K Kx t
C
K Kx t
A
=
+ A

0 1 2
1 C C C + + =
The parameter, k, represents the average reach travel time (hr.), and x is a dimensionless
coefficient used to weight the inflow and outflow reach storage components.
Though the parameter x has a theoretical value between 0.0 and 0.5, the values used in practice
typically lie in the range of 0.0 to 0.5.
It is important to understand that k and x are calibration parameters that are best developed using
observed inflow and outflow hydrographs for the routing reach. In actual practice, these data are
seldom available.
In the absence of stream flow data, k is typically taken as the average flow travel time in the reach
and x is set to 0.25. (In these cases, you are encouraged to explore model sensitivities to the
assumptionsparticularly with respect to the x parameter as it is the more abstract of the two
parameter values).
Estimating K
K is estimated to be the travel time through the reach.
This may pose somewhat of a difficulty, as the travel time will obviously change with flow.
The question may arise as to whether the travel time should be estimated using the average flow,
the peak flow, or some other flow.

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The travel time may be estimated using the kinematic travel time or a travel time based on
Mannings equation.
Estimating X
The value of X must be between 0.0 and 0.5
The parameter X may be through of as a weighting coefficient for inflow and outflow.
As inflow becomes less important, the value of X decreases.
The lower limit of X is 0.0 and this would be indicative of a situation where inflow, I has little or no
effect on the storage.
A reservoir is an example of this situation and it should be noted that attenuation would be the
dominant process compared to translate.
Values of X = 0.2 to 0.3 are the most common for natural streams; however, values of 0.4 to 0.5
may be calibrated for streams with little or no flood plains or storage effects.
A value of X = 0.5 would represent equal weighting between inflow and outflow and would produce
translation with little or no attenuation.
The method may produce negative flows in the initial portion of the hydrograph.
Additionally, it is recommended that the method be limited to moderate to slow rising hydrographs
being routed through mild to steep sloping channels.
The methods are not applicable to steeply rising hydrographs such as dam breaks.
Finally, this method also neglects variable backwater effects such as downstream dams,
constrictions, bridges, and tidal influences.
EXAMPLE 2 | MM
A portion of the inflow hydrograph to a reach of channel is given below. If the travel time is K=1 unit
and the weighting factor is X = 0.30, then find the outflow from the reach for the period shown
below:

(1)The first step is to determine the coefficients in this problem.

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(2)The calculations for each of the coefficients are given below:
0
0.5
0.5
Kx t
C
K Kx t
A
=
+ A

0
1(0.30) 0.5(1)
0.167
1 1(0.3) 0.5(1)
C

= =
+

1
0.5
0.5
Kx t
C
K Kx t
+ A
=
+ A

1
1(0.30) 0.5(1)
0.667
1 1(0.30) 0.5(1)
C
+
= =
+

2
0.5
0.5
K Kx t
C
K Kx t
A
=
+ A

2
1 1(0.30) 0.5(1)
0.167
1 1(0.30) 0.5(1)
C

= =
+


(3)Therefore the coefficients in this problem are:
0 1 2
1 C C C + + = 0.167 0.667 0.167 1 + + =
(4)The three columns now can be calculated.

(5)Next the three columns are added to determine the outflow at time equal 1 hour.
0.835 + 2.00 + 0.501 = 3.34

(6)This can be repeated until the table is complete and the outflow at each step is known.



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MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD
Muskingum-Cunge formulation is similar to the Muskingum type formulation.
The Muskingum-Cunge derivation begins with the continuity equation and includes the diffusion
form of the momentum equation.
These equations are combined and linearized,
2
2 Lat
Q Q Q
cq
t x x

c c c
+ = +
c c c

where,
Q = discharge
t = time
x = distance along channel
qx = lateral inflow
c = wave celerity
Method attempts to account for diffusion by taking into account channel and flow characteristics.
Hydraulic diffusivity is found to be:
2
o
Q
BS
=
The wave celerity in the x- direction is:
dQ
c
dA
=
Solution of the Muskingum is accomplished by discretizing the equations on an x-t plane.
1 1
1 1 2 3 1 4
n n n n
j j j j L
Q C Q C Q C Q C Q
+ +
+ +
= + + +
1
2
2(1 )
t
x
k
C
t
x
k
A
+
=
A
+

2
2
2(1 )
t
x
k
C
t
x
k
A

=
A
+


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3
2(1 )
2(1 )
t
x
k
C
t
x
k
A

=
A
+

4
2
2(1 )
t
k
C
t
x
k
A | |
|
\ .
=
A
+


Calculation of k and x
Estimation of k and x is more physically based and should be able to reflected the changing
conditions better.
x
k
c
A
=
1
1
2
o
Q
x
BS c x
| |
=
|
A
\ .

Muskingum-Cunge formulation is actually considered an approximate solution of the convective
diffusion equation.
As such it may account for wave attenuation, but not for reverse flow and backwater effects and
not for fast rising hydrographs.
Properly applied, the method is non-linear in that the flow properties and routing coefficients are
recalculated at each time and distance step.
Often, an iterative 4 point scheme is used for the solution.
Care should be taken choosing the computation interval, as the computation interval may be longer
than the time t takes for the wave to travel the reach distance.
Internal computational tomes are used to account for the possibility of this occurring.
Muskingum-Cunge may also be used distributed Modeling.
The data inputs needed are:
(a) Control parameters
(b) Hydrologic: Inflow hydrographs
(c) Physical system: channel geometry (cross-sections and channel profile)
Data outputs: Method will sum and route discharge hydrographs to overall basin outlet.


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EXAMPLE 3 | MCM
The hydrograph at the upstream end of a river is given in the following table. The reaches of
interest are 18 km long. Using subreach length x A of 6 km, determine the hydrograph at the end of
the reach using the Muskingum-Cunge method. Assume c = 2 m/s, B = 25.3 m,
o
S = 0.001 m and
no lateral flow.

(1)First, k must be determined.
x
k
c
A
= =
6 1000 /
2 /
km x m km
m s
= 3000 s
(2)Determine x, All the variables are known, x A = 6000 m and the peak Q taken from table.
1
1
2
o
Q
x
BS c x
| |
=
|
A
\ .
=
3
3
1 150 /
1
2 (25.3)(0.001)(6000) /
m s
m s
| |

|
\ .
= 0.253
(3)A curve for / x c t A A is needed to determine t A ,


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For x = 0.253, / x c t A A < 0.82
(4)Therefore, t A can be found.
/ 0.82
/( )(0.82)
6 1000 /
2 / 0.82
3658
x c t
t x c
km x m km
t
m s x
t s
A A <
A > A
A >
A >
used t A = 7200 s
(5)The coefficients of the MC method can now be determined.
1
7200
2 2(0.253)
3000
0.7466
7200
2(1 ) 2(1 0.253)
3000
t
x
k
C
t
x
k
A
+ +
= = =
A
+ +

2
7200
2 2(0.253)
3000
0.4863
7200
2(1 ) 2(1 0.253)
3000
t
x
k
C
t
x
k
A

= = =
A
+ +

3
7200
2(1 ) 2(1 0.253)
3000
0.232
7200
2(1 ) 2(1 0.253)
3000
t
x
k
C
t
x
k
A

= = =
A
+ +

4
7200
2 2
3000
1.233
7200
2(1 ) 2(1 0.253)
3000
t
k
C
t
x
k
A | | | |
| |
\ . \ .
= = =
A
+ +

(6)Then a simplification of the original formula can be made.
1 1
1 1 2 3 1 4
n n n n
j j j j L
Q C Q C Q C Q C Q
+ +
+ +
= + + +
(7)Since there is not lateral flow,
L
Q = 0. The simplified formula is the following:
1 1
1 1 2 3 1
n n n n
j j j j
Q C Q C Q C Q
+ +
+ +
= + +
(8)A table can be created in 2 hour time steps similar to the one below:

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(9)It is assumed at time 0, the flow is 10m
3
/s at each distance.

(10)Next, zero is substituted into for each letter to solve the equation.
1 1
1 1 2 3 1
n n n n
j j j j
Q C Q C Q C Q
+ +
+ +
= + +
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 2 0 3 1
Q C Q C Q C Q = + +
(11)Using the table, the variables can be determined.
0 1 0
0 0 1
10, 18, 10 Q Q Q = = =

(12)Therefore, the equation can be solved.
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 2 0 3 1
Q C Q C Q C Q = + +
1
1
(0.7466)(10) (0.4863)(18) ( 0.2329)(10) Q = + + = 13.89m
3
/s
2
1
(0.7466)(18) (0.4863)(50) ( 0.2329)(13.89) Q = + + = 34.51 m
3
/s
(13)This repeated for the rest of the columns and the subsequent columns to produce the following
table. Note: when you change rows, n changes. When you change columns, j changes.

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EXAMPLE 4 | MCM difference application
Route the triangular channel using Muskingum-Cunge method to having the following storage
characteristics: S
o
= 0.001, e= 0.343 ft
1/3
/s and m= 4/3. Suppose the length of this channel is L =
1200 ft. An upstream inflow hydrograph for this channel is tabulate in Table (a). Calculate the
downstream (outflow) hydrograph using a time increment of t A = 0.25 hr and a base flow of 60 cfs
as discharge. Identify if storage occurs during this routing.

(1) Determine T
o
and V
o
,

3/4 3/4
60
0.343
o
o
Q
A
e
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= 48.10 ft
2
1/2 1/2
48.10
5 5
o
o
A
y
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= 3.10 ft
10 10(3.10)
o o
T y = = = 31 ft
60
48.10
o
o
o
Q
V
A
= = = 1.247 fps

(2) Calculate K and X,

o
L
K
mV
= =
( )
1000
4/3 (1.247)
= 722 s = 0.2 hr
/
0.5 1
o o
o o
Q T
X
S mV L
| |
=
|
\ .
=
(60/31)
0.5 1
(0.001)(4/3)(1.247)(1000)
| |

|
\ .
= 0.0150






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(3) Also determine C
o
, C
1
, and C
2

0
( / ) 2 (0.25/0.2) 2(0.015)
0.379
2(1 ) ( / ) 2(1 0.015) (0.25/0.2)
t K X
C
X t K
A
= = =
+ A +


1
( / ) 2 (0.25/0.2) 2(0.015)
0.398
2(1 ) ( / ) 2(1 0.015) (0.25/0.2)
t K X
C
X t K
A + +
= = =
+ A +


2
2(1 ) ( / ) 2(1 0.015) (0.25/0.2)
0.224
2(1 ) ( / ) 2(1 0.015) (0.25/0.2)
X t K
C
X t K
A
= = =
+ A +


(4) Setting the table. Add column 3, 5, 6 and 7. Move 1 step upward column 2 to column 3 and
column 4 to column 5.


(5)Set the first Q1 = Inflow (10 cfs). Use the equation to fill the row by row at column 6. Move 1
step upward from column 6 to column 7.

2 0 2 1 1 2 1
Q C I C I C Q = + + ------in the table

(6)Result from the table and graph.

Total the storage for Q. No storage was occurred. Total inflow is 535 cfs and outflow is 535 cfs.
Lag time = ( time at peak inflow time at peak outflow) = 0.25hr x 60 min = 15 minutes
Maximum inflow = 62 cfs
Maximum outflow = 59.42 cfs




0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
I
n
f
l
o
w

a
n
d

o
u
t
f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e

(
c
f
s
)
Time (hr)
Muskingum cunge
Inflow
Outflow

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col. 1 col. 2 col. 3 col.4 col.5 col.6 col.7
Time step t
1
(hr) t
2
(hr) I
1
(cfs) I
2
(cfs) Q
1
(cfs) Q
2
(cfs)
1 0.00 0.25 10 18 10 13.63
2 0.25 0.50 18 30 13.63 22.65
3 0.50 0.75 30 51 22.65 38.20
4 0.75 1.00 51 56 38.20 50.94
5 1.00 1.25 56 62 50.94 57.80
6 1.25 1.50 62 58 57.80 59.42
7 1.50 1.75 58 47 59.42 53.26
8 1.75 2.00 47 35 53.26 42.69
9 2.00 2.25 35 28 42.69 33.22
10 2.25 2.50 28 23 33.22 26.68
11 2.50 2.75 23 20 26.68 22.31
12 2.75 3.00 20 18 22.31 19.51
13 3.00 3.25 18 15 19.51 16.91
14 3.25 3.50 15 13 16.91 14.44
15 3.50 3.75 13 11 14.44 12.35
16 3.75 4.00 11 10 12.35 10.79
17 4.00 4.25 10 10 10.79 10.14
18 4.25 4.50 10 10 10.14 10.03
19 4.50 4.75 10 10 10.03 10.00
20 4.75 5.00 10 10 10.00 10.00
Total 535 535 535.00 535.00


KINEMATIC WAVE

Kinematic wave channel routing is probably the most basic form of hydraulic routing.

This method combines the continuity equation with a very simplified form of the St. Venant
equations.

Kinematic wave routing assumes that the friction slope is equal to the bed slope.

Additionally, the kinematic wave form of the momentum equation assumes a simple stage-
discharge relationship.

L
A Q
q
t x
c c
+ =
c c

m
Q A o =


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An explicit finite difference scheme in a space-time grid domain is often used for the solution of the
kinematic wave procedure.



( 1)
( , ) ( , 1) ( , 1) ( 1, 1) ( , 1) ( 1, 1) ( , ) ( , 1)
2 2
m
i j i j i j i j i j i j i j i j
A A A A A A q q
m q
t x
o


+ + ( (
+ = =
( (
A A



When the average celerity, c, is greater than the ratio / x t A A , a conservative form of tese
equations is applied.

In this conservative form, the spatial and temporal derivatives are only estimated st the previous
time step and previous location.

( , ) ( , 1) ( , 1) ( 1, 1) i j i j i j i j
Q Q A A
q
x t


+ =
A A


The method does not explicity allow for separation of the main channel and the overbanks.

KWM does not allow for attenuation of a flood wave. Only translation is accomplished. There is,
however, a certain amount of attenuation which results from the finite difference approximation
used to solve the governing equations.

The hydrostatic pressure distribution is assumed to be applicable, thus neglecting any vertical
acceleration.

No lateral, secondary circulations may be present, i.e. the channel is represented by a straight line.

Channel slopes should be 10% or less.

The channel is stable with no lateral migration, degradation and aggradations.





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DYNAMIC ROUTING
The solution of the St. Venant equation is known as dynamic routing(DR).
DR is generally the standard to which other methods are measured or compared.
The solution of the St. Venant equation is generally accomplished via one of two methods : (1) the
method of characteristics and (2) direct methods (implicit and explicit).
It may be fair to say that regardless of the method of solution, a computer is absolutely necessary
as the solutions are quite time consuming.
The most popular method of applying the implicit technique is to use a four poit weighted finite
difference scheme.
Some computer programs utilize a finite element solution technique, however, these tend to be
more complex in nature and thus finite difference technique is most often employed.
It should be noted that most of the models using the finite difference technique are one-
dimensional and that two and three-dimensional solution scheme often revert to a finite element
solution.
DR allows for a higher degree of accuracy when modeling flood situations because it includes
parameters that other methods neglect.
DR when compared to other modeling techniques relies less on previous flood data and more on
the physical properties of the storm. This is extremely important when record rainfalls occurs or
other extreme events.
DR also provides more hydraulic information about the event, which can be used to determine the
transportation of sediment along the waterway.
DISADVANTAGES OF DR
Geometric simplification some models are designed to use very simplistic representations of the
cross-sectional geometry. This may be valid for large dam breaks where very large flows are
encountered and width to depth ratios is large: however, this may not be applicable to smaller dam
breaks where channel geometry would be more critical.
Model simulation input requirements dynamic routing techniques generally require boundry
conditions at one or more location is the domain, such as the upstream and downstream sections.
These boundary conditions may in the form of known or constant water surface, hydrographs or
assumed stage-discharge relationships.
Stability the very complex nature of this method often leads to numerics instability. Also
convergence may be a problem in some solution schemes. For these reasons as well as others,

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there tends to be a stability problem in some programs. Often it is very difficult to obtain a clean
model run in a cost efficient manner.

LEVEL POOL ROUTING
Pond Routing is a mathematical procedure that models a detention pond's response to a given
storm event.
By routing a stormwater hydrograph through a pond, engineers can determine how the water
surface elevation, outflow and storage values vary during (and after) the storm event of interest.
Various names have been used to describe standard pond routing techniques. Routing methods
such as storage indication, Modified Puls, and level-pool routing are all based on the fundamental
relationship for continuity:
( ) S t I O A = A
Where t A = Change in storage (ft
3
, m
3
)
I = Routing time step (sec.)
O = Inflow discharge (cfs, m
3
/s)
S = Outflow discharge (cfs, m
3
/s)
For each time step on the inflow hydrograph, this equation is solved to compute the change in
storage for that single time step. If the average inflow is greater than the outflow, change in storage
is positive and the water surface is rising. If the average inflow is less than the outflow, change in
storage is negative, and the water surface is receding.
Standard routing techniques apply if the tailwater is fixed or if the downstream water surface is a
function of flow rate only (not time or downstream volume).

Standard/Level-Pool Routing



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Level Pool Reservoir Routing
This methodology, often referred to as storage-indication routing is developed algebraically from
the continuity equation.
Level-pool reservoir routing is based on the equation:
S
I O
t
A
=
A

where t A = Hydrograph time increment
I = Inflow into reservoir during increment t
O = Outflow from reservoir during increment t
S = Change in storage during increment t
If we let I
1
, O
1
, S
1
and I
2
, O
2
, S
2
represent inflow, outflow, and storage at times t
1
and t
2
,
respectively, we can express the average inflow and outflow that varies over increment t as:
( )
( )
2 1
1 2 1 2
1 1
( )
2 2
S S
I I O O
t

= + +
A

Rearranging the equation such that all of the known values are placed on the right side of the equal
sign, yields the following expression:
( )
( )
2
1
2 1 2 1
1 1 1
2 2 2
S
S
O I I O
t t
| |
+ = + +
|
A A
\ .

Multiplying all variables by 2 to eliminate the 1/2 terms yields the final equation:
( )
( )
2
1
2 1 2 1
2
S
S
O I I O
t t
| |
+ = + +
|
A A
\ .

During the routing process, the computer interpolates between elevations for the computed values
of 2S/ t + O to solve for the pond's outflow and water surface elevation. Interpolation accuracy for
discharge increases as the increment size between entered elevations is decreased.
For each line of computations in the routing process, the computer linearly interpolates between
the two closest elevations. Therefore, it is not necessary to enter elevations that are spaced with
equal increments.
Since the computer interpolates between elevations during the routing computations, it is very
important to include any elevations where there is a significant change in discharge rate (such as in
multistage outlet structures).

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In PondPack, the storage ratings (Total Storage versus Elevation) are computed automatically from
the definition of the pond shape as defined by elevationcontour area tabular data or by direct
user input of the cumulative volume elevation table.
PondPack automates the development of the pond outfall discharge rating tables, and features a
comprehensive array of hydraulic elements, which can be assembled to define a composite
discharge rating curve for the pond outlet works. Supported hydraulic structure elements include:
- Culvertsbox and circular shapes with inlet and outlet control calculations
- Inlet boxes and stand pipesfor modeling riser and morning glory style outfall structures
- OrificesFor low flow structures including circular and irregular area
- Weirsincluding rectangular, triangular, v-notch, irregular shapes, both broad and sharp
crested configurations
- User-defined rating curves































- 26 -

ADDITIONAL NOTE HYDRULIC SHAPE